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Index

A

Action at a distance, denied by Aristotle, 212

Active reason, in Aristotle, 228

Aenesidemus, 333, 335, 339, 341

Aeschylus, 43, n. 20, 47, 318

Aetius, 25, 242, 262, 399

Alcuin, 168, n. 19, 277

Alexander of Aphrodisias, 262, 293

Allegorical interpretation, 396; in Philo, 399; in Stoicism, 270; in Plotinus, 456

Anaxagoras, 59; and Empedocles, ibid. and 61; his method, 86; Aristotle’s criticism of, 208

Anaximander, 5; method of, 24

Anaximenes, 6; method of, 25

Angels, in Philo, 407

Anonymous Iamblichi, 66

Antiintellectualism, of Epicurus, 288

Antiprimitivism, in Epicurus, 288

Antisthenes, appraisal of life, 106; and contradiction, 125

Aphrodite, the two, 174

Apollonius of Tyana, 376

Appraisal of life, Xenophanes, 49; Heraclitus, 50; Empedocles, 52; Sophists, 98; Critias, 100; Cynics, 105; Plato, 159; Aristotle, 215; Crantor, 277; Epicureans, 281; Stoics, ibid; Epicurus, 287; Epictetus, 387, Marcus Aurelius, 389

Aratus, 405

Arcesilaus, 325

Archytas, pseudo, 411

Aristophanes, on Socrates, 76; 283, 315

Aristotle, as source of our knowledge of Presocratics, 4, 47; Contrasted with Plato, 188, 202; on Anaxagoras, 62; on Antisthenes, 125; on Socrates, 91; 104; references to in Sextus Empiricus, 352; 17, 24, 29, 33, 34, 43, 86, n. 16, 120, 145, 263, 267, n. 28, 276, 288, 292, 326, 333, 401, 417, 418, 423, 440, 441, 446

Arius Didymus, 250, n. 14, 251, n. 15

Armstrong, A. H., 470, n. 35

Arnim, 268, n. 30

Artistry, as source of metaphor in Aristotle, 190

Asceticism, not taught by Plato, 174

Athenaeus, 260

Atomic lines, in Xenocrates, 263

Atomism, of Democritus, 36; of Epicurus, 255, 273

Augustine, St., 4, 286, 381, 396

Autarky, in Cynicism, 108, 119; of the good, in Plato, 184; in Aristotle, 217, 229; in New Testament, 217; in Stoics and Epicureans, 283; of God, 302; in Epictetus, 378

Authority, appeal to, 316; reliance on in Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius, 376; use of common, 395; appeal to in Plotinus, 455

B

Bacon, 88

Bailey, C., 256, n. 20; 272, 304

Bastian, 33

Bautain, Abbé, 63, n. 2, 316

Bayle, 110, n. 35

Beare, J. I., 37, n. 17

Being, meanings of, 123, 148; in Xenocrates, 263

Belief in gods, in Cleanthes, 269, in Chrysippus, ibid.

Bergson, 15, n. 7

Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, 362

Bevan, E. R., 441, n. 8

Bible, as sacred text, 394

Biography and philosophy, 377, 384

Biological metaphor in Aristotle, 190

Blake, William, 394

Body, soul’s independence of, 379; in Plato, 171, 176; in Epictetus, 362; in Marcus Aurelius, 368

Book of Common Prayer, 379

Brehier, E., 343, 396, 400, 408, n. 29

Bruno, 367

Burnet, J., 18, n. 8, 25, 172, n. 24

Bury, R. G., 331, n. 12, 347, n. 22

Butcher, S. H., 44, n. 21

C

Calvin, 286

Cataleptic impressions, 267; in Stoicism, 310; combatted by Arcesilus, 327

Categories, of Aristotle, 197, 236; Stoic, 310

Causation, and necessity, 34; in early Stoicism, 247, 266; criticized by Aenesidemus, 341; skepticism on, 350

Cebes, 397

Change, in Heraclitus, 29

Characters of Theophrastus, and personae dramatis of Platonic dialogues, 279; and character sketches of Aristotle, 280

Cherniss, H. A., 4, 131, n. 2, 157, n. 10, 182, n. 27, 444, n. 11

Choice, in tragedies, 42; in Greek philosophy, 227

Chrysippus, 375, 380; story of his dog, 338

Cicero, confuses Plato and Aristotle, 194, n. 2; 247, 250, 251, n. 15, 253, n. 16, 268, 269, 270, n. 31, 281, n. 42, 319, 325, 326, 333, n. 14, 359, 364, 394, 398, 409, 444

City of God, in Stoicism, 285

Clark, Sir Kenneth, 344, n. 19

Classification, 157; class concepts as standards, 179; determined by Nature in Aristotle, 235; scientific classification in Plato, 178

Cleanthes, Hymn to Zeus, 251; on the tonos, 265

Clement of Alexandria, 52, 108, 394, 419, 432, n. 56

Common sense, as test of truth, 316

Consensus gentium, 268

Consistency and truth, 34

Contradiction, in Antisthenes, 125

Copernicus, 209

Copleston, Rev. F. C., 130

Cornford, F. M., 215, n. 9, 401

Cornutus, 396

Cosmic hierarchy, in Iamblichus, 466; in Proclus, 468

Cosmic unity, in Stoicism, 294

Cosmological argument, in Stoicism, 270

Cosmopolis, 366, 369, 382

Council of Trent, 438

Crates, 287

Cratylus, 91, 127

Critias, his appraisal of life, 100

Custom and Nature, 66

Cycles, in Empedocles, 20; in Stoicism, 296

Cynicism, appraisal of life, 105; autarky in, 119; compared with Stoicism, 284

D

Daimon, of Socrates, 94, 118

Daimones, 247, 407

Dalton, not anticipated by Democritus, 20

Darwin, 24

Davids, Rhys, 282, n. 43

Death, appraisal of, Socrates, 80; Prodicus, 99; fear of in Epicureanism, 300; in Marcus Aurelius and Epictetus, 386

Definition, example of Platonic, 139

Demetrius, 109, n. 33

Demetrius Poliorcetes, 318, n. 3

Democritus, his rationalism, 39; and Empedocles, 36; method of, 36; ethics of, 53; two worlds in, 20; theory of effluences, 31; mentioned in passing, 209, 273, 249

Demosthenes, 187

Descartes, 43, 297, n. 68, 329

Determinism, and free will, 295

De Vogel, C. J., 328, n. 10

Dewey, John, 76, n. 12, 307

Dialectic, in Eleatics, 15; in Parmenides, 30; in Zeno, ibid., in Gorgias, 71

Dialogues, as form of philosophic discourse, 155; early classification of Platonic, 95, n. 20

Dichotomy, in Plato, 185

Diels, H., 4

Dio Chrysostome, 110, n. 34

Diogenes Laertius, 4, 248, 298, 307, 323, 333, 361, 410

Diogenes of Sinope, our knowledge of, 109; as ideal of Epictetus, 380; mentioned in passing, 105, 284, 287, 363

Dionysius, pseudo, 407, n. 27, 437, 470, n. 35

Dissoi logoi, 66, 113

Division, logical, in Plato, 182

Dodds, E. R., 301, n. 70, 314, n. 1, 318, n. 3, 362, n. 8, 467, 471

Dog of Chrysippus, 338

Dualism of good and evil in New Testament, 424

Duns Scotus, 167

E

Ecclesiastes, 379, n. 18

Eclecticism, of Philo, 399

Edelstein, Ludwig, 157, n. 10, 358, n. 2, 395

Education, in Plato, 167; of the philosopher in Plato’s Symposium, 175

Effluences, theory of, 31; in Democritus, 36

Egocentric predicament, 339

Eidola, 274

Einstein, 264

Ekpyrosis, 254

Eleatics, 9; dialectical method of, 30

Eliot, T. S., 283

Emanation, 448

Emblems, 397

Emerson, 384

Emotions, in Stoicism, 298

Empedocles, and Parmenides, 17, 31; and Democritus, 36; and Anaxagoras, 59, 61; two worlds in, 17; cycles, 20; knowledge, 30; fall of man, 46; appraisal of life, 52

Empiricism, 143

Epictetus, no, 287, 361

Epicureanism, and Christianity, 301

Epicurus, 255, 364; and Parmenides, 306

Epiphanius, 359

Ethics, in Plato, 171; Aristotle, 221; Speusippus, 291; Xenocrates, 292; Stoic, 294; of Epicurus, 300

Eudemus, 258

Eusebius, 4, 75, 215, 324, 402, n. 10

Evil, its origin, in Marcus Aurelius, 383

Excluded middle, law of, 10

Ex nihilo nihil, 13, 21; in Leucippus, 32; in Anaxagoras, 60; in Aristotle, 207; in Epicurus, 272, 304

Experience, problem of its congruence with reason, 156

Explanation, in Plato, 183; in early Stoicism, 265; causal, criticized by Aenesidemus, 341

F

Fall of Man, 45; in Paganism in general, 112; in Philo, 403

Fallacy of third man, 145

Falsity, criterion of in Arcesilaus, 326

Faraday, 24

Form, meaning of term in Aristotle, 191

Freedom, in Epictetus, 378

Free will and determinism, 295

Freud, 355

Fuller, B. A. G., 453, n. 21

G

Galileo, 256

Gautama Buddha, 282

Generalization, problem of, 121

Genesis, problem of in Speusippus, 243

Geometrical universe, 42

Gnosticism, 426, 448

God, in early Stoicism, 249; in Epictetus, 364; in Marcus Aurelius, 367; in Philo, 401, 409; in Ps-Archytas, 411; in Onatus, 413; in Numenius, 432; His incomprehensibility, 415; man’s relation to, in Porphyry, 461; the gods, how identified by Xenocrates, 246; fear of in Epicureanism, 300

Goodenough, E., 440

Gorgias, 70; and Socrates, 85; method of, 89; opposition in, 124

Great Animal, 251

Great Year, 254

Greece, religious organization of, 54

Gruenbaum, A., 64, n. 5

H

Happiness, in Aristotle, 226

Hecataeus, 27

Hegel, 90, 258

Heinze, R., 244, n. 2

Helm, on Cynicism, 112

Heracles, Choice of, 99

Heraclitus, two worlds in, 7; method of, 26; appraisal of life, 50

Herillus, 297

Hermodorus, 51

Herodotus, 65

Hesiod, appraisal of life in, 45; mentioned in passing, 6, 27, 46, 405

Hicks, R. D., 285

Hierarchy, the word, 437; cosmic, its source, 439; hints of before 1st century A.D., 416; in Moderatus, 420; Valentinus, 430; Plotinus, 445; Porphyry, 460; Iamblichus, 466; Proclus, 467

Hippolytus, 4, 249, 418

Hirzel, Th., 101, n. 27

Hitler, 280

Hobbes, 257, 267, 330

Homer, appraisal of life, 44; 318

Hope, Richard, 4

Horace, 162

Hoyle, Fred, 32, n. 15

Human nature, Plato’s theory of, 161

Hume, 34, 267, 329, 341

Hunsaker, J. C., 342, n. 17

Hypostases, of Plotinus, 451

I

Iamblichus, 464

Ideas, Platonic, 131; four interpretations of, 146; as standards, 177; of the Godd, 138; in Philo, 401

Idols of the Tribe, 88

Impressions, never isolated according to Carneades, 331

Individuals, in Aristotle, 194; no knowledge of, 197

Inductive method and problem of universals, 92

Innate ideas, 373

Intelligible world, in Philo, 399

Irenaeus, 430

“Is”, meaning of, 18

J

James, William, 315

Jebb, R. C., 279, n. 40

Jerome, St., 394, n. 3

Job, 365

Joel, Karl, 76, n. 12

John, St., logos in, 28

Judgment, suspension of, in Arcesilaus, 326

Jung, 271

Justinian Code, 168

K

Kant, 39, 341

To know, two meanigs of, 122

Knowledge, in Plato, 142; scientific vs. observation in Aristotle, 206; its origin in Stoicism, 267; theory of in Epicurus, 272; skeptical attacks on, 322; two kinds of in Presocratics, 23; of first principles, 149; and revelation, 428; in myth and allegory, 459

L

Lang, P., 242, n. 2

La Rochefoucauld, 101

Law, in Socrates, 81; human and divine, in Plato, 186; of Excluded Middle, 10; of Natural Development, in Aristotle, 189; of Contradiction, its implications, 327; Laws of Thought, in Plato, 185

Learning, in Plato, 145

Leibniz, 254

Lewis, Geoffrey, 448, n. 16

Leucippus, 20, 32

Life, appraisal of, 44; in poets, ibid.; in the tragedies, 47; in Xenophanes, 49; Heraclitus, 50; Empedocles, 52; Democritus, 53; Sophists, 98; Critias, 100; Thrasymachus, 101; Socrates, 102; Cynics, 105; Plato, 159; Aristotle, 215; Crantor, 277; Theophrastus, 279; Chrysippus, 281; Epicurus, 287; Epictetus, 377; Marcus Aurelius, 383

Light mysticism, 440

Locke, 35

Loewenberg, J., 155, n. 8

Logic, and the Sophists, 122; logical classes in Plato, 163; Logical analysis in Aristotle, 210; system of logic in Aristotle, 231; in Epicurus, 303; in Stoicism, 308; m Epictetus, 374

Logos, in Heraclitus, 28; in Philo, 406; in Moderatus, 421; in Ps-Timaeus, 420; of an essence, 259

Love, in Plato, 141, 174

Lovejoy, A. O., 45, 68, n. 8, 112, n. 36, 139, 187, n. 29, 418, 477

Lucian, 112, 281

Lucretius, 32, 213, 275, 272, n. 33, 288, 298, 357

M

Machiavelli, 168

Malebranche, 341

Manual work, in Aristotle, 216

Marcus Aurelius, 365

Materialism, Stoic, 248; Epicurean, 256

Mates, Benson, 311, n. 74

Maximus of Tyre, 67

Mean, the mean as standard, 220

Meaning in Stoicism, 309

Melancholy of the Greeks, 44

Melissus, 30

Meno, problem of, 144

Metaphysics and mythology, 245

Method, of Presocratics, 24; of Empedocles, 30; of Anaxagoras, 86; of Sophists, 88; of Gorgias, 89; of Socrates, 91; of Aristotle, 203; of Speusippus, 258; of Xenocrates, 261; of Epicureans, 271; of Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius, 371

Meyerson, E., 207, n. 6

Mill, J. S., 147, 346, 349

Minucius Felix, 396

Moderatus of Gades, 420

Montague, W. P., 122, n. 40

Moore, George, 254, n. 18

Moral life as self-criticism, 171

Morgan, T. H., 477

Motion, concept criticized by skeptics, 352

Myth, 355; in Plato, 144, 156; and metaphysics, 245

N

Natorp, P., 147

Nature, permanence of, 19; and custom, 64; why variations in, 65; ambiguities of the term, 68; order of in Aristotle, 195; its supposed simplicity, 213; as norm, 111, 181, 283; how discovered, 182, 219; its goodness in Aristotle, 219; and the rational, 285

Necessity, causal and formal, 34

Newton, Isaac, 156, 210, n. 8

Nichomachus of Gerasa, 421

Nietzsche, 254, 297, n. 67

Nigidius Figulus, 409

Nous, in Anaxagoras, 61, 87; in Speusippus, 242. See also Chapter IX

Number symbolism, in Philo, 403; in Iamblichus, 465

Numbers, generation of, 410

Numenius, 394, 432

O

Observation, how controlled in Aristotle, 205

Oldfather, W. A., 365

Omnis determinatio est negatio, 259

Onatus, 413

The One, in Speusippus, 242; in Xenocrates, 262. See also Chapter IX

Opinion, in Parmenides, 10; in Plato, 142

Opposition, in Presocratics, 14; in Heraclitus, 29; Table of Opposites, 42; in Gorgias, 89, 124; in Aristotle, 208

Order of Nature in Aristotle, 195

Orestes, his meeting with Electra, 330

P

Panaetius, 319, 359, 360

Panofsky, E., 99, n. 23

Parian Chronicle, 76, n. 11

Parmenides, truth and opinion, 9; two worlds in, 10; dialectical method, 30

Pasteur, 33

Paul, St., 130, 282, 286, 425, 429

Peace of mind, in Stoicism, 297; in skepticism, 321, 348

Peale, Norman Vincent, 283

Periclean Age, 57

Peripatetics, lack of development, 258

Perry, R. B., 339

Personifications in Roman religion, 246

Pétrement, Simone, 424, n. 44

Philo, 138, 271, 428; logos in, 28

Philoponos, 259, 264

Pindar, appraisal of life in, 44

Pistorius, P. V., 450, n. 19

Planets, influence of, 444

Plato, 5, 69, 91, 115, 261, 319, 323, 362, 364, 423; Pseudo-Plato, 98, 278; on Socrates, 78; theory of knowledge, 142, 150; two worlds in, 131; appraisal of life in, 159

Platypus, sophistic proof of its nonexistence, 90

Plautus, 281

Plotinus, 408, n. 28; see also Chapter IX

Plutarch, 18, n. 8, 26, 267, n. 29, 277, 364, 418

Pneuma, in Anaximenes, 25; as universal agent, 265; in early Stoicism, 249

Polybius, 405

Popper, K. R., 154

Porphyry, 51, 263, 417, 449, 460

Posidonius, 359

Presocratics, sources of information about, 4; how colonial, 56

Primitivism, in poets, 45

Principle of parsimony in Aristotle, 208

Principle of plenitude, 139, 418, 453

Priority, natural, in Aristotle, 204

Problem of genesis, in Speusippus, 243

Problem of Meno, 144

Proclus, 433, 467

Prodicus, on death, 99

Prolepses, 274, 307

Protagoras, 68, 152; ethical views of, 116

Prout, 20

Purpose, in Aristotle, 191, 192

Pyrrho, 340

Pythagoreans, 27, 40

R

Ramayana, contrasted with Iliad, 180

Rational, how discovered, 286

Rationalism, breakdown of, 430

Reality, 2; rational in Aristotle, 197

Reason, how term is used, 107, 475; and experience, 156; its function in Plato, 166

Recollection, myth of, 144

Regularity, a matter of degree in Aristotle, 204

Rehabilitation of man, in Philo, 404

Relations, problem of in Plato, 151, 172; in Aristotle, 233

Revelation, as source of knowledge, 428

Roberts, W. R., 109, n. 33

Robertson, J. M., 394, n. 2

Roosevelt, F. D., 76, n. 12; 388, n. 21

Rules for attaining happiness in Aristotle, 226

Russell, Bertrand, 376

Rylands, L. G., 394, n. 2, 428, n. 52

S

Santayana, G., 123, n. 42, 327

Sayre, Farrand, 109, n. 32

Scientific knowledge, in Aristotle, 206

Schopenhauer, 9

Self-sufficiency, in Aristotle, 217

Seneca, 248, 268, 271, 281, 444

Sensory perception, vs. reason, 27; always of particulars in Aristotle, 206; sensory qualities not pre-existent in their causes, 32

Serial order, in Aristotle, 203

Sextus Empiricus, 5, 28, 50, 70, 107, 260, 273, 278, 285, 292, 309, 320, 325, 328, 333, 335, 337, 341, 345

Sheen, Rev. Fulton, 283

Shelley, 254, n. 18

Shorey, P., 164, n. 15, 181, n. 26

Simple life, in Antisthenes, 108

Simples, indestructible, 173

Simplicius, 30, 263, 247, n. 9

Skepticism, of Sextus, 321; of Carneades, 329; of Pyrrho, 319; in Middle Academy, 325; its roots in Greek tradition, 318; purpose of, 321

Socrates, our knowledge of, 76; his Daimon, 79; two worlds in, 80; his method, 91; the midwife, 93; appraisal of life, 102; vs. the Sophists, 113; ethical views, 116; on Anaxagoras, 62; mentioned, 316

Sophists, method of, 88; interest in logic, 120, 122; vs. Socrates, 113; Plato’s attacks on, 160; began overthrow of rationalism, 128

Soul, descent of, in Plotinus, 446

Speusippus, 242, 410

Spinoza, 167, 229, 297, 323, 367

Standards of value, in Aristotle, 217

Starkie, W. J. M., 77, n. 13

States, kinds of, in Plato, 162

Stobaeus, 53, no, 245, 418

Stoicism, and Christianity, 299. See also Chapter V

Superiority of the end, in Aristotle, 217; of the whole, 218

Syllogism, 231; note on Aristotle’s failure to use, 238; skeptical attacks on, 346

Syrianus, 412

T

Table of Opposites, 42, 208

Tatakis, B. N., 395, n. 4

Taylor, A. E., 144, n. 5

Teaching, futility of, according to Epictetus, 389

Tennessee, Legislature of, 317

Terence, 246, n. 6

Tertullian, 255, n. 19, 316

Themistius, 250, n. 13

Theognis, 46

Theophrastus, his Characters, 279; and individual character, 162; mentioned in passing, 4, 24, 31, 37, n. 18, 39, 87, 258, 352

Third Man, fallacy of, 145

Thomas Aquinas, St., 224

Thomson, G., 22, n. 10

Thrasymachus, appraisal of life, 101

Timaeus of Locrus, 419

Timon, 319; on Pyrrho, 322

Tod, M. N., 76, n. 11

Touch, primary sense in Democritus, 37

Tragedy, appraisal of life in, 47; debates in, 97

Traitors, Greek, 55, n. 27

Tree of Porphyry, 442; source in Plotinus, 450

Tropes, of Aenesidemus, 333

Truth, in Parmenides, 10; in Heraclitus, 27; in Socrates, 84; in Plato, 142; and consistency, 34, 145; criterion of, 372; in Timon, 324; in Carneades, 329; of perceptions, its implications, 275; and common sense, 316

Two worlds, problem of, 1; in Anaximander, 5; in Anaximenes, 7; in Heraclitus, ibid.; in Parmenides, 17; in Democritus, 20; in Anaxagoras, 59; in Socrates, 80; in Plato, 131; in Aristotle, 188; in early Stoicism, 247; in Epicureanism, 255; in Posidonius, 360; in Epictetus, 361; in Marcus Aurelius, 366; in Philo, 401, 408; in New Testament, 424; how Plotinus bridged them, 437

U

Unmoved Mover, not God of the Bible, 236; and Nous of Anaxagoras, 210

Untersteiner, M., 101, n. 27

V

Valdenberg, V., 401, n. 17

Valentinus, 430

Values, standards of, in Aristotle, 217; and facts, in Plato, 169; metaphysical status, 443; in Timon, 323; in Epictetus, 377; in Marcus Aurelius, 382

Varro, 394, n. 1

Vergil, 254, n. 18

Vox populi, vox Dei, 168, n. 19

W

Whitehead, A. N., 15, n. 7

Whole, superior to its parts, in Aristotle, 218

Will and reason, 64

Windelband, W., 95, 423, n. 43

Wolfson, H. A., 400, 406, 414, n. 37

World of observation, in Aristotle, 201

X

Xenocrates, 244

Xenophanes, 27, 49, 315, 349

Xenophon, on Socrates, 77, 118

Z

Zeller, E., 64, n. 4, 242, n. 1, 282, n. 44, 308, 357, 394, n. 1, 470, n. 35

Zeno, the Eleatic, 16, 352; his dialectical method, 30

Zeno, of Citium, 247, 323

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