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A Note on Transliteration I have adopted a simplified transliteration system to write Arabic and Persian names and titles in English. The simplification is intended to avoid diacritics, as much as possible, but more important, it is intended to reflect the way names and titles are likely to be written by speakers of these languages today, with some modification. (A note is included in appendix A for the transliteration of titles.) In the transliteration of names, sounds not found in English are given their closest counterparts. The name Mahmoud, for example, includes the Arabic h . “h . aa  ,” which is represented by h. The hamza (  ) and the ayn (  ) are not represented in names, primarily because they break up the sequencing of letters in English. My own last name, for example, includes an initial ayn in Arabic, which is not written in English. I followed this strategy unless the name would be misinterpreted without it. Otherwise the transliteration system of consonants is familiar to those working with languages of the Middle East. The representation of vowels is more likely to be inconsistent. Long vowels are sometimes written as sequences of two vowels, for example, ou in Mahmoud, but sometimes by just a vowel as in my own first name, Mushira, where the vowel i is long. In the transliteration of Quranic verses, however, pronunciation details are included and long vowels are represented as sequences of two identical vowels. I have also used the Egyptian Arabic pronunciation of jiim (j) as giim (g) in all names and titles in the text. This pronunciation predominates in Egypt now; jiim is rarely heard even in news broadcasts and other official meetings. However, in tables and graphs I have retained the jiim in titles, particularly those shared with Persian, to reflect this shared source. Likewise, Persian words derived from Arabic have also been transliterated to reflect the Arabic source, as explained in appendix A. 11 This page intentionally left blank ...


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