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189 Notes Abbreviations CV Confederate Veteran CWM Civil War Memory (blog) Introduction 1. For further analysis of Ruffin’s Anticipations, see Binnington, Confederate Visions, 44–69; and Jason Phillips, “The Prophecy of Edmund Ruffin: Anticipating the Future of Civil War History,” in Wright and Dresser, Apocalypse and the Millennium, 13–30. 2. Ruffin, Anticipations, 264–65. 3. Ruffin, 304–5. 4. See Genovese and Fox-­Genovese, Fatal Self-­Deception, 143. 5.While I prefer to refer to these men as camp slaves, as a clear acknowledgment of their legal status and racial hierarchy, I also utilize references to “camp servants” and “body servants” as an acknowledgment of the language employed by Confederates and postwar commentators and to improve the narrative flow. In all cases their legal status remains the same unless noted otherwise. 6. A number of historians maintain that the number of camp slaves dropped dramatically after 1863.These historians have tended to rely on Bell I.Wiley’s Southern Negroes, 1861–1865, which in turn relied on Walter L. Fleming’s 1905 book Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama, which finally can be traced back to former Virginia governor and Confederate John S.Wise’s The End of An Era (1899). See Hollandsworth, “Looking for Bob,” 299–300. 7. “What Caused the Civil War?,” Pew Research Center, May 11, 2018, http:/ /www.pew­tank/2011/05/18/what-­caused-­the-­civil-­war/ (accessed April 2, 2018). 8. Emma Brown and Scott Clement, “Poll: Americans Divided over Whether Slavery Was the Civil War’s Main Cause,” Washington Post, August 6, 2015, https:/ /www­americans-­divided-­over -­whether-­slavery-­was-­the-­civil-­wars-­main-­cause/?utm_term=.27403d1c3cb0 (accessed July 30, 2018). 9. “SPLC Report: U.S. Education on American Slavery Sorely Lacking,” Southern Poverty Law Center, January 31, 2018, https:/ / -­report-­us-­education-­american-­slavery-­sorely-­lacking (accessed April 2, 2018). 10. Interview with Gary W. Gallagher, American Forum, May 13, 2014, https:/ /www (accessed April 1, 2018). 190 Notes to Pages 9–20 11. Recent scholarship includes Jordan, Black Confederates and Afro-­Yankees; Mohr, On the Threshold of Freedom; Levine, Confederate Emancipation; Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army; McCurry, Confederate Reckoning; Brasher, Peninsula Campaign; Woodward, Marching Masters; and Dillard, Jefferson Davis’s Final Campaign. 12. Kevin M. Levin, “The Myth of the Black Confederate Soldier,” Daily Beast, August 8, 2015, https:/ /­myth-­of-­the-­black-­confederate-­soldier (accessed April 3, 2018). Chapter 1 1. “Glimpses of Soldiers’ Lives: A. M. Chandler and Silas Chandler, Family Slave,” Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, http:/ / /SoldierbiosChandler.html/. 2. A consultant for the History Detectives episode about this photograph concluded that the weapons were likely studio props. “Chandler Tintype,” History Detectives (season 9, episode 12), http:/ /­tintype/ (accessed April 15, 2017). 3. 1850 U.S. Census and 1860 U.S. Census; 1860 Slave Schedule. On slaveholders who moved west, see Cashin, Family Venture. 4. On the place of slavery in the formation of Confederate identity, see Rubin, Shattered Nation, 101–2. 5. A. Robinson, Bitter Fruits of Bondage, 106–9. 6. On the use of slave labor at Tredegar Iron Works, see Dew, Ironmaker to the Confederacy; on slave impressment, see Brewer, Confederate Negro; McCurry, Confederate Reckoning, 263–309; and Martinez, Confederate Slave Impressment. 7. K. Brown, Retreat from Gettysburg, 49. 8. Ford and Ford, Life in the Confederate Army, 75. 9. John Rees, “War as Waiter: Soldier Servants,” Journal of the American Revolution, April 28, 2015, https:/ /­as-­a-­waiter-­soldier-­servants/ (accessed April 4, 2018); Greenberg,Wicked War, 162–63. 10. A collection of state secession statements can be found in Loewen and Sebesta, Confederate and Neo-­Confederate Reader. 11. Quoted in Rubin, Shattered Nation, 101. 12.T. Moore, God Our Refuge, 19. 13. Smith, Palmetto Boy, 26. 14. Bledsoe, Citizen-­Officers, 62–101. 15. Charles S. Lieberman to Miss Lenora, August 23, 1861, typescript copy of original provided to the author. 16. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 309. 17.Woodward, Marching Masters, 82–83, quoted in Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama, 207. 18. Allen and Bohannon, Campaigning with “Old Stonewall,” 132. 19. John Christopher Winsmith to Kate, October 3, 1861, John Christopher Winsmith Papers, Eleanor S. Brockenbrough Library, Museum of the...


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