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Notes introduction 1. “To Chief Commissioner of Native Affairs Department from Q. Cele,” received September 8, 1934, Pietermaritzburg Archive Repository (hereafter PAR), CNC, 50A. 2. Rex v. Ngcobo, 1941 South African Law Review, 413; and court case Rex v. Mafavuke Ngcobo, South African National Archives Repository (hereafter SAB), GES, 1788, 25/30M. 3. The term biomedicine refers to what has otherwise been termed allopathy, Western medicine, or cosmopolitan medicine. Given that this medical system has developed and is practiced throughout the world, I prefer the term biomedicine, which highlights its attachment to the body. 4. My emphasis. 1932 Code of Native Law. 5. My emphasis. On appeal, 1941 South African Law Review, “Rex v. Ngcobo,” 423. 6. “Rex v. Ngcobo,” 228. 7. Ibid., testimony of Qhoboshene, 182, testimony of Kuzwayo, 265. 8. Ibid., 40. 9. Ibid., testimony of Kuzwayo, 265. 10. Ibid., 263. 11. Ibid., 37. 12. “Rex v. Ngcobo,” 1941 South African Law Review, 430. 13. My emphasis. Ibid., 428. 14. Ibid., 413. 15. Ibid., 422–23. 16. This court case gives evidence for both Indian uses and processing of croton seed, and use of senna. 197 You are reading copyrighted material published by Ohio University Press/Swallow Press. Unauthorized posting, copying, or distributing of this work except as permitted under U.S. copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. 17. Traditional Health Practitioners Bill 2003, Republic of South Africa, B66–2003. Portion extracted: “Communicated from ancestors to descendents or from generations to generations, with or without written documentation, whether supported by science or not.” First passed in 2004, but not signed into law until January 2008. 18. The term “medical system” implies a closed and internally logical and integrated medical culture. Murray Last asks whether this notion is actually useful in a medically plural society such as Hausaland, Nigeria. I have likewise avoided the term “system” for Last’s more open and useful term of “medical culture.” M. Last, “The Importance of Knowing about Not Knowing: Observations from Hausaland,” in The Social Basis of Health and Healing in Africa, ed. S. Feierman and J. Janzen (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), 393–409. 19. E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1937), 15. 20. J. Vansina, Oral Tradition as History (1965; repr., Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985). 21. J. Vansina, Paths in the Rainforest (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990), 258. 22. Ibid., 260. 23. V. Y. Mudimbe, The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy, and the Order of Knowledge (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988). 24. For a good overview of the historiography of tradition in Africa see T. Ranger, “The Invention of Tradition Revisited: The Case of Colonial Africa,” in Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth-Century Africa, ed. T. Ranger and O. Vaughn (New York: Palgrave, 1993), 62–111; and A. Spiegel and P. McAllister’s introduction to Tradition and Transition in Southern Africa (London: Transaction Publishers, 1991), 1–8. 25. N. Kodesh, “Renovating Tradition: The Discourse of Succession in Colonial Buganda,” International Journal of African Historical Studies 34, no. 3 (2001): 511–41. 26. S. Feierman, Peasant Intellectuals: Anthropology and History in Tanzania (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990). 27. For African mediators see C. Hamilton, Terrific Majesty: The Powers of Shaka Zulu and the Limits of Historical Invention (Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1998); N. Rose Hunt, A Colonial Lexicon of Birth Ritual, Medicalization , and Mobility in the Congo (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999); J. Iliffe, East African Doctors: A History of the Modern Profession (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002); A. Digby and H. Sweet, “Nurses as Cultural Brokers in Twentieth-Century South Africa,” in Plural Medicine, Tradition and Modernity, 1800–2000, ed. W. Ernst (London: Routledge, 2001), 113–29; and S. Marks, Divided Sisterhood: Race, Class and Gender in the South African Nursing Profession (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994). 28. H. Sibisi (Ngubane), “The Predicament of the Sinister Healer: Some Observations on ‘Ritual Murder’ and the Professional Role of the Inyanga,” in The Professionalisation of African Medicine, ed. M. Last and G. Chavunduka (Manchester : Manchester University Press, 1986), 189–204. 198 w Notes to Pages 6–11 You are reading copyrighted material published by Ohio University Press/Swallow Press. Unauthorized posting, copying, or distributing of this work except as permitted under U.S. copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. 29. For a good overview of the ethnical and cultural complications associated with controlling witchcraft as well...


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