1 Goldrick, J., ‘The Problems of Modern Naval History’, in Doing Naval History: Essays towards Improvement, ed. Hattendorf, J.B. (Newport: Naval War College Press, 1995), 11–23, quotations on 11.

2 For a short and informative overview of the approaches of recent scholarship on leadership, see Jackson, B. and Parry, K., A Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book about Studying Leadership, 2nd edition (London: Sage, 2011).

3 See a similar discussion in relation to diplomacy in Sharp, Paul, Diplomatic Theory of International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 1–7. DOI:

4 For the modern and post-modern nature of naval problems, see Till, Geoffrey, Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century, 3rd edition (London: Routledge, 2013), 32–44. DOI:

5 White, Colin, Nelson the Admiral (Stroud: Sutton, 2005); White, Colin, Nelson: The New Letters (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2007).

6 The history of this process is beginning to emerge. See for example, Hayes, G., ‘Science and the Magic Eye: Innovations in the Selection of Canadian Army Officers, 1939–1945,’ Armed Forces and Society 22 (1995/6): 275–295. Similarly, research on the contemporary Royal Navy is appearing. See Young, M. and Dulewicz, V., ‘Leadership Style, Change Context and Leader Performance in the Royal Navy,’ Journal of Change Management 6 (2006): 383–396. DOI:

7 Examples include Rodger, N.A.M., ‘Commissioned Officers’ Careers in the Royal Navy, 1690–1815,’ Journal for Maritime Research 3 (2001).) DOI:; Jones, D.M., The Making of the Royal Naval Officer Corps, 1860–1914 (unpublished PhD, University of Exeter, 2000); Verge-Franceschi, M., ‘Les officiers généraux de la marine royale,’ Revue Historique 564 (1987): 335–361; McKee, C., A Gentlemanly and Honorable Profession: The Creation of the U.S. Naval Officer Corps, 1794–1815 (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1991).

8 A major exception to this was Charles Middleton, Lord Barham. He served very little at sea, but his contribution to the administrative development of the Royal Navy whilst Comptroller of the navy from 1778 to 1790 and as First Lord of the Admiralty in the crisis of 1805, was publicly acknowledged by contemporaries. See, Talbot, J.E., The Pen and Ink Sailor: Charles Middleton and the King’s Navy, 1778–1813 (London: Cass, 1998). DOI:

9 Ronald, D.A.B., The Symbolic Power of Youth as Represented in The Naval Chronicle (1799–1818) (unpublished PhD., University of Exeter, 2011); McNairn, A., Behold the Hero: General Wolfe and the Arts in the Eighteenth Century (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1997); Jenks, T., Naval Engagements: Patriotism, Cultural Politics and the Royal Navy, 1793–1815 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

10 This conception of the evolutionary nature of leadership, essentially a constant negotiation and trial and error, sits well with the work of scholars interested in the development of eighteenth-century criminal law. See Hay, D., Linebaugh, P., Rule, J., Thompson, E.P. and Winslow, C., Albion’s Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in Eighteenth-Century England (Harmondsworth: Peregrine, 1977), 51–55. However, leadership in the Royal Navy has not been systematically examined from this perspective, and older histories of the officer corps focused on the structure of the corps rather than its performance. See, for example, Lewis, M., England’s Sea Officers: The Story of the Naval Profession (London: Allen and Unwin, 1939).

11 Gordon, A., The Rules of the Game: Jutland and British Naval Command (London: Murray, 1996), 350–353.

12 Moretz, Joseph, Thinking Wisely, Planning Boldly: The Higher Education and Training of Royal Navy Officers, 1919–1939 (Birmingham: Helion, 2015); Farquharson-Roberts, Mike, Royal Naval Officers from War to War, 1918–1939 (London: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2015), 149–156. DOI:

13 The revisionist literature on the army command of the First World War, started in the early 1960s, is now substantial and is the new orthodoxy. One of the first works of this genre was Terraine, J., Douglas Haig: The Educated Soldier (London: Hutchinson, 1963). The debate over Haig’s leadership continued for the next three decades. Meanwhile, detailed examinations of army command structures began to yield significant results. See Gardner, N., Trial by Fire: Command and the British Expeditionary Force in 1914 (Westport: Praeger, 2003); Simpson, A., Directing Operations: British Corps Command on the Western Front, 1914–1918 (Stroud: Spellmount, 2006); Prior, R. and Wilson, T., Command on the Western Front: The Military Career of Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1914–1918 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992). For a wider selection of essays, see also Sheffield, G., ed., Leadership and Command: The Anglo-American Military Experience since 1861 (London: Brassey’s, 1997); Sheffield, G. and Todman, D., Command and Control on the Western Front: The British Army’s Experience, 1914–18 (Staplehurst: Spellmount, 2004). For the revision to Haig’s reputation in particular, see Sheffield, G., Forgotten Victory: The First World War: Myths and Realities (London: Headline Books, 2001); Philpott, W., Bloody Victory: The Sacrifice on the Somme (London: Little Brown, 2009). Studies of individual commanders are regularly appearing, all far more sympathetic to their subjects than would have been common fifty years ago. The first generation of studies of the army commanders of the Second World War has ranged from uncritical, authorised biographies to the continuation of wartime hostilities between officers. More recent studies are beginning to put these officers more fully into their organisational contexts. For example, see Hart, S.A., Colossal Cracks: Montgomery’s 21st Army Group in Northwest Europe, 1944–45 (Mechanicsburg: Stackpole, 2007).

14 I have tried to provide an answer to this question in ‘Naval Leadership: Les amiraux anglais’ (paper presented at Les marines de la guerre d’indépendance américaine, 1763–1783: Leurs mise en oeuvre opérationnelle, École Militaire-Univérsité Paris-Sorbonne Paris IV, 8 February 2013).

15 Clark, J.C.D., ‘Providence, Predestination and Progress: Or Did the Enlightenment Fail?,’ in Ordering the World in the Eighteenth Century, eds. Donald, D. and O’Gorman, F. (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), 27–62. DOI:

16 Rodger, N.A.M., ‘Navies and the Enlightenment’, in Science and the French and British Navies, 17001850, ed. van der Merwe, P. (London: National Maritime Museum, 2003), 5–23.

17 Ryder, A.P., ‘The Higher Education of Naval Officers’, Journal of the Royal United Services Institution 15 (1872): 734–808. Lambert, A., ‘“History is the Sole Foundation of Construction of a Sound and Living Common Doctrine”: The Royal Naval College, Greenwich and Doctrine Development down to BR1806,’ in The Changing Face of Maritime Power, eds. Dorman, A. and Smith, M.R.H. (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999), 33–56; Lambert, A., ‘The Development of Education in the Royal Navy 1854–1914,’ in The Development of British Naval Thinking: Essays in Memory of Bryan Ranft, ed. Till, G. (London: Cass, 2006), 34–59.

18 Lambert, A., ‘The Principle Source of Understanding: Navies and the Educational Role of the Past,’ Hudson Papers 1 (2001): 35–72.

19 Roskill, S.W., The Art of Leadership (London: Collins, 1964); Warner, O., Command at Sea: Great Fighting Admirals from Hawke to Nimitz (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1976), 206–209. This raises important questions for current leadership development. Without the opportunity of sustained leadership in combat situations at any level, how is the leadership capability of the officer corps to be maintained?

20 An interesting tension this created occurred in relation to historical interpretations of Nelson. Nelson’s unconventional personal life caused problems for his reputation during his lifetime. The moral dimension of leadership had been growing in Romantic approaches to the hero. Nelson’s execution of the Neapolitan republican leader Francesco Caracciolo in 1799 smacked to some of a further moral weakness and has caused disputes between historians into the twentieth century. See Gutteridge, H.G., ed., Nelson and the Neapolitan Jacobins; Documents Relating to the Suppression of the Jacobin Revolution at Naples, June 1799 (London: Navy Records Society, 1903); Lambert, A., The Foundations of Naval History: John Knox Laughton, the Royal Navy and the Historical Profession (London: Chatham Publishing, 1998), 173–183; Coleman, T., Nelson (London: Bloomsbury, 2001), 206–213.

21 For example, Admiral Kimmel has traditionally borne responsibility for the failure of the USN to respond to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. For a modern study that takes a more systematic analysis of the operation, see Zimm, Alan D., Attack on Pearl Harbor: Strategy, Combat, Myths, Deception (Philadelphia: Casemate, 2011).

22 Allen, D.W., ‘The British Navy Rules: Monitoring and Incompatible Incentives in the Age of Fighting Sail,’ Explorations in Economic History 39 (2002): 204–231. DOI:

23 The best exploration of this is Scott J., When the Waves Ruled Britannia: Geography and Political Identity, 1500–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011). DOI: See also Claydon, T., Europe and the Making of England, 1660–1760 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

24 For example, Callender, G., The Naval Side of British History (London: Christophers, 1924), 19–23; Mathew, D., The Naval Heritage (London: Collins, 1945), 12–15.

25 Richmond, H.W., The Navy in the War of 1739–1748, 3 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1920). For Richmond’s leadership ideas, see the collection of quotations, Richmond, H.W., Command and Discipline (London: Stanford, 1927).

26 The early popular representation and appeal of the navy can be traced in Lincoln, M., Representing the Navy: British Sea Power, 1750–1815 (London: National Maritime Museum, 2002). The late nineteenth-century recasting of the image of the navy is examined in Conley, M.A., From Jack Tar to Union Jack: Representing Naval Manhood in the British Empire, 1870–1918 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009). The wider propaganda role is traced in MacKenzie, J.M., Propaganda and Empire: The Manipulation of British Public Opinion, 1880–1960 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984). The impact this had on the naval officer corps can be found in Davison, R.L., The Challenges of Command: The Royal Navy’s Executive Branch Officers, 1880–1919 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011), 38–48. DOI:

27 Lambert, N., Sir John Fisher’s Naval Revolution (Columbia: University of South Carolina, Press, 1999); Sumida J.T., In Defence of Naval Supremacy: Finance, Technology and British Naval Policy, 1889–1914 (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989); Brookes, J., Dreadnought Gunnery and the Battle of Jutland: The Question of Fire Control (London: Routledge, 2005); Till, G., Air Power and the Royal Navy, 1914–1945: A Historical Survey (London: Jane’s, 1979).

28 Hamer, W.S., The British Army: Civil-Military Relations, 1885–1905 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970); Bond, B., The Victorian Army and the Staff College, 1854–1914 (London: Eyre Methuen, 1972); Spiers, E.M., The Army and Society, 1815–1914 (London: Longman, 1980); French, D. and Holden Reid, B., eds., The British General Staff: Reform and Innovation, 1890–1939 (London: Cass, 2002).

29 Searle, G.R., The Quest for National Efficiency: A Study in British Politics and British Political Thought, 1899–1914 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1971); Thomas, R., The British Philosophy of Administration: A Comparison of British and American Ideas, 1900–1939 (London: Longman, 1978).

30 Morriss, R., Naval Power and British Culture, 1760–1850: Public Trust and Government Ideology (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004); Macleod, R., ed., Government and Expertise: Specialists, Administrators and Professionals, 1860–1919 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 1–26.

31 Although the concept of enlightenment is problematic and its impact on leadership or leaders can only be inferred as one among a number of possible stimuli, see Gruber, I.A., Books and the British Army in the Age of the American Revolution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010). DOI:; Darnely, M.H., Military Writings and the Theory and Practice of Strategy in the Eighteenth-Century British Army (unpublished PhD, University of Kansas, 1991); Starkey, A., War in the Age of Enlightenment, 1700–1789 (Westport: Praeger, 2003); Speelman, P.J., Henry Lloyd and the Military Enlightenment of Eighteenth Century Europe (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002). See also Shanahan, W.O., ‘Enlightenment and War: Austro-Prussian Military Practice, 1760–1790,’ in East Central European Society and War in the Pre-Revolutionary Era, eds. Rothenberg, G.E., Király, B.K. and Sugar, P.F. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), 83–111.

32 Twiss,T., ed., The Black Book of the Admiralty (London: Longman, 1914); Wood, A.B., ‘The Law of Oleron,’ The Mariner’s Mirror 4 (1914): 195–9.

33 Lewis, M., England’s Sea Officers: The Story of the Naval Profession (London: Allen and Unwin, 1939).

34 For a fuller discussion of this issue, see Doe, H. and Harding, R., eds., Naval Leadership and Management 1650–1950 (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2011), 11–25.

35 For example, see Spinadi, G., From Polaris to Trident: The Development of the US Fleet Ballistic Missile Technology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994). DOI:, especially 9–18, 164–94; Bijker, W.E., Hughes, T.P. and Pinch, T.J., The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1987). For a recent review of network theory, see Moliterno, T.P. and Mahony, D.M., ‘Network Theory of Organization: A Multilevel Approach,’ Journal of Management 37 (2010): 443–67. DOI:; Collins, H.M., ‘The TEA Set: Tacit Knowledge and Scientific Networks,’ Science Studies 4 (1974): 165–184.

36 For an introduction to social network theory, see Scott, J.P., Social Network Analysis: A Handbook, 2nd edition (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2000).

37 Corbett, J.S., The Campaign of Trafalgar 2 vols (London: Longmans Green, 1919), vol. 1, 270–271.

38 For a full examination of the war, see Harding, R., The Emergence of Britain’s Global Naval Supremacy: The War of 1739–1748 (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2010).

39 The Earl of Toulouse was admiral from the age of 5 until his death, then replaced by his son.

40 See Meyer, J., ‘Amiral,’ in Dictionnaire de l’Ancien Régime, ed. Bély L. (Paris: PUF, 1996).

41 In 1777, a third post was established for India’s and America’s seas. Charles Henri d’Estaing (1729–94) got it. In 1784, the ‘bailli de Suffren’ (1728–88) was provided with a vice-admiralty of India’s seas. See Monaque, R., Suffren. Un destin inachevé (Paris: Tallandier, 2004). DOI:

42 Vergé-Franceschi, M., Les officiers généraux de la marine royale (1715–1774). Origines, conditions, services, 7 vols (Paris: Librairie de l’Inde, 1990); Taillemite, E., Dictionnaire des marins français (Paris: Tallandier, 2002).

43 Furetière, A., Dictionnaire universel contenant généralement tous les mots français tant vieux que modernes, et les termes de toutes les sciences et des arts... (La Haye & Rotterdam: Leers, 1690).

44 Dictionnaire de l’Académie française (1694), 398, accessed 25 February 2016,

45 Littré, P.E., Dictionnaire de la langue française (Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1982).

46 Archives nationales [AN], Minutier central des notaires parisiens [now MC], RE LXXXVI, 8 and LXXXVI, 459, probate inventory of Jean-André de Barrailh (1671–1762), vice-admiral of the Levant (1753–62), part ‘Papiers’, document 12: ‘item the original on parchment manuscript of the letters confirming the appointments of the office of vice-admiral within the scope of the Mediterranean sea, accordées en grande chancellerie to the aforementioned deceased Mr de Barrailh, signed on the fold by the King, earl of Provence, Rouillé’.

47 AN. P 2460, Memorial from June to December 1750, fol. 26–29, ‘Lettres patentes de provisions de la charge de vice-amiral des Mers du Levant et lettres de délai au Sieur de Salaberry pour prêter serment de ladite charge, avec jouissance des gages et appointements y attribués (fol. 29–32)’.

48 AN, Z1, Amirauté de France.

49 The eight letters of provisions to the French vice-admiralty are those issued to Victor-Marie d’Estrées (1660–1737) in 1684: AN, Marine, C7 101 bis, ‘Lettres de provisions de survivance de la charge de vice-amiral de France en Ponant pour M. le comte d’Estrées, à Versailles, le 1er décembre 1684’ to François Rousselet de Château-Renault (1637–1716) in 1707: AN, Marine, C7 62, piece 6, extracts from the letters of provisions of the vice-admiralty for the marchioness of Château-Renault; to Antoine François de Pardaillan de Gondrin (1709–41), marquess of Antin in 1731: AN, Marine, C7 6, file of the vice-admiral d’Antin, letters of provisions of vice-admiralty of France, 21 April 1731 ; to Vincent de Salaberry de Benneville (1663–1750) and to Claude-Élisée de Court la Bruyère (1666–1752) in 1750: AN, Marine, C7 76, n° 11, letters of provisions to the vice-admiralty of France, 7 February 1750, to Charles Félix de Poilvilain (1693–1756), count of Cresnay in 1755: AN, Marine, C7 77, piece 42, 25 September 1755 in Fontainebleau, to Hubert de Brienne de Conflans (1690–1777), [AN, Marine, C7 71, piece 34, copy of the letters of provisions to the vice-admiralty in Levant seas dated 14 November 1756] and to Jean-Baptiste Macnémara (1690–1756) in 1756: AN, Marine, C7 191, letters of provisions to the vice-admiralty. Letters of provisions to the marshalship of France issued to d’Estrées and Château-Renault (in 1703), to Coëtlogon (in 1730) and to Conflans (in 1758) enable us to complement or emphasise the previous letters.

50 They all start with the subscription (name and title of the author of the Act), the addresses (name of the person(s) it is addressed to), the preamble (which restates the origins of the decision), the pronouncement (statement of the decision, causes, injunctive clause enjoining royal officers to have the decision executed ‘if mandated’), the intentional clause (which emphasises the royal will by the term ‘car tel est notre plaisir’), the corroboration clause, ,including the announcement of the seal and potentially that of the royal signature ‘en témoin de quoi’), the date (introduced by the word ‘donné’) followed by the place, date and sometimes the day, the year of incarnation and year of reign, and then the signatures. Those were sealed with yellow wax via a simple queue as the addressee was a particular person see Barbiche, B., Les institutions de la monarchie française à l’Époque Moderne (Paris: PUF, 1999), 166–169.

51 The eight patent letters which were found for the vice-admirals are those of Victor Marie d’Estrées in 1684, François Rousselet de Château-Renault in 1701, Antoine François de Pardaillan de Gondrin, marquess d’Antin, in 1731, Vincent de Salaberry de Benneville and Claude-Élisée de Court de La Bruyère, in 1750, de Charles Félix de Poilvilain, Comte de Cresnay, in 1755, Hubert de Brienne de Conflans and Jean-Baptiste de Macnémara in 1756. The patent letters for the Marshal of France of d’Estrées and Château-Renault (1703), Coëtlogon (1730) and Conflans (1758) allow us to complete the former letters.

52 Rey, A., ‘Mérite’ in Dictionnaire historique de la langue française (Paris: Le Robert, 2004)

53 Furetière, Dictionnaire universel, ‘Mérite’.

54 Furetière, Dictionnaire universel, ‘Mérite’.

55 Rey, Dictionnaire historique , ‘Récompenser’.

56 Furetière, Dictionnaire universel, ‘Récompense’.

57 Rey, Dictionnaire historique, ‘Génie’.

58 Furetière, Dictionnaire universel, ‘Prudence’.

59 Furetière, Dictionnaire universel, ‘Prudence’.

60 Furetière, Dictionnaire universel, ‘Zèle’.

61 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 4, 1598.

62 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 4, 1599.

63 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 4, 1603.

64 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 4, 1770.

65 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 3, 1058. This battle took place in Bavaria between the French army under the Duc do Noailles, who was supporting the Bavarian claimant to the Habsburg lands and the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, and an army under King George II of Britain that was supporting the Habsburg claims.

66 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 3, 1073–75.

67 Soubise commanded a Franco-Imperialist army supporting the Austrians against Prussia at the beginning of the Seven Years’ War. The Battle of Rossbach was fought in Saxony and the defeat of the Franco-Imperialist army gave Frederick II of Prussia his first great victory of the war, securing his western flank and enabling him to turn on the Austrians and defeat them a month later at Leuthen. See Duffy, C., Frederick the Great: A Military Life (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985), 141–45. DOI: Contades’s defeat at Minden in Prussian Westphalia by an allied army under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick-Luneburg forced the withdrawal of French forces and reduced the pressure on Prussia from the west. See Savory, R., His Britannic Majesty’s Army in Germany during the Seven Years War (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966), 173–186.

68 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 5, 2311.

69 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 5, 2328.

70 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 5, 2318.

71 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 2, 552. In 1758, Barrailh did not agree with the Marshal’s promotion for Conflans. Il ‘se plaignit de cette injustice auprès de Berryer qui transmit au roi ses doléances’.

72 Barbier, E., Chronique de la Régence et du règne de Louis XV ou journal de Barbier 1718–1763, (Paris: Charpentier, 1857–1863), vol. 7, 28.

73 D’Albert duke of Luynes, C.P., Mémoires du duc de Luynes sur la cour de Louis XV (1735–1758), (Paris: Firmin Didot Frères, 1860–65), vol. 15, 387–88.

74 AN, B4, 74, fol. 101 and 104, quoted by Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 5, 2325.

75 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 5, 2325.

76 Taillemite, 2002, ‘Conflans’, pp. 107–108.

77 Taillemite, 2002, ‘Conflans’, pp. 107–108.

78 About Quiberon Bay, see Le Moing, G., La bataille navale des ‘Cardinaux’ (20 novembre 1759) (Paris: Economica, 2003), particularly the bibliography, 163–165; de La Condamine, P., Le combat des Cardinaux: 20 novembre 1759, baie de Quiberon et rade du Croisic (La Turballe: Editions Alizes L’esprit large, 2000); Raffin-Caboisse, P., La bataille des Cardinaux 1759, cinquante vaisseaux de ligne dans la baie de Quiberon (Coudray-Macouard: Cheminements, 2008); Marcus, G.J., Quiberon Bay: The Campaign in Home Waters, 1759 (London: Hollis and Carter, 1960).

79 Marshal of Rochambeau, Mémoires militaires, historiques et politiques de Rochambeau, ancien maréchal de France, (Paris: Fain, 1809), vol. 1 190: ‘Les Anglais, maîtres de la mer depuis la défaite de la flotte de Brest, aux ordres de M. de Conflans, multiplièrent leurs expéditions sur nos possessions maritimes.’

80 Barbier was mistaken because Conflans was an earl.

81 Barbier, Chronique de la Régence, vol. 7, 213.

82 Le Moing, La bataille navale, note 2, 99, and quoted by Marcus, Quiberon Bay, 171.

83 Barbier, Chronique de la Régence, vol. 7, 219.

84 On the contrary, many ‘lieutenants généraux des armées du roi’ were defeated on the battlefield. Yet they could still become Marshals of France. Soubise is the most famous. He was defeated at Rossbach on 5 November 1757. He was successful in the next year at Lützenberg with Mon. Chevert. He was promoted to Marshal of France after this battle, in October 1758. The Prince of Beauvau did not succeed in Portugal in 1760–1, but he became Marshal of France in 1783. Du Muy was defeated at the Battle of Marburg in 1761 but he became a Marshal and Secretary of War in 1775. Louis XVI did not forget Du Muy had been the ‘menin’ of his father since 1745. The menin was one of the six gentlemen who were particularly attached to the person of the Dauphin, the first King’s son.

85 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 5, 2327.

86 Vergé-Franceschi, Les officiers généraux, vol. 6, 2514: the Marine’s budget was 33.4 billion livres in 1691, and 8–9 billion livres for years after1728.

87 Monaque, R., Suffren, 13.

88 Rodger, N.A.M., ‘Form and Function in European Navies, 1660–1815,’ in Essays in Naval History, from Medieval to Modern (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009).

89 Pritchard, J., Louis XV’s Navy 1748–1762. A Study of Organisation and Administration (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1987), 55–70.

90 Sullivan, F.B., ‘The Royal Academy at Portsmouth 1789–1806’, in The Mariner’s Mirror 63 (1977): 311–326; Rodger, N.A.M., The Command of the Ocean. A Naval History of Britain, 1649–1815 (London: Allen Lane, 2004), 386–89, 508–12.

91 Gwyn, J., An Admiral for America: Sir Peter Warren, Vice Admiral of the Red 1703–1752 (Gainsville: University Press of Florida, 2004), 172; Mackay, R.F., ed., The Hawke Papers: A Selection 1743–1771 (Navy Records Society, Aldershot: Ashgate, 1990), vol. 129, 168; Berkley, G., The Naval History of Britain from the Earliest Periods... Compiled from the Papers of the Late Honourable Captain George Berkley, ed. Hill, J. (London, 1756), v.

92 Ralfe, J., The Naval Biography of Britain Consisting of Historical Memoirs of Those Officers of the British Navy Who Distinguished Themselves during the Reign of George III, 4 vols. (London: Whitmore & Fenn, 1828), iii–iv.

93 Falconer, W., Universal Dictionary of the Marine (London: Cadell, 1780 edition), 3.

94 Anderson, R. (1805), National Maritime Museum, MS 80/201 Log entry; Van Creveld, M.L., Command in War (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985), 12–13.

95 Pritchard, Louis XV’s Navy 1748–1762, 66.

96 Willis, S., Fighting at Sea in the Eighteenth Century. The Art of Sailing Warfare (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2008), 53–6. DOI:

97 Dull, J.R., The French Navy and American Independence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975), 44–45, 278–79, 316.

98 Trew, P., Rodney and the Breaking of the Line (Barnsley: Pen & Sword, 2006), 155–155; quotation cited in Willis, Fighting at Sea in the Eighteenth Century, 66.

99 Wareham, T., ed., Frigate Commander (Barnsley: Pen & Sword, 2004), 214.

100 Mahan, A.T., Types of Naval Officers, Drawn from the History of the British Navy (London: Sampson Low, 1902), 151–152.

101 Syrett, D., The Rodney Papers II (Navy Records Society, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), vol. 151., 514.

102 Corbett, J.S., ed., Signals and Instructions 1776–1794 (London: Navy Records Society, London, 1908), vol.35, 48–49; Willis, S. The Glorious First of June,(London: Quercus, 2011), 268.

103 Nicolas, N.H., ed., The Dispatches and Letters of Vice Admiral Viscount Lord Nelson (London: Colborn, 1846) , vol.7 89–91.

104 Mackay, R.F. and Duffy, M., Hawke, Nelson and British Naval Leadership 1747–1805 (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2009), 93–98.

105 Mackay and Duffy, Hawke, Nelson and British Naval Leadership, 112–15 (Saunders), 106–8 (Pocock).

106 Richmond, H.W., ed. Papers Relating to the Loss of Minorca in 1756 (London: Navy Records Society, 1913) 94

107 Rodger, N.A.M., The Command of the Ocean. A Naval History of Britain, 1649–1815 (London: Allen Lane, 2004), 283; Mackay and Duffy, Hawke, Nelson and British Naval Leadership, 477–88.

108 Taillemite, E., L’Histoire ingnorée de la marine française (Paris: Perrin, 1988), 172–73.

109 Dull, J.R., The French Navy and American Independence, 248.

110 Duffy, M. and Morriss, R., eds., The Glorious First of June 1794. A Naval Battle and Its Aftermath (Exeter: Exeter University Press, 2001); Johnson, K.G., ‘Louis-Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. Admiral and Colonial Administrator (1747–1812)’ (unpublished PhD thesis, Florida State University, 2006), 71–102; Willis, The Glorious First of June.

111 The three leading admirals of the Napoleonic navy, Decrès, Ganteaume and Villeneuve, were all at the Nile.

112 Ferdinand’s minister for war, finance and the joint department of the navy and the Indies from 1746 to 1754. ‘Armed neutrality’ was introduced alongside a ‘diplomatic neutrality’ policy advocated by Ensenada’s rival and Foreign Affairs minister, José de Carvajal y Lancáster (1698–1754); see Delgado Barredo, J.and Gómez Urdañéz., J. eds., Ministros de Fernando VI (Córdoba: Universidad de Córdoba, 2002) for various viewpoints on this subject.

113 Transcribed in full in Rodríguez Villa, A., Don Cenón de Somodevilla. Marqués de la Ensenada (Madrid: M. Murillo, 1878), 31–42, 62–4, 80–1, 109–111, 113–41.

114 The description of the Spanish navy at this time as ‘a fleet in being’ differs slightly from the interpretation of the term given by Corbett, J.S., Some Principles of Maritime Strategy (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1911), 211–228, and Hattendorf, J. B. ‘The Idea of a “Fleet in Being” in Historical Perspective,’ Naval War College Review 67:1 (2014): 43–60, yet it still seems apt since it encapsulates so many of the perceived functions of the Spanish fleet. It was a deterrent; its existence alone was intended to occupy British naval resources, and it was expected to achieve its ends actively at sea.

115 Rodríguez Villa, Don Cenón de Somodevilla, 118.

116 Except for Cartagena, which until 1748 was primarily a galley base before being transformed to cater to ships of the line and a xebec squadron during the 1750s, at which point the first dry docks in Spain were built there.

117 Archivo General de Simancas (AGS) Marina 438, Francisco López to Ensenada, San Felipe, 16 June 1750.

118 Ibid., Victoria to Ensenada, Cádiz, 13 July 1750; Victoria to Ensenada, Cádiz, 20 July 1750; and Cerda to Ensenada, Cartagena, 29 July 1750.

119 Ibid., Cerda to Ensenada, Barcelona, 15 August 1750.

120 Ibid., Francisco Barrero to Ensenada, Cartagena, 19 August 1750.

121 Ibid., Barrero to Ensenada, Cartagena, 30 September 1750; and Pedro de Hordeñana to Ensenada, Cádiz, 5 October 1750.

122 Ibid., Joseph de Contamina to Ensenada, Barcelona, 19 December 1750.

123 Ibid., Ensenada to Cerda, 7 August 1751. Provincial money was gold and silver deliberately issued lighter and baser to prevent its exportation and intended for circulation as subsidiary coin in peninsular Spain.

124 Ibid., Cerda to Ensenada, Barcelona, 13 October 1751; and Contamina to Ensenada, Barcelona, 14 October 1751.

125 See Gómez Urdañez, J.L., El proyecto reformista de Ensenada (Lleida: Editorial Milenio, 1996) for Ensenada’s political career and reformist programme and Baudot Monroy, M., La defensa del imperio (Madrid: Ministerio de Defensa and Universidad de Murcia, 2012) for Arriaga’s naval career before 1754.

126 AGS Marina 439, Ensenada to Juan Benito Erasun, Madrid, 6 October 1753.

127 See Ordenanzas de Su Magestad para el Govierno Militar, Político y Económico de su Armada Naval (Madrid: Imprenta de Juan de Zuñiga, 1748), vol. I, 15–28, for a description of their responsibilities. Matters relating to arsenals, arsenal personnel and ship construction and maintenance were the responsibility of the Departments’ Intendentes de Marina.

128 AGS Marina 438, ‘Resolución’ taken on 14 April 1752, signed by Ensenada.

129 Ibid., ‘Horden y instrucción de lo que deven observar el paquebot el Marte y fragata la Galga, Ferrol, 14 April 1752, signed by Cosme Alvarez: ‘la buena conducta, prudencia, celo y valor de los comandantes’.

130 Ferdinand VI had prohibited Spanish trade with Hamburg and instructed for all its ships to be searched for warlike materials following Hamburg’s signature of a treaty with Algiers; AGS Marina 769, Royal Decree, San Lorenzo, 19 October 1751. Similar measures were already in place against Sweden and, from 1753, Denmark too. Spain considered any neutrality agreements signed with the Barbary states as hostile acts.

131 Ordenanzas, vol. I, 1–2: ‘he resuelto, que sin interpretación alguna se observe inviolablemente lo que expressan los Tratados, y Articulos siguientes’.

132 Ordenanzas, vol. I, 46–65, 65–90.

133 AGS Marina 439, Victoria to Ensenada, Cádiz, 5 February 1754.

134 AGS Marina 438, Alvarez to Ensenada, Ferrol, 20 February 1753: ‘Me hice presentar los diarios de todos los officiales y pilotos, y concuerdan en un todo, sin diferencia la menor circunstancia con el de el capitan comandante de el navio cuya copia passo a las manos de VE no hallando en la conducta de este capitán y officiales la menor maneobra digna de reprehensión.’

135 Ibid., Rojas to Ensenada, San Felipe, at Ferrol, 20 February 1753: ‘es el primero que en mi dilatado y frecuente navegar he visto, y me ha quebrantado la salud’.

136 Ibid., Ensenada to Victoria, Madrid, 18 September 1753: ‘con los leves motivos de componer sus baos’.

137 Ibid., Vegaflorida to Ensenada, Puntales, 15 October 1753. The Conde de Vegaflorida, being from a well-established noble family, had the political weight to counter Ensenada’s accusation as he did but this sort of interaction between naval minister and naval officers was not unusual.

138 See Baudot Monroy, La defensa del imperio, 237–71.

139 Relación de los Principales Acaecimientos ocurridos al Capitán de Navío Don Pedro Stuart y Portugal, Comandante de los Navíos de S. Mag. el Dragon, y la America, con el nombrado el Dancik, Capitana de Argèl, el dia 28 de Noviembre de 1751 (Cádiz: Imprenta Real de Marina, [1751]).

140 AGS Marina 440, Garcia de Postigo to Arriaga, Soberano, 15 June 1758.

141 AGS Marina 439, Flon to Arriaga, Alicante, 17 April 1755: Arriaga to Flon, Madrid, 23 April 1755: Flon to Spínola, Cartagena, 22 April 1755: Arriaga to Spínola, Madrid, 26 April 1755: Flon to Arriaga, Cartagena, 28 April 1755: Arriaga to Flon, Madrid, 3 May 1755.

142 ‘quando por noticias probables se prometa mejor éxito’.

143 ‘que toda evolución de fuga a vista de los enemigos augmenta su osadía y desdora á él que manda’.

144 ‘Y que no menos fía S. M. del valor de Us. que de su conducta... no se dexa de navegar en tiempo de guerra con dos, quatro y seis navíos aún sabiendo que ay en la mar esquadras de ocho, diez y doze.’

145 See Scheybeler, C., ‘A Study of Spanish Naval Policy during the Reign of Ferdinand VI’ (unpublished PhD, King’s College, London, 2014), 217–26, for the difficulties with ‘armed neutrality’ as a naval strategy, and Kuethe, A.J. and Andrien, K.J., The Spanish Atlantic World in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 219–23. DOI: for issues with it as a foreign policy.

146 See, for example, AGS Marina 439, Arriaga to Stuart, Madrid, 21 August 1756, and a further order of the same date.

147 Ibid., Idiázquez to Arriaga, Palas, 23 November 1756: ‘regla a fin de que con su literal observación se evite por los comandantes todo desacierto y se consiga el honor del pabellon’.

148 Ibid., Arriaga to Wall, Madrid, 10 December 1756: ‘esta conforme a el presente sistema’, ‘regla fija’. Wall came to be Ferdinand’s chief minister following Carvajal’s death and Ensenada’s banishment from court following a political coup in 1754.

149 Ibid., Orozco to Arriaga, Ferrol, 7 December 1756: Arriaga to Wall, Madrid, 10 December 1756,:and Arriaga to Orozco, Madrid, 14 December 1756.

150 AGS Marina 440, Arriaga to Victoria, Aranjuez, 25 May 1758: ‘hacer respetar el pavellón del Rey y sus costas como es devido’.

151 Ibid., Vegaflorida to Victoria, Aquiles, 24 June 1758; and Victoria to Arriaga, Cádiz, 28 June 1758.

152 AGS Marina 438, ‘Relación’, signed Ortega, Garzota, 4 October 1753; ‘Relación’, signed Vera, Aventurero, 3 October 1753; and ‘Relación’, signed Lastarria, Gávilan, 3 October 1753.

153 See Ordenanzas, vol. II, 51–72, and Lafuente, A. and Sellés, M., El Observatorio de Cádiz (1753–1831) (Madrid: Ministerio de Defensa, 1988), 78–9 for the academic curriculum, and Ordenanzas, vol. II, trat. 7, tit. 8, art. 2, 12, 34, 39–40, pp. 86, 95–6, 97–8 for their service at sea.

154 In May 1752, for example, the Asia and Fernando sailed with seven and six Guardias Marinas respectively, AGS Marina 438, ‘Estado’ dated 30 May 1752, enclosed in Antonio de Perea to Ensenada, Esteiro, 30 May 1752. Among those mentioned here who had begun their naval careers in Malta were Pedro Mesía de la Cerda and Andrés Reggio y Brachiforte.

155 See AGS Marina 725, ‘Propiedades de Vaxeles, 1733–1771’.

156 See Scheybeler, ‘A Study of Spanish Naval Policy,’ 161–198.

157 AGS Marina 438, Rojas to Ensenada, San Felipe, 20 Ferrol 1753: ‘inútil, por ser toda la más juventud criada en las rías, en el exercicio de la pesca, sin saver pisar navío, hazer travajo, ní suvir sobre una berga’.

158 Newton, L.W., ‘The Spanish Naval Officer Corps in the Eighteenth Century,’ Revista de Historia de América 103 (1987): 31–73, has already made a valuable contribution towards this.

159 Fernández de Moratín, Nicolás., Egloga a Velasco, y Gonzalez, famosos españoles (Madrid: Imprenta Miguel Escrivano, [1763]): ‘barata la Victoria’.

160 See Archivo General de Indias (AGI) Santo Domingo 1579 for Real Transporte’s trial, 1763–5, and Morón García, J.J., ‘El Juicio por la Pérdida de La Habana en 1762,’ Baluarte 1 (1994): 19–48, for a general analysis of the trials resulting from the loss of Havana.

161 AGS Marina 406, Real Transporte to Arriaga, Tigre, Havana, 6 March 1762.

162 Recent works include Doe, H. and Harding, R., eds., Naval Leadership and Management 1650–1750 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2012); Lambert, A., Admirals (London: Faber and Faber, 2008): and Mackay, R. and Duffy, M., eds., Hawke and British Naval Leadership 1747–1805(Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2009).

163 Rodger N.A.M., ‘Image and Reality in Eighteenth Century Naval Tactics,’ The Mariner’s Mirror 89 (2003), 292. DOI:

164 Two exceptions worth noting: Caron, F., La Victoire volée: La bataille de la Chesapeake – 1781 (Paris: Service historique de la Marine, 1981), 289–307; and Villiers, P., ‘La tentative franco-espagnole de débarquement en Angleterre en 1779,’ in Villiers, P. and Pfister-Langanay, C., eds., Le Transmanche et les liaisons maritimes XVIIIe–XXe siècle, Revue du Nord, hors série 9 (1995), 13–28.

165 Taillemite E., ‘L’amiral d’Orvilliers et la marine de son temps,’ Études bourbonnaises 264 (2e tr. 1993): 305–319. It’s my duty to express my deep gratitude to M. le comte Henri de Chantemerle de Villette, descendant of the admiral d’Orvilliers, for allowing me to consult his familial archives. The admiral’s military file is kept by the Archives Nationales (now AN), Marine, C1 167.

166 About family links, see the genealogical studies written by general Henry d’Esclaibes in the Mélanges généalogiques (Nord et Centre de la France) (Paris: Peyronnet, 1965), chapter V, 57–71 and the Mélanges généalogiques 2e série (Paris, 1971), chapter XXVI, 242–257. The fief of Orvilliers (or Les Sacrots) was situated inside the parish of Agonges, near Bourbon-l’Archambault, in the province of Bourbonnais (nowadays the department de l’Allier) in central France.

167 AN Marine B4 118. Chaline, O., ‘Les escadres d’évolution à la veille de la guerre d’Indépendance américaine,’ in Chaline, O. Bonnichon, Ph. and Vergennes, Ch.–Ph. de, eds., Les Marines de la guerre d’Indépendance américaine 1763–1783 (Paris: PUPS, 2012), 365–80.

168 AN Marine B4 118, f° 96–97, 9 September 1772.

169 See the study about d’Orvilliers’s flagship: Forrer, C., and Roussel, C.–Y., La Bretagne, vaisseau de 100 canons, pour le roi et la république 1762–1796 (Spézet: Coop-Breiz, 2005).

170 Cheyron du Pavillon, T. du, Un maître de la tactique navale au XVIIIe siècle. Le chevalier du Pavillon (1730–1782) (Paris: Guénégaud, 2010), 373–428.

171 Lever, E., Philippe-Egalité (Paris: Fayard, 1996).

172 AN Marine B4 136.

173 About Ushant, see Villiers, P., ‘La stratégie de la marine française de l’arrivée de Sartine à la victoire de la Chesapeake,’ in Acerra, M., Merino, J. and Meyer, J., eds., Les Marines de guerre européennes XVIIe-XVIIIe siècles (Paris: Presses Université Paris-Sorbonne, rééd. 1998), 211–247.

174 Claude Forrer and Claude-Youenn Roussel concluded (La Bretagne, 163) that without further direct evidence about what happened on board the Saint-Esprit when the general’s signal was seen, it remains impossible to settle.

175 See AN Marine B4 155.

176 AN Marine, B4 155, 1779. His instructions were published in extenso in Villiers, ‘La stratégie,’ 224–227.

177 Dull, The French Navy and American Independence, 120–126. Two monographs about the landing attempt are Perugia, P. del, La tentative d’invasion de l’Angleterre de 1779 (Paris: Alcan-PUF, 1939) and Patterson, A.T., The Other Armada: The Franco-Spanish Attempt to Invade Britain in 1779 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1960). Attacking the Isle of Wight was proposed by Vergennes when Floridablanca had refused a landing attempt in Ireland: Dull, J.R., The French Navy and American Independence, 138; Murphy, O.T., Charles Gravier Comte de Vergennes. French Diplomacy in the Age of Revolution, 1719–1787 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1982), 268; Coquelle, P., ‘Les projets de descente en Angleterre,’ Revue d’histoire diplomatique XV (1901): 433–452 and 591–624; XVI (1902): 134–157.

178 AN Marine B4 155, 4 July 1779.

179 AN Marine B4 155, 14 July 1779.

180 The Chevalier du Pavillon wrote to Sartine, 6 August 1779 (AN Marine B4 155) in a less diplomatical tone: ‘J’ai l’honneur de vous envoyer la dernière lettre de monsieur de Cordova par laquelle vous verrez qu’il est inutile de résister plus longtemps aux opinions très fausses mais germées depuis plus de 80 ans dans la tête de ce respectable officier. La crainte de finir par l’indisposer a dicté la réponse que je lui ai faite par ordre de mon général qui m’a dit avoir reçu une lettre de monsieur de Montmorin pour lui faire part de l’extrême délicatesse de monsieur de Cordova et des ménagements qu’elle exigeait.’.

181 See the account made by Vergennes for the ambassador Montmorin in Madrid, Archives du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Espagne, t. 593. Quoted by Perugia, La tentative d’invasion de l’Angleterre, 76–77.

182 AN Marine B4 155, 2 August 1779.

183 His last will, dated 8 August 1779, on board La Bretagne, was published by general (then colonel) Henry d’Esclaibes in his Notes sur les familles Hugon de Givry et Guillouet d’Orvilliers (n.p., 1958), 18–19.

184 See the letter of the Chevalier du Pavillon to Sartine, 15 September 1779, Marine B4 154.

185 Scipion de Castries in Souvenirs maritimes, ed. Colbert-Turgis, G. de (Paris: Mercure de France, 1997, 2nd edition. 2005), 243.

186 Voltaire, referring to this event, writes in Candide: ‘In this country, it seems good to kill from time to time an admiral to encourage the others.’

187 Griffith, P., The Art of War of Revolutionary France, 1789–1802 (London: Greenhill Books, 1998), 24.

188 Gat, A., A History of Military Thought from the Enlightenment to the Cold War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 97–137.

189 Craig, G.A., ‘Delbrück: The Military Historian,’ in Makers of Modern Strategy: Military Thought from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, ed. Peter Paret (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 341–343.

190 Goerlitz, W., History of the German General Staff (Boulder: Westview Press, 1985), 85–99; Bucholz, A., Moltke and the German Wars, 1864–1871 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001).

191 Levêque, P., Histoire de la Marine du Consulat et de l’Empire, 2 vols., (Paris: Libraire Historique Tesseidre, 2014).

192 Knight, R., Britain Against Napoleon: The Organization of Victory, 1793–1815 (London: Allen Lane, 2013).

193 Duffy, C., The Fortress in the Age of Vauban and Frederick the Great, 1660–1789: Siege Warfare Volume II (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985), 291–295.

194 Lambert, A., ‘William, Lord Hotham, 1736–1813,’ in British Admirals of the Napoleonic Wars: The Contemporaries of Nelson, Le Fevre, P. and Harding, R., eds. (London: Chatham Publishing, 2005), 23–43; Tracy, Nicholas, ‘Sir Robert Calder, 1745–1810,’ in Le Fevre and Harding, British Admirals, 197–217.

195 De la Graviére, J., Souvenir d’un amiral (Paris, 1860–72).

196 Several sources testify to the rapid collapse of the squadron’s morale. See especially, Des Touches G., ‘Souvenirs d’un marin de la République,’ Revue des Deux Mondes 28 (juillet-août 1905).

197 Villeneuve was nevertheless successful in the reconquest of the Diamant, a strong position on the south coast of Martinique.

198 Newnham Collingwood, G.L., Correspondence and Memoirs of Vice Admiral Lord Collingwood (London, 1828).

199 Ferrari Billoch, F., Barceló (Madrid-Barcelona, 1942); Janer Mansilla, G., El general Barceló (Palma de Mallorca, 1984); Rodríguez González, A.R., Barceló (Barcelona, 1990); and Codina Bonet, R., D. Antonio Barceló, almirante de la Real Armada y corsario del Rey (Madrid: Ministerio de Defensa, Centro de Publicaciones, 2010). See also the magnificent articles of J. Llabrés Bernal, in numerous issues of Revista General de Marina.

200 Archivo General de Marina (hereafter AGM), ‘D. Álvaro de Bazán’, Expedientes Personales, Cuerpo General, Antonio Barceló i Pont de la Terra.

201 Rodríguez González, Barceló, 32.

202 AGM, ‘D. Álvaro de Bazán’, Expedientes Personales, Cuerpo General, José Mazarredo Salazar y Cortázar.

203 Archivo Municipal de Palma de Mallorca (hereafter AMPM), Fondo Barceló, caja 13.1, quoted in Codina Bonet, D. Antonio Barceló, 114.

204 Llabrés Bernal, J., ‘Un combate naval infortunado en 1765,’ Apuntes para la historia marítima de Ibiza (Palma de Mallorca, 1958), 28–43.

205 AMPM, Fondo Barceló, caja 16, quoted in Codina Bonet, D. Antonio Barcelo, 241–243.

206 AGM, Arsenales, Mahón, I.

207 AGM, ‘D. Álvaro de Bazán’, Libros de Registro de Arsenales, Cartagena, acerca de las cantidades adelantadas por Barceló para que no se paralizasen las obras en los arsenales, de otros rasgos de desprendimiento, en Codina Bonet, D. Antonio Barceló, 269–271.

208 White, C., Nelson, the Admiral (Stroud: The History Press, 2005).

209 Lambert, Admirals: The Naval Commanders who Made Britain Great (London, 2008), especially ‘Pursuit and Professionalism. Samuel Hood (1724–1816) and John Jervis (1735–1823),’ 157–200.

210 The modern bibliography on leadership is huge. See, for instance, Heifetez, R.A., Liderazgo sin respuestas fáciles. Propuestas para un nuevo diálogo social en tiempos difíciles (Barcelona, 1997); Heifetez, R.A. and Linsky, M., Leadership on the Line. Staying Alive through the Dangers of Leading (Boston, 2002); Boyatzis, R. and Mckee, A., Liderazgo emocional (Barcelona, 2006); and Heider, J., El Tao de los líderes: El Tao Te-Ching de Lao Tse adaptado a la nueva era (Barcelona, 2007). See also the humanist view of a war leader in Sun-Tzu and Lawson, J., El Arte de la Guerra para ejecutivos y directivos, 6th edition (Barcelona, 2006).

211 Barbudo Duarte, E., Don José de Mazarredo, Teniente General de la Real Armada (Madrid, 1945); Bernaola Martín, I., ‘Guerra naval y diplomacia: José de Mazarredo, un marino ilustrado embajador en París,’ Revista de Historia Naval 131: 9–38 (Madrid, 2015); Guimerá, A., ‘Trafalgar y la marinería Española,’ in Guimerá, A. and Peralta, V., eds., El equilibrio de los imperios. De Utrecht a Trafalgar (Madrid, 2005), vol. 2, 821–838; Guimerá Ravina, A. and García Fernández, N., ‘Un consenso estratégico: Las Ordenanzas Navales de 1793,’ Anuario de Estudios Atlánticos 54-II (2008): 43–81; Rodríguez González, A.R., ‘Las innovaciones artilleras y tácticas españolas en la campaña de Trafalgar’, in XXXI Congreso Internacional de Historia Militar (Madrid, 21–27 Agosto 2005) (Madrid, 2006), 539–552.

212 Morriss, Roger, ‘St Vincent and Reform,’ The Mariner’s Mirror 69:3 (1983): 269–290.

213 Crimmin, P.K., ‘John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent’, in Le Freve, P. and Harding, R., eds., Precursors of Nelson. British Admirals of the Eighteenth Century (London: Chatham, 2000), 324–355; Crimmin, P.K., ‘Jervis, John, Earl of St Vincent (1735–1823), Naval Officer,’ in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, accessed January 2006), electronic edition; Davidson, J.D., Admiral Lord St Vincent, Saint or Tyrant? The Life of Sir John Jervis, Nelson’s Patron (Barnsley, 2006); Horsfield, J., The Art of Leadership in War: The Royal Navy from the Age of Nelson to the End of World War II (Westport, Conn., 1980); Moriconi, E. and Wilkinson, C., ‘Sir John Jervis: The Man for the Occasion,’ in Howarth, S., ed., Battle of Cape St Vincent. 200 Years. The Bicentennial International Naval Conference. Portsmouth-England, 15 February 1997 (Shelton, 1998), 8–21; Palmer, M.A.J., ‘Sir John’s Victory: The Battle of Cape St Vincent Reconsidered,’ The Mariner’s Mirror 77, 31-46 (1991); Mackay, R.F., ‘Lord St Vincent’s Early Years (1735–55),’ The Mariner’s Mirror 76, 51-65 (1996); and White, C., The Battle of Cape St Vincent. 14 February 1797 (Shelton, 1997).

214 López-Cordón, M.V. ‘Entre Francia e Inglaterra. Intereses estratégicos y acuerdos políticos como antecedentes de Trafalgar,’ in Guimerá, A., Ramos, A. and Butrón, A., eds., Trafalgar y el mundo atlántico (Madrid, 2004), 19–60; and Seco Serrano, C., ‘La política exterior de Carlos IV,’ in Historia de España fundada por Ramón Menéndez Pidal y dirigida por José María Jover Zamora. Tomo XXXI. La época de la Ilustración. Volumen 2. Las Indias y la política exterior (Madrid, 1988), 449–732.

215 Marqués de Santa Cruz de Marcenado, Reflexiones Militares [1742] (Madrid, 1984), chapters I, II and XIII; especially Díez Alegría, M., ‘La milicia en el siglo de las Luces,’ 15–31 and García Escudero, J.M., ‘Sobre el Derecho de la Guerra,’ 80–106.

216 Von Clausewitz, K., De la guerra (Barcelona, 1984); Heuser, B., Reading Clausewitz (London: Pimlico, 2002); Strachan, H., Clausewitz’s ‘On War’ (Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006); Bell, D.A., La primera guerra total. La Europa de Napoléon y el nacimiento de la guerra moderna (Madrid, 2007); and Broers, M., ‘The Concept of “Total War” in the Revolutionary–Napoleonic Period’, War in History 15 (July 2008): 247–268. DOI:

217 Guimerá, A., ‘Métodos de liderazgo naval,’ in El mar en los siglos modernos, eds., García-Hurtado, M.R., González-Lopo, D L. and Martínez-Rodríguez, eds. (Santiago de Compostela: Xunta de Galicia, 2009), vol. 2, 221–233.

218 Table VII: Exports from Cádiz to Spanish America, 1796–1811; Guimerá, A., ‘Commerce and Shipping in Spain during the Napoleonic Wars’, in Howarth, S., ed., Battle of Cape St Vincent 200 Years (Shelton, 1998), 22–37.

219 For the Spanish gunboats, see Rodriguez González, A.R., ‘Admiral Antonio Barceló, 1716–97: A Self-Made Naval Leader,’ in this volume, 114–5.

220 The Spanish sources are ‘Correspondencia, Bloqueo de Cádiz, 1797–1799,’ in Archivo del Museo Naval, Madrid (AMN), Colección Mazarredo, legajos 2385–2386; and ‘Extracto de los Diarios de la Mayoría General de la Armada del Océano, sobre lo ocurrido en la misma desde 1797 a 1802, formado por el Mayor General Escaño para su gobierno,’ 1 June 1802, in Quadrado y De-Roo, F.P. Elogio histórico del Excelentísimo Señor Don Antonio de Escaño, Teniente General de Marina... por Don..... ministro plenipotenciario, etc. etc. (Madrid, 1852), 85–130, appendix 8 (hereafter Quadrado).

221 Nelson to Dixon Hoste, 25 Nov. 1796: ‘I should be sorry to have a Peace before we make the Dons pay for meddling.’; Nelson to William Suckling, 29 Nov. 1796: ‘I hope yet to assist him in beating the Dons, which we shall do if we have a proper force to seek them out.’; Nelson to the Reverend Edmund Nelson, 13 Jan. 1797: ‘its very probable you will soon hear of another Action, for I am very much inclined to make the Dons repent of this war.’ All letters quoted are from Nicolas, N.H., The Dispatches and Letters of Vice Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson with notes by...The Second Volume, 1797 to 1797 (London: Chatham, 1997) [1845] Unless otherwise stated, quotations from Nelson’s correspondence are from Nicolas.

222 The frigate La Sabina, Jacobo Stuart commander, 40 guns and 286 men, was captured on Cartagena road, after heavy fighting. The Spanish casualties were 164. Nelson to Edmund Nelson, 1 Jan. 1797: ‘My late prisoner, a descendant from the Duke of Berwick, son of James II, was my brave opponent; for which I have returned him his sword, and sent him in a Flag of truce to Spain. I felt it consonant to the dignity of my Country, and I always act as I feel right, without regard to custom; he was reputed the best Officer in Spain, and his men were worthy of such a Commander; he was the only surviving Officer’; Nelson to Edmund Nelson, 13 Jan 1797. In the famous action of 3 July in Cádiz, the barge commanded by Tyrason had 30 men, all of whom were killed or wounded; Nelson to Jervis, 4 July 1797: ‘I must also beg to be permitted to express my admiration of Don Miguel Tyrason, the Commander of the Gun-boats. In his Barge, he laid my Boat alongside, and his resistance was such as did honour to a brave Officer.’

223 Jervis to Nelson, 6 May 1797: ‘...for it appears by the letter [Rear-Admiral Parker] that Moreno covered Cordova in the evening; and the Rear-Admiral shall go to [la Isla de] Leon, and prove the letter, if Moreno requires it; this is due to a brave man under persecution.’: Nelson to Moreno, 8 June 1797, sending him Jervis’s praise of the good performance of Moreno’s flagship, Príncipe de Asturias, during the battle; Nelson to Jervis, 9 June 1797.

224 Archivo Histórico Nacional, Estado, leg. 4039, núm. 1, Mazarredo to Antonio Valdés, 27 Aug. 1795. In 1797 Mazarredo accepted the fleet command for various reasons. One was ‘to challenge the English navy and compensate its power and ambition’; Mazarredo to José de Lángara, 15 March 1797, quoted in Barbudo Duarte, Don José de Mazarredo, 169.

225 On 25 May 1797, the British fleet captured a merchant brig, using Spanish colours (Quadrado, 89). This ruse was common to all European naval powers: Willis, S., Fighting at Sea in the Eighteenth Century. The Art of Sailing Warfare (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2008), 23–26.

226 AMN, legajo 2385, Saumarez to Mazarredo, 9 May 1797; Mazarredo to Saumarez, 12 May 1797

227 Guimerá, A., “From Cádiz to Tenerife: The Account of Captain Ralph W. Miller,’ The Trafalgar Chronicle 23 (2013): 45–72.

228 Nelson to Jervis, 7 July 1797.

229 Mazarredo to Obispo de Cádiz, 29 May 1797, quoted in Barbudo Duarte, Don José de Mazarredo, 176–178.

230 Nelson to Miguel Gastón, 21 Dec. 1796: ‘It becomes great Nations to act with generosity to each other, and to soften the horrors of war.’; Nelson to Gastón, 29 Dec. 1796: ‘I shall not urge the humanity attending the frequent Exchange of unfortunate people.’

231 AMN, 2385, Mazarredo to Jervis, 18 April 1797.

232 AMN, 2385, Mazarredo to Jervis, 18 April 1797; Jervis to Cádiz foreign consuls, 19 April 1797; Cádiz foreign consuls to Mazarredo, 21 April 1797; Mazarredo to Cádiz foreign consuls, 22 April 1797.

233 AMN, 2385, Jervis to Mazarredo, 19 April 1797; Saumarez to Mazarredo, 12 Aug. 1797; Mazarredo to Saumarez, 13 Aug. 1797; Jervis to Mazarredo, 14 Aug. 1797; AMN, 2386, Mazarredo to Lángara, 21 Sept. 1798; Mazarredo to Jervis, 2 May 1798.

234 AMN, 2386, Mazarredo to Lángara, 8 May and 21 Sept. 1798.

235 AMN, 2386, Mazarredo to Lángara, 21 Sept. 1798.

236 AMN, 2385, Mazarredo to Jervis, 18 April 1797.

237 Nelson to Mazarredo, 30 June 1797: ‘...numbers of the Spanish fishing-boats are found at such a distance from the land as plainly to evince that they have something farther in view that catching fish; and, therefore, that orders are given, that no Fishing-vessel be in future permitted to go farther from the shore than their usual fishing-ground; which, we understand, is in about thirty five fathoms water... For the information of the fishermen, that their boats will be sunk...’

238 AMN, 2385, Saumarez to Mazarredo, 12 Aug. and 13 Aug. 1797.

239 Jervis to Mazarredo, 14 Aug. 1797, returned him a fishing boat with oysters: ‘I have a high respect for your Excellency’s judgment and penetration’.; Mazarredo to Jervis, 15 Aug. 1797, praised the humanity and the honorable expressions of Jervis: ‘I would be happy to show my respectful consideration to Your Excellence in every chance.’

240 AMN, 2385, Saumarez to Mazarredo, 9 May 1797.

241 AMN, 2386, Mazarredo to Lángara, 21 Sept 1798.

242 AMN, 2392, Mazarredo to Jervis, 5 July 1798. Jervis’s answer was the following: ‘The Count of St Vincent is highly pleased with the magnificent present of Don Joseph de Mazarredo, and the fineness of His Excellence for introducing the name of Lady St Vincent in his note, which is making that more acceptable. Ville de Paris, off Cádiz, 5 July 1798.’

243 AMN, 2385, Nelson to Mazarredo, 30 May 1797; Mazarredo to Nelson, 1 June 1797.

244 AMN, 2385, Saumarez to Mazarredo, 13 June 1797; Mazarredo to Saumarez, 14 June 1797.

245 Jervis to Mazarredo, 24 Aug. 1797; Revista de Historia Naval, 74 (2002), 103–106.

246 Lambert, Admirals, 197–98.

247 Santovenia, E., Bolívar y las Antillas hispanas (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1935), 124–26.

248 Restrepo Tirado, E. et al, ed., Archivo Santander (Bogotá: Academia de la Historia/Aguila Negra Editorial, 1913–32), vol. 13, 191–92.

249 Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Estado, 17, N130, War Minister to State Minister, 21 July 1825; Archivo General de Marina, Álvaro de Bazán, El Viso del Marqués, Ciudad Real (AGMAB), Expediciones 75, State Minister to Navy Minister, 16 Aug. 1825.

250 Ibid., Salazar to State Minister, minute, 20 Aug. 1825.

251 Actas del Consejo de Ministros (Madrid: Ministerio de la Presidencia, 1989–1996), vol. 1, 429 (21 Dec. 1825 session).

252 Mendoza, D., ‘Estudios de historia diplomática. Relaciones entre Colombia y México,” Boletín de Historia y Antigüedades 11 (1904): 341–44.

253 AGMAB, Expediciones 75, No. 10, Memorandum by Miguel Gastón, 15 Mar. 1825.

254 Ibid., Oficiales 620, s.v. Luis María de Salazar.

255 Ibid., Expediciones 78, Laborde to Salazar, confidential, 8 Nov. 1828.

256 Ibid., Expediciones 77, Finance Minister to Salazar, 21 Feb. 1826; Director General de la Armada to Salazar, 1 Mar. 1827; Salazar to Laborde, 28 Mar. 1827.

257 Actas del Consejo de Ministros, vol. 1, 222 (12 May 1825 session), Archivo Histórico Nacional, Madrid (AHN); Estado 6367/75/2, Vives to State Minister, private, 9 Aug. 1824; AGMAB, Expediciones 76, War Minister to Salazar, 24 Apr. 1825.

258 Estado General de la Armada, 1828, 30–32.

259 AGMAB, Expediciones 75, No. 16, Minute of 25 Mar. 1825 meeting between the Captain General, the naval commander and the Intendant.

260 Luis María de Salazar, Manifiesto del Conde de Salazar, a cuenta de la Exposición leida a las Córtes generales del Reino por el Excelentísimo señor Secretario de Estado y del Despacho de Marina en los dias 11 y 13 de agosto de 1834 (Madrid: Imprenta de D. Miguel de Burgos, 1834), 13.

261 Ibid., 17–18.

262 Actas del Consejo de Ministros, vol. 1, 170 (26 Mar. 1825 session). Luís López Ballesteros (Finance Minister), ‘Memoria ministerial sobre el estado de la Real Hacienda de España en los años de 1822, 1824 y 1825,’ in Canga Argüelles, José, ed., Diccionario de Hacienda con aplicación a España (Madrid: Imprenta de D. Marcelino Calero y Portocarrero, 1834), vol. 2, 724–725.

263 AGMAB, Consignaciones 7414, Salazar to Cádiz Intendant, minute, 26 July 1825; Salazar to Navy Paymaster, 26 July 1825.

264 Ibid., Navy Intendant to Salazar, 30 Jan. 1826.

265 Ibid., Expediciones 75, Laborde to Salazar, confidential, 1 Apr. 1826.

266 Ibid., Deputy Commander of Apostadero de la Habana to Navy Minister, 22 May 1825, appended confidential intelligence report.

267 AHN, Estado 6369–1, Vives to State Minister, 22 and 30 Sep. 1826; AGMAB, Expediciones 77, Vives to War Minister, 30 Sep. 1826.

268 For the American view, see Flaccus, Elmer W., ‘Commodore David Porter and the Mexican Navy,’ The Hispanic American Historical Review 34 (1954): 365–73. For the Spanish view, see Delgado, Jaime, España y México en el siglo XIX (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1950), vol. 1, 309–36.

269 Mario Lavalle Argudín, ed., Memorias de Marina, buques de la Armada de México, acaecimientos notables, 1821–1991 (México: Secretaría de Marina, 1991–2), vol. 1, 47, 49–50.

270 Livermore, H.V., A New History of Portugal (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966), 268–79.

271 See Macaulay, N., Dom Pedro; 1798–1834: The Struggle for Liberty in Brazil and Portugal (Durham NC.: Duke University Press, 1986), 254–305, for Pedro’s role in the war.

272 Schroeder, P.W., The Transformation of European Politics, 1763–1848 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 720–1; Bourne, K., Palmerston: The Early Years, 1784–1841 (London: The Free Press, 1982), 387–96; Williams, J.B., British Commercial Policy and Trade Expansion, 1750–1850 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972), 152–55.

273 The National Archives (hereafter TNA), FO 63/398, Palmerston to Russell, 5 July 1833, no. 2; ADM 1/4252, Foreign Office to Admiralty, 5 July 1833; FO 63/399, Russell to Palmerston, 16 July 1833, no. 59: by this time news had reached Russell of Napier’s victory.

274 Bollaert, W., The Wars of Succession of Portugal and Spain. Vol. 1 Portugal (London: Edward Stanford, 1870), 251. Bollaert was an officer in the garrison of Oporto, and met Napier more than once. He also consulted the memoirs and memories of his fellow officers before compiling his own account.

275 TNA, ADM 1/2239, Napier to Sir James Graham, 26 Aug. 1832: no. 23, requesting a Greenwich Out Pension.

276 British Library (hereafter BL), Napier MSS, BL Add. 40,018 f.192–4, Palmella to Napier, 29 Aug. and 4 Sept. 1832: quote from 4 Sept. 1832.

277 Lima to Napier, 1 Feb. 1833; Napier, C., An Account of the War in Portugal between Don Pedro and Don Miguel (London, 1836), 2 vols; vol. 1, 321–22, original in National Maritime Museum (hereafter NMM), Napier Papers, NAP/11 f. 6; Palmella to Napier, 1 Feb. 1833, NAP/14, Napier to wife, 5 Feb. 1833; Elers-Napier, C., Admiral Sir Charles Napier, KCB: From Personal Recollections, Letters and Official Documents, 2 vols.(London: Hurst and Blackett, 1862), vol. 1, 169.

278 Napier to Lima, undated, replying to the offer of 1 Feb. 1833: Napier, An Account of the War, 326–8 (NAP/11 f.7).

279 Graham, MS, MS 50, Graham to Dundas, 30 Nov. 1833.

280 Torrens, W. Mc., Life and Times of Sir James Graham (London, 1863), 78.

281 TNA, ADM1/3478, Graham, minute 12 Sept. 1832, granting the Pension. The Napier MSS contains several such letters.

282 Elers-Napier, Admiral Sir Charles Napier, vol. 1, 173–4, 14 Sept. 1833.

283 Ibid., 171, 8 April 1833.

284 NMM, NAP/16, Sartorius to Napier, 14 March 1833.

285 NMM, NAP/16, Sartorius to Napier, 24 April 1833.

286 Elers-Napier, Admiral Sir Charles Napier, KCB, 176–7.

287 Bollaert, W., The Wars of Succession of Portugal and Spain, footnote, 256.

288 Napier’s temper deserves an essay of its own. He clearly deployed it pretty much to order, although there were occasions when his anger was genuine. It seems unlikely that a man who remained so cool under fire was incapable of governing his rage.

289 Elers-Napier, Admiral Sir Charles Napier, KCB, 186; Pedro to Napier, 11 June 1833.

290 Bollaert, The Wars of Succession of Portugal and Spain, 255.

291 TNA, ADM 1/360, Admiral Parker to Admiralty 14, rec’d 27 June 1833, no. 183.

292 TNA, FO63/399, Russell to Palmerston, 17 June 1833, no. 54.

293 Buckland, C.S.B., ‘Richard Belgrave Hoppner,’ English Historical Review (1924): 373–85.

294 Bindoff, S.T., Smith, E.F.M. and Webster, C.K., eds., British Diplomatic Representatives, 1789–1852 (London: Camden Society, 1934), 94.

295 Webster, C.K., The Foreign Policy of Palmerston (London: Bell and Sons, 1951), vol. 1., 240–1.

296 Hoppner–Napier, R.B., 10 May 1833: 40.019 f.9–17. This report is endorsed ‘I do not think you have any right to make this report public, Papa did not’. The comment was written by Fanny Napier-Jodrell to her step-brother Edward Elers-Napier, who was then compiling the two-volume biography.

297 Phillimore’s second volume is an exhaustive record of Parker’s service at Lisbon, a case study in the conduct of armed diplomacy.

298 Phillimore, Sir A., The Life of Admiral Sir William Parker (London: 1880), vol. 2, 209–10.

299 Phillimore, The Life of Admiral Sir William Parker, 223, Parker to Napier, 17 June 1833.

300 Phillimore, The Life of Admiral Sir William Parker, 237, Parker to Graham, 3 July 1833. For the Portuguese telegraph system, see Wilson, G., The Old Telegraphs (London: Philimore, 1976), 183–4.

301 TNA, FO 63/399, Russell to Palmerston, 25 June 1833, no. 55.

302 Elers-Napier, Admiral Sir Charles Napier, KCB, 187–8, Napier to wife, 15 June 1833.

303 BL, BL Add. 40.019, ff.54–60, Napier to Dundas, 19/20 June 1833. See also letters of 10 June, 27 June and 6 July 1833.

304 BL, BL Add. 40.019, f. 79, details from Napier to Dundas, 6 July 1833.

305 Hired from the City of Dublin Steam Packet Company.

306 This squadron was equivalent to a single British battleship in manpower, but far less impressive in firepower.

307 Phillimore, The Life of Admiral Sir William Parker, 212, Parker to Graham, 5 June 1833.

308 Phillimore, The Life of Admiral Sir William Parker, 228–9, Parker to Napier, 23 June 1833.

309 TNA, FO 63/405, Hoppner to Sir George Shee (Parliamentary Under Secretary at the FO), 22 June 1833. no. 116: FO 63/399, Russell to Palmerston, 25 June 1833, no. 55.

310 TNA, FO 63/399, Russell to Palmerston, 3 July 1833, no. 56.

311 Phillimore, The Life of Admiral Sir William Parker, 232–233, Napier to Parker, 30 June 1833.

312 BL, BL Add. 40.019, f. 79, details from Napier to Dundas, 6 July 1833.

313 Phillimore, The Life of Admiral Sir William Parker, 237–9, Parker to Graham, 3 July 1833.

314 TNA, FO 63/399, Russell to Palmerston, 3 July 1833, no. 56.

315 TNA, FO 63/405, Hoppner to Shee, 25 June 1833, no. 117.

316 TNA, FO 63/405, Hoppner to Shee, 9 July 1833, no. 125.

317 Napier, C., Civil War, vol. 1, 195.

318 For Napier’s own account, which is persuasive, and accords with his contemporary writings, see Napier, An Account of the War in Portugal, vol. 1 191–206 (see note 277). Bollaert provides a very interesting eyewitness account written by one of Donna Maria’s petty officers on pages 295–301.

319 Bollaert, The Wars of Succession of Portugal and Spain, 291–2, Napier, 6 May 1833, Dispatch.

320 Elers-Napier, Admiral Sir Charles Napier, KCB, 215–6, Napier to wife, 10 July 1833.

321 Phillimore, The Life of Admiral Sir William Parker, 243–5, Napier to Parker, 7 and 10 July 1833.

322 Napier, Civil War., vol. 1, 363, Napier ‘List of Killed and Wounded’.

323 TNA, FO 63/399, Russell to Palmerston, 15 July 1833, no. 58.

324 TNA, ADM 1/360, Parker to Admiralty, 15 July, rec. 31 July 1833.

325 BL, BL Add. 40.019, f.84, Napier to Dundas, 10 July 1833.

326 TNA, ADM 1/3480, Admiralty minute, 10 July 1833.

327 Graham MS MS 57, Palmerston to Graham, 12 July 1833.

328 Graham MS MS 57, Palmerston to Grey, 14 July 1833.

329 Bourne, Palmerston: The Early Years, 397, Palmerston to Frederick Lamb, 16 July 1833.

330 Broadlands MSS, GC/GR 39, Graham to Palmerston, 14 July 1833, endorsed ‘Sunday Night’.

331 TNA, FO 63/399, Russell to Palmerston, 25 July 1833, no. 61; ADM 1/360, Parker to Admiralty, 25 July 1833, rec. 3 Aug. 1833, no. 252.

332 TNA, FO 63/398, Palmerston to Russell, 7 Aug. 1833, endorsed by William IV, no. 9.

333 TNA, FO 63/399, Russell to Palmerston, 16 Aug. 1833, no. 67; Bourne, Palmerston: The Early Years, 397–8.

334 Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics, 722–3.

335 Broadlands, GC/GR 42, Graham to Palmerston: 5 Aug. 1833.

336 Graham, MS 28, Graham to Grey, 2 Aug. 1833.

337 Broadlands, GC/GR 44, Graham to Palmerston, 1 Sept. 1833.

338 Shaw, T.G., Wine and the Wine Cellar (London: 1863) cited in Bollaert, The Wars of Succession, 249.

339 Sir C. Shaw. Letter of December 1865 cited in Bollaert, The Wars of Succession, 256.

340 A narrative of this expansion and consolidation, which is still valuable, can be found in Parry, J.H., The Age of Reconnaissance: Discovery, Exploration and Settlement, 1450–1650 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1963); Parry, J.H., Trade and Dominion: European Overseas Empires in the Eighteenth Century (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1971). For the unravelling of this historical age, which commenced with the ‘European Civil War’ of 1914–18, see Panikkar, K.M., Asia and Western Dominance: A Survey of the Vasco Da Gama Epoch of Asian History, 1498–1945 (London: Allen and Unwin, 1953), particularly 259–371. For a recent study of this continuing process, see Yoshihara, T. and Holmes, James R., Red Star over the Pacific: China’s Rise and the Challenge to U.S. Maritime Strategy (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2013).

341 For a study that shows how English naval commanders grew into more autonomous commanding roles in the Mediterranean, see Hornstein, S.R., The Restoration Navy and English Foreign Trade, 1674–1688: A Study in the Peacetime Use of Sea Power (Aldershot: Scholar Press, 1991).

342 Talbot, John E., The Pen and Ink Sailor: Charles Middleton and the King’s Navy, 1778–1813 (London: Frank Cass, 1998).

343 Nicholas Rodger identifies the beginnings of the recovery of centralised control of the officer corps as early as 1794, occurring contemporaneously with the breakdown of other traditional power-trust relationships within the British bureaucratic system. However, the full impact of this process would not be realised until the exigencies of the war were finally over in 1815. See, Rodger, N.A.M., ‘The Inner Life of the Navy, 1750–1800: Change or Decay?’ in Guerres et Paix, ed. by Anon. (Vincennes: Service Historique de la Marine, 1987), 171–79; Rodger, N.A.M., ‘Officers, Gentlemen and Their Education, 1793–1860,’ in Les Empires en Guerre et Paix, 1793–1860, ed. Freeman, E. (Vincennes: Service Historique de la Marine, 1990), 139–54. For the broader picture of reform and centralisation, see the works of Roger Morriss, especially, Naval Power and British Culture, 1760–1850: Public Trust and Government Ideology (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004).

344 Napier was not alone in serving in foreign fleets. The navies raised during the campaigns for independence in South America and which served those new states in regional conflicts were manned and officered by significant numbers of British seamen. See Vale, Brian, A War Betwixt Englishmen: Brazil against Argentina on the River Plate, 1825–1830 (London: I.B. Tauris, 2000).

345 Griffiths, P., The Art of War in Revolutionary France, 1789–1802 (London: Greenhill Books, 1998); Rotenberg, G.E., The Art of War in the Age of Napoleon (Staplehurst: Spellmount, 1997); Chandler, David, The Campaigns of Napoleon (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1990), especially 133–201.

346 Gat, Azar, A History of Military Thought from the Enlightenment to the Cold War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 170–265.

347 Bucholz, A., Moltke and the German Wars, 1864–1871 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001).

348 Fowler, William M., Rebels Under Sail: The American Navy During the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribener’s, 1976).

349 Symonds, C.L., Navalists and Antinavalists: The Naval Policy Debate in the United States, 1785–1827 (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1980), 27.

350 Hagan, Kenneth J., This People’s Navy: The Making of American Sea Power (New York: Free Press, 1991), 21–90.

351 Bradford, James C., ed., Command under Sail: Makers of the American Naval Tradition, 1775–1850 (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1985); McKee, Christopher, A Gentlemanly and Honorable Profession: The Creation of the US Naval Officer Corps, 1794–1815 (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1991).

352 Morriss, Roger, Science, Utility and Maritime Power: Samuel Bentham in Russia, 1779–91 (Abingdon: Ashgate, 2015); Kipp, Jacob W., ‘The Russian Navy and the Problem of Technology Transfer: Technological Backwardness and Military-Industrial Development, 1853–1876,’ in Russia’s Great Reform, 1855–1881, ed. Eklol, B., Bushnell, J. and Zakharova, L. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994): 115–38; Morda Evans, R.J., ‘Recruitment of British Personnel for the Russian Service 1734–1738,’ The Mariner’s Mirror 47:2 (1961): 126–37; Anderson, M.S., ‘Great Britain and the Growth of the Russian Navy in the Eighteenth Century,’ The Mariner’s Mirror 42:2 (1956): 132–46: Anderson, M.S., ‘Great Britain and the Russian Fleet, 1769–1770,’ Slavonic and East European Studies Review, December (1952): 148–64; Clendenning, Philip H., ‘Admiral Sir Charles Knowles and Russia, 1771–1774,’ The Mariner’s Mirror 61:1 (1975): 39–49.

353 Zorlu, Tuncay, Innovation and Empire in Turkey: Sultan Selim III and the Modernisation of the Ottoman Navy (London: I.B. Tauris, 2011).

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