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163 notes Introduction 1. Von Hagen, The Four Seasons of Manuela. Von Hagen was the author of at least seventeen popular books on Latin America (many of them concerning the native peoples and natural wonders of Central America and Ecuador) published in the 1930s and 1940s. His book on Sáenz has been, until now, the only Englishlanguage biography of her; it has been translated into Spanish in several Latin American editions. 2. Quotation from Ellis, “Get a Life!” See also biographies Ellis has written: Passionate Sage and American Sphinx. 3. Ellis, “Get a Life!” Although Ellis laments social historians’ tendency to stigmatize “the venerable tradition of life-writing,” he does not see social history itself as at all “bad” for biography but, rather, as a trend that keeps the genre vigorous and vibrant—a by-product of its “outlaw status.” For perceptive comments on the challenges involved in reconstructing the lives of women—and on her own experience in the case of the famous nineteenth-century former slave, feminist , and abolitionist Sojourner Truth—see Painter, “Writing Biographies of Women.” 4. Margadant, The New Biography, 7. According to Margadant, “the subject of biography is no longer the coherent self but rather a self that is performed in order to create an impression of coherence or an individual of multiple selves whose different manifestations reflect the passage of time, the demands and options of different settings, or the varieties of ways that others seek to represent that person.” For further examples of this new theoretical approach, see Goodman, Marie-Antoinette. 5. Monteón, “Biography and Latin American History,” 193. 6. Guy, “Biography.” 7. Mogollón and Narváez, Manuela Sáenz, 72–75 (all translations are mine unless otherwise noted). The three national histories the authors survey are Fermín Cevallos, Resumen; P. Moncayo, El Ecuador; and Andrade, Historia. For further discussion of these authors’ (and Calle’s) portrayals of Sáenz, see Murray, “‘Loca’ or ‘Libertadora’?”; and Conway, The Cult of Bolívar, 104 –105. 8. See Núñez, “El Ecuador en Colombia,” 251. For a more recent effort to highlight Sáenz’s importance within the context of the larger history of women of her era, see Taxin, “La participación.” T4770.indb 163 T4770.indb 163 8/12/08 11:19:36 AM 8/12/08 11:19:36 AM 9. See Galvis, Historia extensa de Colombia, vol. 7: La Gran Colombia, 343; and Ocampo López, “El proceso político.” 10. For a detailed survey of historical interpretations of Sáenz, see Murray, “‘Loca’ or ‘Libertadora’?” 11. Ibid., 294. 12. Ibid., 296–297. Quotation from Palma, “La protectora y la libertadora,” in Tradiciones peruanas completas, 962. 13. Ibid. In his memoirs, besides noting her love of pranks and occasional use of a military uniform, Boussingault suggests that Sáenz was bisexual. See Mémoires, vol. 3, chap. 7. 14. Miramón, La vida ardiente, 16. In the author’s words: “La amante de Bolívar perteneció a cierta tipología erótica de mujeres que la ciencia moderna ha discriminado.” 15. De Madariaga, Bolívar, vol. 2 (1979), 299, 370. 16. Moreno de Ángel, José María Córdova, 404. 17. Moreno de Ángel, Santander, 433. 18. Lecuna (ed.), “Papeles de Manuela Sáenz,” 494: “Su [Sáenz’s] serenidad y valor ahorraron a nuestra patria la vergüenza del asesinato del héroe, motivo suficiente para evocar su recuerdo con respeto y simpatía, y procurar que su historia quede limpia de leyendas inverosímiles o impropias.” 19. Ibid., 498. Lecuna’s statement, of course, shows that his primary interest lies less in elucidating Sáenz’s life than in protecting his hero’s historical reputation. For a further critique of his article, see Murray, “‘Loca’ or ‘Libertadora ’?” 300–302. In a subtle, penetrating analysis, Chris Conway shows how various literary and historical representations of Sáenz shed light on the gendered nature of the cult of Bolívar; he also classifies those representations into two basic types or models: that of the “epic (or manly woman)” and that of the “romantic (or womanly woman).” See Conway, The Cult of Bolívar, 99–107. 20. Chiriboga Navarro, “Los Sáenz en el Ecuador,” 225. See my “‘Loca’ or ‘Libertadora ’?” for further discussion of Chiriboga and other Ecuadorian nationalist writings on Sáenz. 21. First published in Cali, Colombia, Rumazo’s biography has since appeared in at least nine Spanish-language editions and, along...


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