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Index

Abiodun, Nehanda, 304

abolitionism, 57, 92, 96, 99, 120, 133, 425; ACS and, 59; Du Bois and, 101102

Abubakari, Dara, 46, 328

Abu Jamal, Mumia, 304

Acoli, Sundiata, 304

Adefunmi, Nana Oserjiman, 312313, 321323

Aeyitoro, Adjoa, 315

Africa: black nationalists on, 70; Cruse on, 45, 178179, 199; Malcolm X on, 5, 9, 2225, 3031, 3334, 41, 44, 265. See also African cultures

African Blood Brotherhood, 7778

African Communities League (ACL), 6, 13, 77

African Civilization Society, 62

African cultures, xi, xiii, xviii, xxxxi, 30, 3536, 45, 66, 130131; BAM and, 376; Boggs on, 218219; BPP’s disinterest in, 289; circumcision in, 278279, 449nn1819; Cleage on, 415416; Diop on, 398; diversity of, 131, 268, 274275, 278279; Du Bois and, xiv, 14, 44; names and clothes adopted from, 3940, 4445, 260, 264, 283, 300, 321, 376, 412, 425; RAM on, 251252; RNA and, 321, 323; slave culture and, 65; Us and, 261265, 268, 273275, 278, 280, 322

African Free School, 379

African Liberation Support Committee, 380, 385

African Methodist Episcopalian (AME) Church, 65, 108, 136, 149; Du Bois on, 153

Afro-American Association (AAA), 234, 259260, 283

Afro-American Institute, 234

Afro-American Student Conference on Black Nationalism, 237238, 240, 251

Afro-American Student Movement, 239

Afrocentrism, xx, 45, 6365, 7172, 271272, 399; Du Bois and, 72, 441n6, 445n22; Third World Press and, 373, 386, 398

Achad Ha’am, 51

Ahmad, Muhammad, 27, 235, 260, 312, 341, 356357, 448n5. See also Stanford, Max

Aiyetoro, Adjoa, 46

Akiba, Malaika, 378

Algeria, 1, 9, 26, 248, 274, 288

Alkebulan, Paul, 39, 296, 450n32

Allen, Ernie Mkalimoto, 332, 351352, 356357

Allen, Richard, 53

Alston, Chris, 339, 341, 354

American Colonization Society (ACS), 59

American Negro Academy, 62

Amini, Johari (Jewel C. Latimore), 386

Angelou, Maya, 440n5

Anglophilia, 1314, 44, 6466, 73, 76

anticolonial struggles, influence on BPM of, xixiii, 1, 3, 7, 2225, 3536, 40, 130, 178179, 236, 242, 284, 286, 295, 353, 394, 424

Aptheker, Herbert, 110, 185

armed resistance advocacy, xviii, xxii, 12; Malcolm X and, 2, 9, 15, 18, 20; RAM and, 235, 238242, 247; RNA and, 314315, 323, 326327

Arnold, Matthew, 137

art as propaganda, 130, 266; BAM and, 375; Baraka and, 375; BPM and, 173; China and, 139, 141; Douglas and, 291; Du Bois and, 136, 139, 171173, 265, 375, 446n25; Us and, 265267

Asante, Molefi, 398, 445n22

Ashbaugh, Carolyn, 150

Ashwood, Amy, 46

Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations, 398

Atkins, Hanna, 454n13

Aurobindo, Sri, 51

Awolo, Obaboa, 312

Axelrod, Beverly, 290291

Ayers, Bill, 304

Back to Africa movements, 49, 77. See emigrationism

Baker, General, 234, 335336, 341342, 346347, 352, 356, 439n3; Black Madonna painting and, 404; SOSAD and, 438

Bandung Conference, 24, 236, 242, 258, 448n2

Bandung Humanism, 236

Baraka, Amina, 46, 378379

Baraka, Amiri: background of, 374377; BAM/BARTS and, 210, 266267, 290, 374375, 377; Blues People, 267, 376; CAP and, xx, 177178, 373374, 384394; CFUN and, 230, 264, 272, 282, 377379, 381382; critiques of, 454n8; Marxist/Maoist turn of, 385387, 390392, 397, 455n13; NBPA and, 454n8, 454n13; RNA and, 312, 321322

Baraka, Ras, 454n12

Battle of Algiers, The (film), 348

Baynham, Michael, 303

Beal, Frances, 5, 46, 92, 148, 447n13

Beaty, Powhatan, 442

Bellah, Robert N., 6769

Ben Bella, Ahmed, 1

Benjamin, Playthell, 234

Ben-Jochannan, Yosef, 398

Bennett, Fred, 303

Berman, Bruce J., 280

Bernard, Diane, 345346

Bethune, Mark “Ibo,” 349

Bibb, Henry, 61

Bibb, Mary, 46

Black Arts Movement (BAM), xvii, xx, 2, 27, 34, 139, 173, 178, 209210, 222, 233, 265266, 375377; Cleage and, 410411; Madhubuti/Third World Press and, 386387

Black Arts Repertory Theater and School (BARTS), 178, 210, 229, 266, 375, 377, 411

black athletes, protests by, 435436, 456n3

Black Belt. See under Haywood, Harry

Black Church, xii, xvxvii, xix, xxixxii, 3940, 44, 75, 113, 132, 145, 157158, 250, 310, 392, 395396, 414, 426, 432433; BPM and, 132, 270, 432; BPP and, 296; CAP and, 374; Cleage/PAOCC and, 374, 401, 403408, 411415, 417418, 426; Cooper and, 148149; Cruse and, 229, 427; Democratic Party and, 399; Du Bois and, xvi, 132, 153160, 171; King and, 401, 419, 433; RAM and, 242, 258; RNA and, 327328; sexism in, 417418; critiques of, 46, 154, 157, 418; of South Africa, 444n11; Us and, 270, 277278

Black Community Development (BCD), 377, 379

Black Congress, 263, 291

black cultural evolution, xvi, 131, 136, 146175; Cruse on, 178179; Du Bois and, 136, 152174, 272; Karenga and, 272; PAOCC, 374. See also slave culture

black cultural revolution, xxi, xvixviii, 3941, 4748, 136, 139, 144146, 224; Baraka on, 376377, 391; Boggs and, 211221, 262; BPP’s disdain for, 259, 289; CAP and, xx, 393395; Civil War and, 117118; Cleage and, 407, 410411, 418419; Cruse and, xvixvii, 177210; Du Bois and, xi, xvxvi, 2526, 34, 4748, 7274, 121, 129, 136, 153, 199, 267268; LRBW and, xix, 329330, 371, 433; Malcolm X and, xxi, xiii, xxii, 4, 15, 25, 27, 2834, 4041, 134, 175, 210, 219, 257, 264, 288, 309, 410, 423; in 1980s, 437; PAOCC and, xxxxi; religion and, 75; RAM and, 240, 250260; RNA and, xviii, 321322, 324325, 328; Us and, 261282. See also cultural revolution theory

Black Economic Development Conference (BEDC), 347, 366

black elected officials (BEOs), xii, xx, xxii, 17, 373374, 388, 392393, 396397, 399, 426, 431433, 453n5, 455n13, 455n1; BPP and, 432; CAP and 432; CRM and, 428429; NBPA and, 382385; PAOCC and, 419

black feminism, 4647, 57, 6566, 92, 132133, 136, 146152, 447n13

black folk culture, 14, 44, 6567, 72, 81, 121, 172, 178179; 264, 267, 375. See also slave culture

Black Government Conference, 311312, 316

Black Hebrew Israelites, 38

Black House (San Francisco), 290291

black liberation, xiv, xvii, 24, 25, 35, 118; Haywood on, 87

Black Liberation Army, 23, 241

black liberation theology, 5, 14, 400403, 407, 419

#BlackLivesMatter (BLM), 435438, 451n41, 455n2

black nationalism, xiiixiv, 1115, 4294, 287, 380381; academic misrepresentations of, 47, 71, 187, 380, 441n2; CAP and, 373; classical vs. modern, 13, 4344, 47, 4951, 60, 66, 72; Cruse and, 178180, 182184, 190; cultural nationalism and, xiv, 4, 28, 44, 49, 72, 76, 93, 118, 259260, 273, 283, 289290, 296, 304, 306, 380, 450n6, definitions of, 4853; Du Bois and, xiv, 14, 44, 47, 70, 7278, 80, 93, 118, 177; economic autonomy and, 194195; emigrationism and, 5563; feminist contributors to, 4647, 57; Haywood on, 7980, 83, 183, 186, 191192, 387; as an ideology, 60; LRBW and, 351352, 356357; Malcolm X and, 34, 1112, 1415, 17, 19, 33, 4345, 47, 245246; origin and development of, 1214, 5370; racist ventures and, 5960; RAM and, 235; religion and, 6669, 270271, 444n27; “revolutionary nationalism,” 4, 2829, 180, 182, 186, 188, 191192, 199, 234, 273, 289290, 295, 353, 381, 385; sexism and, 14, 41, 4546, 57, 146, 281; critiques of, xx, 33, 4345, 385, 394

blackness, 3, 262, 353354, 369, 375. See also nguzo saba

Black Panther Party (BPP), xi, 2, 4, 2829, 41, 191, 216, 283308; Boggs and, 220221, 283; “brothers on the block” practices of, 130, 283; “cultural nationalism” disdain by, 259260, 283284, 288290, 295296, 304; fissures in, 259260, 299300; PAOCC and, 407; “pussy power” and 292, 294; RAM and, 283, 295, 300; sexism and “revolutionary misogyny” in, 46, 281, 291294, 300, 450n29; critiques of, 300304; Son of Man Temple of, 39, 277, 296, 450n32; “survival programs” of, 290, 295, 297300, 380, 450n32; Us and, 259, 269, 273, 281282, 290291, 295, 302; violence by, 284, 287, 290, 302303, 310. See also Oakland

black petit bourgeoisie, 165, 167, 192, 358360, 387, 443n19, 444n25, 446n4; Cruse on, 184185, 187189, 192, 195, 207208; BPP and, 298, 304; “lumpenbourgeoisie,” 188, 207208

black political party proposals, 132, 382, 388390, 432; Malcolm X and, 3, 17, 20, 382383; PAOCC and, 407408

Black Power Conference (1970), 381382

Black Power Movement (BPM): beginnings of, 2; Black Church and, 132, 269; the Boggs and, 211213, 218, 220221; Civil War implications for, 119121, 128, 130; Cruse and, 198, 208, 224, 229, 233; culture disdain by, 259; decline of, 434435; focus of, x, 121122; Gary Convention and, 381385; Maoism and, 259; militarization fetish of, 163, 247, 258, 281282, 408409; propagandistic uses of black art by, 173; RAM and, 240; sexism and, 378379; critiques of, xii, xxixxii, 3942, 130132, 223, 248, 257258, 378379, 403, 425429, 434435

Black Slate (political action group), 400, 419, 432, 455n18

Black Star Line, 228

Black Star Publishing, 347; films by, 347348

Black Student United Front (BSUF), 346, 362

Black Studies programs, 256, 272, 297, 300

black supremacism, 398

black unions, xix, 41, 132, 145, 329, 369, 428; RAM and, 238; sexism in, 90, 93

black voluntary organizations, 136, 146, 153, 171172

Black Women’s United Front, 380

Blackwood, Jesse, 109

Bland, Sandra, 456n3

Blanding, Tanya, 340

blues, 203, 208; argument over validity of the, 266267, 376

Blum, Edward, 154155

Blyden, Edward Wilmot, 54

Boas, Franz, 121, 152

Bodley, John H., 137

Boggs, Grace Lee, x, 5, 211212, 216218, 220, 234, 312, 339, 341, 438, 446n7, 447n9, 447n13, 452n19

Boggs, James, x, xviixviii, 5, 17, 210221, 224, 231232, 234, 283, 312, 339, 341, 351, 354, 446n5, 446–447n78, 452n19; on automation and cybernation, 211212, 285, 360361; on Chinese culture, 220221; dialectical humanism thesis of, 211221, 236; Malcolm X and, 219; RAM and, 235236, 253, 394; critiques of, 218221, 446n7; SOSAD and, 438

Bogdanov, Alexander, 141

Bond, Julian, 383

Boston Busing Crisis, 391

Boudin, Kathy, 304

Boyd, John Percy, 349

Boyer, Jean-Pierre, 110, 448n6

Bracey, John H., 68, 234; et al., 50, 53

Bradley, Tom, 453n5

Briggs, Cyril, 7778, 196

Brooks, Gwendolyn, 386

Brotz, Howard, 53

Brown, Elaine, 284285, 292294, 298299, 302303, 450n24, 450n30

Brown, H. Rap, 312

Brown, Heyward, 349

Brown, John, 99

Brown, Scot, 260, 263, 268, 281282, 290

Buck, Christopher, 127

Bukhari, Safiya, 293294

Bullins, Ed, 290

Bunche, Ralph, 278279, 449n18

Burke, Tarana, 452n6, 456n3

Cabral, Amílcar, 255256, 271272, 273274, 281, 295296, 453n2

Calverton, V. F., 175, 209

Canada, 54, 57, 6061, 146

capitalism, 87; Boggs on, 211, 213217; Cruse on, 197199, 201, 204, 206207, 226; Du Bois on, 158; Haywood on, 8687; Lenin on, 205

Carlisle, Rodney P., 50, 53, 58

Carmichael, Stokely, 5, 46, 214, 439n3

Carr, James, 303

Casely-Hayford, J. E., 13

Castoriadis, Cornelius, 447n9

Castro, Fidel, 1, 236, 339, 351

Catt, Carrie Chapman, 60

China, 8, 26, 29, 139141, 391392; Boggs and, 220221; Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (GPCR) in, 140141, 253, 259, 283, 391, 444n4; Malcolm X on, 16, 440n8

“civilizationism,” xiv, 1314, 4345, 5657, 64, 66, 87, 92, 441n10. See also “reverse civilizationism”

Civil Rights Movement (CRM), xxii, 13, 1517, 19, 26, 28, 119, 128, 129, 193, 195196, 205, 223, 310, 324, 359360, 388, 426, 430432; the Boggs and, 211213, 220; boycott strategy of, 120, 155, 213, 338, 360; Communist Party and, 78, 88; Cruse and, 177180, 187, 197, 199200, 208, 224226; integration and, 3, 6, 8, 11, 39, 178, 182, 195, 199, 208, 210, 235, 256, 327, 382; King and, 400, 433; as “Negro revolution,” 6, 8, 911; North/South fissure in, 3637, 234; religion and, 39, 155, 229, 242, 446n24; sexism in, 300, 378379

Civil War, xi, xv, xxii, 12, 2526, 34, 3738, 48, 66, 87, 94105, 109110, 112120, 127, 129130, 132135, 144, 152, 164, 227228, 231232, 242246, 250, 274, 297, 305306, 314, 338, 340, 361, 369, 415, 417, 425426, 443n18n20, 447n8; black troop numbers in, 97, 117; draft riots during, 340; Du Bois and, xi, xv, 2526, 94, 9698, 100105, 113, 116, 119, 128, 135, 224, 241, 417; influence of, 119120; RAM and, 241246; LRBW and, 338, 361, 369; religion and, 97, 100102, 104105, 118, 135, 368, 416417

Clarke, John Henrik, 386

Clay, Henry, 59

Clay, William, 393

Cleage, Albert (Jaramogi A. Agyeman): background and beliefs of, 5, 399404, 455n14; on counterinstitutions, 171, 374, 403, 405, 407, 409, 417418; on communism, 409410; Detroit activism of, xxi, 339, 341, 400; FNP and, 5, 17, 229, 383, 400, 404; GOAL and, 5, 312, 400; Malcolm X and, 10, 400, 409; NBPA and, 405; PAOCC and, xxi, 311, 374, 392, 396, 404421; theology of, 400408, 415

Cleaver, Eldridge, 46, 260, 285, 289, 290292, 296; on Congolese politics, 302, 451n37; split with Newton, 283, 302

Cleaver, Kathleen, 293294, 450n28

Cockrel, Kenneth, 334, 346, 348349, 352, 356, 452n13

COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program), 257, 281, 295, 327

Collins, Michael, 37, 394

colonialism, 5, 193195, 236, 279280, 311; Marx on, 87. See also anticolonial struggles; domestic colonialism

Coltrane, John, 376

Committee for a Unified Newark (CFUN), xx, 230, 263264, 272, 278, 282, 377, 379382, 386, 392; sexism and, 378380; women’s division of, 379380

communism, 4, 29, 143, 162, 168169, 183, 186, 189, 193, 355, 397, 409

Communist Party, 46, 78, 83, 8788, 142, 145, 163, 170, 180, 186, 191193, 195, 355; Du Bois and, 165, 168169, 180, 446n24; Haywood and, 183, 193; Scottsboro Boys case and, 228; sexism in, 90, 92

community alert patrol, 264

Confederate States of America (CSA), xv, 34, 96, 99, 117, 120, 128, 133, 227, 245, 316, 326

Congress of African Peoples (CAP), xi, xx, 2, 4, 41, 130, 175, 177178, 191, 263, 278, 309, 373374, 378, 380, 381, 384399, 428, 449n14; Chicago/Midwest chapter of, xx, 373374, 385387, 399; East chapter of, 385; PAOCC and, 407. See also CFUN

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 22, 208, 360, 387

Congressional Black Caucus (CBC), 383384, 393

consumerism: Du Bois on, 158159, 170; King on, 400; Malcolm X on, 400

Conyers, John, 314, 400

Cooper, Anna Julia, 147149, 156

Cooper, Carl, 340

Cornish, Samuel, 53

Creel, Margaret Washington, 108

Crenshaw, Kimberlé, 148

Crockett, George, 328

Crummell, Alexander, 1314, 44, 55, 57, 59, 6167, 73

Cruse, Harold, x, xvixviii, 17, 26, 3233, 3536, 127, 131, 174175, 177210, 212, 218219, 221226, 267, 295, 298, 429, 435; on African heritage, 45, 178179, 199; BARTS and, 178, 229, 375; on cities, 221223; cultural revolution thesis of, 197210, 212, 218, 220, 224226, 228231, 233, 257, 264, 268, 283, 309, 323, 426427, 436, 447n10; on Delany, 60; on Locke, 446n1; LRBW and, 348, 361; Madhubuti and, 397; Malcolm X and, 177; Marxism and, 177187, 189190, 192193, 195, 197198, 205, 210, 219; PAOCC and, 416; critiques of, 232. See also cultural apparatus; domestic colonialism

WRITINGS BY: “An Afro-American’s Cultural Views,” 178, 202; “Black and White: Outlines of the Next Stage,” 222; The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual, 222, 229, 435; “Rebellion or Revolution,” 196, 199, 202; “Revolutionary Nationalism and the Afro-American,” 180192, 199, 234, 385

Cuban Revolution, 1, 26, 29, 180181, 194, 351

Cuffee, Paul, 13, 52, 54, 56, 58, 313

Cullors, Patrice Khan, 435, 438, 455n2

cultural apparatus, control of, 144, 179, 199, 201, 204, 208, 210, 218, 225226, 229, 231, 257, 271, 321322, 427; LRBW and, 348, 365; contemporary inroads into, 435436, 446n3

cultural assimilation, 1314, 44, 62, 66, 136. See also “civilizationism”

cultural democracy, 26, 118, 127128, 135, 200201, 210

cultural revolution theory, xvxvi, 2730, 35; definitions of, 136139; development of, 139152, 174175; Locke and, xixii, xv, 97, 121129, 131132, 134135; Marxist, 135. See also black cultural revolution; Cruse, Harold; white cultural revolution

Damu, Ngao (Samuel Carr), 248, 260, 282

Daniels, Stan, 234

Davis, Angela, 304

Davis, Henrietta Vinton, 46

Davis, Miles, 270

Davis, Ossie, 220

Dawson, Michael, 282, 441n2

Day, Yvonne, 453n7

Deacons for Defense, 12

Debord, Guy, 446

Dee, Ruby, 220, 386

Defenders, the, 2

deindustrialization, xx, 214, 351, 373, 385, 397, 420, 428429, 437

Delany, Martin, 1314, 44, 54, 5960, 6162, 64

Democratic Party (and Dixiecrats), xii, xxii, 1517, 2021, 60, 133, 230, 388389, 392393, 397, 431, 432433, 440n6; BEOs and, 426, 432; Black Church and, 399; NBPA and, 382384, 388; in 1964, 453n4; in 1980s, 437; North hegemony of, 230

Deng Xiaopeng, 140141, 444n5

Detroit: activists/theorists in, 5, 220, 222, 228, 234, 311312, 336, 338339, 354, 404; auto industry in, xix, 196, 329, 330331, 333337, 342345, 348349, 354355, 361362, 367; BPP chapter in, 294, 299300, 312, 344; Central Congregational Church in, 311, 399, 404, 419; class differentiation in, 354355; Kercheval Riot in, 336; New Bethel Baptist Church shootout in, 327328, 349; news media in, 361362, 452n14; police brutality and corruption in, 332, 335, 344345, 349350, 452n9; 1967 rebellion in, 315, 336, 338341, 452n8; “Paradise Valley” in, 81; school system in, 346. See also Cleage, Albert; Inner City Voice; League of Revolutionary Black Workers

Diggs, Charles, 382, 400

Dillard, Angela, 404, 411

Diop, Cheikh Anta, 398

Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement (DRUM), 196, 257, 329, 333, 339, 342344, 349350, 356, 359

Dohrn, Bernadine, 304, 451n34

domestic colonialism, 14, 24, 3539, 78, 130131, 177, 179, 182183, 199, 206, 394395, 430431; Baraka on, 387, 390, 430; BPP and, 283, 286289, 394; King and, 433; LRBW and, 337; RAM and, 234235, 237238

Double V campaign, 228

Douglas, Emory, 283, 291, 450n28

Douglass, Frederick, 56, 6061, 103

Dowdell, Glanton, 336; Black Madonna painting by, 404

Drake, St. Clair, and Horace R. Cayton, 81

Drew, Timothy (Noble Drew Ali), 6

Duberry, Dorothy, 345346

Du Bois, W. E. B., x, xii, xvi, 13, 3235, 82, 87, 120121, 145, 152174, 179, 409, 423, 442nn79; African culture and, xiv, 14, 386; Black Church and, xvi, 75, 101102, 132, 153, 160, 170171, 174; on black colleges, 160162; black cultural evolution and, 136, 152174, 272; black cultural revolution and, xi, xvxvi, 2526, 34, 4748, 7274, 97, 101102, 118119, 121, 129, 136, 153, 199, 267268; on black culture as propaganda, 136, 139, 171173; black nationalism and, xiv, 14, 44, 55, 64, 70, 7278, 80, 93, 118; Civil War and, xi, xv, 2526, 94, 9698, 100105, 113, 116, 119, 128, 135, 224, 241, 417; on class differences, 155, 164165, 167, 358359; Crisis editorship of, 158; critique of communism, 165169; double consciousness concept of, 74, 148; on economic issues, 158159, 163170, 181, 445n15; on joining Communist Party, 180, 446 fn24; on King, 445n15; NNC and, 15; PAOCC and, 416; “self-segregation” thesis of, 158159, 170171; talented tenth concept of, 62, 147, 172173, 271, 276; on Turner, 110; Washington and, 165, 184186; on women, 155156, 445n16; on World War I, 7677, 86

WRITINGS BY: “The African Roots of War,” 7677, 165, 204, 446n23; Black Folk Then and Now, 73; Black Reconstruction, xi, xvxvi, 2526, 34, 42, 9596, 101102, 105, 121, 126, 131, 135, 152, 154156, 171, 173, 231, 241, 247, 250251, 338, 367369, 434, 442n89, 443n20; “The Conservation of Races,” 7273, 75, 153, 441n10; “Criteria of Negro Art,” 172, 375; “Crusader Without Violence,” 445n15; Darkwater, 155; Dusk of Dawn, 163, 445n20; The Gift of Black Folk, 154; The Negro, 73; “The Negro and Communism,” 165168; The Negro and Social Reconstruction, 96, 136, 152, 158160, 163164, 445n20; The Negro Church, 153; “The Negro College,” 160161; “A Negro Nation within a Nation,” 7879, 196; The Philadelphia Negro, 153, 445n12; The Souls of Black Folk, 72, 74, 101102, 153154; “The Talented Tenth: Memorial Address,” 155; “Will the Great Gandhi Live Again,” 155; The World and Africa, 73

Duvalier, François (Papa Doc), 295

Edwards, Harry, 435

Egerton, Douglas R., 107108, 111

Egypt, ancient, 269, 398

Eldon Revolutionary Union Movement (ELRUM), 333, 345, 349, 361, 452n11

emigrationism, xiv, 6, 7, 4345, 47, 49, 5563, 66; early African emigration proposals, 13, 5255, 58, 64; emancipation and, 58; Garvey and, 77, 157, 193; Shadd Cary on, 57, 6061, 146147; Wells on, 440n1

Essene order, xxi, 412, 420

Essien-Udom, E. U., 48

Eurocentrism, xiv, 45, 47, 6364, 7172, 77. See also Anglophilia

Evans, Mari, 386

Fanon, Frantz, 73, 216, 273274, 341; BPP and, 284286, 288, 296

Farmer, James, 10

Farrakhan, Louis, 383, 398399

Fenn, Richard K., 69

Ferguson, Herman, 260, 283, 312

Finally Got the News (film), 348, 362, 369

Forbes, Florestan, 303, 451n40

Ford Revolutionary Union Movement (FRUM), 333, 345, 349

Forman, James, 347, 356, 366

Forrestor, Lot, 109

Franklin, C. L., 327, 349, 400

Franklin, Joan, 312

Franklin, V. P., 65, 6869, 72

Fraser, Douglas, 350

Fraser, Nancy, 122123

Frazier, E. Franklin, 187

Freedom Now Party (FNP), 5, 17, 210, 212, 219220, 229230, 233, 312, 383, 411

Freeman, Donald, 234, 237, 240, 251

Freeman, Kenny, 283

French, Lynn, 299

Fugitive Slave Act, 60

Fuller, Chaka, 349

Gabriel’s Rebellion, 32, 98, 100, 102, 105107, 109, 414, 442n13

Gandhi, Mahatma, 1, 155

Gardner, Newport, 53

Garner, William, 109

Garnet, Henry Highland, 54, 5860, 64, 66, 70

Garvey, Amy Jacques, 46

Garvey, Marcus (and Garveyism), 6, 13, 39, 55, 60, 6466, 77, 8384, 165, 170, 184, 193, 228, 300, 375; Du Bois on, 441n7; Moore and, 313; NAACP and, 186

Garza, Alicia, 435, 438, 455n2

Gaston, A. C., 446n4

Gell, Monday, 108109

Gellner, Ernest, 51

general strike (strategy), xviii, xix, 119120, 126, 130, 151, 241242, 247, 250, 256257, 329330, 337338, 361367, 369371, 424, 427428, 446n2, 447n8

General Strike (during Civil War), 11, 15, 2526, 9598, 102, 104105, 113, 119120, 129130, 132, 135, 153, 174, 238239, 241, 244, 246247, 256, 338, 367368, 425, 442n8

Genovese, Eugene D., 442n5

Georgakas, Dan, 452n10

Georgakas, Dan, and Marvin Surkin, 334336, 340342, 346347, 351352, 355, 452n14

Geschwender, James, and Judson Jeffries, 334, 343344, 346, 352355

Giap, Vo Nguyen, 448n10

Gibson, Kenneth, 382, 384385, 390, 393, 454n12

Gill, Anthony, 277

Giovanni, Nikki, 266, 383

Glaude, Eddie S., Jr., 71

Goldman, Emma, 150

Goldwater, Barry, 440n6, 453n4

Gramsci, Antonio, 144145, 272, 444n11

Grant, William, 312

Great Depression, 158, 167

Great Migration, 44, 77, 86, 157158, 184, 223, 375; Detroit and, 331; Second, 88, 223

Great Society programs, 216, 384, 431

Griffin, Rufus, 336

Group on Advanced Leadership (GOAL), 5, 311312

guerilla warfare, xviii, 18, 27, 239240, 242, 244245, 247, 249, 282, 311, 408

Guevara, Ernesto “Che,” 1, 37, 282, 341, 394

Hahn, Steven, 9899, 100, 115116

Haiti: emigration to, 54, 60; revolution in, 32, 98100, 108, 243, 442n5

Halisi, Clyde, 261, 265266, 269, 273, 301

Hall, Gwendolyn, 191195

Hall, Otto, 83

Hall, Prince, 54; Prince Hall Masons, 136

Hamilton, Charles V., 439n3

Hamlin, Mike, 342, 345346, 351352, 356

Hampton, Fred, 299, 451n34

Harcave, Sidney, 119

Hard Hat Riot, 391, 428

Harlem, 228, 303, 375; Cruse and, 222, 447n10

Harlem Renaissance, xvi, 25, 41, 82, 157, 171173, 265, 267, 376; Baraka on, 375; Cruse on, 197198, 222; exoticism and, 171; other renaissances, 447n11

Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins, 146

Harris, Leonard, and Charles Molesworth, 125

hashtag activism. See social media activism

Hatcher, Richard, 382

Hayes, Floyd W, III, and Judson L. Jeffries, 282

Hayes, Isaac, 383

Hayes-Tilden Compromise, 84, 315

Hayford, Adelaide Casely, 46

Haywood, Harry, x, xviixviii, 298, 337; background of, 78; Black Belt thesis of, xvi, xviiixix, 35, 7889, 93, 145, 170, 177, 183184, 193196, 221, 313, 359, 387388; on black nationalism, 7980, 83, 183, 186, 191192, 194; Communist Party and, 183, 193; on Cruse, 191196; Detroit and, 339, 341, 357, 359; Marxism and, xx, 327, 357, 373, 391; on race, 212; on Reconstruction, 118119; RNA and, 313

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 118

Henry, Milton. See Obadele, Gaidi

Henry, Richard. See Obadele, Imari

Herder, Johann Gottfried, 51

Herzl, Theodor, 53

Hewitt, Masai, 297

Hibbitt, Alfred 2X, 349

Higgenbottom, Thomas, 234

Hilliard, David, 294295, 297, 303

hipsters, 252

Hitler, Adolf, 9, 60

Hobsbawm, Eric, 51

Ho Chi Minh, 78, 296

Holly, Theodore, 54, 60

House, Callie, 228

Houston, Drusilla, 398

Huggins, Ericka, 303

Huggins, John, 303

Hughes, Langston, 286

human rights, x, 127, 151, 227, 437; Du Bois on, 76; Malcolm X on, 1519, 311

Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment Act, 388, 455n1

Hunt, Michael H., 69

Hutchinson, John, 51

Hyson, Brenda, 293

Idili-Davis, Gail, 281

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), 150151

Inner City Voice (newspaper), 340342, 344345, 452n12

Institute of Positive Education (IPE), xx, 373, 385386, 398

integrationism, 8, 39, 46, 62, 137, 182; CRM and, 3, 6, 8, 11, 39, 178, 182, 195, 199, 208, 210, 235, 256, 327, 382; Cruse on, 178, 189; Douglass and, 6061; Haywood and Hall on, 191; Malcolm X’s opposition to, 23, 7, 1819; sexism of, 46

internationalism, 13, 4647, 54, 234, 236, 448n2, 451n36

International Black Appeal, 347

Inter-Religious Foundation for Community Organizations, 347

Irish Republican Army, 37

Islam and Black Muslims, 27, 38, 189, 193194; Sunni Islam, 14, 28, 419

Israel–Palestine conflict, 384

Jackson, George, 304

Jackson, Jesse, 383, 437, 454n7

Jackson, Maynard, 419, 453n5

Jacquette, Tommy (Halifu), 260, 264, 269

Jamal, Dorothy, 260, 278

Jamal, Hakim, 260261

James, C. L. R., 211, 341

jazz, 33, 202, 410411; and other music genres, 203, 205, 208, 375, 376. See also blues; “sorrow songs”

Jeffries, Judson L., 282

Jesus as revolutionary black Messiah, 401402, 406407, 414415, 418419

Jim Crow, xiii, 1, 2, 3637, 39, 82, 84, 128, 155, 166167, 199, 226, 389, 431

John Birch Society, 425

Johnson, Andrew, 226

Johnson, Charles (Mao), 234, 335, 341

Johnson, Ethel, 234

Johnson, James, 348, 361

Johnson, Lyndon B., 216, 440n6, 453n4

Johnston, Alastair Iain, 138

Jones, Audrea, 293

Jones, Claudia, x, 8993, 145, 148, 151

Jordan, Barbara, 383

Joseph, Jamal, 303

Kadalie, Modibo M., 353354, 358

Kaepernick, Colin, 435

Karenga, Brenda Haiba, 260, 278, 281

Karenga, Maulana, 5, 234, 259283, 285286, 288, 301303, 398; on the blues, 266267, 376; CFUN and, 379, 381382, Cleaver and, 291; RNA and, 312, 321322

Karenga, Tiamoyo (Luz Maria Tiamoyo), 281

kawaida, xx, 5, 261263, 265, 268274, 277, 282, 286, 288, 302, 396, 398; Baraka and, 373374, 386, 393, 396, 397; PAOCC and, 413414; RNA and, 323, 326; sexism in, 272, 275, 278, 280281, 378379, 386, 452n4; Temple of Kawaida, 39. See also nguzo saba; Us

Kedourie, Elie, 51

Kemp, Gwen, 234, 335, 341

Kenyatta, Jomo, 273, 278280, 286, 449n17

Key, Karl (Hekima), 260

Kgositsile, Keorapetse, 386

Kicheko, Joann, 280

Kilpatrick, Kwame, 455n18

Kimbro, Warren, 303

King, Coretta Scott, 383, 455n17

King, Martin Luther, Jr., 2, 10, 39, 307, 360, 395, 400401, 419, 433, 455n17; Du Bois on, 445n15; “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” 407; Mao Zedong on, 391

King, Yvonne, 299

korenizatsiya (Soviet policy), 7879

Kramer, Marian, 344346

Kroeber, Alfred L., and Clyde Kluckhorn, 137

Ku Klux Klan, 84, 168, 185, 417, 425

Kush District, 316, 325, 327

Kwanzaa, 262, 264265, 398

League of Revolutionary Black Workers (LRBW), xi, xixxx, 2, 4, 29, 41, 130, 191, 221, 234, 309, 312, 329371, 417, 427428, 432, 433434; beginnings and objectives of, 330333, 339340, 345346; divisions within, 351357, 369; PAOCC and, 407; RAM and, 238, 257; critiques of, xixxx, 349351, 358, 369

Lee, Robert E., 97

Lenin, Vladimir, 51, 77, 83, 86, 141144, 193, 205206, 385

Levine, Lawrence W., 105

Lewis, David L., 154155, 161162

Lewis, John, 10

Lewis, Tarika “Matilaba,” 450n28

Liberia, 57, 6061

Lin Biao, 392

Lincoln, Abbey, 376, 410

Lincoln, Abraham, 26, 97, 105, 117, 135, 442n6

Litwack, Leon, 115

Liu Shaoqi, 140, 444n5

Locke, Alain, x, xi, xxii, xv, xix, 2526, 32, 35, 82, 179, 418, 423; background of, 121122; on cultural revolution, xixii, xv, 97, 121129, 131132, 134135, 152, 173, 199, 242, 267268, 304305, 363, 364, 369; on stages of democracy, 127; on transvaluation and transposition of values, xv, 126, 451n41. See also cultural democracy

Lorde, Audre, 440n16

Los Angeles, 81, 263; Free Huey Rally in, 291; 1992 rebellion, 340; Us and, 210, 234, 259260, 264, 269, 277. See also Watts rebellion

Lumpen, the (band), 283284

lumpenproletariat (and lumpenism), xviii, xix, 2728, 120, 208, 216, 219220; BPP and, 284292, 294, 299, 300, 302, 304, 330, 331; LRBW and, 330, 331; SDS and, 450n34

Lumumba, Chokwe, 315, 328, 439n1

Lumumba, Chokwe Antar, 452n5

Lumumba, Patrice, 1, 454n11

Luxemburg, Rosa, 51, 348

lynching, 9192, 147, 154, 156

Lynn, Conrad, 400

Madhubuti, Haki (Don L. Lee), xx, 373374, 385387, 397399, 417

Madhubuti, Safisha (Carol D. Lee), 386

Magee, Ruchel, 304

Makeba, Miriam, 40

Malcolm X, xxiv, 242, 309311, 339; African American culture dismissed by, 2, 5, 14, 44, 77; assassination of, 33, 398, 440n13; Baraka and, 377378, 453n3; on black music, 33; black nationalism and, 34, 1112, 1415, 17, 19, 33, 4345, 47, 245, 246; black revolution thesis of, xi, xiixiii, xviii, 233, 4143, 282; cultural revolution thesis of 4, 1415, 2542, 134, 175, 177, 210, 219, 232233, 257, 261262, 264, 283284, 288, 307, 309310, 329, 407, 410, 420, 423; Farrakhan and, 398399; on field vs. house Negroes, 10, 1314, 27, 329; on gender inclusion, 14, 440n5; on gerrymandering, 440n9; land focus of, 2, 710, 21, 41, 221, 235, 311, 409, 412; LRBW and, 329; personal transformation of, 27, 261; RAM and, 234236, 240, 242, 251, 257; “reverse civilizationism” thesis of, xi, xiii, xv, 3034, 4142, 44, 77, 93, 95, 129, 130, 251, 257, 265, 376, 423425; on reparations, 439n2; on “revolution” term, 8; RNA and, 311313, 328; critiques of, 56, 27, 33, 41, 45, 93, 247, 419; “worldwide revolution” vision of, xiii, 34, 2228, 32, 41, 236

SPEECHES AND WRITINGS: “The Ballot or the Bullet,” 3, 15, 1618, 230, 238, 311, 377, 429; “The Black Revolution,” 3, 7, 1820, 22, 440n10; “Last Message,” 311; “Message to the Grassroots,” 23, 710, 15, 17, 20, 311, 400, 439n3, 440n11; “Statement of the Basic Aims and Objectives of the Organization of Afro-American Unity,” 25, 30, 323

Malcolm X Grassroots Movement, 328, 452n6

Malcolm X Society, 311312, 314

Malinowski, Bronisław, 279, 449n20

Mamdani, Mahmood, 280, 449n21

Mandela, Nelson, 1

Mao Zedong (and Maoism), 1, 138, 139141, 194, 220221, 249, 259, 341, 385, 390392, 440n11, 454n11; on black liberation, 253, 390391, 454n9; BPP and, 283, 296, 300, 391; Nixon and, 60, 220, 392, 444n4, 454n11

Marable, Manning, 1112, 33

March on Washington, 1011, 16, 400

Marshall, Wanda, 234

Martin, Trayvon, 455n2

Marx, Karl, 87, 98, 103, 144, 197, 199, 217, 284, 341, 357, 385, 444n3; on lumpenproletariat, 27, 285, 287288, 302; on religion, 97, 226, 323, 368, 442n4

Marxism, xvi, xviii, xx, 3233, 60, 66, 76, 78, 8384, 8689, 93, 139, 142, 144, 151, 163165, 167, 197, 210, 285; Baraka and, 385387, 390392, 397, 455n13; black organizations, 7778; Boggs and, 211213, 219; BPP and, 295, 300301, 329; CAP and, 373, 385386; Civil War and, 9798; class antagonism in, 208, 306, 388; Cleage on, 409410; Cruse and, 177187, 189190, 192193, 195, 197198, 205, 210, 219; LRBW and, 329331, 337, 351, 353, 355358, 369, 434, 452n20; RNA and, 327; sexism in, 4647. See also communism

Masekela, Hugh, 40

mass media, xvii, 144, 197199, 210, 224, 226; LRBW and, 347348, 352; RNA and, 321324

Mazrui, Ali A., 73, 449n17

Mbulu, Letta, 263, 280281

McCarthyism, 78, 88, 193

McCurry, Stephanie, 99100, 115116

McGovern, George, 384

McGuire, George Alexander, 402

McLucas, Lonnie, 303

McPherson, James M., 100, 442n6

Meier, August, 53

Miller, Floyd John, 53, 58

Miller, Kelly, 155, 157

Mills, C. Wright, xvii, 175, 197, 199, 201

Missouri Compromise, 108

Mitchell, Sarah, 440n5

Mobutu Sese Seko, 454n11

Montgomery Bus Boycott, 120, 155

Moore, Audley (“Queen Mother”), x, 46, 228229, 313315; Malcolm X and, 229; NBPA and, 383; RAM and, 234, 241, 258; RNA and, 312313

Moorish Science Temple (MST), 6, 38

Moses, Wilson Jeremiah, 49, 5254, 59, 64, 65, 112, 441nn34; on “Afrotopia,” 73; on classical black nationalism, 1314, 4344, 4849, 5556, 60, 6672, 415; on Crummell, 6263, 67; on Du Bois and Black Church, 154; on Gabriel’s Rebellion, 105106; on Walker, 5556

Mothers of Murdered Sons, 437

Mothers Reclaiming Our Children, 437

Motor City Labor League, 347, 358

Mtume, James, 261, 263, 265266, 269270, 273, 301

Muhammad, Elijah, 67, 398399

Muhammad, W. D., 398

Muhammad, Wallace Fard, 6, 399

multiculturalism, 76, 125

Muntaquin, Jalil, 304

Murphy, Robert F., 137

Muslim Mosque Inc. (MMI), xiii, 28, 38

NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), 1, 15, 22, 145146, 157, 172, 375, 389; “Appeal to the World,” 80; Cruse on, 186187; Garvey and, 186; Legal Defense Fund of, 208, 227; Wells and, 445n18

Nadir (of black history), the, 222

Napier, Sam, 303

National Afro-American Organization, 234

National Association of Colored Women (NACW), 146, 157

National Black Political Assembly (NBPA), 226, 229, 263, 380, 399, 417; Baraka and, 454n8, 454n13; Cruse on, 447n12; Gary Convention of, 381385, 390, 405, 453n7; Little Rock Convention of, 393, 397

National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America, 328

nationalism (general), 5152. See also black nationalism

National Lawyers’ Guild, 208

National Negro Congress (NNC), 15

Nation of Islam (NOI), xi, xiii, 23, 68, 15, 2728, 41, 193194, 234, 398399, 439n3; “Asiatic” culture and, 130; Malcolm X’s assassins from, 33, 440n14; Cruse on, 178, 209; under Farrakhan, 398399; Fruit of Islam, 28; millenarianism of, 3, 6, 8, 11, 33, 43, 399; mosques of, 2, 38, 229, 399; racism and, 60, 398; sexism in, 46

Neal, Larry, 139, 267, 270271, 375, 376, 396; on protest art, 266, 449n15

Negritude, 267

New Africa (concept). See Republic of New Africa

New African Peoples Organization, 328

Newark: 1967 rebellion in, 315, 339, 377; Puerto Rican community in, 378, 381, 396. See also Committee for a Unified Newark

Newark Black Leadership Council, 380

New Negro (concept), 82, 157, 375

Newton, Huey, 5, 234, 259260, 283287, 296, 302, 322, 450n33; Free Huey Rally, 291; on The Godfather, 294; mismanagement of BPP by, 299, 302303; on revolutionary nationalism, 289291; RNA and, 316; on survival programs, 297298, 300

New York City/Ocean Hill-Brownsville Strike, 428

nguzo saba (seven principles of blackness), 262, 264, 274, 282, 398; CAP–Chicago and, 386; Cleage and 413415; RNA and, 323

Niebuhr, Reinhold, 408

Nixon, Richard, 60, 220, 384385, 392, 428, 444n4, 453n4, 454n11

Njeri, Akua (Deborah Johnson), 299

Nkrumah, Kwame, 1, 13, 273274

nonviolence, 24, 6, 8, 15, 22, 155, 324

Northern Ireland, 37, 394

NWA (rap group), 451n41

Nyerere, Julius, 273274, 313, 323, 325

Nyeusi, Sanamu, 260, 278

Oakland: BPP and, 222, 259260, 264, 284, 292, 295, 298299; elections in, 298299; RAM and, 283

Obadele, Gaidi (Milton Henry), 229, 248, 311312, 314315, 317322, 325326, 328, 339, 341

Obadele, Imari (Richard Henry), 5, 311312, 315, 339, 341, 383, 451n1

Obama, Barack, 449n19

O’Donovan, Susan, 116

Operation Dixie, 369, 453n22

Organization of African Unity, 28

Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU), x, xiii, 34, 12, 14, 28, 3031, 34, 177, 233, 235; Baraka and, 377, 453n3; BPP and, 297; Us and, 264, 272

Organization of Black American Culture, 387

Palmares, 54

pan-Africanism, 3, 13, 28, 4950, 5456, 76, 77, 156, 258, 274; BPP and, 296; “pan-Negroism,” 73; RAM and, 235, 238

Pan-African Orthodox Christian Church (PAOCC, aka Shrine of the Black Madonna), xi, xii, xx, xxi, 2, 5, 39, 41, 130, 177, 261, 310, 374, 392, 404421, 428, 433; “BCN Orientation Reading List,” 415416; Maccabees (security force), 409; sexism in, 417; critiques of, 416418

pan-Islamism, 6

Parents and Students for Community Control, 346

Paris, May 1968 events in, 361, 363, 434

Parker, Charlie, 418

Parks, Rosa, 339, 452n7

Parsons, Lucy, 92, 150151

Paul, 401

Peaches (Renee Moore), 293

Pinkney, Alphonso, 4950, 53

Plumpp, Sterling, 386

police brutality, xix, 327, 332, 335, 344345, 349, 389, 435, 455n2

political prisoners, 150, 304, 328, 452n7

Pollard, Aubrey, 340

Pol Pot, 138, 141, 294, 446n6

Poor Peoples Campaign, 433

Pratt, Geronimo, 248, 293

Pritchard, “Gullah Jack,” 108109

prolekult (Russian proletarian culture), 141142, 444nn78

race theory, 121125, 152, 212

racism, 37, 54, 6263, 69, 71, 76, 8587, 117, 121122, 126, 146, 151, 154, 169, 177, 180, 194, 212, 223, 225, 274, 330, 332, 335336, 338339, 343, 348, 355, 364, 381, 390391, 400, 435, 448, 453454, 458, 460, 464

Rackley, Alex, 303

Rainbow Coalition, 437

Randall, Dudley, 386

Randolph, A. Philip, 10

Ranger, Terence, 279280, 449n21

Ransom, Reverdy, 157

Raskin, Eleanor, 304

Reconstruction, 62, 80, 84, 87, 104, 113, 115, 118120, 128, 156, 164165, 226227, 315, 365, 426

Red Summer, 7677, 86, 340

religion: civil, 6768; BPM rejection of, 444n27; Civil War and, 97, 100102, 104105, 118, 135, 368, 416417; CRM and, 39; Cruse’s neglect of, 229; Marx on, 97, 226, 323; messianism, 6768, 101; mobilization abilities, 277; RNA and, 325326; slave religion, xv, 2526, 6769, 72, 75, 100102, 105112, 114, 118, 126, 129, 171, 367. See also African Methodist Episcopalian (AME) church; Black Church; black nationalism: religion and; Cleage, Albert

reparations, xviixix, 67, 117, 128, 132, 226229, 257, 311, 363366, 384, 430431; Forman and, 347, 366; Malcolm X on, 439n2; Moore and, 313314; RNA and, 313316, 324, 326327, 366

Republican Party, 133, 440n6

Republic of New Africa (RNA), xi, xviiixix, 2, 45, 29, 41, 130, 175, 191, 221, 278, 311329, 349, 360, 384; Black Legion of, 314315; “Malcolm X Doctrine” of, 311313; police and FBI raids on, 327328; sexism and polygamy in, 325; critiques of, xix, 323328

Revels, Hiram, 325

“reverse civilizationism,” xi, xiii, xv, xviii, xx, 33, 3940, 63, 129, 306, 423426; assumptions behind, xiii, 44, 423; BAM and, 376; CAP and, 373; Cleage and, 412413, 417, 419; Cruse and, 45, 178179, 199; Malcolm X and, xi, xiii, xv, 3034, 4142, 44, 77, 93, 95, 129, 130, 251, 257, 265, 376, 423425; RNA and, 322, 325326; Us and, 262264, 267, 269, 273; white supremacism and, 415

revolution, definition of, 138; types of, 138139

Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM), xi, xviixviii, 2, 29, 32, 41, 210, 233260, 283, 309, 312, 448n1; Boggs and, 212, 218, 394; BPP and, 283, 295, 300; Cruse and, 175, 177, 182, 191, 196, 230, 233235, 238; journals of (Black America, Soul Book), 191, 234, 235, 240, 359; Northern strategy of, 234235, 310; PAOCC and, 407; sexism and, 258259; critiques of, 242244, 247249, 257259, 448n9; twelve-point program of, 238240, 448n4; “World Black Revolution” essay, 236237

Revolutionary Union, 392, 454n10

revolutionary union movements (RUMs), 332333, 337338, 345, 347, 349350, 352, 357, 359366, 369

Rhodes, Jane, 61

Roach, Max, 376, 410

Robeson, Paul, 64, 219, 267, 441

Robinson, Cedric, 87, 97, 441n1

Robinson, Dean E., 71

Robinson, Pearl, 279

Rodgers, Carolyn, 386

Rodino, Peter, 393

Rodney, Walter, 87

Roediger, David, 119

Roosevelt, Eleanor, 15

Rosenberg, Susan, 304

Ross, Wanda, 299

Roundtree, Richard, 383

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 51

Rudd, Mark, 304, 451n34

Rudwick, Elliott, 53

Russian Revolution, 8, 29, 97, 119, 141, 369

Salaam, Kalamu ya, 386

Sales, William W., 32

Salimu, Muminina, 380

Sams, George, 303

Sanchez, Sonia, 290, 386

Satchell, Ronald “Doc,” 299

Save Our Sons and Daughters (SOSAD), 437438

Schoatz, Russell “Maroon,” 304

Scott, Cynthia, 335

Scott, Ron, 438

Scottsboro Boys case, 168, 228

Seale, Bobby, 234, 259, 283284, 291292, 298299, 383

Seaton, Ken (Msemaji), 260

“second ghettos,” 223, 381, 396, 429430; transformation into third ghettos, 223, 396, 429430

Sefu-Glover, Fred, 281

segregation, 2, 8, 15, 20, 36; Du Bois on, 158159, 170171, 445n21. See also separatism

self-determination, x, 78, 180, 186, 190, 227, 235, 313, 315, 454n10; economic, 194195; GOAL and, 312; PAOCC and, 412; Us and, 262

Senghor, Léopold Sédar, 286

separatism, 23, 67, 1819, 4950, 52, 56, 64, 66, 189

sexism, xvii, 41, 4547, 151, 229, 278279, 378379; the Boggs on, 447n13; Cleaver and, 290292. See also specific organizations

Shabazz, Betty, 312, 383

Shadd Cary, Mary Ann, 13, 46, 54, 57, 6061, 146147

Shafer, Boyd C., 50

Shakur, Assata, 300301, 304, 451n36

Shakur, Mutulu, 304

Shakur, Tupac, 304, 328

Shifflet, Lynn, 440n5

Shrine of the Black Madonna. See Pan-African Orthodox Christian Church

Sidbury, James, 105106

Sidney (black nationalist), 64

Sigidi, Charles, 263

Silverman, Jonathan, 61

Simms, Rupe, 444n11

Simone, Nina, 376

Situationist International, 446m 2

slave culture, 31, 6467, 71, 252, 263, 375, 413, 441n3

slave religion. See under religion

slave revolts, 32, 9899, 102, 103113, 132, 277, 297, 41415, 442n5, 442n10; Cleage on, 416417; RAM and, 241246. See also Civil War

Slave Revolution, xi, xv, xix, xxii, 26, 34, 48, 95102, 105, 113, 117, 119, 121, 126, 128129, 132135, 144, 152, 173, 224, 228, 231, 241242, 244245, 250, 277, 306, 329, 357, 361, 363, 368, 395, 415, 417, 424427

slavery, 2526, 6465, 80, 102103, 226, 242243, 275, 324, 364, 397; amendments ending, 315, 317319; black nationalism and, 1213, 43, 52, 5659, 6670; communication networks under, 113117; Cruse on, 183; Founding Fathers and, 117, 443n24; hired-out slaves, 103104, 106110, 112113, 117118, 126, 129, 369, 442n13, 443n19; LRBW on, 337; Malcolm X on, xi, xiii, 5, 7, 3032. See also reparations

Smith, Anthony D., 51

Smith, Cassandra, 345346

Smith, Kathleen, 303

Smith, Louis-Sedu, 281

Smith, Robert, 436, 454n8

Smith, Suzanne, 411

Snyder, Jack, 5152

social democracy, 33, 127, 205

Socialist Workers’ Party, 195

social media activism, 132, 435436, 455456nn23

Soledad Brothers, 304

“sorrow songs,” 33, 72, 121, 264

Soul Students Advisory Council, 259, 283

Soul Train, 269270

South End (student newspaper), 345346, 362

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 10, 360, 433

Spirit House (Newark), 375, 377, 380

Stalin, Josef, 51, 60, 78, 193, 195

Stanford, Max (aka Muhammad Ahmad), 234236, 240, 243246, 251257, 260, 448nn810

Starobin, Robert S., 103, 108

Stewart, Maria, 49, 54, 146

Stokes, Carl, 383, 453n5

“street force,” 218220, 253

strike and boycott strategies, 119120, 130, 151, 210; CRC and, 120, 155, 213, 338, 360; LRBW and, 329, 337338, 342, 344, 345, 347, 350, 361363; RAM and, 239242, 246247, 256257; in sports, 435436

Stuckey, Sterling, 3132, 5355, 6266, 6972, 234, 441n3

Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), 23, 22, 46, 191, 194, 208, 234, 281, 310, 312, 360, 387, 439n3

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), 46, 191, 234, 301, 304, 362, 450n31; critiques of, 450n34

Subira, George, 263

Sugrue, Thomas J., 223, 367, 452n8

Sunni Ali, Bilal, 328

Taft–Hartley Act, 453n22

Taifa, Nkechi, 315

Taifa Dance Troupe, 263, 269

talented tenth concept, 62, 147, 172, 173, 271, 276

Tate, Bennie, 342

Teemer (aka Akinsanya Kambon), 450n28

Temple, Fred, 340

Third World Press, xx, 373, 385386, 398

third world revolutions. See anticolonial struggles

Thomas, Norman, 168

Tometi, Opal, 435, 438, 455n2

Toure, Askia, 290

Touré, Sékou, 1, 273275

Tripp, Luke, 234, 335, 341, 345346, 352, 356

Trotsky, Leon (and Trotskyism), 142, 195, 211

Trump, Donald, 436

Truth, Sojourner, 146147

Tubman, Harriet, 146, 300, 325

Turner, Henry McNeal, 14, 44, 55, 60, 402

Turner, Nat, 32, 100, 102, 110112, 241, 243245, 300, 325, 415416, 443n17, 448n7

Tylor, Edward, 137

UHURU, 234, 300, 312, 335336, 339, 341342

Uhuru Sasa, 385

ujamaa, 313, 323, 325, 386

Umkhonto we Sizwe, 40

Underground Railroad, 57, 242, 247, 250, 443n23

United Automobile Workers (UAW), 335, 342344, 347, 349351

United Nations, 1516; BPP and, 311, 450n25; Malcolm X and, 56, 16, 41, 238, 311, 316; Moore’s appeals to, 229, 234, 313; RNA and, 33; Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 227

Universal Association of Ethiopian Women, 228, 313

Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), 6, 13, 77, 145, 157, 193194

uplift: racial, 57, 62, 66, 7475, 77, 149150; social, 146, 157; of women, 156

Urban League, 157

Urban Peace and Justice Movement, 437438

Us, x, xi, xviixviii, xx, 2, 5, 29, 32, 41, 130, 175, 177, 191, 210, 230, 260282, 309311, 380; Baraka and, 377, 381382, 386; BPP feud with, 259, 269, 273, 281282, 291, 295, 302, 322; militarization of, 281282; name of, xvii, 260, 282; PAOCC and, 407; critiques of, 263, 267, 272273, 277278, 450n24. See also kawaida

Van Deburg, William L., 5051

Vesey, Denmark, 32, 100, 102, 108110, 243, 414415, 443n14, 448n6

Viera, Rafael, 349

Vietnam War, 1, 26, 29, 34, 133, 227, 247249, 253, 296, 336, 362, 363, 366, 383, 389, 430431, 453n21; RAM and, 449n12; Tet Offensive, 247, 448n10

Voting Rights Act, 34, 228, 395, 431, 433

Walker, C. J., 446n4

Walker, David, 49, 5456, 64, 66, 70

Walker, Margaret, 386

Walton, Hanes, 47

Ward, Samuel Ringgold, 54, 60

Warden, Donald, 234, 260

Washington, Booker T., 114; Du Bois and, 165, 184186

Watson, Edna, 345346

Watson, John, 333335, 338, 341, 345346, 348, 352, 356, 362; Haywood and, 357, 359

Watts rebellion, 2, 3334, 254, 260, 269, 339

Watts Summer Festival, 269

Wattstax (film and record), 269

Weather Underground, 221, 304, 362, 451n34

Weaver, Joe, 452n14

Webb, Robert, 303

Webb, William, 116

Wells Barnett, Ida B., 146147, 154, 440n1, 445n12, 445n14, 445n18

West Central Organization (WCO), 344, 346

Western imperialism, xiiixiv, 3, 8, 13, 23, 25, 44, 87, 171, 181; RAM on, 236237; World War I and, 7677, 86, 165

Weusi, Jitu, xx, 385, 417

Whipper, William, 6263, 136

White, Walter, 15

white cultural revolution, 133134, 227, 366, 425426, 434

White Leftists, 46, 93, 221, 259, 300301, 327, 379; BPP and, 296297, 301; crimes and violence by, 303304, 451n34; RNA and, 327; sexism by, 46, 300, 379, 450n31

white supremacism, xiii, 12, 4, 8, 2021, 25, 29, 31, 3637, 56, 60, 63, 7677, 90, 119120, 127, 129130, 133134, 136, 172, 181, 210, 227, 287, 316, 364, 410, 424425, 427, 431; Boas on, 121; in Detroit, 349, 351; music challenges to, 203, 209; in postbellum era, xv, 117118, 128, 324; RAM and, 242, 258; reverse civilizationism and, 415

Wilkins, Roy, 10

Williams, Chancellor, 386, 398

Williams, John, 234, 335, 346, 352

Williams, Raymond, 137

Williams, Robert, xviii, 27, 234, 238239, 242, 245246, 339, 341, 448449nn911; military tactics of, 248249, 315; RNA and, 312313, 326

Willis, Raymond, 312

Wilson, George, 443n16

Wilson, Lionel, 298

Wilson, Woodrow, 51

women’s rights, 4, 14, 41, 46, 61, 8993, 119, 132, 145152, 453n7; Du Bois on, 156157; Claudia Jones on, 8993. See also specific organizations

Woodard, Komozi, 5, 379, 380381

Woodson, Carter G., 53, 56, 154, 157, 321

Woodson, Lewis, 64

Wooten, Chuck, 346, 352, 356

Wooten, Gracie, 345346

Worthy, William, 17, 400

Wright, R. R., Jr., 157

Wright, Richard, 286

X, Malcolm. See Malcolm X

X, Marvin, 290

Young, Coleman, xxi, 384385, 400, 419, 452n13, 453n5

Young, Robert, 64

Young, Whitney, 10

Zionism, 53, 384

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781438475448
Related ISBN
9781438475431
MARC Record
OCLC
1107700198
Pages
473-491
Launched on MUSE
2019-07-31
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC
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