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Notes 1. INTRODUCTION 1. Jean Genet, The Blacks (New York: Grove Press, 1960). 2. Léopold Sédar Senghor,“Poème liminaire,” in Œuvre poétique (Paris: Seuil, 1990), 7. 3. Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks, trans. Charles Lam Markmann (New York: Grove Press, 1967). 4. I find Obioma Nnaemeka’s distinction between the French and English terms useful: “La mondialisation, derived from le monde with its double meaning of the physical world (materiality) and people (humanity), captures both the materiality and humanity of globalization. The humanity that is at best minimized and at worst ignored in the discourse and practice of globalization in general takes center stage in discourses and practices that I see evolving in Africa.” Obioma Nnaemeka, “Nego-Feminism: Theorizing, Practicing, and Pruning Africa’s Way,” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 29, no. 2 (Winter 2004): 371. 5. Benjamin Barber, Jihad versus McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism Are Reshaping the World (New York: Crown, 1995); Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996); Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001), xii, and Multitude (New York: Penguin, 2004); and Jean-François Bayart, Le gouvernement du monde (Paris: Fayart, 2004). Bayart’s faith in the nation-state is somewhat at odds with most conclusions and findings concerning practices of globalization, as exemplified by Alain Joxe, for example, who characterizes these trends in the following terms: “These organisms [states and governments] have now been stripped of almost all their former political power to shape local society through the transnationalization of capital and multinational conglomerates.” Alain Joxe, Empire of Disorder (New York: Semiotext(e), 2002), 104–105. However , I do think that an unusual set of circumstances inform the African context, particularly if one takes into consideration regional and national particularities. Some of these might include (i) a broad range of colonial and decolonizing experiences ; (ii) relatively recent, historically speaking, experiences of national sovereignty ; (iii) vast discrepancies in natural resources (such as oil and diamonds); (iv) uneven border control and examples of population mobility; and (v) complex regional trade networks. 6. Lawrence Kritzman, “Identity Crises: France, Culture, and the Idea of the Nation,” SubStance 76–77 (1995), 13; and Pierre Nora, ed., Les lieux de mémoire, 7 vols. (Paris: Gallimard, 1984–1992). Such debates have proved to be of great general interest and have received extensive newspaper coverage, and more recently informed the diplomatic tension between America and France. 7. Of course, these debates are not unique to the French context. See for example the Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk’s treatment of this question in Snow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004). 8. Dominic Thomas, Nation-Building, Propaganda, and Literature in Francophone Africa (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002). 9. Saskia Sassen, Globalization and Its Discontents: Essays on the New Mobility of People and Money (New York: New Press, 1998), 96. 10. Jean-Marc Moura has been at the forefront of literary debates in France, arguing “the necessity of a transnational literary history, distinct from a literary history centered on the national canon,” in “Des études postcoloniales dans l’espace littéraire francophone,” in Exotisme et lettres francophones (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2003), 200. See also his Littératures francophones et théorie postcoloniale (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1999); Jacqueline Bardolph, Etudes postcoloniales et littérature (Paris: Champion, 2001); and Michel Beniamino, La francophonie littéraire: Essai pour une théorie (Paris: L’Harmattan , 1999). 11. Arjun Appadurai, “Grassroots Globalization and the Research Imagination ,” in Globalization, ed. Arjun Appadurai (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2001), 5. 12. Nancy L. Green, Repenser les migrations (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2002), 1. See also Maxime Tandonnet, Migrations: La nouvelle vague (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2003). 13. Manthia Diawara, In Search of Africa (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000); F. Abiola Irele, The African Imagination: Literature in Africa and the Black Diaspora (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001); Mireille Rosello , Postcolonial Hospitality: The Immigrant as Guest (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2001); and Jean-Loup Amselle, Branchements: Anthropologie de l’universalité des cultures (Paris: Flammarion, 2001). 14. Henri Lopes, Ma grand-mère bantoue et mes ancêtres les Gaulois (Paris: Gallimard, 2003). 15. Yambo Ouologuem, Lettre à la France nègre (Paris: Le Serpent à Plumes, 2003); and Mongo Beti, La France contre l’Afrique: Retour au Cameroun (Paris: La Découverte, 1992). 16. Bernard Dadié, An African in Paris, trans. Karen C. Hatch (Urbana: University of Illinois Press...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780253112217
Related ISBN
9780253348210
MARC Record
OCLC
166229270
Pages
328
Launched on MUSE
2012-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
No
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