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216 From Rihaku  Four Poems of Departure  another Celebrated— //this is still sung by Japanese to one another on departure. [送元二使安西] Genji was going to Ansei1 as messenger/so author says this poem— [1] [渭 城 朝 雨 浥 輕 塵] {jo cho u Kei jin}2 I castle morning rain wets light dust {(name)} The castle on the I River, i.e. the {walled} capital walled city [Light rain is on the light dust.] [2] [客 舍 青 青 柳 色 新] {Kaku sha sei sei riu shiki shin} Guest house blue blue willow color new Inn in the inns where you will stay hereafter, the col {new} color/of the willow trees will be green green [The willows of the inn-yard Will be going greener and greener,]3 {ippai}4 [3] [勸 君 更 盡 一 杯 酒] {Kwan Kun Ko jin itsu hai shu} Advise you newly5 annihilate one cup sake6 lord I advise you, however, to put an end to a cup of wine [But you, Sir, had better take wine ere your departure,] ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Four Poems of Departure 217 [4] [西 出 陽 關 無 故 人] {Sei shutsu Kwan mu Ko jin} West departure Yo gate not original man barrier old Going westward through the Yo gate there will not be/any old friend. [For you will have no friends about you When you come to the gates of Go.]7 Notes FOUR POEMS OF DEPARTURE: “Light rain is on the light dust” (99–4220:22, MF 3376; Pound’s #6; WWJJZ 2:408; 送元二使安西 [Seeing off Yuan’er on an Embassy to Anxi]), by Wang Wei 王維. Heptasyllabic quatrain (qiyan jueju 七言絕句). With Hirai, 1896. Hirai was well informed ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ 218 Cribs for Cathay & Other Poems on Tang poetry, but his actual mastery of classical Chinese was far inferior to Mori’s. Hirai did, however, speak English very well. He had spent two years lecturing on Buddhism and religious syncretism in the United States before meeting and becoming close friends with Fenollosa in Japan. See Koichi Nozaki, “Hirai Kinza and Unitarianism,” Japanese Religions 34, no. 2 (2009): 155–170, at 161–164. Pound seems to have forgotten that this untitled poem was the sixth of ten poems by Wang Wei occupying thirty-seven pages of Fenollosa’s first notebook, and thus mistakenly attributed it to “Rihaku.” (That notebook begins: “Beginning of Chinese Poetry with Mr. Hirai—Sept. 5th 1896./From book in 3 vols. called/Oi Shi Shu [王詩集]/collection of poems of Omakitsu/3 vols. 6 in 3”). “Omakitsu” is the Japanese reading of Wang Mojie 王摩詰, Wang’s courtesy name. Later, in Personae (1919), Pound halfcorrected the misattribution to “Rihaku or Omakitsu.” The Chinese poem is written in a closed form for which Wang was particularly famous called the jueju 絕句 (Jap. zekku 絶句), sometimes translated as “quatrain” or “stop short,” but more literally as “cut off lines” or “curtailed verse.” (See “Separation on the River Kiang,” “Dawn on the Mountain,” and also the introductory comments to “The River Merchant’s Wife.”) The form consists of two couplets, the first of which is normally parallel (but not here). The quatrain was not as strictly metered and structured as was expected of an eight-line lüshi 律 詩 (regulated verse), but it was understood to be the most challenging form. As the first of Fenollosa’s notebooks, this one shows how he had not yet worked out a method for studying poetry with a teacher: this is the first of the poems, for example, for which he writes the rōmaji or romanization for each character along with the word-for-word glosses, but these pronunciations are clearly added afterward (not beforehand, as he would later do when studying with Mori); and he does so for only two of the remaining three poems in this section. Decades later Pound returned to this notebook and drafted translations of several of the remaining Wang Wei poems, which survive in typescript (100–4230). Pound’s untitled translation is set like an epigraph at the head of a short cycle of “four poems of departure,” including “The City of Choan,” which is not a songbie 送別 (seeing off) poem in the traditional sense as the other three are, but which alludes to Li Bo’s banishment from court. 1. Genji/Ansei: In a later typescript that alludes to this translation, Pound transcribes Genji as “Gengi” and “Ansei” as “Arisei”—yet another indication of the difficulty he had reading Fenollosa’s handwriting (100–4230: loose leaf, n.p.). 2. jin: Fenollosa has drawn lines in the margin of his manuscript connecting the rhyme words in lines 1, 2, and 3, whose on-readings are jin, shin, and...


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