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notes introduction 1. John Adams, November 25, 1760, Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. Lyman H. Butterfield (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962), vol. 1: Diary 1755–1770, 172–73. 2. Allan Kulikoff, From British Peasants to Colonial American Farmers (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000). 3. David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000); David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006). 4. Jack Marietta and G. S. Rowe, Troubled Experiment: Crime and Justice in Pennsylvania , 1682–1800 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006); Sharon Salinger, To Serve Well and Faithfully: Indentured Servants in Pennsylvania 1682–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); Simon P. Newman, Embodied History: The Lives of the Poor in Early Philadelphia (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003); Billy G. Smith, The ‘‘Lower Sort’’: Philadelphia’s Laboring People, 1750–1800 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1990). 5. John J. McCusker and Russell Menard, The Economy of British North America, 1607–1789 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991), 80–101, 189–229; Timothy H. Breen, The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 180–95. 6. Edmund S. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia (New York: Norton, 1975). 7. A notable exception is Elizabeth Mancke, The Fault Lines of Empire: Political Differentiation in Massachusetts and Nova Scotia, ca. 1760–1830 (New York: Routledge, 2005). 8. Edward M. Cook, The Fathers of the Towns: Leadership and Community Structure in Eighteenth-Century New England (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1976); Kenneth A. Lockridge, A New England Town: The First Hundred Years: Dedham, Massachusetts , 1636–1736 (New York: Norton, 1970); Michael W. Zuckerman, Peaceable Kingdoms : New England Towns in the Eighteenth Century (New York: Knopf, 1970). The classic 298 notes to pages 5–8 work in this vein is Robert E. Brown, Middle-Class Democracy and the Revolution in Massachusetts , 1691–1780 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1955). The classic homage is Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, trans. Henry Reeve (New York: Colonial Press, 1899), vol. 1, 59–68. 9. John P. Demos, A Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970); Philip J. Greven, Jr., Four Generations: Population, Land, and Family in Colonial Andover (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1970); Mary Beth Norton, Founding Mothers and Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society (New York: Knopf, 1996). 10. Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge , Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1955). See also Phyllis Whitman Hunter, Purchasing Identity in the Atlantic World: Massachusetts Merchants, 1670–1780 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001). 11. Daniel Vickers, Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630–1830 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994); Kulikoff, From British Peasants to Colonial American Farmers; Margaret Ellen Newell, From Dependency to Independence: Economic Revolution in Colonial New England (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998); Stephen Innes, Creating the Commonwealth: The Economic Culture of Puritan New England (New York: Norton, 1995). 12. Patrick Collinson, ‘‘De Republica Anglorum: Or, History with the Politics Put Back,’’ in Elizabethans (London: Hambledon, 2003), 1–29. See also R. B. Goheen, ‘‘Did Peasants Have Politics? Village Communities and the Crown in Fifteenth-Century England ,’’ American Historical Review 96 (1991): 42–62. An exceptional book that recognizes and contributes to this trend in American historiography is Francis J. Bremer and Lynn A. Bothelo, eds., The World of John Winthrop: Essays on England and New England, 1588–1649 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2005). 13. Bernard Bailyn, Voyagers to the West: A Passage in the Peopling of America on the Eve of the Revolution (New York: Knopf, 1986), 26. 14. Ibid., 209. 15. Ibid., 225–28. 16. John Hutchins, The American Maritime Industries and Public Policy, 1789–1914: An Economic History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1941); David Macpherson , Annals of Commerce, Manufactures, Fisheries, and Navigation (London, 1805), iii, 570, as quoted in James F. Shepherd and Gary M. Walton, Shipping, Maritime Trade, and the Economic Development of Colonial North America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), 243; Shepherd and Walton, Shipping, 242–45. 17. See Chris Tilly and Charles Tilly, Work Under Capitalism (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998), 5–16. This book’s conceptualization has been heavily influenced by the Tillys’ work. 18. The chief works establishing...


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