Tables

The first three of the following tables were derived from a random sample of 500 inmates committed to the New York House of Refuge from July 1, 1830, to June 30, 1855. One hundred youngsters, both boys and girls, were taken from five five-year periods and compared according to parental constellation, living arrangements, and ethnic composition. Sample numbers were selected from tables supplied in Herbert Arkin and Raymond R. Colton, Tables for Statisticians (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1950), 142–45.

TABLE I

DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY COMPOSITION

Type of Family Per cent
Both parents living 40.4
Mother only living 19.8
Both parents dead 16.0
Natural mother, step-father 7.8
Father only 7.0
Natural father, step-mother 3.2
Step-parent only 1.6
Parents separated or divorced 1.4
Adoptive parents .2
Unknown 2.6
TOTAL 100.0

TABLE II

DISTRIBUTION OF ETHNIC AND NATIONAL ORIGINS

Ethnic Group Per cent
Irish or of Irish parentage 41.2
Native American 26.2
Negro 11.2
English 8.6
German 3.6
Scotch 2.6
Welsh 1.2
French 1.2
Canadian 1.0
Other, incl. Dutch, Italian, Portuguese, Polish, Indian, Scandinavian, and unknown 3.2
TOTAL 100.0

TABLE III

DISTRIBUTION OF LIVING ARRANGEMENTS

Living Arrangements Per cent
Parents not deceased, child living with persons outside the family 30.2
Living with both parents 27.4
Mother only 13.2
Relatives 10.0
Natural mother, step-father 4.6
Parents deceased, child living alone 3.4
Father only 3.4
Institution, other than orphanage 2.8
Natural father, step-mother 1.4
Parents in institution, child alone .6
Orphan asylum .6
Adoptive parents .4
Step-parent only .4
Runaway slave .2
Other 1.4
ALL CATEGORIES 100.0

TABLE IV

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency as Mentioned By The Managers of the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents in Their Annual Reports, Numbers 2 to 32, Minus Number 8, 1826–56 (listed in order of frequency)—Total Number of Reports, 30

Causes of Delinquency Number of Reports in Which Mentioned
Ignorance 12
Parental depravity and neglect 12
Intemperance 8
Theatrical amusements 7
Bad associates 6
Pawnbrokers 4
Immigration 3
City life, in general 3
Adult crime, idleness, absence of religious control, poverty, and temptation (all) 2
Ease of evading punishment, inherent depravity, indiscriminate charity, lewd materials, loss of parent, house of ill-flame, unsupervised work, unemployment, uncleanliness, public prison, and volunteer fire department (all) 1

TABLE V

Methods Employed to Achieve the Reformation of the Inmates of the New York House of Refuge, as Mentioned by the Managers of the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents, in Their Annual Reports, Numbers 2 to 32, Minus Number 8, 1826-56 (listed in order of frequency)—Total Number of Reports, 30

Methods Employed Number of Reports in Which Mentioned
Instruction of the mind, “literary” improvement 23
Employment, instruction in mechanical trades, labor, etc. 21
Moral and religious instruction 21
Steady discipline, order, regimen, routine of government 9
“Kindness” and “mercy” 6
“Indulgences and distinctions,” rewards when merited 5
Indenture system 5
Paternal government 4
Punishment for misconduct 4
Physical care 4
Restraint 4
Elimination of corrupting environment 3
Proper classification and separation of offenders 3
Provision of proper models ( officers of the Refuge ) to show “correct and virtuous” conduct 3
Cleanliness 2

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Abbreviations

Additional Information

ISBN
9781684450084
Related ISBN
9780815627364
MARC Record
OCLC
1055851740
Pages
189-192
Launched on MUSE
2018-10-07
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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