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NOTES INTRODUCTION 1. Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not (New York: Appleton, 1860), p. 3. 2. Alfred Worcester, Nurses and Nursing (Cambridge; Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1927), p. 9. 3. Phrase "twilight and darkness" from Elizabeth Marion Jamieson and Mary Sewall, Trends in Nursing History: Their Relationship to World Events, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1944; 1st ed., 1940), p. 295. Other major nursing histories include Mary Adelaide Nutting and Lavinia L. Dock, A History ofNursing (New York: Putnam, 1907-12); Mary M. Roberts, American Nursing: History and Interpretation (New York: Macmillan , 1954); Lucy Ridgeley Seymer, A General History of Nursing, 4th ed. (London: Faber and Faber, 1956; 1st ed., 1932); Lena Dixon Dietz, History and Modern Nursing (Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1963); Minnie Goodnow, Nursing History, 7th ed. (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1942; 1st ed., 1916). For two recent additions, see Lynda Flanagan, One Strong Voice: The Story of the American Nurses' Association (Kansas City, Mo.: The Lowell Press, 1964) and Gwendolyn Safier, Contemporary American Leaders in Nursing: An Oral Account (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977). 4. "A Statement of Policy," RN 1 (Oct. 1937): 4; and RN 1 (May 1938): 9. 5. I developed this definition of work culture in close collaboration with Susan Porter Benson; see her article, " 'The Clerking Sisterhood': Rationalization and the Work Culture ofSaleswomen in American Department Stores, 1890-1960," Radical America 12 (March-April 1978): 41-55. For other discussions ofshopfloor culture, see David Montgomery, Workers ' Control in America (Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1979); Ken C. Kusterer, Know-How on theJob: The Important Knowledge of "Unskilled" Workers (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Replication Press, 1978); Monte A. Calvert, The Mechanical Engineer in America, 183~191O: Professional Cultures in Conflict (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967). Sociolinguists have offered stimulating theoretical and ethnographic descriptions. See John J. Gumperz and Dell Hymes, eds., Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography ofExperience (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972), and Dell Hymes, ed., Reinventing Anthropology (New York: Random House, 1969). Medical sociologists have contributed a number of sensitive ethnographies; three classics with material on nursing are Rose Laub Coser, Life in the Wards (East Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State Univ. Press, 1962); Temple Burling, Edith M. Lentz, and Robert N. 222 NOTES Wilson, The Give and Take in Hospitals (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1956); and Leonard Reissman andJohn H. Rohrer, eds., Change and Dilemma in the Nursing Profession (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1957). 6. Much of this literature outlines the structural constraints of sexsegregation , and a related interpretive literature emphasizes the ways in which paid work reinforces women's oppression. Theoretical statements of this viewpoint includeJuliet Mitchell, Woman's Estate (New York: Vintage, 1971); Margaret Benston, "The Political Economy of Women's Liberation ," Monthly Review 21 (1969): 13-38; Paddy Quick, "Women's Work," Review oj Radical Political Economics, summer 1972, pp. 2-19; Heidi Hartman , "Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex," in Martha Blaxall and Barbara Reagan, eds., Women and the Workplace: The Implications oJOccupational Segregation (Chicago: Univ. ofChicago Press, 1976), 137-69. Historical interpretations that share this perspective include Louise A. Tilly and Joan W. Scott, Women, Work, and Family (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1978), and Leslie Woodcock Tentler, Wage-Earning Women: Industrial Work and Family Life in the United States, 1900-1930 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1979). For another view of the relationship between women's work and family life, see Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History oj Wage-Earning Women in the United States (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1982). These studies apply the analysis to nursing in more detail: Eva Gamarnikow , "Sexual Division of Labour: The Case of Nursing," in Annette Kuhn and AnnMarie Wolpe, eds., Feminism and Materialism: Women and Modes oJProduction (London, Henley, Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978),96-123; andJo Ann Ashley, Hospitals, Paternalism, and the Role oJthe Nurse (New York: Teachers College Press, 1976). Finally, an emerging social history ofnursing is redefining approaches to the subject, as seen in Celia Davies, ed., Rewriting Nursing History (London : Croom Helm, and Totowa, N.J.: Barnes and Noble, 1980), on British nurses; and Ellen Condliffe Lagemann, ed., Nursing History: New Perspectives , New Possibilities (New York: Teachers College Press, forthcoming). 7. For discussions of pre-industrial work and the coming ofindustrial capitalism, see: Herbert Gutman, Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976); Milton Cantor, ed., American Workingclass Culture (Westport, Ct...


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