publisher colophon
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INDEX

  1. ʿAbd al-Ghānī of Tersana, 46, 157, 178n.29
  2. ʿAbd al-Karīm of Banten, 135, 150
  3. ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Jāmī, 128
  4. ʿAbdallāh al-Arzinjānī, 138
  5. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Qahhār, 131
  6. ʿAbdallāh b. Aḥmad Bā Sawdān (d. 1849), 23
  7. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAlawī al-Ḥaddad (d. 1720), 25, 36, 38, 40, 43
  8. ʿAbdallāh b. Ḥusayn ibn Ṭāhir (d. 1855), 23, 36, 38, 40
  9. ʿAbdallāh b. Sa’ad bin Sumayr (d. 1846), 23, 42n.16
  10. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar Ibn Yaḥyā (d. 1849), 10, 2035, 3840, 43n.27, 47n.66, 47n.68
  11. ʿAbd al-Muḥyī (ca. 1640–ca. 1715), 131, 148, 156157, 177n.19, 178n.29, 181n.59
  12. ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (d. 1166), 7879, 8283, 145, 146
  13. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbdallah Bilfaqīh (d. 1748), 24
  14. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad al-Saqqāf (d. 1416), 30
  15. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Sulaymān al-Ahdal (d. 1834), 23
  16. ʿAbd al-Ra’ūf Singkel (d. c. 1693), 126, 127, 136, 137, 155156, 176n.14, 177n.18
  17. ʿAbd al-Ṣamad Palimbānī, 44n.39, 133, 137
  18. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-Sha’rānī (d. 1565), 44n.39
  19. ʿAbdul Wahab Rokan, 138, 141, 150
  20. Abū Bakr Miskīn (d. 1872), 7778, 86, 88, 93n.11
  21. Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī (d., 1111) 36, 44n.39
  22. Abū Qubays, 138, 140, 150, 151
  23. Aceh, 26, 87, 126, 127, 131, 132, 134, 138, 151, 153154, 156, 159161, 176, 177, 181
  24. ādāb, 39, 84, 95n.26
  25. Aden, 161, 181
  26. Aḥmad b. ʿUmar bin Sumayṭ (d. 1842), 23
  27. Aḥmad Khaṭīb Sambas (d. 1875), 134, 137
  28. Aḥmad Rifā’ī, 134
  29. Alaungmintaya, 5354
  30. ʿAlawī b. Saqqāf al-Saqqāf (d. 1819), 23
  31. ʿAlawiyya, 2047, 128
  32. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Ḥabashī (d. 1914), 43n.19
  33. Amarapura, 62, 64, 72
  34. Amarapura Nikāya, 51, 69
  35. Amīr Ḥamza, 162
  36. Anagarika Dharmapala (1864–1933), 19, 196, 206
  37. Androth, 81, 87
  38. Anuradhapura, 19, 62, 71, 72
  39. Arakan, 65
  40. Ariyāvaṃsa Ādiccaraṃsī (b. 1766), 55, 70, 71 214
  41. Arshad al-Banjarī (d. 1812), 44n.39, 141, 149
  42. Arungbinang, Kyai Tumenggung, 157158, 176, 178, 179, 181
  43. ʿArūsiyya, 78, 83
  44. Arwi, 93, 94, 96, 97
  45. Ash’arī of Kaliwungu, Kyai, 142, 151
  46. ʿāshūra, 39
  47. Ava (Yadanapura), 11, 54, 55, 70
  48. ʿAydarūs b. ʿUmar al-Ḥabashī (d. 1896), 2425
  49. Aydarūsiyya, 127
  50. Ayutthaya, 11, 5161, 70, 72
  1. Bā ʿAlawī, 21, 2328, 2836, 3841, 4243, 46, 47, 128,
  2. Babussalam, 139142, 150
  3. Badon-min (r. 1782–1819), 6164, 72
  4. Bagan, 54, 55, 67, 70, 71
  5. Bangkalan, 32, 34
  6. Banten, 46, 126, 128, 131, 132, 134137, 145, 146, 149, 150, 156
  7. Baoshanting (Precious Mountain Pavilion), 105, 106
  8. Baosheng Dadi (The Great Emperor Who Protects Life), 104105
  9. Batak, 139
  10. Batavia, 134
  11. bay’a, 38, 77, 129, 133, 134, 143
  12. Bengal, 61
  13. Bhutan, 12, 13, 185, 186, 188, 189, 192195, 197, 199207
  14. Borneo, 31, 114, 133, 134, 141
  15. Bosch, Johannes van den (d. 1844), 27
  16. Buddhist monastic community. See saṅgha
  17. Bugis, 149
  18. Burhān al-Dīn in Ulakan, 131
  19. Burhānpūrī, Faḍl Allāh (d. 1620), 84, 96n.39, 132, 148
  20. Burma, 1619, 4956, 5869, 7174, 123
  1. Cai Shizhang, 105
  2. Cantonese, 103
  3. Celebes. See Sulawesi
  4. Cetiya, 62, 71
  5. Cetyavaṃsa, 54, 70
  6. Cheang Hong Lim (Zhang Fanglin, 1842–1892), 115, 116, 119
  7. Chen Yuan (fl. 804), 107
  8. China, 62, 63, 65, 68, 73, 74, 99, 101106, 111113, 116121, 124, 147, 186, 188, 192
  9. Chishtiyya, 7576, 83, 90, 130
  10. Christian monasticism, 3
  11. Ciji (Merciful Salvation), 117
  12. Cirebon, 28, 131, 134, 146, 148, 151, 176, 177
  13. Cixi (Empress Dowager, 1861–1908), 11
  14. Classical Chinese, 2
  15. Classical Tibetan, 2, 187188, 197
  16. Cold War, 9
  17. colonial modernity, 193, 196199
  18. Coromandel, 65, 94
  1. dabus, 39, 46n.65
  2. Dalem Bojong, 157
  3. Darqāwiyya, 78, 84, 86, 93n.12
  4. darṡana, 16
  5. Demak, 166
  6. dérah, 157158
  7. Déwaruci, 162, 181
  8. dhikr, 6, 42, 43, 8385, 95n.26, 121, 130, 133136, 138140, 144, 149, 155, 156158, 168, 179, 184
  9. Dipanagara, 21, 27, 31, 44n.40, 45n.54, 159160, 172, 175, 179
  10. Division of incense network, 102
  11. Dragon Pool Monastery, 104
  12. Drukpa Kagyü, 191, 193, 194, 198
  13. du’āʾ, 128, 144
  14. dual sovereignty, 65
  15. Dutch colonialism, 153, 159, 172, 175
  16. Dzokchen, 190, 191, 200
  1. East Asia, 50
  2. East India Company, 45n.54, 51, 57, 193
  3. Egypt, 27, 38, 44, 8687, 90, 129, 146147, 181 215
  1. Fagushan (Dharma Drum Mountain), 117
  2. fanā’, 155
  3. Fanṣūrī, Ḥamza (d. 1527), 126127, 145146, 156, 176177
  4. Fāsiyya, 7778, 8384, 86, 88, 9091, 93n.11, 94n.12
  5. fatwa, 37, 39, 94n.20
  6. Fenling (division of god statue network), 102
  7. fiqh, 36, 94, 126, 133, 137, 143, 171, 182n.60
  8. Foguangshan (Buddha Light Mountain), 117
  9. Fraternity, 4, 16, 26, 50
  10. Frojet, François, 105
  11. Fujian, 100104, 110113, 115, 116, 121123
  1. Geluk, 187, 190
  2. Gowa, 131, 149
  3. Great Opium Syndicate (Singapore), 115
  4. Guangfu gumiao (Guang[dong] and Fu[jian] Temple, Penang), 110111, 115
  5. Guanghuasi (Monastery of Broad Transformations), 117
  6. Guangze zunwang (Reverent King of Broad Compassion), 109
  7. Guanyin, 101, 106
  8. Guishansi (Turtle Mountain Monastery), 117, 123
  9. Gujarat, 80, 93n.6
  10. Guru Rinpoche, 185, 186, 190191, 197202, 205, 207
  11. Gushan Yongquansi (Drum Mountain Monastery, Fuzhou), 110
  1. ḥadīth, 4, 32, 91, 127, 137, 171, 174
  2. Ḥaḍramawt, 2026, 28, 30, 31, 3435, 38, 4042, 46, 47, 87, 209
  3. Hainan, 103
  4. hajj, 77, 140, 151, 156, 160162, 173, 181
  5. Hakka, 103
  6. Ḥasan b. Ṣāliḥ al-Baḥr al-Jufrī (d. 1856), 23
  7. Heng San Ting (Eternal Mountain Pavilion), 106107
  8. Hidden Lands, 191, 199
  9. higher ordination. See Upasampadā
  10. Hijāz, 29, 40, 45, 154, 156, 173
  11. Himalayas, 8, 13, 22, 185207
  12. Hokkien, 103, 105, 106, 109, 115, 116, 120
  13. Hong San See (Phoenix Mountain Monastery, also known as Fengshansi), 109
  14. Hoon Choon (Buddhist master, 1907–1990) 109
  15. Hsinbyumyashin (r. 1551–1581), 60, 61
  16. Hsinbyushin (r. 1763–1776), 5355, 60, 71
  17. huiguan, 103, 104
  18. Huiguan (native-place associations), 103
  1. Ibn Aḥmad Bā Faqīh (d. 1872), 34
  2. Ibn Taymiyya (d. 328), 126
  3. Ibrāhīm al-Kūrānī (1614–1690), 80, 127128, 130132, 137, 148n.28, 151n.51, 156, 177n.17
  4. ijāza, 2425, 98, 129131, 137, 138, 140, 142, 143, 145
  5. Imām al-ʿArūs. See Māppiḷḷai Leppai (1816–1898)
  6. India, 68, 1113, 1519, 21, 26, 29, 42, 43, 45, 51, 56, 58, 61, 62, 67, 72, 7578, 8083, 8587, 90, 114, 120, 122, 129, 130, 147, 154, 161, 176, 181, 185186, 189, 192, 193, 196, 204206, 209, 211
  7. Indian Ocean, 58, 65, 68, 7374, 91
  8. Indonesia, 112, 125145, 154
  9. Indonesian Archipelago, 22, 2631, 35, 38, 40, 99
  10. Indo-Tibetan highlands, 12, 185207
  11. insān kāmil, 155, 168169
  12. Islamic jurisprudence. See fiqh
  13. Ismā’īl Minangkabawī, 138, 150
  14. Isnād, 136137, 143, 145, 150 216
  1. Java, 80, 127, 131, 138, 142143, 153184
  2. Javanese: ethnic group, 131, 138, 142, 143;
    1. language and culture, 136, 142, 143, 148, 151, 152184
  3. Java War, 21, 27, 31, 44n.40, 45n.54, 153, 159, 160, 172, 175, 179n.41
  4. Jāwa, 136138, 143, 144, 150
  5. Jilesi (Monastery of Extreme Joy), 104, 110112, 122, 123
  6. Jinmen, 106
  7. Jonang, 187
  1. Kagyü, 187, 190, 191, 193, 194, 198
  2. kalām, 171
  3. Kandy, 5052, 5662, 64, 6870, 72, 91
  4. Kannur, 78
  5. karāmāt, 126
  6. Kartasura, 157
  7. Kayalpattinam, 7779, 82, 88, 94n.16
  8. Kāzarūniyya, 147
  9. Kerala. See Malabar
  10. khalīfa, 127, 129, 131135, 137141, 143147, 150
  11. khalwa, 140, 150151
  12. Khalwatiyya, 35, 128129, 133135, 146147, 149, 151
  13. Khalwatiyya-Sammān, 128, 134
  14. Khalwatiyya Yūsuf, 128
  15. Khams, 186, 194197, 199, 201, 202, 204
  16. khānaqā, 128129, 146147
  17. Khatmiyya, 149
  18. khirqā, 25, 26, 3940, 42
  19. Kilakkarai, 78, 94n.17
  20. Kīḻakkarai Taykā Ṣāḥib (1778–1850/51 1850/51), 78, 85
  21. Kim Lam Temple (Golden Lotus Temple), 107
  22. Kīrti Śrī Rājasiṃha (r. 1747–1782), 51, 57, 60, 68
  23. Kolkata, 62
  24. Konbaung, 53, 63, 64, 67, 71
  25. Koṭṭē, 60
  26. Kozhikode, 93n.10
  27. kraton, 153184
  28. Kriyan Ki Buyut, 142
  29. Kubrawiyya, 128, 129, 146
  30. Kwan Im Thong (Guanyin Hall), 117
  31. kyai, 143
  32. Kyai Maja (d. 1849), 159160, 172, 173, 180n.42, 181n.58
  33. Kyai Mas, 157
  34. Kyai Mufid of Kedhung Lo Roma, 157
  35. Kyai Talabudinu of Banyumas, 157
  36. Kyai Tumenggung Arungbinang. See Arungbinang
  37. Kyethtungin Hsayadaw (1693–1775), 54, 70
  1. Lakshadweep Islands, 81, 87
  2. Langkat, 139, 140, 151
  3. Laṅkā, 7, 4863, 6573, 7583, 8592, 181, 207, 209
  4. Leppai Nayiṉār, 88, 97n.51
  5. Lim Boon Keng (1869–1957), 116
  6. Lineage, viii, 216, 2123, 25, 30, 31, 38, 4852, 5556, 58, 59, 61, 68, 69, 7681, 8392, 121, 123, 145, 151, 154, 156157, 159, 164, 165, 171, 173174, 186204, 206
  7. Liu Wangye, 107
  1. madhhab (pl. madhāhib), 4, 182n.64
  2. Madras, 77, 9396, 114
  3. Madras Presidency, 82
  4. Madura, 32, 34, 45n.54, 47n.68, 134
  5. Maghreb, 78
  6. Mahabharata, 162
  7. Mahāmudrā, 190, 191, 195, 200
  8. Mahāvaṃsa, 51, 59, 60, 62
  9. Mahāyāna, 99
  10. Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad Leppai, 84
  11. Makassar, 127128, 149, 151
  12. Malabar, 78, 79, 80, 87, 91, 93, 94
  13. Malacca, 105
  14. Malay: ethnic group 5657, 134, 138, 139;
    1. language, 126, 127, 132, 133, 136, 137, 138, 144, 148, 156
  15. Malaya, 139, 104, 135, 141
  16. Malayalam, 87
  17. Maldives, 81, 181 217
  18. manāqib, 20, 42, 45, 82, 96
  19. Māppiḷḷai Leppai (1816–1898), 7879, 8283, 85, 88, 94n.14
  20. Martaban, 53
  21. martabat tujuh, 131, 148, 155158, 177n.18
  22. Mawlānā Khālid, 140, 141
  23. Mazu (Goddess of the Sea), 106
  24. Medina, 127, 128, 130, 131, 133, 141144, 156, 181
  25. Mekka, 20, 23, 27, 39, 44, 45, 7778, 8687, 90, 126128, 130, 132, 134138, 140146, 150152, 160, 161, 173, 181n.49, 183
  26. Mémé Lama Sönam Zangpo (1892–1982), 202
  27. Miaolian (1824–1907), 110111
  28. miaozhu, 100
  29. Min Letwe Nawyahta U Ne (1723–1791), 61, 62
  30. Minnan, 100, 103, 118
  31. Mohamed Macan Markar (d. 1952), 77, 93n.11
  32. Mönlam Rabzang (1878–1945), 201202
  33. Monywe, 52, 55, 67, 70, 73
  34. Mottama. See Martaban
  35. Muḥammad (Prophet), 8283, 87, 154, 157, 163, 165, 168169, 172, 182n.72
  36. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Sammān (d. 1775), 133, 134
  37. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Bā ʿAlawī al-Faqiḥ al-Muqaddam (d. 1255), 41n.4
  38. Muḥammad Bukhārī Taṅṅaḷ (d. 1792/93), 78, 88
  39. Muḥammad Ghawth of Gwalior (d. 1563), 80, 156, 176n.10
  40. Muḥammad Salim of Madahab, 157, 165
  41. Mu’īn al-Dīn al-Chishtī (d. 1236), 82
  42. mukhtaṣar, 29, 37
  43. Mun Ko, 54, 55, 70, 71
  44. munājāt, 139
  45. murid, 77, 140
  46. murshid, 77, 130, 174
  1. Nabadwip, 61, 62, 72
  2. Nafīs al-Banjarī, 148, 149
  3. Nagore, 8082, 95n.23
  4. Ñāṇābhivaṃsa (1751–1832), 6164, 72, 73
  5. Naqshbandiyya, 76, 94n.20, 125, 138140, 141, 143, 144, 150, 158, 159, 173, 174
  6. Naqshbandiyya Khālidiyya, 125, 138141, 143144
  7. nation-state, 92n.2, 186187
  8. al-Nawawī (d. 1278), 24, 36
  9. Nawawī Banten, 137
  10. networked orders, 7778, 8081, 8392, 102
  11. Ngasingu-min (r. 1776–1782), 70
  12. ngèlmu, 132, 162, 167, 174, 178n.29, 184n.93
  13. nikai. See nikāya
  14. nikāya, 5052, 59, 66, 6769
  15. Nūḥ b. ʿAbd al-Qādir of Kayalpattinam (1830/31–1905/06), 82, 8688
  16. Nūr al-Dīn al-Rānīrī (d. 1658), 126127, 130, 132, 146, 156
  17. Nyingma, 187
  1. Ottoman Empire, 78, 87, 90, 141
  1. Pakubuwana II (r. Kartasura and Surakarta, 1726–1749), 44n.40, 156157
  2. Pakubuwana III (r. 1749–1788), 157
  3. Pakubuwana IV (r. 1788–1820), 158159
  4. Pakunataningrat, 31, 34
  5. Palembang, 27, 29, 102, 132134, 138
  6. Pāli, 48, 54, 6063, 65, 67, 69, 70, 72
  7. Pali imaginaire, 11
  8. Pamijahan, 131, 148, 177n.19
  9. paraṃparā, 16n.14
  10. Pariaman, 131
  11. Patani, 134
  12. Pelling Ani Wangdzin (1870–1925), 196197
  13. Péma Lingpa (1450–1521), 199200
  14. Penang, 110111, 114 218
  15. perdikan, 142
  16. pesantren, 28, 31, 35, 40, 134, 136, 142143, 150, 151
  17. Pickering, William (1840–1907), 114
  18. Po Chiak Keng Tan Si Chong Su (Temple for the Protection of the Pure, Main Chen surname Lineage Hall), 99
  19. Pontianak, 31
  20. Primbon, 162, 181n.51
  21. print technology, 8283, 86, 89, 202
  22. Pudu (Hungry Ghosts Universal Deliverance) Association, 106, 109
  23. putihan, 125, 141144, 151
  1. qāḍī, 126, 156
  2. Qādiriyya, 7681, 8391, 92n.2, 97n.55, 127, 129, 133, 145
  3. Qādiriyya wa’l-Naqshbandiyya, 125, 134135, 137, 141, 142, 143, 144, 149, 173
  4. Qianlong emperor (r. 1736–1796), 63, 72
  5. Qing dynasty (1644–1911), 6265, 67, 7273, 118
  6. Qingming (Tomb-Sweeping Festival), 106107
  7. Qingyunting (Temple of the Blue Clouds), 99, 105106
  8. Qingzhen Yuanjun (Primordial Lord of Pure Perfection), 115
  9. Quanzhou, 104, 107
  10. Qur’ān, 156, 171, 174
  11. al-Qushāshī, Aḥmad (1583–1661), 80, 84, 96n.39, 127, 130, 131, 134, 150, 156, 177n.18
  12. quṭb, 157
  1. rābiṭa bi’l-shaykh, 140
  2. Rājadhi Rājasiṃha (r. 1782–1798), 64
  3. Ramayana, 162
  4. rātib, 83, 129, 130, 132, 133, 134, 148, 149, 164
  5. Ratu Pakubuwana (d. 1732), 157
  6. Reid, Anthony, 99
  7. Religious ecology, 111
  8. Rifā’iyya, 7677, 8082, 8791, 93n.6, 126127, 129
  9. Risung Rimpoche (187?–1953), 185, 186, 199201
  10. Ronggasasmita, Mas Ng., 153184
  11. Ronggawarsita, R. Ng. (1802–1873), 153, 160, 174175, 175n.2
  1. Ṣadaqatullāh b. Sulaymān of Kayalpattinam (1632–1703), 7980, 88, 96n.39, 97n.51
  2. Safīnāt al-najāḥ, 29, 42n.16, 46n.64
  3. Sagaing, 5355, 59, 61
  4. Sālim b. ʿAbdallāh bin Sumayr (d. 1853), 2930, 42n.16, 46n.64
  5. Sām Shihāb al-Dīn (1634/35–1709), 80, 82, 95n.30
  6. samā’, 24, 164, 182n.62, 184n.93
  7. Samantacakkhudīpanī, 55, 70n.33
  8. Sammāniyya, 35, 130131, 133134, 135, 137, 141, 144, 148149
  9. Sanbaoshan, 105
  10. saṅgha, 4849, 52, 57, 63, 66, 71, 110112, 189
  11. santri, 142
  12. santri dul, 165, 182n.61
  13. al-Sanūsī (d. 1490), 38, 40
  14. Sāralaṅka (b. ca. 1730), 11, 4950, 5264, 66, 67, 6972
  15. sāsana, 54, 60, 6264, 66, 68
  16. Sayyid Muḥammad b. Aḥmad. See Māppiḷḷai Leppai (1816–1898)
  17. Sayyid ʿUthmān (d. 1914), 47n.66
  18. secret society. See Triad
  19. Sèh Sitijenar, 166, 182n.66
  20. Shādhiliyya, 7578, 81, 8384, 8690, 128, 130, 146
  21. Shāfi’ī legal school, 25
  22. Shāh al-Ḥamīd of Nagore, 80, 82
  23. Shakya Shri, 185207
  24. Shams al-Dīn Pasai / al-Sumaṭrānī (d. 1630), 126127, 156, 177n.18
  25. Shantang (Halls of Merit), 118
  26. sharīa, 126, 134, 143, 157, 163, 165, 166, 168, 171, 182n.60 219
  27. Shaṭṭāriyya, 35, 80, 89, 96n.39, 127, 128, 130, 131, 135, 142, 148, 151, 153184
  28. Shinnāwī, Aḥmad (d. 1619), 128, 130
  29. Shuanglinsi (Double Grove Monastery), 101, 104, 112113
  30. Siam, 5053, 56, 5860, 6872
  31. Ṣiddīq b. ʿUmar Khān, 133
  32. Si Hoo Key (Xue Foji, 1783–1874), 106
  33. Sikkim, 185207
  34. Silk Road, 11
  35. silsila, 24, 26, 40, 7679, 81, 93n.9, 94n.13, 95n.26, 129, 130, 131, 136, 137, 143, 145, 146, 151, 154, 157, 164165, 171, 174
  36. Singapore, 2931, 106110
  37. Sinhalese, 4951, 5660, 62, 6769, 74
  38. Siyam Nikāya, 5052, 59, 6668, 85, 9192
  39. Snouck Hurgronje, 131, 138
  40. Song Dafeng (1039?–1127?), 119
  41. South China Sea, 1, 8
  42. Southern Asia, 21, 22, 26, 40, 4953, 58, 6267, 72, 74, 80, 96n.36
  43. Sri Lanka, 4863, 6573, 78, 92n.2
  44. Straits of Malacca, 161
  45. Straits Settlements, 104112
  46. stūpa, 54, 60, 64
  47. Suez Canal, 173
  48. Sufi orders. See ṭarīqa
  49. Suhrawardiyya, 129
  50. Sulawesi, 128, 134
  51. Sulaymān al-Qirīmī, 138
  52. Sulaymān al-Zuhdī, 138, 140141, 150151
  53. Sullam al-tawfīq, 8, 46n.64
  54. Sultan ʿAbd al-Qādir b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Tjakraadiningrat II of Bangkalan (d. 1847), 32, 34, 46n.54
  55. Sultan Agung (r. Mataram, 1613–1645), 174
  56. Sultan Iskandar Muda (r. 1607–1636), 156
  57. Sultan Musa of Langkat, 139, 140, 151
  58. Sultan Uthmān b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Qadrī of Pontianak, 31
  59. suluk (poem), 153154, 157159, 162175
  60. sulūk (ritual practice), 138, 139, 140
  61. Sumatra, 127, 130, 138, 139, 153, 156
  62. Sumenep, 32, 34
  63. Sunan Gunung Jati, 128, 146, 184n.91
  64. Surakarta, 153184
  65. Syria, 86, 9798n.56, 146147
  1. Tadhkira, 35, 38
  2. tafsīr, 156
  3. Ṭāhir b. Ḥusayn ibn Ṭāhir (d. 1814), 23, 25
  4. Tai, 53, 64, 66, 67, 74
  5. tāʾifa, 129, 147
  6. Taixu (1890–1947), 116
  7. Tamil (language), 76, 7879, 8285, 87, 9091, 95n.26, 97n.50
  8. Tamil Nadu, 11, 7980, 83, 8688, 9192
  9. Tan Kah Kee (Chen Jiageng, 1874–1961), 116
  10. taṅkaḷ, 87, 90, 97n.50
  11. taṅṅaḷ (Malayalam). See taṅkaḷ
  12. tarekat. See ṭarīqa
  13. ṭarīqa (pl. ṭuruq), 2125, 2931, 3940, 7577, 7981, 8384, 86, 8890, 9293n.6, 93n.9, 9495n.21, 125152, 153160, 172175
  14. Tavoy (Dawe), 5355, 59
  15. tekke, 129
  16. temple networks, 102
  17. Tenasserim, 11, 50, 5258, 70
  18. Tenzin Gyatso (1883–1966), 201202
  19. Teochew, 103
  20. terma, 190191, 195196, 99, 205n.10
  21. Thai, 50, 51, 59, 67, 68
  22. Theravāda, 65, 68, 69, 74
  23. Tian Hou (Empress of Heaven), 105
  24. Tianfugong (Thian Hock Keng Temple), 106, 109
  25. Tianshifu (Celestial Masters Headquarters), 101 220
  26. Tibet, 185207
  27. Tibetan Buddhism, 185207
  28. Tījāniyya, 142143
  29. tipiṭaka, 48, 62
  30. Togden Shakya Shri (1853–1919), 185207
  31. Triad, 103, 113115
  32. Tripiṭaka (Chinese Buddhist Canon), 112, 123n.32
  33. tsampa, 188
  1. Ugyen Wangchuck (1862–1926), 193195, 202
  2. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. ʿAbd al-Rasūl al-Aṭṭār (d. 1833), 23
  3. ʿUmar b. ʿAlī al-Junayd (d. 1852), 2931
  4. ʿUmar Bā Shaybān, 127
  5. ʿUmar b. Saqqāf al-Saqqāf (d. 1801), 23
  6. ʿUmar Walī (1748–1801), 78, 85, 88
  7. upajjhāya, 5
  8. upasampadā, 4853, 5559, 6263, 6667, 69, 74
  9. Upper Burma, 50, 5255, 5862, 6465, 67, 70, 74
  10. ʿuqda, 24, 26, 3840
  1. Vajrayāna, 189
  2. Välaviṭa Saraṇaṃkara, 51, 68
  3. van den Berg, L. W. C., 45n.53, 47n.68
  4. vinaya, 48, 56, 60, 62, 189
  1. waḥdat al-wujūd, 132, 148, 156, 169, 177n.15
  2. Wahhabis, 140
  3. walī, 126, 157184
  4. wali sanga, 184n.91
  5. waqf, 31
  6. wilāya, 76
  7. wird, 8384, 129, 130, 144, 157, 174, 180n.45
  8. Wutai, 63, 64, 73
  1. Xiantianjiao (Way of Prior Heaven), 117
  1. Yangon, 52, 62, 69
  2. Yasadipura I (d. 1803), 153, 162, 167
  3. Yasadipura II (d. 1844), 153, 159, 162
  4. Yāsīn Padang (d. 1990), 127, 150
  5. Yemen, 17n.17, 2324, 41n.4, 87, 128
  6. Yunnan, 123n.32, 6366, 73n.73, 74n.77
  7. Yūsuf Makassar (d. 1699), 126, 127, 130, 131, 136, 137, 146, 149
  1. Zabīd, 17, 23
  2. zāwiya, 75, 8687, 90, 129, 130, 132, 133, 137, 138, 146
  3. Zeng Qilu (1643–1718), 105
  4. Zhabdrung, 193195
  5. Zhang Bishi (1840–1916) and other patrons of Jilesi, 111
  6. Zhangzhou, 104
  7. Zheng Chenggong (1624–1662), 104
  8. Zheng He (1371–1433), 102
  9. Zheng Jing (1642–1681), 104
  10. Zhen Jing (Abbot), 117
  11. Zhongyuan pudu. See Pudu
  12. zikir. See dhikr
  13. ziyāra, 126
  14. Zomia, 65
221

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780824877200
Related ISBN
9780824872113
MARC Record
OCLC
1112120706
Pages
213-220
Launched on MUSE
2019-08-14
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
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