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NOTES CHA PTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1. The term Western feminist here primarily is used to refer to an ideological orientation that frames Chinese women’s liberation in accordance with Western intellectual tradition. In this way, a feminist and/or sinologist who is de facto Chinese or have Chinese ancestry could fall into the category of “Western Feminist” and a feminist and/or sinologist who is de facto Westerner could fall outside of that category insofar as their ideological orientation is concerned. So that the empirical problem that so and so is a Westerner yet advocates such and such position or so and so is a Chinese yet advocates such and such position can be resolved. 2. To say this is not to deny the importance of Daoism and Buddhism in the lives of Chinese people.After all, Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism are understood as three essential teachings in Chinese narratives of their intellectual traditions. But the unique position and privileges that Confucianism enjoyed in Chinese history is unparalleled within the other two prominent teachings. Also, while there is considerable scholarship devoted to the compatibility between Daoism and feminism or the Daoist penchant for “feminine” virtues, scholarship that explores a possible feminist space within the Confucian tradition is almost nonexistent.This project aims at opening up that feminist space in order to lay a foundation for the construction of Confucian feminism. 3. For the postcolonial discourse in feminist scholarship, see, for instance, Signs (1995), special issue on “Postcolonial, Emergent, and Indigenous Feminisms”; Also Grewal and Kaplan (1994); John (1996). 4. Raphals (1998). 5. Watson (1986). 6. The husband-wife relationship here is used analogically, not biologically, so that it can also be used to accommodate alternative sexual relationships. 161 162 CONFUCIANISM AND WOMEN CH A PT ER 2. CONFUCIANISM, CHINESENESS, AND REN VIRTUOUS PERSONHOOD 1. Julia Kristeva (1977), 66–99.Also see Olga Lang (1946), 42–43; Helen F. Snow (1967), 38; Katie Curtin (1975), 10; Marjorie Topley 1975; Margery Wolf 1975 and 1994; Elisabeth Croll (1978), 12–14; Phyllis Andors (1983), 126–27; Emily Honig and Gail Hershatter (1988), 274. For the anti-Confucian sentiment during the May Fourth Movement, see Hua R. Lan and Vanessa L. Fong 1999. 2. Wolf (1994), 253. 3. Chenyang Li (2000), 1. 4. Frederic Wakeman remarked in the round table discussion on De Bary’s The Trouble with Confucianism that: “The trouble with Confucianism ...was that it had no name in premodern China.” Wakeman (1994), 19. For the Jesuit’s invention of “Confucianism,” see Lionel M. Jensen’s Manufacturing Confucianism, 1997. 5. The term ru is also found in the Zhouli, a ritual text of Zhou. In the traditional account, the Zhouli is said to have been compiled by the Duke of Zhou; yet scholars generally agree that the Zhouli was probably compiled between the fourth and second century BCE. See William Boltz’s “Chou li”, in Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide (1993), 24–32. The term ru is also found in the Zouzhuan commentary of Chunqiu; see Duke Ai, the twenty-first year. For the translation, cf. James Legge, The Chun Tsew with the Tso Chuen (1960) V, 853. 6. For the passages in the Zhouli and the commentaries, see Hu Shi (1953), 2–3. 7. See especially “Yiwenzhi” of the Book of Latter Han, “Ruxue” of the Old Book of Tang, and “Rulinzhuan” of the History of Qing. 8. William Boltz’s “Shou wen chieh tzu,” in Early Chinese Texts (1993), 429–42. 9. Quoted in Hu Shi’s “Shou Ru” (1953), 6. Also see Lionel Jensen (1997), 295. 10. Jensen (1997), 294–95, 300. 11. Ibid., 156. 12. Ibid., 170. 13. The rivalry between Rujia and Mojia is clearly recorded in the Zhuangzi in the “Qiwulun” chapter: “Dao is obscured by partial achievements; speech is obscured by eloquent verbiage. Therefore there are disputes between Ru and Mo over what is right and wrong [儒墨是非]. They invariably affirm what their opponents deny and deny what their opponents affirm.” Also in the “Tianyun” chapter of Zhuangzi, it is said once the minds of the people become deviant, the world is in a state of unrest, and, “Hence, all under heaven are in a great panic, and both Ru and Mo arise [天下 大駭儒墨皆起].” In the “Xianxue” chapter of Hanfeizi, the world’s most illuminating learning is Ru and Mo (世之顯學儒墨也). In the Mencius, Mo, Ru, Yang are characterized as three main schools of thought (7B/26). Cf. James Legge, The Works of Mencius, (1960...


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