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221 NOTES Introduction 1. John Almon, The Allies—­ Par Nobile Fratrum!, London, February 3, 1780, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, accessed October 30, 2017, 2. For other analyses of this image, see Troy Bickham, Making Headlines: The American Revolution as Seen through the British Press (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2009), 221; Holger Hoock, Scars of Independence: America’s Violent Birth (New York: Crown, 2017), 279–281. For the figure as Lord North, see Peter Silver, Our Savage Neighbors: How Indian War Transformed Early America (New York: W. W. Norton, 2008), 247–249. 3. On American accusations to this effect, see Silver, Our Savage Neighbors, 227–260, esp. 239–243. For British writers who made similar charges, see Alan Taylor, The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage, 2006), 98. 4. On types of cannibalism, see William Arens, The Man-­ Eating Myth: Anthropology & Anthropophagy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 17–18; Aparecida Vilaça,“Relations between Funerary Cannibalism and Warfare Cannibalism: The Question of Predation,” Ethnos 65, no. 1 (2000): 83–106; and Beth A. Conklin, Consuming Grief: Compassionate Cannibalism in an Amazonian Society (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001). 5. Rachel B. Herrmann,“‘No useless Mouth’: Iroquoian Food Diplomacy in the American Revolution,” Diplomatic History 47, no. 1 (2017): 29–31, 44–45. 6. Wellcome Trust Grant number 105351/Z/14/Z. The conference program is available at, accessed September 14, 2016. 7. On cannibalism versus anthropophagy, see Kelly L.Watson, Insatiable Appetites: Imperial Encounters with Cannibals in the North Atlantic World (New York: New York University Press, 2015), 18. On how Caribbean peoples became associated with cannibalism, see Peter Hulme, Colonial Encounters: Europe and the Native Caribbean, 1492–1797 (London: Methuen, 1986), 15, 17, 86. See also Gananath Obeyesekere, Cannibal Talk: The Man-­ Eating Myth and Human Sacrifice in the South Seas (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 14; Louis Allaire, “Visions of Cannibals: Distant Islands and Distant Lands,” in The Lesser Antilles in the Age of European Expansion, edited by Robert L. Paquette and Stanley L. Engerman (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996), 33–49. 8. Reay Tannahill, Flesh and Blood: A History of the Cannibal Complex (New York: Stein and Day, 1975), 9; Marvin Harris, Cannibals and Kings: The Origins of Cultures (New York: Random House, 1977), 102, 109; Marvin Harris, Good to Eat: Riddles of Food and Culture (Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc., 1998), 203. 9. Claude Lévi-­ Strauss,“The Culinary Triangle,”in Food and Culture: A Reader, 222 NOTES TO PAGES 8–9 2nd ed., edited by Carole Counihan and Penny Van Esterik (New York: Routledge, 2008), 36–37; Arens, The Man-­ Eating Myth, 17. 10. Harris, Good to Eat, 220. 11. One could classify early modern writers—­ such as Michel de Montaigne, Hans Staden, and Jean de Léry—­ with these anthropologists if one thinks of them as early (albeit biased) ethnographers. See Bart Moore-­ Gilbert,“‘New worlds, new selves’: Montaigne,‘the Atlantic’ and the Emergence of Modern Autobiography,” Atlantic Studies 2, no. 1 (2005): 1–14; Neil L.Whitehead,“Hans Staden and the Cultural Politics of Cannibalism,” Hispanic American Historical Review 80, no. 4 (2000): 721–751; Adam Asher Duker,“The Protestant Israelites of Sancerre: Jean de Léry and the Confessional Demarcation of Cannibalism,” Journal of Early Modern History 18, no. 3 (2014): 255–286, esp. 284. 12. Harris, Good to Eat, 207–208. 13. Peggy Reeves Sanday, Divine Hunger: Cannibalism as a Cultural Symbol (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986). 14. Frank Lestringant, Cannibals: The Discovery and Representation of the Cannibal from Columbus to Jules Verne, translated by Rosemary Morris (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997). 15. George Franklin Feldman, Cannibalism, Headhunting and Human Sacrifice in North America: A History Forgotten (Chambersburg, PA.: Alan C. Hood & Company, 2008). 16. Thomas S.Abler,“Iroquois Cannibalism: Fact Not Fiction,” Ethnohistory 27, no. 4 (1980): 309–316. 17. Obeyesekere, Cannibal Talk. 18. Joseph Stromberg,“Starving Settlers in Jamestown Colony Resorted to Cannibalism,”, April 30, 2013, accessed August 8, 2016, http://; Jane O’Brien,“‘Proof’Jamestown Settlers Turned to Cannibalism,” BBC News, May 1, 2013, accessed August 8, 2016,; Nicholas Wade,“Girl’s Bones Bear Signs of Cannibalism by Starving Virginia Colonists,” New York Times, May 1, 2013, accessed August 8, 2016,; Liat Clark,“Meet Jane, Eaten by Her 17th Century...


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