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xv CONTRIBUTORS Jonathan Sacks. A philosopher and a scholar of Judaism, Jonathan Sacks served as Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth for twenty-­ two years. After stepping down in 2013, he was named Ingeborg and Ira Rennert Global Professor at New York University, Kressel and Efrat Family University Professor at Yeshiva University, and Professor of Law, Ethics, and the Bible at King’s College London. For more than three decades, he has played a leading role in advancing dialogue between religious minorities and dominant cultures. He graduated from Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge, with first-­ class honors in philosophy, followed by earning a master’s degree in moral philosophy at New College, Oxford. He was appointed lecturer in Jewish philosophy at Jews’ College (now the London School of Jewish Studies) in 1973, and he received rabbinic ordination in 1976. Two years later, he became the rabbi of Golders Green Synagogue in London. Rabbi Sacks was awarded a Ph.D. in collective responsibility in Jewish law from King’s in 1981. He was appointed to the chair in modern Jewish thought at Jews’ College in 1982 and became principal of the college two years later. After serving as rabbi of Marble Arch Synagogue in London from 1983 to 1990, he was named Chief Rabbi, and inducted in 1991. During his service as the leader of British Jewry, he promoted the renewal of this Anglo-­ Jewish community in the face of dwindling congregations and growing secularization across Europe. Even as he xvi Contributors emphasized the ethical dimensions of Judaism and the need for his coreligionists to share them with the broader community, he also stressed rabbinic teachings that proclaim wisdom, righteousness, and the possibility that true relationships with God are available to all cultures and religions. Rabbi Sacks was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 2005 and awarded a Life Peerage in the British House of Lords in 2009. He has been awarded seventeen honorary degrees and numerous prestigious international prizes in addition to the Templeton Prize. A frequent contributor to radio, television, and the press, Rabbi Sacks is the author of some thirty books, including The Dignity of Difference (2002) and The Great Partnership: God, Science, and the Search for Meaning (2011/2012) as well as Not in God’s Name: Confronting Religious Violence (2015), which inspired this symposium. Scott Atran. Currently tenured as research director in anthropology at France’s National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) at the Institut Jean Nicod–­ École Normale Supérieure in Paris, Scott Atran investigates the character of revolutionary violence, including transnational terrorism , in the making of human history and in the present geopolitical landscape. He also holds research positions at the Gerald Ford School of Public Policy and the Department of Psychology of the University of Michigan. He is cofounder of Artis International and founding fellow of the Centre for the Resolution of Intractable Conflict at Harris Manchester College and the Department of Politics and International Relations, Oxford University. A graduate of Columbia College, he received a Ph.D. in anthropology from Columbia University in 1984. He conducted research under Margaret Mead at the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Cambridge, Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and Birzeit University on the West Bank, as well as in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle and the École polytechnique in Paris. In addition to his fieldwork on terrorism, Dr. Atran conducts research related to the cognitive and emotional foundations of religious belief and practice, and on universal and culturally specific aspects of biological categorization and environmental reasoning and decision making. He has often briefed the White House, Congress, the UK Parliament, and other governments on issues related to terrorism across national boundaries, and he has been personally engaged in conflict negotiations in the Middle East. He was appointed by the United Nations Secretary General to help prepare ways to implement UN Resolution 2250 on Youth, Peace and Security, following his speech to the Security Council in April 2015. Dr. Atran has published in English Contributors xvii and in French, including three edited volumes and nine other books, some 130 papers in academic journals, and numerous articles for the media, including the New York Times, the New York Review of Books, the Guardian, Libération, Foreign Policy, and Psychology Today. His work and life have been spotlighted in the popular and scientific press, including feature and cover stories of the New York Times Magazine, the Chronicles of Higher Education, and Science and Nature...


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