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Notes Introduction 1. Huda Shaarawi (1879–1947) is one of Egypt’s early feminist leaders. She is quoted in Badran 1995:73 as she recalls the early death in 1918 of Bahithat al-Badiya (Malak Hifni Nasef), another feminist leader and friend who had preceded her in making public demands for women’s rights. In her recollection, she acknowledges the impact Bahithat al-Badiya has had on her. The eulogy she presented in the commemoration of Malak’s death was the first public speech she had ever given, thus one path ends for another to begin. 2. I here acknowledge Jane (Roxie) Beyle, one of the students in that class who also worked in the obituary section of the Salt Lake Tribune and whom I credit with bringing the obituaries back into my life by asking if they would be an appropriate topic for a research paper. 3. Beeman, for example, notes effects from Arabic on conversational styles in Iran: “The proportion of Arabic-origin words increases dramatically in formal speech situations and oratory, lending some additional support to the proposition that movement from more to less determined style (Style A to Style B) may proceed on a continuum: greater to less Arabicization in all linguistic features” (1986:130). 4. Quoted from his Language, Truth and Politics in Graddol and Swann 1989:143. 5. See, for example, Nilsen et al. 1977, Friedl 1978, Miller and Swift 1977, Schulz 1990, Martyna 1983, among others. Chapter 1 1. Quoted in Badran 1995:73. 2. A possible extension of this research would compare family- and staff-written obituaries of prominent figures. 3. “The Obituarist’s Art Lives after Death,” 64–66, quote on p. 64. 4. The article ends quoting George Eliot’s words used to introduce this chapter and paying tribute to ordinary dead people. “In acknowledging for a moment the passage of such lives, we remind ourselves that our world is shaped and colored not only by the actions of great leaders and the interplay of economic forces, but by countless lesser contributors, be they dancers, airmen, inventors, doctors, entertainers, architects, batsmen, thinkers, villains or mere players of walk-on parts in the scenes of history” (68). 307 308 Notes 5. These eleven categories are administrative skills, quantitative emphasis, creativity /innovation, leadership, intellectual achievement, chief authority, civic activities, war service, personal virtues, selfless service, and family emphasis. 6. I checked with the staff of the New York Times obituary section regarding editorial policy on content and style of family-written obituaries. I found that the only restriction involves information that could be legally problematic for the newspaper, such as information pertaining to the cause of death, particularly if it involved an accident. They also require verification of the person’s death by calling at least one person other than the writer (the funeral home, for example). As far as style, they had no restrictions, although they recommended looking at other obituaries before writing, something people do anyway if unfamiliar with obituaries and their formats. 7. The Arabic and Persian newspapers examined are more similar to the Salt Lake Tribune in this respect than they are to either the New York Times or the Chicago Tribune. 8. In this sample I have used boldface to highlight relationships (deceased to survivor) and italics for titles. Commas separate individual lists of relatives within the same relationship, and a semicolon separates different relationships. Items in brackets are not in the actual texts, but have been added for clarification. 9. According to Badawi and Hinds, the title bek or beh is derived from Turkish bey. It is “formerly [pre-1952 Egyptian Revolution] a title of, and form of address and reference to, second highest ranking officers and officials, now used loosely to indicate respect or to flatter” (1986:118). 10. Compare with “mother of the wife of” in obituary 1. In both the relationship is actually “mother-in-law.” They have been translated differently to capture a difference in the Arabic text. Only in obituary 2 is the Arabic word for mother-in-law, h . amat, used. In obituary 1 the Arabic text has walidat h . aram, literally “mother of the wife of.” 11. The same is true for adopted children. This is an Islamic tradition attributed to the Quranic verse  ud  uuhum li  aabaa  ihim—“Call them [by names] of their fathers.” Quranic Sura 33 (Al-Ah .zab), verse 5 (Ali:1103). 12. Marriage between first cousins is allowed in...


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