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L 205 index advisory boards, 42 Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, 34 aesthetic values, 92 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 36, 52–53 analogical reasoning, 170–71 analytic-deliberative processes, 159–67 antiballistic missile (ABM) program, 39 Aristotle, 107 Asilomar conference, 77 atomic bomb, 31–32, 75, 77–78, 83–84, 186n9 Atomic Energy Act, 34 Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 34–36 authority: political, 134; of science, 4–8, 82, 106, 135 autonomy of science: hypothesis evaluation and, 53–56; moral exemption and, 76; problems with concept of, 7–8, 13; and soundness of science, 10–11; value-free ideal and, 7, 16–17, 45–46, 60–63 Avogadro’s number, 120 Ayer, A. J., 47, 49 Bacon, Francis, 46 Bazelon, David, 138 Bethe, Hans, 38, 77 blame, 68 Bohr, Niels, 90 Breyer, Stephen, 12 Bridgman, Percy, 75–77 British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 49 Bureau of the Census, 25 Burying Uncertainty (Shrader-Frechette), 17 Busenberg, George, 164 Bush, George W., 12 Bush, Vannevar, 29–32, 34 canons of inference, 55, 58, 90 carcinogenicity, 143–46 Carnap, Rudolph, 47 causation, and moral responsibility, 67–68 certainty, 2–3, 8–9. See also uncertainty Chadwick, James, 83–84 Churchman, C. West, 50–52, 55, 57, 65, 66, 183n12 Clean Air Act, 42, 138 Clean Water Act, 42 climate change, 130–31, 150, 166 coercion, 67 cognitive values: case study illustrating, 108–12; defined, 93–94; direct role of, in research, 98–103, 110–12; indirect role of, in research, 106–8, 111–12; social values reinforcing, 110; theory acceptance and, 107, 188n20. See also epistemic values cold war, 48–49 collaborative analysis. See analytic-deliberative processes competence, 67 Compton, Karl, 27–28, 30, 182n19 Conant, James, 30 concordant objectivity, 126–27, 130–31 confirmation studies, 48, 50 Congress. See U.S. Congress consensus conferences, 168–69 consequences of error: case study illustrating, 108–12; foresight and, 83–84; moral responsibility and, 54, 58–59, 66–72, 80–83; multiple, 54; social/ethical values and, 58–59, 92; uncertainty and, 70, 78, 81; unintended, 68–70, 77–78; values and, 103–8, 162 consequentialist calculus, 170 consistency, 93, 94 Consumer Product Safety Act, 138 Consumer Product Safety Commission, 42 contract research grants, 29–31, 33 convergent objectivity, 119–21, 130–31 Cranor, Carl, 19–20 creationism, 21, 179n5, 180n13 Douglas text.indd 205 4/16/09 2:47:25 PM 206 • index Daniels, Josephus, 25 Daston, Lorraine, 115 Data Quality Act, 12 Decision Making for Regulating Chemicals in the Environment (National Research Council), 137 Defense Science Board, 35 deliberation: about values, 167–72; analyticdeliberative processes in public policy, 159–67 democracy: deliberative vs. participatory, 191n1; public policymaking role in, 158; scientists’ role in, 66, 134–36 Democratic Advisory Council, 37 Democratic National Committee, 37 Department of Agriculture, 25 Department of Defense (DOD), 35, 39 Department of Energy (DOE), 166 Department of State, 37 DES. See diethylstilbestrol detached objectivity, 122–24, 130–31, 149 Dewey, John, 47, 191n2 diethylstilbestrol (DES), 108–12, 119 dioxin, 152 disinterestedness, 46–47 DNA, 77, 84, 107, 118 DuBridge, Lee, 34, 39 Ducasse, C. J., 183n12 Duncan, Francis, 34 Dupree, Hunter, 25, 28 Edison, Thomas, 25 Einstein, Albert, 90, 186n9 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 35–36 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 42, 138, 145–47, 149, 152, 154 epistemic values: cognitive vs., 93–94; instances of, 55, 64, 94; as necessary conditions for science, 187n8; nonepistemic vs., 89–91; as only legitimate scientific values, 55–56, 58, 60–62, 64. See also cognitive values errors, types of, 104–6. See also consequences of error ether, 2 ethical review boards. See internal review boards ethics: knowledge and, 48; philosophical, 169–70; philosophy of science and, 182n1; research, 9, 71–72, 74, 76, 92, 99–100, 182n1, 187n11. See also moral responsibility; social and ethical values; values in science Ethics of Scientific Research (Shrader-Frechette), 17–18 ethos of science, 46–47 evidence: risk assessment and, 146; sound science–junk science dispute and, 5, 150; standards of, 10, 12; sufficiency of, 50–51, 97, 148, 162; values and, 57–58, 87, 96–97, 102, 106, 122, 153, 173 experimental runs, acceptance/rejection of, 105 experts: balance of, on advisory committees, 41; credibility of, 5; dueling, 42, 140, 149–50, 164, 167; and evidence, 10; incompetent, 151; outside areas of expertise, 151 explanatory power, 93, 106–7 FACA. See Federal Advisory Committee Act fact-value distinction, 57, 64 false negatives, 104–6, 187n18 false positives, 104–6, 187n18...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780822973577
Related ISBN
9780822960263
MARC Record
OCLC
794702159
Pages
224
Launched on MUSE
2012-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
No
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