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Notes Introduction 1. Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier; Rothstein, Color of Law (2017); Satter, Family Properties; Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto; Freund, Colored Property; Gotham, Race, Real Estate, and Uneven Development (2002); Baradaran, Color of Money; Pietila, Not in My Neighborhood; Qua­ dagno, Color of Welfare; Connolly, World More Concrete; Massey and Denton, American Apartheid ; Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty. 2. “Davis v. Romney, 355 F. Supp. 29 (E.D. Pa. 1973).” 3. “Civil Rights Bill of 1866.” 4. “Shelley v. Kraemer, 334 U.S. 1, 68 S. Ct. 836, 92 L. Ed. 2d 1161, 1948 U.S. LEXIS 2764— CourtListener.Com”: “It cannot be doubted that among the civil rights intended to be protected from discriminatory state action by the Fourteenth Amendment are the rights to acquire, enjoy, own and dispose of property. Equality in the enjoyment of property rights was regarded by the framers of that Amendment as an essential pre-­ condition to the realization of other basic civil rights and liberties which the Amendment was intended to guarantee.” 5. “Harry S. Truman.” 6. “Dwight D. Eisenhower.” 7. See the testimony of Walter Mondale, in U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Banking and Currency, Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Affairs, Fair Housing Act of 1967, 222. 8. Quinn, “Government Policy, Housing, and the Origins of Securitization”; Krippner, Capitalizing on Crisis; Hyman, Borrow; Hyman, “House That George Romney Built”; von Hoffman, “Calling upon the Genius of Private Enterprise.” 9. See Thurston, At the Boundaries of Homeownership, for a fuller discussion on FHA discrimination against middle-­class Black and white women. 10. Rhonda Y. Williams, “Something’s Wrong Down Here: Poor Black Women and Urban Struggles for Democracy,” in Kusmer and Trotter, African American Urban History since World War II, 316. 11. Kwak, World of Homeowners, 176. 12. Jones, Masters of the Universe, 278. 13. Bonastia, Knocking on the Door (2006), 12–24. 14. Conley, Being Black, Living in the Red, 38. 15. For more discussion on “racial liberalism,” see Biondi, To Stand and Fight; Singh, Black Is a Country; Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty; Myrdal, American Dilemma; and Duneier, Ghetto. 16. Conley, Being Black, Living in the Red, 16. 17. Babcock, Appraisal of Real Estate, 2–3. 18. Jackson, “Race, Ethnicity, and Real Estate Appraisal.” See Looker, Nation of Neighborhoods, 77–78, and Babcock, Appraisal of Real Estate. 270 notes to pages 9 –20 19. Helper, Racial Policies and Practices of Real Estate Brokers, 201. 20. Massey and Denton, American Apartheid. 21. Quoted in Helper, Racial Policies and Practices of Real Estate Brokers, 201. 22. Helper, Racial Policies and Practices of Real Estate Brokers. The Realtors Code of Ethics, Article 34, states: “A Realtor should never be instrumental in introducing into a neighborhood a character of property or occupancy, members of any race or nationality, or any individuals whose presence will clearly be detrimental to property values in that neighborhood.” 23. Rothstein, Color of Law (2017), 59–76. 24. Logan and Molotch, Urban Fortunes, 20–23. 25. See Hayward, How Americans Make Race, chap. 2, “Black Places,” and Harris, “Whiteness as Property,” 1716: “The origins of property rights in the United States are rooted in racial domination. Even in the early years of the country, it was not the concept of race alone that operated to oppress Blacks and Indians; rather, it was the interaction between conceptions of race and property that played a critical role in establishing and maintaining racial and economic subordination.” 26. Kruse, New Suburban History, 35. 27. “Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., 392 U.S. 409 (1968).” 28. This, of course, does not mean that there has been no discussion of the HUD Act and its consequences for the urban communities it was most utilized in. Studies coming from multiple disciplinary perspectives discuss various aspects of the HUD Act and its impact. This book builds substantially on this existing scholarship. See Boyer, Cities Destroyed for Cash; Gotham, Race, Real Estate, and Uneven Development (2014); Bonastia, Knocking on the Door (2006); Satter, Family Properties; Hays, Federal Government and Urban Housing (2012); von Hoffman, “Calling upon the Genius of Private Enterprise”; Biles, Fate of Cities; and Squires, Unequal Partnerships. 29. Kennedy, Executive Order 11063. 30. Baradaran, Color of Money, 194–267; Hill and Rabig, Business of Black Power; Orren, Corporate Power and Social Change; Kotlowski, Nixon’s Civil Rights; Wright Rigueur, Loneliness of the Black Republican, 134–77; Allen, Black Awakening in Capitalist America; Taylor, From #BlackLivesMatter to Black Liberation. 31. For more on Cold War liberalism or...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781469653686
Related ISBN
9781469653662
MARC Record
OCLC
1117339519
Pages
368
Launched on MUSE
2019-09-21
Language
English
Open Access
No
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