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252 Notes Introduction 1. Noah Smithwick, The Evolution of a State (Austin, TX: Stack-Vaughn Company, 1968), 308. 2. There are any number of books dealing with the Lincoln County War. Among the best are Frederick Nolan’s Lincoln County War and the works of Phil Rasch such as Warriors of Lincoln County. 3. The best account of McNelly’s raid into Mexico is contained in Parsons and Little’s biography of McNelly, Captain L. H. McNelly—Texas Ranger published by State House Press in 2001. 4. To the author’s knowledge no definitive work on the Sutton-Taylor War has been published although historian Chuck Parsons has authored numerous biographies that touch on the subject. Leon Metz has also written a biography of John Wesley Hardin. See Leon Metz, John Wesley Hardin: Dark Angel of Texas (El Paso, TX: Mangan Books, 1996). 5. The terms “German” and “American” are used throughout the text to designate the factions involved in the feud from a cultural standpoint. Many of the German faction had obtained American citizenship prior to the outbreak of violence. Others were born in the United States. The term “Dutch” was applied to immigrants from Germany, not Holland, and was not originally a term of contempt. Emil Friedrich Wurzbach, whose family had come to Texas in 1846, was nicknamed Dutch by both his friends and family. John Ringo was known by one contemporary as Dutch Ringo, a nickname more accurate in his case due to his Walloon Dutch ancestry. Douglas V. Meed, Texas Wanderlust (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1997), 20, 177; J. B. Collins to B. M. Jacobs, July 17, 1880, University of Arizona Special Collections, Tucson, Arizona. 6. Gilbert J. Jordan, Yesterday in the Texas Hill Country (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1979), 34. 7. C. L. Sonnichsen, I’ll Die Before I’ll Run (Lincoln: University of Nebraska 253 Notes Press, 1988), 5–7. 8. C. L. Douglas, Famous Texas Feuds (Austin, TX: State House Press, 1988), 152 et seq. 9. C. L. Sonnichsen, Ten Texas Feuds (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971), 91. 10. A primary example of this occurred during the troubles at Fort Griffin, Texas, in 1878. At the time, the vigilante committee held sway in the area and included most, if not all of the county officers. When Lieutenant George W. Campbell and Company B of the Rangers began investigating the troubles with the intention of breaking up the vigilante committee, the mob sent strong protests to Coke. Coke responded by having the company disbanded based strictly upon the protests. Major John B. Jones failed to go to the region to investigate independently and the murders continued. Robert K. DeArment, Bravo of the Brazos (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002), 97–124. 11. Sonnichsen, Ten Texas Feuds, 89. 12. Galveston News, January 23, 1879. 13. Austin Daily Democratic Statesman, May 21, 1876. Chapter 1 1. Joe H. Kirchberger, The French Revolution: An Eyewitness History (New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1989), 238. 2. Glen Ernest Lich, “Balthasar Lich, German Rancher in the Texas Hills,” Texana 12 (1974): 102; Gilbert J. Jordan, A Biographical Sketch of Ernst and Lizette Jordan (Dallas, TX: Privately published, 1931), 3. Hereafter cited as Ernst Jordan. 3. Glen E. Lich, The German Texans (San Antonio: University of Texas Institute of Texas Cultures at San Antonio, 1981), 7–11. Hereafter cited as German Texans. 4. Also called the Mainzer Adelsverein or simply the Verein, the organization was founded by five princes and sixteen nobles. The stated purposes of the Adelsverein were to improve the conditions of the unemployed and reduce their poverty; to unite the emigrants by giving them protection to ease their burden by mutual assistance; to maintain contact between Germany and the settlers and develop maritime trade by establishing business connections and to find markets for German crafts in the settlements and Texas products in Germany. Ibid., 24. 5. Ibid., 24. 6. The Fisher-Miller Grant was given to Henry Francis Fisher and Burchard Miller by the Republic of Texas on June 7, 1842. It was renewed several times until the final date of expiration was fixed for August 1847. Fisher sold an 254 Notes interest in the grant to the Adelsverein for $9,000. The group apparently did not realize that they had not purchased any land, but rather the right to put settlers on the land. There were also disadvantages to the grant itself. In addition to being too...


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