publisher colophon

INDEX

Abraham, Philip: Curiosities of Judaism, 87

“Adah, A Simple Story.” See Aguilar, Grace

Aggadah: Anglo-Jewish women’s use of, 33. See also Midrash

Aguilar, Grace, 135–89; as Anglo-Jewish historian, 139, 192; appeal to multiple audiences, 135, 150–51, 173–75, 185–87, 247–48n.90; appeal to patriarch for legitimacy, 108; assessment of, 185–89; association with Cheap Jewish Library, 131, 171–85; attitude toward Christians, 136, 143–46, 166–67; attitude toward England, 165, 166, 168, 171; attitude toward Queen Victoria, 244–45n.58; attitude toward romance, 140, 161, 164, 171–73, 179; attitude toward Sephardic “pride,” 209n.30; awareness of women’s exclusion from tradition, 30, 145–46; biographical sketch and literary history, 136–41; call for mothers to be instructors, 141–42; call for vernacularization of the Bible, 73, 105, 130; children’s book based on her life, 140; compared with Maria Edgeworth, 153, 185; compared with Maimonides’ thirteen articles of faith, 152; compared with Marion and Celia Moss, 160–71; compared with Florence Nightingale, 243n.46, 247–48n.90; comparison of gender and Jewishness by, 30, 167, 245n.62; compromises of, 136, 145, 166–67, 185–86, 187; contents of mss., 137–38; contributions unacknowledged, 130; correspondence with Charlotte Montefiore, 131, 159, 179; criticism of Jewish patriarchy, 136; crypto-Jewish influence on, 136–37, 149–50, 159–60, 177–78; designation as sui generis, 18, 140, 151–56, 186, 193, 197; domestic fiction of, 140, 156–58, 171–85, 192; domestic ideology of, 136, 145, 148–50, 169–70, 182–85; double consciousness of, 173–74; education of, 141, 145–46; feminism of, 150, 186, 187, 188–89, 192–93; and Anna Maria Goldsmid, 193; influence of Walter Scott on, 162; influence on Christian readers, 187; influence on Jewish men, 67–68, 186; influence on Jewish women, 77, 131–32, 139, 186, 188–89; Jewish authenticity of, 144, 146, 150, 152–53, 240n.21; liberalism of, 143, 162–63, 166, 171, 185; mother/daughter plots of, 137, 139; myth of her life, 154–56, 158, 160; perception of by conversionists, 52, 218n.33; reciprocal influence with Rebecca Gratz, 238n.13; reformism of, 152, 183–84; remembrance of, 135, 171, 187, 188–89; snubbed by Jewish aristocracy, 179–80; spirit vs. forms in works, 137, 144, 150, 163–64, 164, 174, 244n.56, 246n.72. Works: “Adah, A Simple Story,” 138, 143, 144, 159, 161–62; “The Authoress,” 156–60, 184; Days of Bruce, 139, 140; “The Escape,” 161, 168–71, 233n.41, 245n.65; “The Friends, a Domestic Tale,” 138, 143–44; Home Influence, 108, 137, 139, 174; Home Scenes and Heart Studies, 139, 156; Israel Defended, 138, 145, 197; Jewish Faith, 108, 139; Magic Wreath, 138; A Mother’s Recompense, 137, 139, 140; “The Perez Family,” 138–39, 140, 171–85; Records of Israel, 138, 140, 172–74; Sabbath Thoughts and Sacred Communings, 140, 144; Spirit of Judaism, 51, 73–75, 108, 136, 138, 146, 195; “Spirit of Night,” 187, 240n.23; Vale of Cedars, 36, 137, 140, 161, 164–67; Woman’s Friendship, 73, 139, 156, 242–43n.44; Women of Israel, 30, 138, 145–46, 146–50, 186, 187, 188, 193; Works, 140, 152–53, 187, 188–89. See also Biblical women; Cross-dressing; Crypto-Judaism; Father/daughter plot; “Jewish Protestants;” Midrash; Mother-instructors; Romance; Sephardim, English; Toleration

Aguilar, Sarah, 131, 137, 139

Alroy, See Disraeli, Benjamin

Angel, Moses, 249n.6

Anglo-Jewish Association, 197

Anglo-Jewish community: Ashkenazi/Sephardi split in, 16; attitude toward “toleration” of Dissenters, 40; female-centered history of, 29–32; growth, settlement and visibility of, 16, 24, 40; historiographical neglect of, 16, 17–22; male-centered history of, 22–29; readmission in 1656, 23, 40; unification of, 23, 28. See also Ashkenazim; Board of Deputies of British Jews; Sephardim, English

Anglo-Jewish Library, 84. See also Benisch, Abraham

Anglo-Jewish literature: historiographical erasure of, 17–22. See also Anglo-Jewish men writers; Anglo-Jewish women writers

Anglo-Jewish men: attitudes toward female education, 30–31, 64–72; as community-builders, 25; conversionists’ perception of, 52; literary institutions of, 84; masculinity of, 59; pragmatism of, 24, 28–29, 132–33. See also Anglo-Jewish men writers; Censorship; Domestic ideology; Masculinity; Reform; Traditionalist

Anglo-Jewish men writers: assessment of, 101–3; attitude toward romance, 65, 69, 83–88, 95–101, 222n.23; definition of “literature” by, 68, 83–84; desire for unified community, 23–29; historiographical focus on public achievements of, 59; lack of emancipation theory, 29, 132–33; limited literary production of, 22, 24, 29, 73, 83; response to conversionists, 61, 62–63, 68, 69, 89, 102. See also Domestic ideology; Father/daughter plot; Midrash; Romance

Anglo-Jewish women writers: achievements of, 10–11, 19, 38, 129–33, 191–93, 201–2; appeal to patriarchs for legitimacy, 108–9; attitudes toward female education, 30–31, 67, 100, 105–6, 121, 122, 130, 132, 136, 141–42, 145–48, 191–92, 197–200; compared with German-Jewish women 206n.13, 211n.39, 221n.16, 227n.1, 234nn.50, 54, 237n.10, 243nn.48, 52, 246–47nn.79, 86; contributions to feminist literary history, 11, 129–33, 191–93, 200–202; contributions to modern Jewish historiography, 11, 18–20, 192, 200–202; contributions to Victorian literary history, 11, 192, 200–201; contributions unacknowledged, 10, 17–22, 130–31, 192, 201–2; desire for equity, 29–32; feminism of, 105, 121–22, 125, 131–32, 150, 161, 185–89, 102–93, 198–99; genres of, 17, 32–37, 43, 44–45, 57, 78–79, 106, 109–10, 111, 129–30, 140, 142–43, 158, 161–64, 171–79, 187, 188, 192; influence on one another, 76–79, 131–32, 159, 168, 175, 179–80, 186, 188–89, 238n.13; Jewish women’s traditional exemption from writing, 10, 18–19, 22, 103, 145–46, 150; lack of role models, 19, 78, 116, 132, 143, 162; pragmatism of upper-class women, 32, 175–78, 197, 211n.39; reasons for writing, 39, 42, 44–45, 75–79, 105–6, 191; response to conversionist romance, 36, 43, 57, 100, 105, 112–113, 129–30, 161–67, 172–73. See also Class dynamics; Conversionism; Female education; Romance; Scott, Walter; Subculture, Victorian Jewish

Armstrong, Nancy, 21, 149

Arranged marriage, 123, 126, 130, 234n.50

Ascamot. See D’Israeli, Isaac; Sephardim, English

Ashkenazim: English, 16, 23, 27–28; and the Goldsmid family, 193–94; women’s production of tekhinot, 19, 33, 67–68. See also Tekhinot

Athenaeum: assessment of Aguilar, 153–54, 187

Atrutel, Mrs.: review of Book of Jewish Cookery, 82

“Authoress, The” See Aguilar, Grace

Belisario, Miriam Mendes: “Sabbath Evenings at Home,” 80, 105–6

Benisch, Abraham: Aguilar’s influence on, 73, 130, 186; bible translation by, 73, 130, 186; censorship of Jewish Sabbath Journal, 75–80, 109; founder of Anglo-Jewish Library, 84; “Our Women,” 69–71; recognition of women’s achievements, 67–68. See also Anglo-Jewish men writers; Jewish Chronicle; Masculinity; Reform

Beruria, 18, 205n.10

Biblical women, 33, 61, 66, 71, 88–95, 138, 146–49, 169, 188–89

Blake, William, 41

Board of Deputies of British Jews, 23, 127, 194

Bowles, Caroline, 145

Bresslau, Marcus: as editor of Hebrew Review and Magazine of Jewish Literature, 17; “Have the Jews any Literature?” 84; Sabbath Evenings at Home, 67. See also Hebrew Review and Magazine of Jewish Literature

Bristow, Amelia, 39, 218n.30, 219n.40

Brontë, Charlotte, 153, 234n.46

Bulwer Lytton, Edward: Leila, or the Siege of Granada, 39, 108; relationship with Celia and Marion Moss, 108, 116, 135

Burke, Edmund, 41

Byron, George Gordon, Lord: Hebrew Melodies, 226n.70; influence on Benjamin Disraeli, 87–88; influence on Jewish women, 54, 107; metaphorical use of “the Jew” by, 41

Carlyle, Thomas, 145; Aguilar’s response to, 165; critic of Jewish emancipation, 40; defense of Christian nation by, 33; metaphorical use of “the Jew” by, 41

Carmoly, Dr.” biographies of learned Jewish women by, 68

Castle Rackrent. See Edgeworth, Maria

Censorship: of Jewish women’s writings, 30–31, 60, 72–83

Cheap Jewish Library. See Montefiore, Charlotte

Chief Rabbi, 196, 249n.6; endorsement of Jewish Sabbath Journal, 79, 224n.43

Chivalry: reformist men’s invocation of, 69, 87, 222n.23; traditionalist men’s criticism of, 61, 62–63; Walter Scott’s, 217n.22

Christian universalism: critics’ assumption of, 21

Class-book controversy, 249n.6

Class dynamics: and Aguilar, 32, 132, 139, 160, 171–85, 188, 200; and the Anglo-Jewish community, 27, 37, 191, 193; and the Cheap Jewish Library, 130, 171–85; and Anna Maria Goldsmid, 193, 198–99; middle classes and writing, 32, 132, 139, 171–85; and Charlotte Montefiore, 31, 171–85; and Celia and Marion Moss, 32, 77; and romance, 44, 97–99, 123–24, 125; and the upper classes, 32, 65–66, 81, 171–85

Cohen, Mrs. Isaac, 188–89

Colenso, Bishop John, 90

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 41

“Communal Weekly Gossip”: recognition of Jewish women’s achievements, 68

Coningsby. See Disraeli, Benjamin

Conversionism: Aguilar’s critique of, 144, 161–63, 165; aims of, 34–36, 50–52, 57–58, 217n.25; belief in Jewish men’s materialism, 52; belief in Judaism’s oppression of women and women’s malleability, 35–36, 50–52, 54–55, 74, 191; belief that reformers were latent Protestants, 52; coercive vs. persuasive (“philo-Semitic”) styles, 34–36, 57–58; and comedy, 217n.22; condescension of, 46, 55–56, 219n.40; conversionists’ publication of Jewish women, 51, 233n.43; English vs. German, 219–20n.42, 237n.10; and Ivanhoe, 39–49; and Jewish Maiden, 50–58; Jewish women’s response to, 36, 56–57, 121, 122–23, 144, 161–63, 165, 192, 233n.43, 246–47n.79; and Merchant of Venice, 35–36, 41–43, 53; and romance, 32–36, 43–45, 52–58; support for Jews’ emancipation by, 34–35, 41; targetting of women by, 35–36, 50–58. See also Father/daughter plot; London Society for the Promotion of Christianity Amongst the Jews

Conversos. See Crypto-Judaism

Cousinhood, the: Montefiores’ role in, 175

“Cramping”: and Anglo-Jewish disabilities, 29, 100, 210–11n.36, 227n.77

Cross-dressing: Aguilar’s use of, 156, 168–71, 233n.41, 245n.65; Celia and Marion Moss’s use of, 122, 167, 245–46n.66

Crypto-Judaism: definition of, 23; influence on Aguilar, 136–37, 149–51; liberalism of, 26; matriarchal emphasis of, 136–37, 236n.3; matrilineal oral tradition of, 32, 136–37, 142, 161, 168; secret (“veiled”) practices of, 137, 166–73; as source of fiction, 177–78. See also Aguilar, Grace; Sephardim, English

Cumberland, Richard: The Jew, 51, 52

Daniel Deronda. See Eliot, George

“Daughters of Zelophehad.” See Biblical women; Midrash

Davids, Arthur Lumley: as ideal type of Anglo-Jewish man, 84. See also Hebrew Review and Magazine of Rabbinical Literature; Masculinity

Days of Bruce. See Aguilar, Grace

de Rothschild, Anna, 192

de Rothschild, Constance: forgetting of, 192; The Hebrew Woman, review of, 82–83

de Rothschild, Hester: review of Imrei Lev (book of tekhinot), 67–68. See also Tekhinot

de Sola, Abraham: relationship with Charlotte Montefiore and Grace Aguilar, 176–77, 179, 185; supervision of Miriam Mendes Belisario’s “Sabbath Evenings at Home,” 80

Deuteronomy: gender inequity in, 63. See also Biblical women; Franklin, Jacob; Voice of Jacob

Dickens, Charles, 201; and Aguilar, 135, 192; Amy Levy’s critique of, 42; Oliver Twist, 41, 42, 43; Our Mutual Friend, 41, 42

Disraeli, Benjamin, 83–88; Alroy, 87–88, 116; biological determinism of, 22, 88; conversion of, 85; differences from Jewish male contemporaries, 85, 87–88; reception by Jewish men, 88, 225n.64; “Young England” trilogy, 87–88

D’Israeli, Isaac, 83–88; attitude toward romance, 85–87; Curiosities of Literature, 85; Genius of Judaism, 85–87; rejection of Ascamot, 85, 209n.28, 237n.11. See also Romance

Domestic ideology: Grace Aguilar’s version, 136, 145, 148–50, 169–70, 182–85; Christian version, 35, 150, 160, 221n.8; Anna Maria Goldsmid’s version, 195; Jewish men’s version, 30–31, 61–66, 69, 75, 113, 159; Jewish women’s version, 191–92, 199; Celia and Marion Moss’s version, 111–12, 124–25, 129. See also Reform; Traditionalist

Edgeworth, Maria: and Grace Aguilar, 153; Castle Rackrent, 43; Harrington, 42, 52

Education. See Female education

Eliot, George: denial of romance, 215–16n.16; Amy Levy’s critique of, 42–43; orientalism of, 215–16n.16; use of myth of biblical Jews’ regeneracy, 218n.30

Ellis, Sarah Stickney, 160

Emancipation and reform: compared with analogs on the continent, 23–29; definition of, 15; pace different for men and women, 29–32, 95; separability of the two movements, 28–29, 30, 210–11n.36. See also Haskalah; Reform

Enlightenment, Anglo-Jewish. See Emancipation and reform; Haskalah; Reform

“Esther and the Mission of Woman.” See Biblical women; Midrash

Ethical monotheism: Aguilar’s version, 244n.55; conversionists’ version, 56; male reformers’ version, 72; Walter Scott’s version, 46–49

Farjeon, Benjamin, 47, 151

Fashion. See Romance

Father/daughter plot: Aguilar’s version, 161, 165, 167; conversionists version, 35–36, 42, 52–58, 101–2, 106–7, 108, 112–13, 116, 118–19, 121, 122–23, 124, 129, 135, 144, 162, 164, 165; Jewish men’s version, 60–61, 88–101; Celia and Marion Moss’s version, 106–7, 112, 113–29, 231n.30; Walter Scott’s version, in Ivanhoe, 39, 43, 44–49. See also Aguilar, Grace; Anglo-Jewish men writers; Conversionism; Levy, Matthias; Midrash; Moss, Celia and Marion; Romance

Female education: conversionists’ perception of, 35, 50–51, 53–54; German-Jewish women’s attitudes toward, 227n.1; Jewish men’s attitudes toward, 30–31, 59–60, 64–72, 90, 100–101, 191, 196; Jewish women’s attitudes toward, 30–31, 67, 105–6, 121, 122, 130, 132, 136, 141–42, 145–48, 191–92, 197–200. See also Reform; Midrash; Traditionalist

Female Hebrew Benevolent Society of Philadelphia, 131–32

Feminism: and Judaism, 37–38, 212n.47; neglect of Jewish women’s literature by, 21. See also Anglo-Jewish women writers

Feminization of religion, 35, 64–65, 71, 75, 81–82, 141–42, 148–50, 191–92

Fiction Without Romance; or, the Locket-Watch. See Polack, Maria

Foucault, Michel, 149

Frankau, Julia, 193

Franklin, Jacob: attitude toward Grace Aguilar, 74, 151, 153, 154; attitude toward women’s writing, 74; critique of “Christian” chivalry, 61–63; critique of orientalism, 62; as editor of Voice of Jacob, 17; “Position of Israel’s Women,” 61–62. See also Voice of Jacob

Frey, Joseph. See Conversionism; London Society for the Promotion of Christianity Amongst the Jews

Friendly societies of Jewish working men, 184. See also Class dynamics

“Friends, a Domestic Tale, The.” See Aguilar, Grace

Ginzberg, Louis: Legends of the Jews, 90

Glückel of Hameln, 18

Goldsmid, Anna Maria, 191–202; achievements of, 67–68, 193; appeal to mother-instructors, 105, 195–96; compared with Aguilar, 142, 193, 197; dependent on father in early writings, 108–9, 195; forgetting of, 130, 135, 200; translations by, 130, 195–97

Goldsmid, Francis Henry, 84, 194

Goldsmid, Isaac Lyon, 84, 194

Grant, Robert, 40, 213n.3

Gratz, Rebecca, 47, 193, 238n.13

Green, Arthur, 199

Guedalla, Haim, Sabbath Leaves, 75, 84, 130

Halacha (Jewish law), 62, 72, 183

Hall, Mrs. Samuel Carter, 145

Harrington. See Edgeworth, Maria

Harris, Miriam, 195

Hartog, Marion (née Moss): ambition of, 159; awareness of women’s exclusion from tradition, 105; compared with Aguilar, 160–71; forgetting of, 135, 171; Jewish Sabbath Journal, 9, 11, 17, 31, 75–80, 105, 107, 109, 119–20, 130–31, 195, 224n.44, 228n.3; “Lines on the Death of Lady Montefiore,” 131; “Lines Written by Marion Moss, a Jewess, after attending service in a Christian Chapel,” 51; “Lines Written on the Death of Grace Aguilar,” 77, 131; “Milcah: A Tale of the Spanish Jews in the Fifteenth Century,” 119–20; “On the Death of My Beloved Child,” 80; as teacher, 80, 107, 160. See also Father/daughter plot; Moss, Celia and Marion; Romance

Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment): definition of, 19; English vs. continental versions, 19–21; men’s vs. women’s experiences of, 19–20, 95, 191, 201–2; span of, 16–17. See also Emancipation and reform; Reform

Hasty Marriage, The. See Levy, Matthias

Hebrew Review and Magazine of Jewish Literature, 17, 210n.33, 249n.6. See also Bresslau, Marcus

Hebrew Review and Magazine of Rabbinical Literature, 17, 27, Aguilar’s poems in, 138; genre of, 83–84, 210n.33; midrash in, 87. See also Raphall, Morris

Hegemony, 54, 65, 201. See also Conversionsim; Orientalism

Hemans, Felicia, 145, 160, 242nn.42, 44, 247n.88

Historical romance. See Romance

Historiography, modern Jewish, 11, 20, 22–32, 192, 201–2

Home Influence. See Aguilar, Grace

“Home instruction.” See Domestic ideology; Mother-instructors

Homeopathic Hospital, 197

Home Scenes and Heart Studies. See Aguilar, Grace

hooks, bell, 186

Howitt, Mary, 145, 218n.33

Infant School. See Goldsmid, Anna Maria; Goldsmid, Francis Henry

Israel Defended. See Aguilar, Grace

Ivanhoe. See Scott, Walter

Jeptha’s daughter, 92–93, 120, 226nn.69, 70. See also Biblical women; Midrash

Jewish Association for the Diffusion of Religious Knowledge, 67, 80, 94

Jewish Chronicle: Aguilar’s poems in, 138; “Faith and Its Influence on Women,” 81–82. See also Benisch, Abraham; “Communal Weekly Gossip;” Midrash; Reform

Jewish Faith, The. See Aguilar, Grace

Jewish Maiden, The. See Lewis, M. G.

Jewish Manual, The. See Montefiore, Judith

Jewish Museum, London, 9, 137

Jewish Naturalization Bill (“Jew Bill”), 23, 40

“Jewish Protestants”: Aguilar as, 73, 144, 150, 187; in Ivanhoe, 48; reformers as, 50, 85

Jewish Sabbath Journal. See Hartog, Marion (née Moss)

Jews and General Literary and Scientific Institute, 59, 84, 198, 250n.12

Jews’ College, 25, 59, 194

Jews’ Deaf and Dumb Home, 197

Kohut, Rebekah, 193

Kuzmack, Linda Gordon, 131

“La Belle Juive,” 114

Lask Abrahams, Rachel, 136, 137, 154, 204–5n.8, 223n.31

Lazarus, Emma, 193

“Lectures to Jewish Working Men,” 198–99. See also Goldsmid, Anna Maria

Leeser, Isaac: and Aguilar, 51, 73–75, 136, 138, 152, 185, 186; bible translation by, 73, 130, 186; objection to romance, 142; role as promoter of women’s writing, 73, 238n.13. See also Traditionalists

Leila, or the Siege of Granada. See Bulwer Lytton, Edward

Lessing, Götthold, 52

Levetus, Celia (née Moss): King’s Physician, 108, 112, 118, 120–21, 125, 229n.18, 230–31n.27, 231n.30, 231–32n.31; “The Two Pictures,” 105, 246–47n.79. See also Father/daughter plot; Moss, Celia and Marion; Romance

Levy, Amy, 42–43, 153, 155, 156, 187, 193, 215n.13

Levy, Matthias [Nathan Meritor, pseud.]: The Hasty Marriage, 60, 95–101. See also Anglo-Jewish men writers; Father/daughter plot; Romance

Lewis, M. G.: The Jewish Maiden, 39, 52, 53–58, 101–2, 107, 117, 118–19, 165. See also Conversionism; Father/daughter plot; Romance

Liberalism, 33–34, 40–41, 44, 48, 143, 162–63, 166, 171, 185, 192, 201. See also Aguilar, Grace; Conversionism; Toleration

Liberal Judaism. See Reform

Lindon, Abigail, 105, 192

Lipman, V. D., 24, 187

Literary and Translation Society, 84

“Little Miriam,” 80, 130

London Missionary Society. See London Society for the Promotion of Christianity Amongst the Jews

London Society for the Promotion of Christianity Amongst the Jews: belief in “Jewish Protestants,” 50–52; criticism of Aguilar, 146; establishment and work of, 34–35, 50–52, 217n.25, 218n.28. See also Conversionism; “Jewish Protestants”

Lyons, Emma, 192

Macaulay, Thomas Babington, 34, 40, 213n.3

Magic Wreath, The. See Aguilar, Grace

Maimonides, 26, 152

Marks, David Woolf: attitude toward female education, 66–67; influence of Anna Maria Goldsmid on, 196, 234n.53; compared with Aguilar, 142. See also Female education; Reform; West London Synagogue for British Jews

Marranos. See Crypto-Judaism

Martineau, Harriet, 197, 248n.90

Masculinity, Jewish: forgotten history of, 59, 201–2; ideal Victorian types of, 73, 84; men’s fears of losing, 59–60, 82, 83, 101; Celia and Marion Moss’s revision of, 111, 117–19, 123–29

Mayhew, Henry, 41

McKeon, Michael, 83, 215n.16

Menasseh ben Israel, 16

Mendelssohn, Felix, 197

Mendelssohn, Moses, 133

Meritor, Nathan. See Levy, Matthias

Midrash: Aguilar’s use of, 148, 187, 240n.23; “Daughters of Zelophehad,” 93–94; “Esther and the Mission of Woman,” 94; “Jeptha’s Daughter,” 92–93, 94; men’s use of, 60–61, 88–95; “Origin of Woman,” 90–92, 94; “Sun and the Moon,” 89–90, 92, 94, 240n.23; women’s access to and use of, 89, 95, 148, 187, 192, 240n.23

Mill, John Stuart, 33–34

Miller, D. A., 149

Minority discourse, 248n.1

Mocatta, Moses, 135, 197

Modernity, Jewish. See Emancipation and reform; Haskalah; Historiography, modern Jewish; Reform

Montagu, Lily, 153, 188, 193

Montefiore, Charlotte: achievements recognized, 67–68, 192; antagonism toward romance, 36, 176–78; Caleb Asher, 31, 130, 175, 178; charitable activities of, 175; Cheap Jewish Library and “The Perez Family,” 32, 131, 175, 176, 178–85; compared with Anna Maria Goldsmid, 195; correspondence with Aguilar, 131, 159, 179–80; emphasis on utility, 175–78; A Few Words to the Jews, 31, 109, 175, 176–78; historical forgetting of, 130, 135, 192; spirit vs. forms in, 176–78; use of anonymity by, 109, 159, 201

Montefiore, Judith: advocacy of female education by, 100; as token, 18, 192; The Jewish Manual, 17, 32, 36, 211n.39, 226n.73, 241n.34; traditionalism of, 152; under her husband’s shadow, 18, 108, 130, 159. See also Female education; Traditionalists

Montefiore, Moses, 18, 108, 116, 135, 138, 159, 197

Moore, Thomas, 107

“Moral governess of the Hebrew family,” 76, 135, 155, 243n.46. See also Aguilar, Grace

Moss, Celia and Marion, 105–33; biographical sketch, 107–8; critique of conversionist romance by, 36, 112–12, 123, 129–30; critique of men’s domestic ideology by, 113; feminism of, 121–23, 124–25, 126, 129–30, 131; “Flowery paths of romance,” 97, 109, 110, 178, 197; historical forgetting of, 135, 192; influence of Scott’s Ivanhoe on, 43, 106; prefaces and dedications, analysis of 108–13; Zionism of, 113, 167, 229–30n.21. Works: “The Asmoneans,” 122; Early Efforts, 107, 108, 113, 229–30n.21; “The Pharisee, or, Judea Capta,” 117, 126–29; “The Priest’s Adopted,” 125–26; Romance of Jewish History, 75, 107, 108, 109, 226n.70; “The Slave,” 117, 121–22, 124–25; “Storming of the Rock,” 118; Tales of Jewish History, 75, 107, 113; “Twin Brothers of Nearda,” 113–25. See also Domestic ideology; Father/daughter plot; Hartog, Marion (née Moss); Levetus, Celia (née Moss); Romance

Mother-instructors, 67, 71, 75, 76, 141, 148, 180–82, 184, 192, 195, 200. See also Domestic ideology

Nationalism, English, 36–37, 212n.46, 213n.5, 248n.1

New Woman, the, 59, 82, 93, 125

Nightingale, Florence, 243n.46, 247–48n.90

Novel, the: Anglo-Jewish women’s use of, 33, 192; compared to traditional Jewish literary genres, 60, 73, 83, 88–89, 95, 212n.41; and conversionism, 32–37. See also Romance

Oath of Abjuration, 123–24

Occident. See Leeser, Isaac

Oliver Twist. See Dickens, Charles

Orientalism, 22, 36, 39, 46, 49, 54, 62, 113–14, 212–13n.1, 215–16n.16, 248n.1

“Origin of Woman.” See Biblical women; Midrash

Our Mutual Friend. See Dickens, Charles

Patriarchy, 108–9, 136, 201. See also Anglo-Jewish men writers; Masculinity

Persuasion. See Conversionism

Philippsohn, Ludwig, 197

Philo-Judaeans, 34. See also Conversionism; London Society for the Promotion of Christianity Amongst the Jews

Philo-semitism. See Conversionism

Piccioto, James, 187

Polack, Maria, 17; advocacy of female education by, 100; appeal to patriarch for legitimacy, 108, 228n.11; compared with Matthias Levy, 97, 100; historical forgetting of, 135, 192; response to conversionist romance, 36; traditionalism of, 97, 100, 152, 241n.34

Poovey, Mary, 207n.16, 212n.46, 243n.46, 248n.90

Porter, Jane, 153

Pragmatism. See Anglo-Jewish men

Protestantism, Victorian, influence on Jews’ religious life, 26

Proverbs 31 (“Eshet Chayil”), 61, 139, 220n.1, 221n.13

Public sphere, Victorian Jewish. See Subculture, Victorian Jewish

R. H. A., 76, 192

Ragussis, Michael, 213n.5, 214n.8, 217n.22, 225n.57, 244n.57, 244–45n.58, 245n.61, 250n.16

Raphall, Morris, 17; “Sun and the Moon,” 89–90, 91–92, 187, 240n.23; traditionalism of, 27, 83–84, 210n.33. See also Anglo-Jewish men writers; Hebrew Review and Magazine of Rabbinical Literature; Midrash; Traditionalists

Records of Israel. See Aguilar, Grace

Reform: alignment with romance, 31, 36, 63, 69, 85–87, 96–97, 111, 119–20, 122, 123, 127, 129, 163–64, 222n.23; conversionist perception of, 52; as ethical rather than halachic system, 66–67, 72, 127–28; Goldsmid family role in, 194–96; and midrash, 92–94; men’s vision of, 23–29, 66–72, 87, 92–94; spirit vs. form in, 137, 144, 150, 163–64, 174, 244n.56, 246n.72; women’s vision of, 29–31, 105–6, 111, 119–20, 122, 123, 127, 129, 150, 152, 163–64, 184. See also Aguilar, Grace; Anglo-Jewish men writers; Anglo-Jewish women writers; Goldsmid, Anna Maria; Marks, David Woolf; Moss, Celia and Marion; Romance

“Rights of Women” (poem), 80–81. See also Censorship

Robinson, Crabbe, 196–97

Romance: Aguilar’s use of, 140, 160–71; alignment with Reform, 31, 36, 63, 69, 85–97, 96–97, 111, 119–20, 122, 123, 127, 129, 163–64, 222n.23; conversionist use of, 35–36, 39–40, 41–42, 44, 52–58, 60–61, 89, 95–101, 119, 121, 123, 124, 129; Benjamin Disraeli’s use of, 87–88; Isaac D’Israeli’s use of, 85–87; as emblem of anglicization, 36, 69, 116, 149–50, 182–83; as exercise in self-definition, 117, 230–31n.27; history and conventions of genre, 35–36, 43–45, 48, 55, 114, 119, 192, 215n.15, 215–16n.16, 243–44n.53; Jewish women’s use of, 10, 105–33, 160–71, 192, 200–201; Celia and Marion Moss’s use of, 105–33; traditionalist men’s attitudes toward, 65–66, 95–101, 142, 153. See also Father/daughter plot; Novel, the; Reform; Traditionalists

Romance of Jewish History. See Moss, Celia and Marion

Roth, Cecil, 28, 140, 187, 204–5n.8

“Sabbath Evenings at Home.” See Belisario, Miriam Mendes

Sabbath Evenings at Home. See Bresslau, Marcus

Sabbath Thoughts and Sacred Communings. See Aguilar, Grace

Said, Edward, 212–13n.1, 219n.38

Salonières, 19, 32, 206–7n.13

Schwartzschild, Steven S., 97

Scott, Walter, 201; influence on Aguilar, 139, 162, 238n.13; influence on Celia and Marion Moss, 43, 106; Ivanhoe, 43, 45–49, 101–2, 118–19, 215n.13, 216n.21; Lady of the Lake, 107. See also Conversionism; Father/daughter plot

Separate spheres. See Domestic ideology

Sephardim, English: founders of the Anglo-Jewish public sphere, 26, 209n.29; history of, 16, 23, 25–27, 136–37; liberalism of, 26, 142–43; pride of, 25–26, 209n.30, 237n.11; romanticism of, 142–43. See also Aguilar, Grace; Crypto-Judaism

Shakespeare, William, 201; Merchant of Venice, 35–36, 41–43, 45, 116, 214n.7

Sidgwick, Cicely Ullman (Mrs. Alfred), 193

Silberstein, Michaelis, 69

Society for the Religious Instruction of Jewish Youth, 132, 154–55

63

Sonneschein, Rosa, 238n.13

Sorkin, David, 27, 194, 204n.5, 235n.62

Spirit of Judaism. See Aguilar, Grace

“Spirit of Night.” See Aguilar, Grace

Subculture, Victorian Jewish: Aguilar’s contributions to, 165, 188; contributions of Sephardim to, 26, 209n.29; existence and composition of, 17, 19, 204n.5; and midrash, 95; Celia and Marion Moss’s contributions to, 106; women’s contributions to, 130–33, 202

Szold, Henrietta, 193

Tales of Jewish History. See Moss, Celia and Marion

Tancred. See Disraeli, Benjamin

Tekhinot, 18–19, 33, 67–68

Thackeray, William Makepeace, 39, 49, 52, 165

“Theology of the slashed nose,” 97. See also Levy, Matthias

Toleration: Aguilar’s critique of, 136, 144, 162–66, 185, 187; of Dissenters and Catholics, 40; of Jews and reform, 40; limits of, 34–35; Celia and Marion Moss’s version of, 106, 108, 111

Traditionalists: antagonism toward romance, 61, 62–63, 65, 95–101; compared to traditional Jews, 99; and female education, 61–66, 74–75, 89–90, 100–101, 102; midrash of, 88–95; and reform, 99, 101; women as, 97, 150, 152, 186. See also Anglo-Jewish men; Anglo-Jewish men writers; Levy, Matthias; Montefiore, Judith; Polack, Maria

Transvestitism. See Cross-dressing

United Synagogue, 28

University College Hospital, 197

University College London, 137

Vale of Cedars, The. See Aguilar, Grace

Varnhagen, Rahel. See Salonières

Veils. See Aguilar, Grace

Victorian Jews. See Anglo-Jewish community

Victorian literature: Anglo-Jewish women’s contributions to, 11, 191–92; representations of Jews by Christians, 21–22, 39–40, 41–43, 45–58, 208n.18; diversity of, 21; women in, 121. See also Anglo-Jewish women writers; Lewis, M. G.; Scott, Walter

Voice of Jacob: Aguilar’s poems in, 138; “Position of Israel’s Women,” 61–62. See also Franklin, Jacob

Weinberger, Philip, 152

West London Synagogue of British Jews, 28, 194–95, 196, 198

West Metropolitan School for Girls. See Goldsmid, Anna Maria

Wise, Isaac Mayer, 235n.58, 238n.14, 238–39n.15

Woman Question, the, 71, 80, 94. See also New Woman, the; Women’s movement, Jewish

Woman’s Friendship. See Aguilar, Grace

Women of Israel. See Aguilar, Grace; Biblical women

Women’s movement, Jewish, 131, 186, 191–92, 198, 200

Wordsworth, William, 41

Works. See Aguilar, Grace

Wyse, Thomas, 196

Zatlin, Linda Gertner, 137, 205n.9, 232n.32, 241–42n.37

Zunz, Leopold, 19

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ISBN
9780814344453
Related ISBN
9780814344446
MARC Record
OCLC
1111982558
Launched on MUSE
2019-08-15
Language
English
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Yes
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