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Appendix B Tables of Statistics Table B.1 has been discussed in the overview (part 2). The remaining tables report results of the two-way interactions of Sex and Culture (B.2), Sex and Time (B.3), and Culture and Time (B.4), and the three-way interaction of Sex, Culture, and Time (B.5). The terms sex and culture differentiation are used in reference to analyses that measure sex and culture differences, respectively. In table B.2 the distribution of the sexes relative to each other within each culture and across all three is measured on the basis of populations identiﬁed with the linguistic variables. The analysis proved to be statistically signiﬁcant for all linguistic variables except Professional Title. Thus no statistical signiﬁcance can be established in this case for sex differentiation across cultures. Table B.3 reports results of the analysis of sex differences over time for the population identiﬁed with the linguistic variables. A level of statistical signiﬁcance is established for all linguistic variables except Name and Professional Title. For these two, then, the distribution of the sexes is not signiﬁcantly different from normal variation at any time period. Table B.4 reports results of the interaction of Culture and Time on populations identiﬁed with the linguistic variables, comparing results from the three cultures to determine if change is culture differentiated. The chi-square analysis establishes statistical signiﬁcance for each linguistic variable, suggesting the change is strongly culture differentiated. Table B.5 reports results of the three-way interaction of Sex, Culture, and Time. The analysis measures cross-cultural differentiation over time for each linguistic variable within each sex group. Among the female population, no culture differences could be established for Occupation and Professional Title since no statistical signiﬁcance could be obtained for the distribution across cultures and over time. The results for the male population differ. Statistical signiﬁcance is established for all linguistic variables, suggesting that the distribution over time for this group is different from normal variation. 288 Tables of Statistics 289 Table B.1. Distribution of Linguistic Variables by Sex, Culture, and Time (N = 3800) Sex Culture Female Male χ2 Arabic English Persian χ2 Name 1379 2178 339.3* 1128 1439 990 305* 39% 61% 32% 40% 28% Title 634 925 4.1*** 843 57 659 1315.5* 41% 59% 54% 4% 42% Occupation 43 599 407.3* 451 82 109 426.9* 7% 93% 70% 13% 17% Prof. Title 12 315 222* 182 51 94 98.9* 4% 96% 56% 16% 29% Social Title 624 640 35* 675 4 585 1146.6* 49% 51% 53% 0.3% 46% Time 1938 1948 1958 1968 1978 1988 χ2 Name 359 507 622 670 694 706 75.8* 10% 14% 17% 19% 20% 20% Title 122 231 287 281 294 344 32.5* 8% 15% 18% 18% 19% 22% Occupation 56 77 97 128 119 165 29.9* 9% 12% 15% 20% 19% 26% Prof. Title 14 21 49 56 79 108 76* 4% 6% 15% 17% 24% 33% Social Title 108 215 242 227 223 249 15.6** 9% 17% 19% 18% 18% 20% *p < .0001 **p < .01 ***p < .05 290 Appendix B Table B.2: Sex Differentiation across Cultures (Sex and Culture) Arabic English Persian χ2 Name 81.2* Female 339 679 361 30% 47% 36% Male 789 760 629 70% 53% 64% Title 36.3* Female 317 6 311 38% 11% 47% Male 526 51 348 62% 89% 53% Occupation 20.2* Female 23 15 5 5% 18% 5% Male 428 67 104 95% 82% 95% Prof. Title 1.2 Female 5 2 5 3% 4% 5% Male 177 49 89 97% 96% 95% Social Title 9.2** Female 312 4 308 46% 100% 53% Male 363 0 277 54% 47% *p < .0001 **p < .01 Tables of Statistics 291 Table B.3: Sex Differentiation in Distribution of Linguistic Variables over Time 1938 1948 1958 1968 1978 1988 Total χ2 Name 2.3 Female 142 191 231 258 284 273 1379 40% 38% 37% 39% 41% 39% Male 217 315 391 412 410 433 2178 60% 62% 63% 61% 59% 61% Title 17.4** Female 31 95 123 123 131 121 634 25% 41% 42% 44% 45% 37.5% Male 91 136 164 158 161 215 925 75% 59% 57% 56% 55% 62.5% Occupation 11.7*** Female 1 2 4 10 7 19 43 2% 3% 4% 8% 6% 12% Male 55 75 93 118 112 146 599 98% 97% 96% 92% 94% 88% Prof. Title 8.8 Female 0 1 0 0 3 8 12 5% 4% 7% Male 14 20 49 56 76 100 315 100% 95% 100% 100% 96% 93% Social Title 30.9* Female 31 95 123 123 131 121 624 29% 44% 51% 54% 59% 49% Male 77 120 119 104 92 128 640 71% 56% 49% 46% 41% 51% *p < .0001 **p < .01 ***p < .05 292 Appendix B Table B.4. Culture Differentiation in Distribution of Linguistic Variables over Time 1938 1948 1958 1968 1978 1988 χ2 Name 228.6* Arabic 113 181 193 197 217 227 31% 36% 31% 29% 31% 32% English 239 240 240 240 240 240 67% 47% 39% 36% 35% 34% Persian 7 85 189 233 237 239 2% 17% 30% 35% 34% 34% Title 168.7* Arabic 109 270 142 143 145 134 89% 74% 49% 51% 49% 39% English 8 0 8 3 10 28 7% 3% 1% 3% 8% Persian 5 61 137 135 139 182 4% 26% 48% 48% 47% 53% Occupation 90.2* Arabic 52 64 66 91 82 96 93% 83% 68% 71% 69% 58% English 3 3 6 6 13 51 5% 4% 6% 5% 11% 31% Persian 1 10 25 31 24 18 2% 13% 26% 22% 20% 11% Professional Title 29.9** Arabic 7 14 29 38 47 47 50% 67% 59% 68% 59% 44% English 6 0 6 2 10 27 43% 12% 4% 13% 25% Persian 1 7 14 16 22 34 7% 33% 29% 29% 8% 31% Social Title 162* Arabic 103 160 116 106 100 90 95% 74% 48% 47% 45% 36% English 1 0 1 1 0 1 1% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% Persian 4 55 125 120 123 158 4% 26% 52% 53% 55% 63% *p < .0001 **p < .001 Tables of Statistics 293 Table B.5.: Culture Differentiation in Sex Groups over Time (Sex, Culture, and Time) WOMEN 1938 1948 1958 1968 1978 1988 χ2 Name 113* Arabic 21 51 52 61 71 83 15% 27% 23% 24% 25% 30% English 120 109 108 114 126 102 85% 57% 47% 44% 44% 37% Persian 1 31 71 83 87 88 1% 16% 31% 32% 31% 32% Title 61.6* Arabic 30 67 58 56 58 52 97% 71% 47% 46% 41% 40% English 3 0 1 1 0 2 3% 1% 1% 2% Persian 0 28 64 66 79 74 29% 52% 54% 59% 57% Occupation 9.6 Arabic 0 1 2 7 5 8 50% 50% 70% 71% 42% English 1 0 1 2 2 9 100% 25% 20% 29% 47% Persian Prof. Title 8.4 Arabic 0 0 0 0 0 5 62.5% English 0 0 0 0 0 2 25% Persian 0 1 0 0 3 1 100% 100% 12.5% Social Title 61* Arabic 30 67 58 56 54 47 97% 71% 47% 46% 41% 39% English 1 0 1 1 0 1 3% 1% 1% 1% Persian 0 28 64 66 77 73 29% 52% 54% 59% 60% *p < .0001 294 Appendix B Table B.5. Continued MEN 1938 1948 1958 1968 1978 1988 χ2 Name 133.3* Arabic 92 130 141 136 146 144 42% 41% 36% 33% 36% 33% English 119 131 132 126 114 138 55% 42% 34% 31% 28% 32% Persian 6 54 118 150 150 151 3% 17% 30% 36% 36% 35% Title 109.8* Arabic 79 103 84 87 91 82 87% 76% 51% 55% 57% 38% English 7 0 7 2 10 25 8% 4% 1% 6% 12% Persian 5 33 73 69 60 108 5% 24% 45% 44% 37% 50% Occupation 86.1* Arabic 52 63 64 84 77 88 95% 84% 69% 71% 69% 60% English 2 3 5 4 11 42 4% 4% 5% 3% 10% 39% Persian 1 9 24 30 24 16 2% 12% 26% 25% 21% 11% Prof. Title 30.9*** Arabic 7 14 29 38 47 42 50% 70% 59% 68% 62% 42% English 6 0 6 2 10 25 43% 12% 4% 13% 25% Persian 1 6 14 16 19 33 7% 30% 29% 29% 25% 33% Social Title 102* Arabic 73 93 58 50 46 43 95% 77.5% 49% 48% 50% 34% English 0 0 0 0 0 0 Persian 4 27 61 54 46 85 5% 22.5% 51% 52% 50% 64% *p < .0001 ***p < .001 ...

ISBN
9780814336557
Related ISBN
9780814327555
MARC Record
OCLC
763158708
Pages
336
Launched on MUSE
2012-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
No