Index

  • Abdy, Edgar S.: on House of Refuge, 170; see also Segregation practices
  • Abolitionism: contribution to youth crime, 11718; in social reform movements, 155; see Hone, Philip; Tappan, Arthur; Wells, E. M. P.
  • Akerly, Samuel: on adult crime, 55 Allen, Stephen: on Irish families, 4; career in politics and business, 5051; on crime and delinquency, 5153; on location for Refuge, 53; on apprenticeship, 117; on Refuge water supply, 130; on theater tax, 136; president of Soc. for Ref. of Juv. Delinquents, 166; personal qualities, 16667
  • Allen, William: on institution for juvenile delinquents in London, 31
  • American Refuge and reformatory officials: first national convention of, 17879
  • Apprenticeship system: 3, 117
  • Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor: 157
  • Baltimore, Md.: urged to establish Refuge, 8788; builds Refuge, 100
  • Beaumont, Gustave de: see De Tocqueville, Alexis
  • Beccaria, Cesare: influence on Joseph Curtis, 68
  • Bedford, Peter: on London Refuge, 5960
  • Bomford, Col., Chief of Ordnance: 5354
  • Boston Asylum and Farm School for Indigent Boys: created, 95
  • Boston City Council: on Boston House of Ref., 89; criticism of Wells, 9293
  • Boston Farm School Society: founded, 9394; edifice on Thompson’s Island, 9495
  • Boston House of Reformation: contrasted with New York House of Refuge, 89; educational system, 91; commitment procedure, 9596, 201n20; part of Boston House of Industry, 96; decline, 9698; intake classifications, 201n20
  • Boston Prison Discipline Society: see Dwight, Louis
  • Bowne, Walter: legislative supporter of Refuge, 54
  • Boylston School: 9597 passim
  • Burtis, Alderman, Superintendent of City Penitentiary: on inadequacies of city facilities, 48; on security problems, 49
  • Calhoun, John C.: on Refuge request, 53
  • Carey, Matthew: on working women, 12930
  • “Causes” of juvenile delinquency: lack of education, 3536, 10912; all causes, 191; see Immigration; Parental depravity and neglect; Religion
  • Chipman, Samuel: 146
  • Cholera: see Diseases
  • Cincinnati, Ohio: establishes Refuge, 100101
  • Classification: system of rewards and punishments, 5657, 73; Boston House of Reformation, 9092; New York House of Refuge, 92, 177; criticized by reformers, 101
  • Cleanliness: antidote to crime, 118
  • Cloward, Richard: xiii
  • Clinton, DeWitt: on juvenile gangs, 41; meets Refuge supporters, 61; visits Refuge, 63, 78; recommends state-wide extension of Refuge system, 65; praises Refuge, 65, 82; death, 166
  • Colden, Cadwallader: on Pauperism Soc., 35; on city courts, 3738; financial support for Refuge, 63; on children’s labor, 75; on superintendent’s role, 8485; on tax money, 134; visits to Refuge, 165
  • Collins, Isaac: on juvenile plight, 42; lobbies in Albany, 6364; Philadelphia Refuge activities, 99; 179
  • Contract labor system: threatened by legislative action, 136; contribution to income, 137
  • Corporal punishment: see Punishment, corporal
  • “Cottage System”: 181, 184
  • Crawford, William: criticism of Refuge, 16870
  • Criminological theory: and Refuge reformers, 107
  • Croton Reservoir: 130
  • Cultural stereotyping: see Irish
  • Curtis, Joseph: on youth gangs, 3; first Superintendent, 67; background, 6768; opens Refuge, 6768; influenced by Europeans, 68; troubled by escapes, 6874 passim; educational efforts, 7475; criticized, 78, 81; reports on institution, 80; resignation, 8283; contrasted with Wells, 8990
  • Daily schedule of Refuge: 178
  • Dayton, Assemblyman: aids Refuge, 13233
  • Death: see Irish
  • Delavan, Edward C.: on alcohol, 105
  • Dependency: see Immigration
  • De Tocqueville, Alexis: with De Beaumont, visits and describes U.S. prisons and refuges, describes work of Wells, 91; theory of environmental causes of crime, 109; on educational achievements of Refuge inmates, 13031; on New York House of Refuge, 135; on “indeterminate sentence,” 168
  • De Voe, Elijah P.: feud with Wood, 15760; exposé of Refuge, 15761
  • Detention homes: 185
  • Dickens, Charles: on New York City, 1; on Five Points District, 12; on Boylston School, 9697
  • Discipline: Refuge system of, 125; Hart’s, 14445; see also Treatment; Punishment
  • Diseases: cholera, 5; scrofula, 130; smallpox, 130
  • Dix, Dorothea: on prison reform, 155; on Louis Dwight, 162
  • Dwight, Louis: visits Refuge, 78; publicizes Refuge, 8687; supports Auburn “silent” system, 87; uses Boston Prison Discipline as front for views, 87; on Pennsylvania prisons, 87; on Refuges, 8788; on Wells, 92; on Boston City Council, 92; loses influence, 161
  • Germans: commitment rates to Refuge, 6; comparison to Irish, 13
  • Gerard, James W.: chairman of Standing Committee on Juvenile Delinquency, 3839; on juvenile crime, 41; investigation, 42; report and “House of Refuge,” 44; at dedication of Randall’s Island edifice, 167
  • Gowey, Catherine: moves from New York to Philadelphia Refuge, 99
  • Grant, Moses: 94
  • Graves, John J.: 178
  • Greeley, Horace: 172
  • Griscom, John: background, 23; contrast with Eddy, 23; heads pauperism investigation in New York City, 2627; early career, 2628; personal tragedy, 29; on crime and delinquency, 30, 106109; role in Pauperism Society, 30, 35; European trip, 3031, 3233; London Philanthropic Soc., 3334; secretary of pauperism group and international correspondent, 38; planning committee for Refuge, 44; report of need for Refuge, 4648; First Annual Report of Soc., 64; to Lynds about Refuge discipline, 8384; advice to Bostonians, 86; visits Refuge, 16465; leaves New York City, 165; contribution to Refuge system, 187
  • Haines, Charles G.: research findings on crime and pauperism in New York City, 3536; political supporter of DeWitt Clinton, 41
  • Hale, James R.: denounces Refuge, 17374
  • Halfway house: 185
  • Hart, Nathaniel C.: background, 84; second Superintendent of Refuge, 8485; contrasted to Wells, 92; on juvenile crime, 103; on temperance, 103104; on tobacco, 105; success, 142; role as Superintendent, 143
  • Hartley, Robert M.: 118
  • Health problems: 130; see Diseases
  • Higham, John: on the historian as “moral critic,” xv
  • Hone, Philip: on immigration and pauperism, 2; on Tappan, 164
  • Howe, Samuel G.: 172
  • Immigration: rate, 5; influx into coastal cities, 56; and dependency status, 15; “passing on” of nonresident paupers, 36
  • Incorporation bill: 57
  • Indenture committee: formed, 80
  • Indenture system: inaugurated, 7576; means of correcting youth, 122; improvement, 126; composite of Refuge system, 17071; occasional failures, 17172
  • Indeterminate sentence: 58, 127, 168
  • In loco parentis: role urged upon citizens of New York City, 4748, 55; power of, possessed by Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents, 5859; character of Refuge, 185
  • Inmate self-government: 74; see also Wells, E. M. P.
  • Irish: decimation by death, 5; Refuge commitment rate, 6; incidence of families in Syracuse Home Association rolls, 7; birth and death rate, 89; migration patterns compared to Germans, 910; family controls, 1112; sense of “place,” 12; occupational prestige and work patterns, 1213; competition for jobs, 1314; women’s employment, 14; physical mobility, 1415; Refuge overselection policy of, 15; cultural stereotyping, 1516; see McGee, Thomas D’Arcy
  • Irving, John T.: on Refuge system, 12426
  • Journal of Prison Discipline and Philanthropy: see Packard, F. A.
  • Juvenile corrections: expansion, 183
  • Juvenile delinquency: terminology, xvxvi; first definition, 58; “causes” as seen by Refuge managers, 191
  • Juvenile jury system: see Inmate self-government
  • Kelly, Robert: association with Horatio Seymour, 167; appeal for financial support, 139; president of the Soc. for Ref. of Juv. Delinquents, 167
  • Labor system: Boston House of Reformation contrasted with New York, 91
  • Ladies’ Committee: formed, 7880; efforts to reform girls, 12829
  • Lancasterian method: 131
  • Lieber, Francis: on power of Refuge managers, 168
  • Livingston, Edward C.: on Refuge indenture system, 127; on Refuge, 133; on Hart, 145
  • Living arrangements: of Refuge inmates, 190
  • Locke, John: concepts of child development, xviii; impact on Refuge reformers, 108
  • London Philanthropic Society: visited by Griscom, 3334
  • London Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline: model for Pauperism Soc., 3940; influence on Philadelphia reformers, 99
  • Lucas, Charles: 174
  • Lyman, Theodore: bequest to establish Massachusetts reform school, 100
  • Lynds, Elam: on Superintendent’s role, 8384; on corporal punishment, 84
  • Manhattan: growth and overcrowding, 2; changing image, 3
  • McGee, Thomas D’Arcy: on Irish family distress, 11
  • Marcy, William: 170
  • Marine Hospital Fund: for Refuge support, 66, 120; threatened by decreasing immigration, 124; described, 204n22
  • Massachusetts State Legislature: on Boston House of Reformation, 89
  • Maxwell, Hugh: on Refuge, 64; at dedication on Randall’s Island, 167
  • Migration patterns: of children, 2
  • Monitorial plan of education: employed in Refuge, 165
  • Moral decline: New York City, 18; low standards of public behavior, 119
  • Morss, John: contacted by Allen about legislative support for Refuge, 55
  • Nationalities: see Ethnic and national origins
  • Negro: commitment rates to Refuge, 67; incidence of child employment, 7
  • New Hampshire: erection of Refuge, 101
  • New Orleans, La.: edifice burned and rebuilt, 100
  • New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor: 118
  • New York City: fear of juvenile delinquents, 3; immigrant pauper influx, 36; educational level of lower class children, 110; religious activity, 112
  • New York Free School Society: see Free School Society
  • New York Juvenile Asylum: 102, 176
  • New York Prison Association: 155
  • New York State Legislature: financial support for Refuge, 63; official recognition, 65; receives financial appeal, 124; opposition to support, 133; inadequate funding, 134; on age limit of Refuge, 135
  • New York State Senate: 162
  • New York State Vocational Institute, West Coxsackie: replaces Refuge, 183
  • Occupational backgrounds, Refuge inmates: 116
  • One-parent families: see Families
  • Opposition to Refuge: from parents, 77; from Crawford, 16870; religious character, 18283
  • Packard, F. A., ed. Journal of Prison Discipline and Philanthropy: 100101, 102
  • Palmer, Phoebe: New York Female Assistance Society for the Relief and Religious Instruction of the Sick Poor, 156; Five Points Mission, 156
  • Pauperism: immigration, partial contribution to, 36; Soc. for Prevention of, 2649, passim; relationship to crime, 115
  • Parental depravity and neglect: source of juvenile delinquency, 109, 11314
  • Pawnbrokers: contribution to youth crime, 115
  • Penal system, 3839
  • Pestalozzi, Johann: xviii; observed by Griscom, 34; influence on Curtis, 68
  • Petit larceny: see Seward, William H.
  • Philadelphia Society for the Alleviating of the Miseries of Public Prisons: 98
  • Philadelphia House of Refuge: connection with New York Refuge, 98, 202n27; compared to New York institution, 99100; opening, 100; essay on juvenile delinquency, 101; building rejuvenation, 101; eventual career, 202n32
  • Phrenology: 107
  • Physical plant: change in location, 135, 14647; inadequacies, 13839; closes down, 18384; see Security measures
  • Pintard, John: publicizes Refuge, 65; 82
  • Pittsburgh, Pa.: builds Refuge, 100
  • Poverty: see Pauperism
  • Precedents: for the Refuge, 57
  • Prescott, W. H., manager of Boston Asylum for Indigent Boys: suggests and supports farm school plan, 9394
  • Probation: see Indeterminate sentence Prosperity: see Social and Economic Change
  • Protection: for individual and society, 121
  • Public concern: over juvenile delinquency, 4446
  • Publicity: positive, 5960, 162, 17273; negative, 183
  • Punishment: methods of Curtis, 6869; Refuge, 83, 125; contrast between Boston and New York institutions, 90; views of Hart on, 14445; codified, 177
  • Punishment, corporal: described by De Voe, 16061; used by Hart, 14445; views of managers, 174
  • Quakers: reform tradition, 2829; as contrasted to others, 29
  • Quincy, Josiah: 86
  • Randall’s Island: purchase for Refuge, 139; new edifice opened, 140; close of Refuge, 183
  • Reform school: emergence of, 102
  • Religion: decline of as factor in youth crime, 36; encouraged by Ladies’ Committee, 79; among youths of New York City, 112; and Refuge discipline, 122; emphasized by Hart, 143; see Opposition to Refuge
  • Revenue, sources of: see Financial support
  • Rewards: system of Wells, 9091
  • Rogers, Henry: description of Boston institutions for juveniles, 9596
  • Roscoe, William: 3233; debate with Stephen Allen, 198n8
  • Savings and Loan Associations: as antidote to juvenile crime, 115
  • Scarborough, Donald D.: preserves Refuge records, 184
  • Security measures: intended for Refuge, 56, 61; inadequacy of, 6869; source of anxiety, 12728
  • Sedgwick, Theodore: on crime and pauperism, 4243
  • Segregation practices: in Refuge, observed by Abdy, 170
  • Selection policy: see Irish
  • Seward, William H.: approval of Refuge idea, 136; and Refuge administration, 14955; petit larceny legality debate with Refuge managers, 152; visits Refuge, 153
  • Seymour, Horatio: and Kelly’s request for Refuge funds, 13940; praises Refuge, 16768
  • Sharpe, Peter: lobbies in Albany, 6364
  • Social and economic change: pace in U.S., 16; as cause of juvenile delinquency, 11416, 119; effect on family roles, 196n17
  • Social disorganization: relation to social organization, xvixvii
  • Social reformers: moralistic character of dominant ideology, 20; tradition, 29; international communication, 31; views on alcohol and youth crime, 104105
  • Society: responsibility for youth crime, 11920
  • Society for the Prevention of Pauperism: survey of U.S. penal system, 3839; public response, efforts, 45; final meeting, 49; see Pauperism
  • Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents: formed, 49; first official gathering, 53; memorial to Legislature, 5557; managers: “perpetual succession,” 5758; backgrounds, 11516; concern for charity coordination, 118; decision to build new edifice, 139
  • Stanford, John: on juvenile asylum for New York City, 2122; on need for facility for youths, 2123; on boys in City Penitentiary, 37; on site for Refuge, 53; oration at Refuge dedication ceremonies, 65; praised by DeWitt Clinton, 82; on changes in Refuge, 83
  • Superintendent of Refuge: role, 83; see Hart, N. C.; Lynds, Elam
  • Syracuse Home Association: 7
  • Tappan, Arthur: joins abolitionists, 155, 16364
  • Tappan, John: on Boston Farm School idea, 94; on moderation, 164
  • Taylor, Alderman, of New York City: on Refuge construction plans, 6061
  • Teeters, Negley K.: sociological use of historical data, xiiixiv; on early development of Philadelphia House of Refuge, 201202n27
  • Terry, David: as Superintendent, 147; harassed by escapes and fire-settings, 14748; loses records, 14849; problems with Seward, 14955
  • Theater: as source of vice and immorality, 1820; tax as Refuge revenue, 55, 6263, 134
  • Thompson, “Tobacco”: 105106
  • Throop, Enos: 134
  • Ticknor, George: on Boston Farm School plan, 94
  • Tocqueville, Alexis de: see De Tocqueville, Alexis
  • Treatment: for reform in youngsters, 12122; program of Refuge, 123, 192; see also Punishment; Rewards
  • Trollope, Frances: on New York City, 1; on American reformers, 20
  • Tuckerman, Joseph: on Boston Farm School plan, 94
  • Urban growth: 156
  • U.S. government: sale of military installation, 54; 13738
  • Ware, Henry: 88
  • Wells, E. M. P.: first Superintendent of Boston House of Reformation, 89; system of self-government, 8991; criticized by City Council, 9293; resignation, 9293; subsequent career, 93
  • Weir, George: on contract labor system, 136; on financial support, 13637
  • Western House of Refuge, Rochester, N.Y.: 100, 182, 199n20
  • Wines, Enoch: prison investigation, 18182
  • Wood, Samuel S.: as Superintendent, 149; feud with De Voe, 15760
  • Work: value of, 57; antidote to vice, 119, 122; in Refuge regime, 178; see Irish; Labor system; Occupational backgrounds
  • Working mothers: see Irish

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781684450084
Related ISBN
9780815627364
MARC Record
OCLC
1055851740
Pages
211-217
Launched on MUSE
2018-10-07
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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