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ALPHABETICAL GUIDE TO JEWISH WOMEN IN THE TEXT In this guide to women mentioned in the book, the following abbreviations apply: a = active during a specific year or range of years b = year of birth d =year of death ca. = circa, denoting an approximate date or range of dates Aberlin, Rachel (16th century)-respected mystic, consulted by R. I:Iayyim Vital; saw visions and advised other women. Abrabanel, Benvenida (d. 1560)---<:ommunity leader, respected scholar, and teacher in Naples (Italy); later, influential and rich businesswoman. Aguilar, Grace (1816-1847)---educator, novelist, and religious essayist; author of eight books, including The Women ofIsrael; or, Characters and Sketches from the Holy Scriptures and Jewish History and The Jewish Faith; born in London of Sephardic ancestry. Allegra of Majorca (14th century)-listed as owner of two books; one was a medical book on children's diseases, the other was listed as Five Books ofGenesis. Anna the Hebrew (a. 1508)-ltalian cosmetician who sold cosmetics to the noblewoman Catherine Sforza. Arnstein, Fanny Itzig von (b. 1757)-well educated, originally from Berlin; became a prominent salon hostess in Vienna after her marriage. Ascarelli, Deborah (mid-16th century)-poet and translator of prayers into Italian; probably women's prayer leader of Catalan Synagogue in Rome. xv xvi The JPS Guide to Jewish Women Babatha (first half of 2nd century c.E.)-propertied woman who lived in the land of Israel during the Bar Kokhba rebellion; married twice; marriage contract, property deeds, and records of litigations show she was engaged in business. Bacharach, l:Iava (1580-1651)-also known as Eva of Prague; learned woman, knowledgeable in Torah; granddaughter of R. Yehudah Loew of Prague. Bat ha-Levi (12th century)-the unnamed daughter of R. Shmuel ben Ali, Gaon of Baghdad; reported to have taught the students in her father's academy. Beila of the Blessed Hands (19th century)-trained midwife and feldsher; worked in small villages in Russian Pale of Settlement. Bellina (mid-16th century)-singer and musician; entertained at the court of Venice. Beruriah (2nd century c.E.)-talmudic scholar in the land of Israel; wife of R. Meir; mentioned in various tractates of the Talmud as a learned woman. Brandeau, Esther (a. 1738)-disguised herself as Jacques La Frague and sailed as a cabin boy to Quebec (New France); imprisoned as a Jew; refused to convert and was returned to France. Carvajal de Matas, Francisca de (d. 1596)-crypto-Jew of New Spain (Mexico); arrested and tortured under the Inquisition; burned at the stake together with her daughters Isabel, Catalina, and Leonor and her son Luis. Cassia (9th or 10th century)-daughter of Shephatiah, from the family of Ahimaaz of southern Italy; mentioned in The Chronicles ofAhimaaz. Caylar, Esther de (15th century)-community leader in ArIes; member of prominent Nathan family; mother of Venguessone Nathan. ~eti (14th century)-called rabbess in documents; probably tended the women's section of the synagogue and the ritual bath in Zaragoza (Spain). Conat, Estellina (15th century)-first-known Jewish woman printer of books in Mantua, Italy. Dahiya Kahina (7th century c.E.)-North African woman warrior; defeated the Muslims and ruled in the Maghreb for five years; may have been Jewish. D'Arpino, Anna (16th century)-women's prayer leader in Rome; was paid by the Jewish community. Daughter of Joseph (12th century)-unnamed woman of Baghdad (Iraq); believed by some of her contemporaries to be the Messiah. Alphabetical Guide to Jewish Women in the Text xvii De Lancey, Phila Franks (a. 1742)-oldest daughter of Abigail and Jacob Franks of New York City; secretly married Oliver de Lancey, a Christian; later baptized. Dolce of Worms (d. 1196)-leamed and pious woman; taught other women; led women's prayers in synagogue; wife of R. Eleazar of Worms; was killed by intruders, along with her two daughters. Dunash ben Labrat's wife (10th century)-Hebrew poet; a sole remaining example of her work shows considerable talent. Edel (18th century)-daughter of Israel ben Eliezer (the Baal Shem Tov); spiritual leader and mystical healer. Eidele (19th century)-daughter of Malkah and Sholem of Belz; wife of R. Isaac Rubin of Sokolov; community leader among the Hasidim of Sokolov; delivered discourses on the Sabbath. Ella bat Moshe (a. 1696)-printer in Dessau, Germany; daughter of convert Moshe ben Avraham, a printer, and Freide, daughter of R. Yisrael Katz; left a colophon in a Yiddish prayer book in 1696 indicating she was nine years old on that date. Ellus bat Mordecai (a. 1704)-author and translator of kabbalistic prayers into Yiddish; lived in Slutsk, Russia. Esterke of Opoczno (ca. 14th century)-legendary mistress of King Casimir the Great of Poland. Falk, Bayla (16th century)-well versed in Jewish law; wife of R. Joshua Falk; issued a decision on when to light Sabbath candles. Feige (18th century)-daughter of Edel and granddaughter of the Baal Shem Tov; considered to possess "divine inspiration"; mother of R. Na1).man of Bratislav. Fishels, Roizel (a. 1586)-printer, teacher, and philanthropist; published a book of poems that she prefaced with an original poem in Yiddish. Floreta Ca Noga of St. Coloma de Queralt (14th century)-prominent woman doctor of Aragon (Spain); treated the Queen of Aragon. Francesa Sarah (16th century)-prayer leader and mystic; the only woman in Safed (land of Israel) known to have had her own maggid (imaginary spiritual advisor). Frank, Eva (a. 1770-early 19th century)-daughter of religious rebel Jacob Frank; spiritual leader of Frankist movement after 1817; claimed to be a Romanov princess. xvill The JPS Guide to Jewish Women Frankel, Sarah (Sereleh) bat Joshua Heschel Teumim (1838-1937)-conducted herself as a rebbe among the Hasidim after the death of her husband, the tzaddik I:Iayyim Samuel of Chenciny; gave advice; known for her wise parables. Franks, Bilhah Abigail Levy (b. 1688)-well educated; known for her correspondence with her son, Naphtali Hart Franks; wife of Jacob Franks; one of founding members of Congregation Shearith Israel, the first synagogue in New York City. Fre\1,a bat Avraham (d. 1756)-learned Hebrew poet; member of the Bar Adiba family of Morocco; considered a holy woman; after her death her father built a synagogue in her name. Frommet of Arwyller (15th century)-copied and inscribed a book to her husband (probably France or Germany). Gela bat Moshe (a. 1710)-younger sister of Ella; wrote a Yiddish colophon in a book printed in her father's shop in Halle, Germany, when she was eleven years old. Glikl of Hameln (1646-1719)-businesswoman; widely traveled for business and to arrange her children's marriages; authored the first Yiddish-language autobiography written by a woman; active in Hamburg, Germany. Gnendel (d. 1672)-hardworking woman; distiller of brandy in Bohemia; remembered by her son after an early death. Goldschmidt, Henriette Benas (1825-1920)-activist in promoting education for girls; leader in the early child-care kindergarten movement; encouraged higher education for women. Goldschmidt, Johanna Schwabe (1806-1884)-author and educator in Hamburg, Germany; founded nondenominational kindergarten; helped establish a seminary for training teachers in the Froebel method. Gratz, Rebecca (1781-1869)-noted Philadelphia educator and philanthropist; established first Hebrew Sunday school in the United States; active in creating social service institutions; noted letter writer. Guta (d. 1306)-daughter of R. Natan; an early example of a woman prayer leader. Gutman, Sarel (a. 1619)-businesswoman; with her husband ran a mail service between Prague and Vienna. Ijavalljana (14th century)-surgeon of Manosque in Provence; member of a prominent medical family. Alphabetical Guide to Jewish Women in the Text xix Handali, Esther Kiera (a. 1580-1590)-influential purveyor of goods to the women of the sultan's court in Istanbul; confidante to Sultana Safiyah Baffa; had great political power in 16th-century Turkey; believed to have been killed by rioters in Istanbul. Hays, Esther Etting (a. 1779)-Revolutionary War patriot; smuggled food to American troops; member of pioneer Sephardic family of Philadelphia; wife of David Hays of New York. Henndlein of Regensburg (15th century)-teacher; ran a school for young children ; her official title was di meistrin. Herodias (1st century c.E.)-daughter of Aristobulus and Berenice; married in defiance of Jewish law to her brother-in-law Herod Antipas, King of Galilee and Perea; mother of Salome by a previous marriage; exiled with her husband after his failed bid for power. Herz, Henriette Lemos (a. 1780-1803)-talented linguist; early leader of the Berlin salons; married Markus Herz; was widowed in 1803; became a translator; converted to Christianity in 1813. Homburg, Bliimele (a. after 1759)-widow of Issal).ar Homburg; became court factor in Mainz, Germany, after her husband's death. Horowitz, Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah (b. ca. 1720)-exceptional scholar and noted writer of tkhines; born in Bolekhov, Poland; daughter of Yaakov Yokel ben Meir Horowitz and Rayzel bat Heschel; wrote "Tkhine of the Matriarchs," which contained sections in Hebrew and Aramaic. Hurwitz, Bella (1~ century)-printer in Prague; wife of a cantor; believed to have written a history of the house of David. Ima Shalom (1st century c.E.)-outspoken, clever women who lived in the land of Israel; wife of R. Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, sister of R. Gamliel, head of the Sanhedrin. Jamila (16th century)-wrote a letter to her son, R. Abraham, detailing family matters; probably lived in Salonika. Jehoishma (5th century B.c.E.)-daughter of Tamet and Ananiah; lived in Elephantine, lower Egypt; records show that she received a bride-price (mohar) and dowry. Johanna (2nd century B.C.E.)-poor woman who lived in Egypt; accused of beating a pregnant woman. xx The JPS Guide to Jewish Women Joseph, Rachel Solomons (18th century)-pioneer to Canada; observant Jew who taught Judaism to her children; married to Henry Joseph, the first ritual slaughterer in Canada. Kandlein (14th century)-moneylender and powerful community leader in Regensburg, Germany. Katz, Hannah (1J7th century)-wrote religious verse in Yiddish in Amsterdam. Kaulla, Madame (1739-1809)-court factor in Wurttemberg, Germany; member of the influential Kaulla family; first name not known. Laza of Frankfurt (a. 1692)-editor and translator of book of Hebrew prayers written by her husband, Jacob ben Mordecai; wrote introduction in Yiddish; lived in Schwerin, Germany. Lazarus, Emma (1849-1887)-scholar and poet in New York; authored many poems, a novel (AZide: An Episode ofGoethe's Life), and a play (The Dance ofDeath); active in helping Russian-Jewish refugees; famous for her poem liThe New Colossus" inscribed on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. Leah Dreyzl (early 18th century)-firzogerin; writer of tkhines; wife of R. Aryeh Leib Auerbach of Poland. Licoricia of Winchester (d. 1277)-rich and successful moneylender in England; lent money to English nobility; killed by robbers. Liebmann, Esther Schulhoff Aron (d. 1714)-court Jew; born in Prague, lived in Berlin; supplier of jewelry to the court in Berlin in the seventeenth century; in charge of the mint; had considerable influence with Frederick I of Prussia. Luxemburg, Rosa (1871-1919)-active Socialist leader in Poland and Germany; died in prison. Malchi, Esperanza (a. lS99)-kiera in the court of the Turkish sultan in Istanbul; wrote a letter to Queen Elizabeth at the request of the sultana. Malkah (19th century)-Hasidic spiritual leader active in the court of Belz (Galicia); prominent men were counted among her devotees; wife of R. Sholem RokeaD. Malkeleh the Triskerin (19th century)-Hasidic spiritual advisor; active for charitable causes; daughter of R. Abraham of Trisk, founder of the Trisk dynasty; granddaughter of R. Mordecai Twersky. Alphabetical Guide to Jewish Women in the Text xxi Mansi, Paula dei (a. 1288-1293)-scribe and scholar; lived in Verona, Italy; translated Bible commentaries from Hebrew into Italian; from a learned family variously known as Anau, dei Mansi, Piatelli, Pietosa, or Umani. Maria the Hebrew (2nd or 3rd century c.E.)-legendary chemist/alchemist; credited with the invention of hydrochloric acid; believed to have lived in Egypt. Mariamne (d. 29 B.c.E.)-Maccabean princess; second wife of Herod I, King of Judea; executed by him for adultery. Mariamne (1st century B.c.E.)-daughter of Simon ben Boethus, third wife of Herod I, King of Judea. Marion (a. 10 B.c.E.)-daughter of Isakios of Alexandria; borrowed money with her husband and brother-in-law. Marion (2nd century B.c.E.)-daughter of Jakoubis; listed as owner of large amounts of livestock in Egypt. Markel-Mosessohn, Miriam (a. 1868)-well-educated Russian-Jewish writer; composed original Hebrew poetry and translated German works into Hebrew. Meisel, Frumet (16th-17ili century)-moneylender; wife of Mordecai Meisel of Prague. Mendelssohn, Dorothea (see Schlegel). Mendelssohn, Henriette (late 18th century)-daughter of Moses Mendelssohn; became governess in Vienna; converted to Christianity. Mendes, Brianda (16th century)-sister of Gracia Mendes Nasi; had a falling-out with her sister who controlled the family money. Mercado, Judith (a. 1654)-one of the first twenty-three Jewish refugees from Recife, Brazil, to arrive and settle in New Amsterdam (later, New York); probablya widow. Merecina (15th century)-Hebrew poet of Gerona, Spain; referred to as rabbiness. Mibtahiah (5th century B.c.E.)-daughter of Mahseiah. Lived in Elephantine, lower Egypt; owned considerable property; married twice and had the right to initiate divorce; her two sons inherited her wealth. Mibtahiah (5th to 4th century B.c.E.)-daughter of Gemariah; involved in independent property transactions. xxii The JPS Guide to Jewish Women Minis, Abigail (1701-1794)-tavern-keeper and businesswoman in Savannah, Georgia; Revolutionary War patriot who helped supply the Continental army; among the earliest settlers to Savannah in 1733. Minna (d. 1096)-martyr who chose death over conversion in Worms during the first Crusade. Minna (14th century)-wealthy moneylender in Zurich; in partnership with her two sons; murals from her house have been rediscovered. Miriam (11th_12th century)-daughter of Rashi, wife of R. Yehudah ben Natan and mother of R. Yom Tov of Falaise and a daughter, sometimes referred to as Alvina (northern France). Miriam (11th-12th century)-second wife of Rashi's grandson, R. Yaakov ben Meir (Rabbenu Tam); after R. Tam's death she was consulted by his colleagues about his rulings and traditions. Miriam (12th century)-sister of Maimonides; wrote a letter to her brother requesting help in contacting her son. MiriamlMariamne (2nd century c.E.)-mother of Babatha and owner of considerable property in the land of Israel. Miriam bat Benayah (15th-16th century)-scribe in San'a, Yemen; part of a family of scribes. MizraJ.ti, Asenath Barazani (16th-1~ century)-scholar and teacher; ran a yeshivah in Mosul, Kurdistan; daughter of Rabbi Shmuel ha-Levi Barazani; her name was revered by Kurdish Jews long after her death. Modena, FiorettalBathsheva da (16th century)-scholar; grandmother of wellknown scholar Aaron Berekhiah, who credited her with his education; died on her way to the land of Israel. Moise, Penina (1797-1880)-poet and teacher; ran a girls school; composed about 190 hymns for Temple Beth Elohim in Charleston, South Carolina; cultural leader; first Jewish lyric poet to publish in the United States. Montagu, Lily (1873-1963)-leader of Liberal Judaism in England. Montefiore, Judith Cohen (1784-1862)-English philanthropist for Jewish causes ; diarist and traveler, respected by the Jewish communities of England and Palestine; wife of Moses Montefiore (1784-1885), a wealthy philanthropist and prominent Jewish leader. Alphabetical Guide to Jewish Women in the Text xxiii Morgenstern, Lina Bauer (1830-1901)-organizer and social activist in Berlin; organized kindergartens; set up soup kitchens for soldiers during FrancoPrussian War; founded association for homemakers, providing for employment and pensions. Morpurgo, Rachel Luzzatto (179G-1871)-scholar in Jewish and secular subjects; mystic and noted Hebrew poet; born in Trieste, Italy; her poetry was reprinted in 1890 as Ugav Ra1:zel (Rachel's harp). Al Mu/allima (The Teacher) (11th century)-learned wife of the Karaite Abu I-Taras of Toledo; after his death, his followers came to her for authentic traditions ; her name is not known. Murada, Madame (a. 1542)-woman doctor in Giinzburg, Bavaria. Myers, Rachel (a. 1776-1780)-British loyalist, widow with nine children; fled to Canada and settled in Gagetown, New Brunswick, during the Revolution. Nasi, Gracia Mendes (151O-1569?)-influential business leader and philanthropist ; born into a converso family in Portugal; returned to Judaism in Italy; invited into Turkey by the sultan; Dona Nasi was also known as Beatrice de Luna, Hannah Mendes, and La Signora. Nasi, Reyna (16th century)-daughter of Gracia Nasi, married to her cousin Joao/Joseph Nasi in Istanbul; ran a publishing house in Turkey that printed Jewish books. Nathan, Venguessone (15th century)-successful businesswoman and moneylender ; owned a shop in Arles; left bequests to all her relatives in her will, including money and books in Hebrew and Latin. Nissim, Diamante of Pisa (a. 1524)-daughter of R. Asher Meshullam of Venice; follower of and hostess to pseudomessiah David Reubeni. Nunes, Ricke/Rachel (a. 1654)-one of the first twenty-three Jewish refugees from Recife, Brazil, to arrive and settle in New Amsterdam (later New York); probably a widow. Pan, Toibe (17ili century)-wrote a historical poem in Yiddish in Prague. Pappenheim, Bertha (1859-1938)-noted social worker and activist for women's causes; founder of Der Jiidische Frauenbund. Perele (18th century)-ascetic with her own disciples; daughter of Israel ben Shabbetai of Kozienice; said to have worn tzitzit. xxiv The JPS Guide to Jewish Women Perna (a. 1460)-physician licensed in Fano, Italy. Pu1cellina (d. 1171)-powerful woman of Blois, France; possible lover of Count Theobald V of France; burned at the stake together with other Jews, the result of a blood libel charge. Qasmuna (11th or 12th century)-poet; possibly related to Samuel ibn Naghrela (Shmuel ha-Nagid); lived in Granada, Spain. A few of her poems are extant. Rachel (2nd century c.E.)-name attributed to wife of R. Akiva by post-talmudic writers; supposedly accepted poverty and gave her husband permission to be absent for twenty-four years while he studied. RachellBelle Assez (11th-12th century)-daughter of Rashi; married briefly to Eliezer/Vasselin and then divorced; purported to have helped her father write a responsum while he was sick (Troyes, northern France). RachellRashka (16th century)-businesswoman of Krakow, Poland; active in community affairs. Rachel of Mainz (d. 1096)-martyr during the first Crusade; killed her children and then herself. Rakowski, Puah (1865-1955)-Jewish educator and Hebrew scholar; established the First Hebrew School, an all-girls institution, in the 1890s in Warsaw, Poland. Rappoport, Serel (18th century)-wrote "Tkhine of the Matriarchs for the New Moon"; daughter and wife of rabbis. Raquel of Toledo (12th-13th century)-legendary mistress of King Alphonso VIII of Castile. Rashi's granddaughters (11th-12th century)-Rashi had at least two granddaughters , variously called Alvina, Hannah, or Miriam in different manuscripts; known to have taught women the Commandments. Reynette of Koblenz (a. 1372)-successful moneylender who dealt in large amounts of cash. Richa (a. 1525)-member of the wealthy Meshullam family of Venice; owned property independently; signed her own will in Yiddish and the Venetian dialect. Richenza of Niirnberg (d. 1298)-prayer leader of women; died as a martyr. Rivka of Ferrara (late 16th century)-daughter of the scholar Yel;rlel ben Azriel Trabot of Ascoli (Italy); publicized her father's teachings after his death. Alphabetical Guide to Jewish Women in the Text xxv Rivkah bat Yisrael (early 18th century)-printer; daughter of Yisrael ben Moshe, a printer in Frankfurt; niece of the sisters Ella and Gela; left a colophon in a book she printed "with my own hands" when she was quite young. Rivkah Sarah Merele (d. 1679)-ascetic, pious woman; remembered in an obituary notice. Rose, Ernestine Potowski (l810-1892)-public speaker and reformer in the United States; activist for women's rights and against slavery; born in Poland; rebelled against tradition; married a non-Jew in England; emigrated to the United States in 1836. Rossi, Europa di (16th century)-known as Madame Europa; singer and musician for the court in Mantua, Italy. Rufina of Smyrna (2nd century B.C.E.)-influential woman of Asia Minor who was head of a synagogue and owned property and slaves. Saker, Maria (a. 1869)-writer; authored the first article written by a woman in the Russian language. Salina Alexandra (2nd century c.E.)-wife of Aristobulus, Hasmonean king of Judea; often confused with Salome Alexandra. Salome (1st century B.C.E.)-sister of King Herod I; inherited property from him at his death. Salome (1st century c.E.)-daughter of Herodias and stepdaughter of Herod Antipas; reported to have requested the death of John the Baptist to please her mother. Salome Alexandra (139-67 B.C.E.)-wife of Alexander Jannai, king of Judea; ruled Judea for seven years after the death of her husband; known as an ally of the Pharisees. Salomon, Rachel Franks (b. 1762)-married patriot I:Iaym Salomon in 1777 at the age of fifteen; left penniless with four children when her husband died in 1785; remarried to David Heilbrun and settled in Holland. Sambathe (lst or 2nd century c.E.)-name of a Greek sibyl; poetry foretelling the future once attributed to her; now believed to be legendary. Sarah (a. 1654-1674)-refugee from Polish massacres of 1648; married Shabbetai Zevi, the false messiah in Cairo in 1554; converted to Islam with Zevi. xxvi The JPS Guide to Jewish Women Sarah (ca. 13th century)-known as Donna Sarah; wife of Solomon the Scribe; wrote a letter to her husband entreating him to return to the family; probably Italian. Sarah (7th century c.E.)-Yemenite poet, probably Jewish; wrote about the historic defeat of the Banu Qurayza, an Arabian-Jewish tribe. Sara de Sando Aegidio (14th century)-doctor in Marseilles; taught medicine to a male apprentice. Sarah bat Tovim (18th century)-noted, popular writer of tkhines; author of Shloyshe Sh'eorim (Three Gates); born in Podolia, Ukraine. Sarah of Tumovo (14th century)-also known as Queen Theodora; converted to Christianity to marry Tzar Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria. Schlegel, DorothealBreindel Mendelssohn Veit (b. 1765)-one of the Berlin salon women; organized Jewish Lecture Society; daughter of Moses Mendelssohn; well educated; married Simon Veit in 1783; left Veit for Friedrich Schlegel, a Christian; converted to Christianity in 1804. Schwerin, Jeanette Abarbanell (1852-1899)--one of the founders of the German Society for Ethical Culture in 1892; saw social work as a path to women's emancipation ; organized and led Girls' and Women's Groups for Social Service Work. Segal, Shifrah (a. 1770)-writer of tkhines; author of "New Tkhine for the Sabbath"; used kabbalistic texts; advanced her own theory of women's rituals. Shabazi, Shama'ah (171h century)-believed to be a poet; daughter of Yemenite poet Shalem Shabazi; died young with no extant work known. Shapira Luria, Miriam (ca. 15th century)-scholar and teacher; a daughter in a family of scholars. Sheftall, Frances Hart (1740-ca. 1792)-resourceful pioneer woman of Georgia; corresponded with her husband and son in a British prison. Shelamzion (2nd century c.E.)-daughter of Judah Khtusion, stepdaughter of Babatha; lived in the land of Israel. ShoJ.tat, Manya (1880-1961)-Russian revolutionary; emigrated to Palestine in early twentieth century; a founder of the kibbutz movement. Shondlein (mid-15th century)-leamed woman who wrote a response on ritual purity in Yiddish; wife of R. Israel Isserlein of Austria. Alphabetical Guide to Jewish Women in the Text xxvii Sophia of Gortyn (4th-5th century c.E.)-was referred to as both an elder and head of the synagogue on inscriptions from Crete. Soreh (mid-18th century)-early follower of Hasidism; widow who directed her son Leib to study with the Hasidim; Leib adopted his mother's name in acknowledgment of her influence and was known as Leib Soreh. Sullam, Sara Copio (1592-1641)-accomplished and recognized poet in Venice; corresponded on philosophical and religious matters with Ansaldo Ceba, a monk and diplomat; was accused of denying the immortality of the soul; wrote a manifesto in her own defense. Sussman, Rachel (a. 1546-1567)-Ashkenazic woman living in Jerusalem; wrote letters in Yiddish to her son in Fustat, Egypt, containing historical details about Jerusalem and her family. Tamar (14th century)-daughter of Sarah/Queen Theodora and Tzar Ivan Alexander; wife of the Ottoman emperor Murad I. Tamet (5th century B.c.E.)-handmaid of Meshullam ben Zaccur of Elephantine, lower Egypt; granted a dowry and right of divorce. Theodote (a. 13 B.c.E.)-contracted to be a wet nurse for a slave child in Alexandria. Tiktiner, Rivkah bat Meir (d. 1605)-also known as Rebecca Tiktiner of Prague; scholar and educator of women; author of pedagogic and ethical work Meneket Rivkah and a poem for Sim1;lat Torah, both in Yiddish. Twersky, ij:annah ij:ava (19th century)-Hasidic spiritual leader and advisor to women; daughter of R. Mordecai Twersky; active in her father's court in Chernobyl, Ukraine. Urania of Worms (13th century)-woman prayer leader; daughter of a cantor; she sang hymns to the women. Varnhagen, Rahel Levin (1771-1833)-brilliant, self-educated woman; leader of the Berlin salons; encouraged the poet Goethe; converted to Christianity in 1806 and married Karl Varnhagen von Ense. Virdimura (a. 1376)-physician in Catania, Sicily; given a license to treat the poor. Wengeroff, Pauline Epstein (1833-1916)-Russian diarist and writer; kept detailed diary in German recording the assimilation of Russian Jewry; later published the diary as Memoirs ofa Grandmother. xxviii The JPS Guide to Jewish Women Werbermacher, ~annah Rachel (1815-ca. 1895)-mystic and spiritual leader in Ludmir, Poland; built her own synagogue; preached sermons on Sabbath; emigrated to Jerusalem where she concentrated on kabbalistic studies until her death. Wolf, FrumetIFani Beilin (d. 1849)-composed a controversial political tract in Eisenstadt, Hungary; wrote an ethical will for her children in 1829. Wuhsha of Egypt (11th-12th century)-successful banker and moneylender; involved in divorce and scandal; lived in Fustat, Egypt; her will stipulated an expensive and elaborate funeral. Vente (18th century)-spiritualleader; early follower of the Baal Shem Tov who declared her a prophet; wore tallit. Yo1}.eved (11th-12th century)-daughter of Rashi, wife of R. Meir ben Shmuel and mother of the famed Tosafists R. Shmuel ben Meir (the Rashbam) and R. Yaakov ben Meir (Rabbenu Tam) and a daughter sometimes referred to as I:Iannah; lived in Ramerupt (northern France). Yo1}.evedlA'isha (a. 1674-1676)-from a prominent family in Salonika; married Shabbetai Zevi in 1674; converted to Islam after his death in 1676; promoted a new post-messianic movement with her brother who was proclaimed to be Zevi's reincarnation. ...


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