publisher colophon

269INDEX

Page numbers in italics refer to figures.

acupuncture, 28, 37, 221n21

Adler, Alfred, 165

advertising, 34–35, 70–75, 170–173

and patient art, 191–192

testimonials in, 74, 76–78

Africa, 213–214

Aikin, J. M., 159

Airy, George Biddell, 117, 124

Airy, Hubert, 1, 111–112, 117–122, 124–125, 133, 192, 202

authority of his images, 9, 13, 19, 112, 125, 132, 140, 142, 217

reproduction of his images, 121–122, 124–125

alcohol, 72, 97, 180–181

avoidance of, 58, 201

alcoholism, 101, 174

Allbutt, Thomas Clifford, 96, 125, 127

allergy, 14, 144, 155, 157, 159–161, 167, 189

desensitization therapies, 160, 175–176, 187

theory of migraine, 16, 158, 182

alternative medicine, 75, 147

Alvarez, Walter, 165–166, 190

American Ad Hoc Committee on Classification of Headache, 179–180

American Headache Society, 211–212

amyl nitrite, 96, 97, 108, 175

anaphylaxis, 151, 160, 234n10

Andral, Gabriel, 113

animal parts, 54–55, 70. See also earthworms

Anstie, Francis, 97, 125

Anthony, Michael, 177

antidepressants, 176, 206

antifebrine, 107, 108

antipyrin, 106, 107, 108, 126

apoplexy, 29, 51, 52, 62, 71, 72, 117, 127

apothecaries, 60, 69–70, 72

Aretaeus of Cappadocia, 27–28

arsenic, 97, 108

art therapy, 20, 190–191

asthma, 15, 122–123, 129, 152, 160, 212

astrology, 66–69, 71, 83

and phlebotomy, 39–41

astronomy, 117–118

asylums, lunatic, 96–98, 99, 128

Sussex County, 96–98, 108

West Riding, 96, 127

aura: in art, 1–2, 13, 21, 140–141, 146–147, 150, 192–193, 199, 204, 206, 208–209

causes of, 120, 124, 180

centrality of, in modern migraine categories, 19, 132–133, 144, 153–154, 183

and CGRP, 211

and cortical spreading depression, 180

diagnostic primacy of, 9, 144, 153–154, 217

diagrams of, 1, 110–111, 117, 140

duration of, 5, 201

in Epidemics, 27

epileptic, 138

fortification spectrum, 1, 113–115, 118, 120, 126, 135, 143

gen-dered experience of, 7

hemiopsy, 88, 116–117, 120

and Hildegard of Bingen, 145–147

ocular spectra, 114–116, 119

scintillating scotoma, 1, 118, 135, 141–142, 192

sensory symptoms of, 6, 180

zigzag, 6, 88, 103, 110, 116, 138, 140, 185, 192

Bacon, Francis, 80, 113

Bald’s Leechbook, 18, 22–27, 35, 38

Barrough, Philip, 48–49, 58, 69–70

Bartholomaeus Anglicus, 30–32, 35

Bath, 62, 65

Beard, George, 126–128

Beck, Mr., 110–112, 133

belladonna, 98, 107, 108

Berkeley, George, 75

bilious headache, 81, 90, 92, 94, 122, 124, 217

biliousness, 84, 90–92, 94–95, 183

Blagden, Sir Charles, 81–83

Blau, Joseph N. (Nat), 150, 175, 180, 192, 202

blood, 3, 12, 31, 35–41, 76

circulation of, 48, 180

cleansing of, 66, 71

deficiency and surplus of, 92–93

humoral, 26, 28, 48, 149

supply to the brain, 91, 92

blood-brain barrier, 5, 12, 212

bloodletting. See phlebotomy

blood platelets, 12, 177–178

Blount, Thomas, 62

bodily constitution, 91, 108, 116–117, 130

in humoral theory, 25, 27

inherited, 164, 190

in phlebotomy, 35

society’s corruption of, 84–85

Boehringer Ingelheim, 184

Boorde, Andrew, 47–48, 57

Borumborad, Dr. Achmet, 76–78

botox, 213

Brain, Walter Russell, 157

Bray, George, 160

breastfeeding, 31, 92–93, 102, 130, 222n37

Brewster, David, 117, 188

British Migraine Association, 20, 184, 186, 189

British Ophthalmological Society, 110–111

Broca, Paul, 139

Brunton, Thomas Lauder, 136, 138, 142

Buchan, William, 92, 116, 130

Bullein, William, 39, 50

Burleigh, Lord, 61

Burroughs Wellcome, 170

Bury, Michael, 102

Butter, Jean, 191–192

Buxton, 61–66

Buzzard, Thomas, 105

caffeine, 98, 108, 127, 131, 170, 174

calcium channel blockers, 176

calomel, 102, 107, 126

cannabis, 96–98, 108, 127, 131

Carroll, Lewis, 150

Cartwright, Thomas, 50

Cave, Jane, 74

cephalalgia, 27

cephelaea, 27, 30

CGRP blocking antibodies, 12, 211–212

gepants, 212

Cheyne, George, 84

children, 7, 25, 88, 128–130, 156, 163, 189

age of onset in, 7, 160

artworks by, 190, 199, 200

personality of, 166

symptoms in, 129

treatments for, 72, 126, 205

Chinese medicine, 28

chlorodyne, 105

chocolate, 72, 91, 160, 161

chronic daily headache, 4

chronic illness, 14–15, 62, 77–78, 187, 196

as biographical disruption, 102

chronic migraine, 148, 208, 211, 213, 216

and long-term medication, 11, 212, 215

and socioeconomic status, 7

civilization, migraine as result of, 90, 139

classic (or classical) migraine, 6, 158, 180–181, 192

classification, 6, 27–8, 81, 89, 90–93, 122, 179–181

debates about, 92–93, 152–153, 157–158, 162

and drug response, 182

standardization of, 6, 181, 216

class status. See socioeconomic status

Clendinning, John, 97

clinical trials, 158, 169, 173–174, 180–181

inadequate representation in, 183, 214

clinics, 182, 186, 187–189

City of London, 175, 180–181, 192

Copenhagen Acute Headache Clinic, 189

Putney, 175–176, 186–187

clonidine, 189, 191

Clouston, Thomas, 97, 125

Clowes, William, 38

cluster headache, 4, 181

coffee, 72, 91, 98, 127, 131

Cogan, Thomas, 52

Collins, Thomas, 49

common migraine, 6, 180–181, 216

comorbidity, 61, 68, 77

Constantine the African, 30, 31

Conway, Anne, 136, 137, 147–149, 150, 153–154, 156

Copland, William, 50, 52

Corlyon, Mrs., 18, 42–46, 53–55, 57–58

correspondence, 12, 19, 61–62, 78–83, 87, 117–119

cortical spreading depression, 180

creativity, 150–151, 190–191, 195, 208–209, 239n27

criminal trials, 93–95

Critchley, Macdonald, 151, 157, 160, 162, 168, 182, 187

Cromwell, Thomas, 63

Crookshank, Francis Graham, 164–165

Cullen, William, 79–80, 84, 90, 106, 227n87

Culpeper, Nicholas, 50, 53

Cumings, John, 178

cure: absence of, 11, 15, 97–98, 176, 182, 212

claims of, 22, 28, 34, 46, 57, 65–66, 71–78, 126

Curran, Don, 177

Curtis, Thomas, 81–83

Cushing, Harvey, 148, 155–156

Darwin, Charles, 13, 150

de Sauvages, Boissier, 81

diagnosis, 9, 15, 152, 158

aura as requirement for, 9, 144, 153–154, 217

difficulties of, 147–148, 151–152, 234n68

instructions for, 48

modern frameworks for, 179–181

to placate patients, 153. See also retrospective diagnosis

Didion, Joan, 189–190, 204

diet: and blood platelets, 178, 188–189

faulty, 84–85, 91, 168, 188

management of, 206

and nervous disease, 62

as self-help, 75, 105

as treatment, 91, 93, 102, 103, 107, 123, 126, 131

digitalis, 97, 107, 175

digitization, 17, 209–210

Dioscorides, 26, 50, 55

disability, 5, 14, 78, 214–215

discrimination, 7

disease concepts, 15–16

doctor-patient relationships, 12–13, 158, 79, 81–82, 130

in art, 185, 194–195

effect of multiple theories on, 163

and gender, 9

and gendered marketing, 171–173

and patient personality, 167–168

Dodoens, Rembert, 50, 70

domestic medicine, 43

Doré, Gustav, 140, 142

Dr. Stephen’s water, 54

drugs: abortive, 11, 15, 178–179, 208

in artworks, 206, 207

and blood-brain barrier, 5, 12

and end of psychological framework, 168–169, 176

to induce attack, 126

by injection, 169–170, 171, 174–175, 177, 213

migraine-specific, 169–170, 176, 211–212

physiological mechanisms of, 169–170, 174–175, 177–178

response and classification, 182

side effects of, 11, 97, 107, 170–171, 174, 176, 179, 207, 212

Dublin, 76–78

du Bois-Reymond, Emile, 125

Dunbar, William, 4, 33–34, 35

Eadie, Mervyn, 16, 132

earthworms, 11, 43, 54–57

Ebers papyrus, 27

Elizabeth I (Queen), 61

Elliott, R. H., 143–144, 151

Elyot, Thomas, 46

emigranea, 4, 24, 29–31, 41, 145

emotions: as cause, 67, 87, 95, 123, 127, 133

effect of migraine on, 207, 215

in humoral system, 25

migraine as pique, 80

and personality, 166–167

repression of, 164–165

as symptoms, 5, 123

endocrinology, 5–6, 16, 144, 151, 158, 161–163

“English Spaw,” the, 66

epilepsy, 5, 9, 82, 101

and degenerate heredity, 128, 129, 190

eugenic views of, 163–164

as functional nervous disorder, 122–123, 128

at National Hospital, 99–100

and “nerve-storm theory,” 125–126, 127, 152

relationship to migraine, 4, 62, 95, 100, 122, 125, 132–133

and social class, 128

treatment of, 29, 66, 71, 97, 106–107, 156

trepanning for, 139–140

ergometrine, 170

ergotamine, 20, 168–176, 187

as “dirty” drug, 174

effects on pain, 169–170

side effects of, 170, 174, 207

ergotin, 131

ergotism, 174

ergot of rye, 97, 108, 169, 173–174

E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, 203

eugenics, 129, 163–164, 235n30

eyestrain, 152

Ferguson, Fergus, 157, 162–163

Ferrier, David, 99

feverfew, 54, 205

fibromyalgia, 14

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 212

foods, 84–85, 90, 204

avoidance of “smoky” foods, 57–58, 199

sensitivity to, 155, 160, 161

tyramine in, 178

Fordyce, John, 83

Forman, Simon, 66–67

Fothergill, John, 84–85, 91, 113, 122

Frederica, Duchess of York, 87

French culture, influence of, 85–87

Freud, Sigmund, 165

Friedman, Arnold P., 179

Galen, 3–4, 23–24, 32, 138

on bloodletting, 35, 39, 41

theory of migraine, 25, 30, 41

on trepanation, 138

Garrett Anderson, Elizabeth, 130, 188

gender, 3, 8, 9–11, 14, 17, 133, 192–193

differing experiences of men and women, 6–7, 123–124, 127, 218

emergence of assumptions about, 19, 62, 89, 108

in marketing, 171–173

in nineteenth century, 92–93, 124, 130

and personality theories, 167–168

prevalence ratio, 6–7, 67, 130–131, 181, 218

and social class, 129–130, 133–134

and stereotypes of national character, 86–87

genetics, 5, 12, 203, 213–214, 215–216

Gerard, John, 57

Glaxo, 179, 188, 208

global burden, 5, 9, 213–215

Goadsby, Peter, 182–183, 212

Goltman, Alfred, 155–157, 160

gout, 34, 40, 46, 63, 90, 116, 125–126, 152

Gowers, William, 1

on diagrams of aura, 110–112, 133

on migraine and nervous disease, 131–132, 133–134, 157

at the National Hospital, 99, 103, 106–107, 108

Gowers’ Mixture, 107, 108, 175

Graham, John R., 1, 167–170, 174, 178

blind men and elephant parable, 158–159

and classification, 179

Grant, Ulysses S., 150

Green, Gerald, 189

Greene, Richard, 97–98

Guillemeau, Jacques, 39

Gyer, Nicholas, 39

Haig, Alexander, 126, 133, 160

half headache, 22–23, 25, 26–27, 34

logic of, 29

Halford, Sir Henry, 87

Hall, Marshall, 91

Hanington, Edda, 177–178, 183

Harvey, William, 138, 148

headache, 3–4

characteristics of, 5–6, 48, 88, 131, 152

classical division into three types of, 27–28, 46, 92

and diagnosis of migraine, 131, 152, 158

hot or cold causes of, 25–26, 31–32, 41, 49, 66

internal or external causes of, 30, 46, 167

migraine as more than a, 9, 35, 84, 218

one-sided, 4, 23, 28, 29, 34, 38, 80, 102–103, 113

“open head” as cause of, 42–43, 46

and “smoky” foods, 57–58

headache disorders, 9, 19, 94, 214–215

Heberden, William, 113

hemicrania, 3, 4, 8, 23–41, 68, 80, 148

changing meaning of, 19, 82

descriptions of, 3, 47–48

humoral causes of, 25–26, 41, 90

hemicranick, 62

herbal remedies, 11, 22–24, 29, 32–33, 43–46, 49–60

as evidence of chronic migraine, 58–60

kitchen ingredients in, 22, 27, 43, 49, 52, 57–58

regional adaptations of, 53, 59–60

therapeutic action of, 52

herbals, printed, 50, 52–53, 57

herbs, 22, 26, 43

betony, 49, 53

chamomile, 49–50, 53, 54

daisy, 57

dill, 49

houseleek, 49, 56, 58

laurel, 22, 33, 59, 106

nettle, 22, 26–27

pellitory, 26, 50, 52–53, 54

qualities of, 26–27, 49–54, 56, 59

rosemary, 29, 43, 49–54, 59

sage, 50, 52–54, 57

spikenard, 32–33, 83

stavesacre, 53

valerian, 32, 79, 83, 108, 131

vervain, 49–50, 53

heredity, 3, 8, 19, 96, 128–129, 148, 162, 202

and allergy, 160

in artworks, 202

and degeneration, 129, 163–165, 217

of nervous disorders, 90, 96, 101, 124, 190

Herschel, Sir John, 114–120, 124

heterocrania, 28

Hickes, Sir Michael, 61

Hildegard of Bingen, 29, 140–147, 149–150, 153–154

diagnosis of, 135–137, 217

her illness, 29, 145

medieval historians on, 145–147, 149

on migraine treatment, 29

as patron saint, 136, 147

Hinterberger, Anthony, 177

Hippocratic corpus, 25, 27, 138

histamine, 175, 176

hives. See nettle rash

hormones, 161–162, 178

pure and synthetic extracts, 162–163

therapies, 175–176, 187

House of Commons debate, 186–187

human genome, 216

humoral theory, 3, 8, 24, 25–26, 28–31, 40–41, 62

rejection of, 125–26

humors, 16, 24–31, 35–40, 44, 46–49, 57, 68–69, 147, 217

Humphrey, Patrick, 178–179, 188

hypothalamus, 5

hysteria, 4, 19, 62, 81, 93, 127, 128, 130

as female disorder, 93, 94–96

hysterical migraine, 81, 93, 95–96

identity, 62, 86, 185

images, 2–3, 13, 18

for bloodletting, 37, 39–40

as diagnostic authority, 133, 135, 140–142

in Migril marketing, 171–173

retrospective diagnosis using, 135, 138, 141–147

as scientific evidence, 9, 111–112, 121–122, 169–170, 191–192. See also Migraine Art Competitions

Imitrex. See sumatriptan

inflammation, 5, 12, 48, 131, 152, 161

insanity, 95–96, 129, 132, 164

intelligence: and children, 133, 163, 166

and excess study, 84, 91, 116–117, 164

migraine as disease of, 86, 126, 128, 130, 142–143, 149, 165

International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD), 6, 181, 213, 215, 216, 242nn25–26

International Headache Society, 181

internet, 209–210

irritation, nervous, 9, 91, 124, 149, 151–152, 211

Jackson, John Hughlings, 88, 96, 99–100, 125

Johnson, Pamela Hansford, 186

Jones, John, 66–67

Jung, Carl, 165

Kahlo, Frida, 195

Kamen, Paula, 9, 37, 75

Kempner, Joanna, xiii, 9–10, 96, 216

Kipling, Rudyard, 4, 150

Klebs, Arnold, 141

Labarraque, Henri, 91

Lance, James, 177

Langham, William, 54

Lardreau, Esther, 81, 86

Latham, Peter W., 124–125, 131, 157

Leão, Aristides, 180

leech, itinerant, 18, 34–35, 113

leeches, 38, 74, 79, 228n11

Lees, F. Arnold, 95

legitimacy, 9–10, 87, 127, 153, 165, 176, 187, 216

and creativity, 195

lesion, 100, 125

Levy, Andrew, 13, 124, 139, 149–151, 193

Leyton, Neville, 175, 186–187

life, effect of migraine on, 6, 59, 78, 89, 94–95, 102–106, 167–168

in art, 184, 194–207

in marketing, 171–73

life events, effect of, 68, 90, 102, 106

lifestyle, 8, 62, 84, 90, 168, 208

Lifting the Burden’s Global Campaign Against Headache, 214

literature, 80, 150, 186

Liveing, Edward, 4, 112, 122–127, 148

ongoing influence of, 132–134, 144, 157, 160–161

On Megrim, 19, 122–124

lobotomy, 11, 156, 190

Lucas-Champonnièré, Just, 139

MacGregor, Anne, 7, 181, 182

magic, 29, 143

Mary, Queen of Scots, 65

masquerade balls, 85–87

Mead, Richard, 83

Mease, James, 91

medical imaging, 13, 182, 216

medical knowledge: divergence of lay and professional, 94–95, 108

exchange between manuscript and print, 49–50, 60

international exchange of, 81–82, 83, 126–128, 159, 180–181, 189

lay, 33–35, 43–45, 58–60, 94–95, 101–103

moments of change in, 14, 57, 62, 133, 168–170, 176, 179–183, 185, 212

professional, 22–23, 25, 37, 69–70, 102, 119, 122, 131–134, 158

twentieth-century fragmentation of, 157–168

and use of history, 136, 142, 154

medical marketplace, 18, 62, 72–75, 78–79

medical texts: early printed, 4, 17, 31–32, 39–41, 46–50, 52, 56–57

head-to-toe arrangement of, 24–25, 30, 46

as stores of knowledge, 45, 69–70

translation of, 4, 24, 30–33, 35, 39, 50, 80, 148, 181

medication overuse headache, 215

megrim: and blood deficiency, 93

changing meaning of, 4, 8, 19, 95, 217

and dizziness, 80–81

early modern ideas about, 39–41, 47–48

in the head, 44, 68, 77, 80

in horses, 80–81

nineteenth-century revival of, 122

preference for French term over, 131

spellings of, 4, 53–54, 57–58

men, 7, 27, 123–125, 127, 131, 167, 217–218

accounts of migraine by, 33–34, 61–62, 68–69, 76–77, 81–83, 93–4, 102, 103–104

art by, 191–193, 205

effects of war on, 164–165

marketing aimed at, 170–173

scientific authority of, 110–112, 114–122, 133–134, 143

menopause, 103, 104, 129

menstrual migraine, 158, 163

menstruation, 3, 16, 6–7, 37, 96, 100, 130–131, 152, 183

disorders of, 93, 153, 159

hormones and, 162

Mental Deficiency Act (1913), 164

mental illness, 14, 15, 51, 95–96, 171, 177

creative responses to, 191

and hereditary diathesis, 129, 132, 164

in institutions, 96

treatments for, 71, 97, 156

metaphors, 2, 196–198

arrows, 8, 34, 194, 195, 205

burning, 18, 30, 196, 199

companion, 4, 199, 204

computer, 1, 5

gendered, 9, 87

hammers, 30, 196, 199

historical specificity of, 103

of holding down, 197, 198

monsters, 196

nails, 193, 195

for pain, 8, 30, 196–198

people-like, 196, 197

piercing, 30, 196

telephone, 197

television, 201

tools, 196, 200

vise, 8, 147

of weight, 196

methysergide, 176, 177

Michaelangelo, 203

migraine: as acute and chronic, 12, 14–15, 18, 44, 58

biochemical processes in, 12, 177–180, 215

as chronic, 61–62, 67–69, 94–95, 103–106

French meaning of, 80, 82–83

as moral failure, 10, 85, 86–87, 165, 189–190, 216

as multiple disorders, 180–181

theories of, 9, 12, 16, 19–20, 23, 108, 151–153, 159, 176

Migraine Action, 184, 209, 238n4

Migraine Art Competitions, xiv, 2, 13, 20–21, 184–185, 191–210, 217

children’s entries, 185, 199, 202

driving, 201–202

everyday life, 184, 185, 204–208

isolation, 197, 198

pain, 193–210

social life, 199, 205–206

winners of, 192–193

migraine lunatique, 82

migraine personality, 20, 86, 124, 157, 165–168, 189–190

migraineur, xiii, 185, 189–190

migraine with aura (MA), 6, 158, 180–183

migraine without aura (MO) 6, 180–183

Migril, 170–175, 194

modernity, 84, 126–127, 128, 168, 171–173, 201

monoclonal antibodies. See CGRP blocking antibodies

moon, 40, 82–83

morphine, 105, 107, 126

motherhood, 89, 92–93, 96, 123, 130, 205

Moulton, Thomas, 50

Moysey, Abel, 81

Murphy, Patrick J., 92–93

Napier, Richard, 66–69

National Health Service (NHS), 187, 213

National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, xiii, 88–90, 98–109, 110, 125, 128, 175

nerve-storm, 123–125, 130, 131, 151, 157, 159, 161, 165

nervous disorders, 90, 96, 116–117, 160

ability to change into each other, 125, 127, 132

effect of world wars on research into, 144, 164–165

functional, 108, 122, 144

and luxurious living, 62, 84

migraine as, 84–85, 95, 132, 135

nettle rash, 88, 108

neurasthenia, 100, 126–128, 130, 133

neurology, 2, 12, 15–16, 158, 175, 179–183

approach to migraine’s history, 16–17, 148–150, 137, 143–145, 154

in clinics, 187–188

foundations of, 99, 148, 218, 229n25

and identity, 190

and migraine as “symphony,” 180

neurotic diathesis, 126, 129

racial theories in, 213–214

and vascular theories, 144, 180, 188

nitroglycerine, 107, 131, 175

objectivity, 14, 108, 110, 112, 120, 191, 218

occipital nerve stimulation, 213

ocular migraine, 81

ocular theory, 116, 151, 182

Old Bailey, 93–95

Olesen, Jes, 174, 180–182, 189

opioids, 11, 174

opium, 76, 97, 106, 114, 126

Osler, William, 139–140, 141

outsider art, 190–191

Owen, Gilbert Roy, 147

pain, 7–10, 14–15

artistic representations of, 21, 193–210

in children, 7, 129

chronic, 77–78

in classical definitions, 3–4, 19, 25, 27–28

denial of, 19–20, 112, 115, 117, 124

discrimination, 7

effect of drugs on, 105, 131, 169–170, 179

effect of serotonin on, 177

and gender, 5–7, 171–173

intensity of, 23–24, 34, 68–69, 102–107, 139

language of, 103, 240n42

location of, 30–31, 46–47, 89, 100, 122, 148, 195

medieval, 24, 29, 30–31, 33–34

quality of, 48–49, 56, 67–69, 70, 84, 103, 113, 122, 131, 155

severity of, 30, 34, 48, 81, 103–104, 113, 193–199, 217

shape of, 47–48

from windiness, 30, 48, 70

pain relief, 8, 20, 32, 79, 149

cannabis for, 98

fantasies of, 139

pharmacological, 105, 107, 131, 169–172

politics of, 187–188, 212–213

promises of, 70–71, 77–78

paralysis, 96, 99

Paré, Ambroise, 48, 80

Parry, Caleb Hillier, 91, 113

Partridge, John, 49

patients, 9–13

advocacy, 20, 185, 188

casenotes, 12, 67–69, 88–90, 99–107

compliance with treatment, 58, 95, 174

confidentiality, 17

information for, 41, 47, 57, 170–171

in institutions, 19, 88–90, 99–107

and patienthood, 12–13, 19, 191

personality of, 165–168, 176

reliability of, 9, 14, 101, 119, 124, 191

and therapeutic experimentation, 89, 106–107, 155–156, 169–170, 177, 180–181, 182, 188–189. See also doctor-patient relationships

Pechey, John, 53

pharmaceutical industry, 185, 187

pharmaceutical research, 178–181, 182–183, 186–191, 211–212

funding for, 9, 182

pharmacology, 96–98, 105–108

phenacetin, 106, 107, 108

phlebotomy, 12, 28, 35–41, 44, 68, 70, 74, 83, 91, 149

almanacs, 39–40

astrological considerations in, 39–41

derivative and revulsive, 38–39

instructions for, 31, 35–40

patient care in, 37

scars of, 14

photography, 120

Picasso, Pablo, 150

pituitary gland, 144, 147, 162

Pliny the Elder, 25, 30, 32

poetry, 33–34, 39, 74

potassium bromide, 97, 105, 106, 107, 108, 128, 130, 152

Potter, Samuel, 108

poverty, 76–78, 99, 130, 133, 168. See also socioeconomic status

pregnancy, 163, 174, 189

prevalence, 5, 17, 181, 213–215

in children, 7, 186

of chronic migraine, 7, 11

gender ratio, 6–7, 67, 130–131, 181, 218

Prior, Thomas, 76

prophylaxis, 38, 131, 163, 175–176, 211–212

proprietary medicines, 70–74, 105, 107

psychiatry, 96–98, 129, 156, 158, 165, 170, 176, 182

psychoanalysis, 164–165

psychological theories of migraine, 16, 144, 164–168, 182, 190

criticism of, 168, 176, 186

quackery, 67, 75, 85–86, 149, 217

Queen Square, 88, 98–99, 108–109. See also National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic

quinine, 97, 102, 106

race and ethnicity, 7, 17, 139, 213–214, 215

Rachford, Benjamin, 130

Raskin, Neil, 176

recipe collections, manuscript, 11–12, 42, 44–45, 49–50

Regimen Sanitatis Salerni, 39

religion, 29, 61–65, 78, 140–141, 145–147, 195

retrospective diagnosis, 14–16, 135–137, 141–144, 147–151, 153–154

rheum, 4, 48–49, 52–54, 65, 70

rheumatism, 160

rheumatoid arthritis, 102, 212

Robinson, Derek, 150, 191–192, 207

Royal Society of London, 81, 119–120, 121

Royal Society of Medicine, 141, 152–153

Sābūr ibn Sahl, 32

Sacks, Oliver, 144–145, 190, 196

Salmon, William, 71–2

Sandoz Chemical Company, 169–170

sciatica, 61

sedatives, 11, 29, 83, 174, 175–176, 187

self-experimentation, 83, 106, 126

self-medication, 74–75, 77, 105, 106, 165

Semmes, Raphael Eustace, 155–156

serotonin, 12, 176–179

Shaw, Miss, recipe collection, 50

sick headache, 19, 89, 101, 113, 124–125, 158, 206, 217

and blood, 91–2, 93

distinct from migraine, 122, 152

emergence of term, 4, 81, 90

and errors of diet, 84–85, 93

and gender, 130

as lay knowledge, 91–95

and neurasthenia, 127

Singer, Charles, 135, 141–146, 153

sinuses, 81, 91, 152–153, 162

sleep, 31, 147, 175

socioeconomic status, 7, 17, 88–90, 92, 108, 123–124, 130, 217

and access to drugs, 212–213. See also poverty

Speed, John, 63–64

spices, 22, 32, 43, 49

cumin, 27, 43, 48, 59, 68

imported, 49, 50, 59

mustard, 22, 26–27, 33, 43, 49, 50, 52, 58

nutmeg, 32–33, 43

Staker, John, 81

stigma, xiii, 99, 127, 196, 216

stimulants, 97, 98, 174

St. John, Johanna, 54

stomach: disturbance of, 19, 30, 77

in Galenic thought, 3, 25, 81–83, 90–91, 103, 104, 113, 116

medicine for, 48, 54, 66, 79

in migraine art, 194, 196, 206

sympathy with nerves of the head, 84

sumatriptan, 178–179, 182, 208

surgery, 11, 20, 23, 155–156, 175

Symonds, C. P., 152

Symonds, John Addington, 122

symptoms, 3–4, 5–6, 34, 42, 113

in art, 193–196, 199, 204, 206

auditory, 30, 103, 122, 138

clusters of, 68

dizziness, 8, 28, 76, 80–81, 100, 127, 217

firsthand accounts of, 89, 99–107, 113, 118, 189

gastric, 4, 81, 117

nausea, 4, 5, 28, 90, 112, 153, 155, 170–171, 174, 176, 178–189

phonophobia, 147, 180

photophobia, 5, 28, 30, 34, 147, 180

postdrome, 103, 180

prodrome, 103, 180

sensory, 34, 41, 100, 118, 131, 152, 196–197

Talbot, Alathea, 42, 44, 45, 225n56

tea, 90, 98, 126, 127, 131, 188

tension-type headache, 181, 214

terminology, xiii–xiv

changes in, 3–4, 19, 80–81, 82, 94–96

influence of French ideas about, 4, 82–83, 122

tetanus, 96

theriac, 29, 91

Thomson, Francis, 18, 61–63

Thompson, Theophilus, 91

Tissot, Samuel Auguste David, 84, 113, 122–123

Todd, John, 150

Topcliffe, Richard, 61, 65

Townsend, family recipe collection, 53

toxins, 151, 152, 159, 182

tranquilizers, 171, 175, 187

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, 37

treatments, 11–12

access to, 7, 99, 212–213

behavioral, 167–168

cost of, 34, 70, 72, 212–213

drinks and gargles, 22, 43

efficacy of, 31, 59, 77–78, 95, 106, 152, 157, 169–170, 180, 208

electrical, 105, 131

experimental, 13, 96–98, 107, 188

inadequacies of, 74–75, 105, 151, 174–176, 188, 206, 210

nard oil, 32–33

for an open head, 42–43, 45

patient compliance with, 95, 174

pills, 1, 71–75, 171–172, 204, 207

plasters and caps, 13, 32, 43, 49–50, 55–59, 68, 70, 91

purgative, 28, 49, 57, 68

and undertreatment, 9, 215

warming, 32, 52

Tredgold, Alfred, 163–164

trepanation, 136, 137–140, 141

trigeminovascular system, 4, 12, 182, 211

trigger factors, 11, 103, 158, 204

triptans, 181, 182, 208, 237n93

Trotter, Thomas, 90

Twarog, Betty Mack, 177

tyramine, 177–178, 188–189

Urbach, Erich, 161, 163–64

uric acid theory, 126, 159

urine analysis, 34

vapors: ascent of, 25, 48–49, 80

as nervous disorder, 62, 76, 84

therapeutic action of, 52

vascular theories, 5, 12, 124, 144, 149, 216

compatibility with personality theories, 169

demise of, 180, 182–183

influence on classification, 179–180

rise to prominence of, 157–158, 166, 176

vasoconstriction, 12, 170, 176–178

vasodilation, 9

drug effects on 107, 169–170, 175, 178, 211

pain due to, 5, 124, 138, 157–158

vasomotor theory, 125, 129, 131

Vaughan, Warren T., 160

vein man diagrams, 13, 35–40

vertigo, 4, 8, 51, 62, 68, 71–72, 80–81, 107, 116

Vicary, Thomas, 52

vomiting: in art, 194, 199, 207

caused by serotonin fluctuations, 178

in childhood, 129

as drug side effect, 174

as relief, 113

as symptom, 5, 27, 48–49, 103–106, 155, 158, 178

as treatment, 79, 83, 91

von Hilden, Wilhelm Fabry, 138

Walker, Vera, 161, 174

waters: for bathing, 18, 61–66, 82, 149

chemical properties of, 64, 65–66, 75–76

to drink, 46, 54, 75–76, 85, 149, 159

herbal, 31, 33

hot to put feet in, 38–39

weather, 39, 79, 158, 189

Wilkinson, Marcia, 175, 180–181, 188, 192

Wilks, Samuel, 106, 128, 130

Willis, Thomas, 99, 122, 138, 147–148

Wilson, Peter, 186

Woakes, Edward, 169

Wolff, Harold, 166–169, 178, 179

Wollaston, William Hyde, 115

women, 3, 5–7

artists, 184–185, 194–198, 201–209

and clinical trials, 183, 214

and functional disorders, 127–128

as healers, 24, 45–47, 54, 149

and humoral theory, 26

as inpatients, 99–102, 103, 104–107, 130

knowledge networks, 45

marginalization of, 3, 108

as “martyrs,” 89, 93, 130

and personality theories, 165–168, 174

portrayed as sufferers, 3, 16, 86–87, 92–93, 95, 108, 165–168, 171

pressures of domestic life on, 123, 130, 133, 204–205, 208

relationship with doctors, 9, 94–95, 100–107, 123, 168

reproductive disorders of, 93–95, 100, 114, 162, 166

Woolf, Virginia, 150, 196

work: as cause of migraine, 48, 123–124, 130–131, 158, 168

effects of migraine on ability to, 62, 77–78, 89, 93–95, 102–104, 171–172

World Health Organization (WHO), 213–214

Previous Chapter

Bibliography

Additional Information

ISBN
9781421429502
Related ISBN
9781421429489
MARC Record
OCLC
1090496289
Pages
269-276
Launched on MUSE
2019-06-19
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.