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Acknowledgments ix Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Chapter 2 Confucianism, Chinese-ness, and Ren Virtuous Personhood 15 Confucians before Confucius: Ru and Its Ambiguity 17 Ru, State, and Chinese-ness 24 Defining Ru: Ren as Confucian Virtue Ethics 34 Chapter 3 Yin-Yang, Gender Attributes, and Complementarity 45 Yin-yang and the Oppositional Binary of Femininity-Masculinity 48 Yin-yang and Correlative Cosmology 50 Yin-yang Complementarity and Gender Hierarchy 55 Chapter 4 Nei-Wai, Gender Distinctions, and Ritual Propriety 69 Nei-wai, Ritualization, and Civilization 71 Nei-wai, Functional Distinctions, and Gender Hierarchy 79 Chapter 5 Didactic Texts for Women and the Womanly Sphere of Nei 95 Lienuzhuan, Guifan, and the Tradition of Virtuous Women’s Biographies 96 The Four Books for Women and by Women 103 The Question of Female Literacy and the Virtue of Women’s Speech (Fuyan) 110 CONTENTS vii viii CONTENTS Chapter 6 Chinese Sexism and Confucianism 119 Gender Oppression and Confucian Virtue Ethics 122 Case Studies: Widowhood and Footbinding 129 Chapter 7 Toward a Confucian Feminism—Feminist Ethics In-the-Making 149 The Problems of Gender and the Politics of Feminism 150 Outline of a Confucian Feminism: A Hybrid Identity 152 Reflections and Conclusions 159 Notes 161 Bibliography 185 Index 197 ...


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