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239 NOTES CHAPTER1:REPUBLICANISM,RELIGIOSITY,ANDTHERHETORICOFWOMEN’SLABOR REFORMINLOWELL,MASSACHUSETTS,1830–1850 1. The Voice of Industry ran independently until it was made the official organ of the New England Workingmen’s Association in October 1845 and then purchased by the LFLRA in 1846 (Dublin 118). The Voice of Industry was relatively short-lived (1845–48), particularly in comparison to the much more widely circulated Lowell Offering. While the Lowell Offering had a much larger circulation and represents a better-known venue for the writing of female factory workers during this period, its collections of stories and poetry displaying the good life of the mill girl expressed sentiments about life in the mills very different from those views depicted in the Voice of Industry. Thomas Dublin charges that “[Lowell Offering editor Harriet] Farley and her co-writers were Lowell’s loyalists, more interested in demonstrating their own upstanding morality than in pointing out the shortcomings of mill owners and agents” (124). The LFLRA’s more directive and persuasive use of writing toward collective action stands in direct contrast to the belletristic style that characterized the Lowell Offering’s docile female writers. 2. The Workingmen’s Party was an early trade union movement, led by William Heighton, Thomas Skidmore, and George Henry Evans. Their focus on land reform at this stage in early industrialization indicates their beliefs that the American republic could survive on a land-based economy, one that would not suffer from the societal stratifications of industrialization (Laurie 67). CHAPTER2:FROMSLAVETOSEAMSTRESS 1. See Steve Crinti; Janaka Lewis; and Xiomara Santamarina for more on the kinds of labors. 2. Only a handful of women’s slave narratives were published before Behind the Scenes. Known works include Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl 240 Notes to Pages 33–40 (1861), Hiram Mattison and Louisa Picquet’s Louisa Picquet, the Octoroon: A Tale of Southern Slave Life (1861), Elizabeth’s [no surname] Memoir of Old Elizabeth, a Coloured Woman (1863), and Mattie Jane Jackson’s The Story of Mattie J. Jackson (1866). 3. In the Managed Heart, Hochschild briefly discusses “emotive dissonance,” which she similarly defines as “a separation of feeling and display” (90). 4. Keckley’s biological father was Armistead Burwell, her mother’s owner. 5. These women were the wives of Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee, respectively. Before the Civil War erupted, Keckley was commissioned to make dresses for them. 6. Although Keckley expected some backlash regarding her memoir, noting in the preface that “in writing as I have done, I am well aware that I have invited criticism” (xi), the onslaught of vitriolic condemnation was extensive. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle reported that “the dressmaker paints the picture of weakness and vanity with an unflinching and unsparing hand” (“New Publications” 4), and the New York Times said Keckley should have “stuck to her needle” because the book was full of “gross violations of confidence” (qtd. in Sorisio 19). The most scathing response, however, was Behind the Seams; by a N***** Woman Who Took in Work from Mrs. Lincoln and Mrs. Davis. This eighteen-page parody retold Keckley’s story using the most vile and offensive terms, harshly castigating Keckley for her breach of trust. Keckley’s account was considered such a personal intrusion that Robert Lincoln was able to suppress further publication of her book (Fleischner 318). 7. Keckley’s publication of Mrs. Lincoln’s letters, in particular, was seen as a violation of respectability. Hogan notes that while the publication of Mrs. Lincoln’s letters “reinforced Keckley’s credibility as both an intimate friend of Mary’s and a truth teller,” they also “once again violated prevailing standards of propriety and decorum” (420). As documented in the Rock Island, Illinois, Daily Argus, Keckley’s memoir was “a most scandalous breach of confidence, as intimate conversations and strictly private letters are given in full, and the character of Mrs. Lincoln show[s] up in a worse light than ever before” (Daily Argus). It is worth noting, though, as Hogan explains, that “most historians agree that James Redpath . . . played an important role in editing and finding a publisher for Keckley’s memoir. . . . Historians also agree that Redpath did not obtain Keckley’s permission to publish 21 letters from Mary Lincoln” (408). 8. In many ways, Mrs. Lincoln’s failure to pay Keckley led to the publication of Behind the Scenes. After her venture in New York City, Keckley was destitute. “The labor of a lifetime has...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780822987185
Related ISBN
9780822945888
MARC Record
OCLC
1113898346
Pages
303
Launched on MUSE
2019-08-28
Language
English
Open Access
No
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