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N O T E S PREFACE 1. Díaz 1989: 3–24. 2. See Farriss 1984: 12–25; Means 1917; Chamberlain 1948. The conquest also was an ongoing, never completed process. See Restall 1997. 3. Roys 1943: 33–37; Farriss 1984: 125–131; Coe 1987: 155–160; Quezada 1993: 32–58; Restall 1997: 178–182. 4. Ricard (1966) rightfully asserted that the Spaniards, and in particular the mendicant friars, attempted to engage in a spiritual conquest of the indigenous peoples. However (see Lockhart 1992: 203–260), this spiritual conquest never was completed and never entirely repressed indigenous spirituality. On this point, see Farriss 1984: 286–351; Restall 1997: 148–165. 5. On the development of Maya culture through the colonial years, see Farriss 1984: 286–351; Restall 1997: 121–165. Note that Farriss sees radical change in Maya culture, while Restall emphasizes continuity. On the notion of hybridity, see Bhabha 1994: 112–122; García Canclini 1995: 206–263. NOTES ON TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION 1. Hanks 1988. 2. See Tozzer 1977: 39–40. 3. See Tozzer 1977: 66–80. 4. Edmonson 1986: 2–7. 5. See Hanks 1988. CHAPTER ONE 1. The Moon Goddess and the Virgin Mary do speak in an altered form. Here I am arguing that it is their engagement in speech, within the text, that presents us with lessons about the ways in which sexual desire and power related to the colonial Maya people. These figures worked with others to control the cultural matrix and thus to empower and/or disempower particular actors. See Spivak 1988 for some explication on the speech acts of “subalterns” and the relationship of those speech acts to the broader cultural codes. 2. The Maya population was reduced by 70–80 percent in two major epidemics of the sixteenth century. For an extensive demographic analysis, see Farriss 1984: 57– 67. Also see Restall 1997: 3. Despite such a massive upheaval, the Maya were able to maintain many of their communities. Matthew Restall’s monumental book (1997) is testament to such a survival. 3. See Patch 1993: 94–133 and passim. The Yucatec economy expanded from the middle of the seventeenth century to the early eighteenth. Despite the economic decline following this period, the economy continued to place great stress on land and labor in large parts of Yucatán. 4. See Hunt 1974; Farriss 1984: 355–388; Restall 1997: 281–292, 305–312. 5. On the Maya-language texts, see Restall 1997: 229–292. On the Spanish texts, see Farriss 1984: 399–406. 6. Mayathan (literally, “Maya word”) referred to speeches and texts of some importance , either political or religious. 7. See Thompson 1970: 363–373. 8. The Moon Goddess is called ix ku in several of the pre- and postconquest texts. See CD: 16C; RB: 210–211; Roys 1965: 70; Arzápalo Marín 1987: 418. See Notes on Transcription and Translation for more information on my citational practice for Maya-language documents. 9. Thompson 1970: 363–366. 10. This tale has been extant from at least Classic times to the present. Thompson 1970: 366–373; Hammond 1982: 275–277. 11. The Dresden Codex called the sexual scenes between the Moon Goddess and the various gods marriages. This term, of course, is culturally laden. On Maya marriage and the theoretical implications of this description, see Chapter 2. 12. Ix Chel (lit., “She of the Rainbow”) was the term most commonly used for the Moon Goddess. It was used as a parallel term to ix ku. This overview of the story of the Moon Goddess is a compilation of many myths derived from pre- and postconquest Mayan peoples. For more detailed Moon Goddess stories, see Chapter 5. 13. On the performativity of gender, see Butler 1990; 1993. This story used the gender of the Moon Goddess in order to assert a particular social order. It performed gender for particular purposes. 14. The Itzá was an ethnic group that conquered much of Yucatán in the Postclassic period. They were influenced culturally by central Mexico, and the Maya Books of Chilam Balam professed great hatred for the Itzá, whom they perceived as a group of outsiders. 15. Hammond 1982: 146; Schele and Freidel 1990: 377–378. 2 5 2 Notes to Pages 2– 4 16. See particularly Quezada 1993: 19–58; McAnany 1995; Restall 1997: 87–97. 17. However, relative power is always difficult to measure. She was clearly venerated as one of the central gods in the Maya pantheon...


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