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I appreciate the people and institutions that assisted in this project. This book would not have been possible without the encouragement, support and cooperation of many of the activists and intellectuals from the Black Power Movement that I discuss in these pages—some of whom have passed on; and, most importantly, Harold Cruse, whose work, more than any other from that era motivated this study. I want to thank Bishop Nkenge Abi, Muhammad Ahmad, Chris Alston, General Baker, Amiri Baraka, David Barber, Clementine Barfield, James Boggs, Grace Lee Boggs, Teferi Brent, Scott Brown, Cruz Caridad Bueno, Safiya Bukhari, Kathleen Cleaver, Sarah Fila-Bakabadio, Keith Gilyard, Tommy (Halifu) Jacquette, Rickey Hill, “Reparations Ray” Jenkins, Mack Jones, Wesley Kabaila, Anthony Kaye, Marian Kramer, Cicero Love, Chokwe Lumumba, Haki Madhubuti, Wilson Moses, Queen Mother Audley Moore, Akua Njeri, Imari Obadele, Robert Packer, Mrs. Rosa Parks, Geronimo Ji Jaga Pratt, Bishop Frank Reid, Cedric Robinson, Clovis (Jabulani) Semmes, Robert Smith, Robert Starks, James Taylor, Ronald Walters, Hanes Walton, Alvin Williamson, Andrew Zimmerman for their comments, suggestions, and/or discussions over the years about the substantive arguments and analyses in this work. Thanks for the encouragement and example of UNIA Division 407 members Ruth Smith, Leroy Jackson, and Arthur Thomas. Thanks also to Bishop Reid and the congregants of Bethel AME Church in Baltimore, Rev. Wendell Anthony and the congregants of Fellowship Chapel in Detroit, and the Liberation Film Series at Charles Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit for providing venues to present aspects of this work and inspiration to carry it out.

Parts of this work were presented at several conferences and symposia, including the 50th Anniversary of The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual at the University of San Francisco; the Civil Rights Conference at University of Tennessee-Martin; the Race, Roots & Resistance: Revisiting the Legacies of Black Power conference at the University of Illinois; the Transatlantic Roundtable on Religion and Race at Howard University; The Cost of Freedom, Debt and Slavery conference at Brooklyn College; the Millennium Conference at the London School of Economics; the Scholar Activism in the 21st Century conference at the British Library in London; the European Conference on African Studies at Université Sorbonne Nouvelle in Paris; the National Conference of Black Political Scientists in Chicago; the National Council for Black Studies in San Diego; and the 80th Anniversary Malcolm X Commemoration conference in Harlem, New York. I appreciate the comments, critiques, and suggestions of participants at each of these programs.

Parts of chapter 2 draw on my essay “Unintended Consequences of Cosmopolitanism: Malcolm X, Africa and Revolutionary Theorizing in the Black Power Movement in the US,” African Identities 16, no. 2 (2018): pp. 161–175, reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd ( Chapter 3 draws on my essay “Slave Religion, Slave Hiring, and the Incipient Proletarianization of Enslaved Black Labor: Developing Du Bois’ Thesis on Black Participation in the Civil War as a Revolution” Journal of African American Studies 19, no. 2 (2015): pp. 192–213; and chapter 4 draws from “Missing the Revolution Beneath Their Feet: The Significance of the Slave Revolution in the Civil War to the Black Power Movement,” Journal of African American Studies 22, no. 2–3 (2018): pp. 174–190. I acknowledge Nature/Springer/Palgrave for granting permission for their use. Parts of chapter 4 also draw from “The Revolution Will Not Be Theorised: The ‘Howard School’s Challenge to White Supremacist IR Theory,” Millennium 45, no. 3 (June 2017): pp. 492–510. I acknowledge SAGE Publications for granting permission for their use.

Finally, I’m grateful for the encouragement of family, friends, and colleagues over the more than a decade of writing this book. I am especially thankful to my son, Errol. I also hope the work is indicative of the potential of those of us who arose from poverty and were not among those for whom many viewed an academic career as an option; thus, I am grateful for my family and friends from the Brewster Douglass Housing Projects, Detroit, Michigan, especially my big sister, Patricia Delores. I dedicate this book to one of my former professors at the University of Michigan who challenged me to develop meaningful black social theory, which, given my often-strident critiques of some of his work at the time, would probably surprise him greatly to find that the result reflected in this book heavily draws on his own: Professor Harold Cruse.

Errol Anthony Henderson

University Park, Pennsylvania

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