publisher colophon

INDEX

Aaron, Israel, 690

Aaron, Louis I., 222

Aaron family, 222

Aarons, Joseph, 41

Aaronsburg, Pa., 384

Abarbanel, H., 610

Abendblatt, 241

Abodath Israel (Szold), 73

Abolitionism

    and evangelical Christianity, 22, 30

    and Jews, 15, 16, 19, 212–22, 191, 342

Aboth de Rabbi Nathan, 527

Abraham & Straus, 250, 252

Abt, Isaac Arthur, 356

Academy for the Science of Judaism (Berlin), 530

Academy Hall of Music (New York City), 342

Academy of Music Hall (Milwaukee), 340

Acceptance, Jewish yearning for, 180

Accountants, 276

Acculturation. See Americanization and acculturation

Ach, Samuel, 246

Acres of Diamonds (Conwell), 657

Actors, 195, 292, 311, 320, 330–331, 427, 565

Actuaries, 317

Adams, Brooks, 175

Adams, Franklin Pierce, 310–311

Adams, Henry, 175, 180

Adams, Herbert Baxter, 380

Adams, John, 175

Adams, John Quincy, 175

Adath Israel Congregation (Boston), 118, 139, 641, 642, 650

Addison, Joseph, 285

Adler, Cyrus,

    on acculturation of immigrants, 188

    and American Jewish Historical Society, 520, 536, 538

    and Dropsie College, 520, 553–554

    and Jewish Publication Society, 520

    and Jewish Theological Seminary, 520, 589, 633–634

    at Johns Hopkins University, 301, 520, 529

    on Mission of Israel, 676

    as Semitist, 301, 519, 520

    studied Talmud with Samuel Hirsch, 596

    traditional religiosity of, 533, 633, 676, 703

    and Zionism, 679

Adler, Dankmar, 351, 425

Adler, Emanuel Phillip, 312

Adler, Felix

    and Brandeis, 202, 488

    confirmation hymn by, 556

    at Cornell University, 393, 529

    as defector from Judaism, 118, 650

    and Ethical Culture, 322, 392–395

    passim, 650

    and Free Religious Association, 116

    and German language, 291

    and Seligman, 157, 158, 393

    as social reformer, 366, 445, 488, 494

    and Temple Emanu-El, 78, 95, 392, 510

    and Stephen Wise, 494, 652

    on women’s status, 325

Adler, Henry, 96

Adler, Jacob, 565

Adler, Liebman, 28, 351, 575

Adler, Samuel

    and Geiger, 392, 518

    as Germanizer, 77, 82, 290

    and Jewish tradition, 394

    and Philadelphia Rabbinical Conference, 86

    as preacher, 78

    as religious radical, 65, 77, 78

    and Temple Emanu-El, 78, 95, 392, 393, 678, 704

    and Wise, 77, 82, 86, 95

    writings of, 513

Adler, Selig, 689

Adult education, 125, 185, 305, 546, 546, 547, 592, 594, 594, 635, 638

    texts, 573

Advertising, 14, 90, 229, 234, 246, 247, 293, 589

    by department stores, 248, 250

    discriminatory, 183

    by retailers, 254

African colonization societies, 16

Afternoon schools. See Jewish education

“After the Ball” (Harris), 341

Agnostics, 299

Agricultural colonization, 107, 315, 433, 437, 462, 547

    and anti-Semitism, 434

    of immigrants, 100, 140, 220, 315, 450

    locales of, 124, 220, 235, 434–435

    in Palestine and Russia, 432, 449

Agriculture, Jews in, 220, 228, 255. See also Agricultural colonization

Agriculturists’ Aid Society, 490

Agronomists, 439

Agudat Israel, 630

Aguilar Library, 539

Ahabat Chesed Congregation (New York City), 123

Ahad Ha-Am (Asher Ginsberg), 561, 680

Ahlwardt, Hermann, 145

Aked, Charles F., 666–667

Akron, Ohio, 692, 693

Alabama, 222

Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad, 223

Alaska

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 222, 227–228, 286, 333

    politics and government, Jews in, 356

Alaska Commercial Co., 227

Albany, N.Y., 58, 265

Albany Daily State Register, 205

Album, Simon H., 623

Alcoholism, 446, 468, 671

Alexander, Moses, 194

Alexander Kohut Memorial Foundation, 534

“Alexander’s Ragtime Band” (Berlin), 342

Alexandria, Va., 599

Alger, Horatio, 281, 539, 584

All-day (parochial) schools, Jewish. See Jewish education

Allemania Club (Cincinnati), 426

Allen, Michael Mitchell, 43, 385

Allentown, Pa., 249

Alliance, N.J., 434–435, 439, 547, 631

Alliance Israélite Universelle, 77, 103, 124, 433, 435, 489, 501, 502

Almanacs and annuals, 588–589

Alpha Delta Phi (fraternity), 161

Alphonse and Gaston (cartoon characters), 347

Alsberg, Carl Lucas, 353, 354

Altheimer, Benjamin, 367

Altman, Abe, 280

Altman, Benjamin, 251, 344

Altman, Sadie Strauss Rayner, 325

Altman’s (department store), 251

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 182, 240

Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story (Morgenthau), 575

Ambassadors. See Diplomatic and consular officials

Ambivalence, about Jews, 371–372, 373–375

American, Sadie, 471, 472, 495

American Academy for Jewish Research, 512, 530

American Academy of Political and Social Science, 318

American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 23

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 353

American Astronomical Society, 352

American Bar Association, 204

American Bison Society, 178

American Board of Missions, 361

American Breeders Association, 178

American Chemical Society, 354

American Christian Review, 148

American Citizen, 187

American Congress of Liberal Religious Societies, 116

American Economic Association, 322

American Federation of Labor, 151, 207, 238, 240, 241, 243, 406, 672

American Free Trade League, 205

American Geographical Society, 157

American Hebrew, 121, 172, 560, 590, 591, 661, 662, 703

American Hebrew College, 95

American Historical Association, 380, 536

American Historical Review, 585

American Hospital Association, 378

American Institute of Musical Art, 368

Americanism

    identified with Christianity, 149, 362–364, 574

    and Zionism, 203

American Israelite, 28, 80, 82, 84, 160, 337, 364, 375, 542, 577, 585, 588, 590, 591

Americanization and acculturation, 138, 141, 382, 390, 404–405, 407, 546, 575

    and anti-Semitism, 180, 183, 188

    and anti-Zionism, 682

    and Conservative Judaism, 632, 717

    of East European Jews, 389, 443, 445, 451, 473, 484, 565, 571, 575

    and farming colonies, 435

    of German Jews, 295, 296, 297–298, 560

    and immigration restriction law, 419

    and Jewish education, 605, 609, 612

    and Jewish press, 570, 590

    and labor unions, 243

    as literary theme, 579

    and marital/family problems, 464, 465, 579

    and military service, 55

    and Mission of Israel, 76

    and mission schools, 608

    and opposition to Sunday laws, 625

    and Orthodox Judaism, 482, 628

    and Reform Judaism, 82, 132, 142, 655, 704

    by settlement houses and other agencies, 253, 409, 415, 417, 429, 482, 498, 603

    and shaving of beards, 482

    and synagogs, 692

    and women, 467, 470

    See also Patriotism

The American Jew (Timayenis), 170

The American Jewess, 583

American Jewish Alliance, 417

American Jewish Archives, 321, 513, 654

American Jewish Committee, 85, 627, 654, 662, 709, 710

    and American Jewish Year Book, 545

    and anti-Semitism, 186, 187, 188, 665

    Bureau of Jewish Statistics and Research, 498

    and foreign Jewries, 498, 500, 664

    and New York Kehillah, 169, 649

    and New York’s Jewish elite, 186, 274, 275, 516, 520, 634, 649

American Jewish Congress, 569, 627, 627, 663, 683, 710

American Jewish Historical Society, 252, 274, 380, 520, 520, 523, 525, 536, 537, 538, 539

American Jewish history

    books and lectures on, 535, 537

    courses in, 538, 539

    periodization of, 533

    as a scholarly discipline, 516, 536–538

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 496

    and agricultural colonization in U.S.S.R., 439

    philanthropic contributors to, 275, 448, 449, 649

    postwar relief work of, 439, 503, 519

    during World War I, 275, 482, 495, 502, 649

American Jewish Publication Society, 542, 542

American Jewish Relief Committee, 502

American Jewish Ritual (Lewin), 73

American Jewish Year Book, 271, 537, 545, 589

American Jewry

    census of, 490

    contribution of to U.S., 163, 334, 342, 406–407

    histories of, 537, 562, 570, 576

    insecurity feelings of, 93, 94, 404

    and Jewish culture, 594

    middle-class status of, 283

    political influence of. See Jewish vote size of. See Demographic information world hegemony of, 502, 710

    See also names of denominations

American Jews’ Annual, 588, 589

American Jockey Club, 198

American Journal of Mathematics, 303

“American Judaism,” as term, significance of, 83

American Legion, 273, 378

American Library Association, 160

American Medical Association, 319

American Medical Society, 356

American Mercury, 307, 309

American Mizrachi, 627

American Oriental Society, 520, 520

American Pediatric Society, 322, 356

American Philosophic Society, 315

American Physiological Society, 322

American Protective Association, 154, 176, 180

American Psychoanalytic Society, 319

American Psychological Association, 303, 318

American Public Health Association, 496

American Red Cross, 42, 102, 209, 368, 377, 381, 693, 700

American Sabbath Union, 151

American Smelting and Refining Co., 197

American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews, 361

American Tobacco Co., 221

American Zionist Organization, 519

Amram, David Werner, 515

Anarchism, 212, 214, 237, 433, 567, 569, 571, 579

Anderson, Robert, 317

Andrews, Andrew, 327

Andrews, Sallie (Mrs. Nathan Menken), 245

Andreyev, Leonid, 321

Angle, Myer, 32

Anglo-California Bank, 267

Anglo-Jewish Association, 103

Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition, 535

Angola, Ind., 254

Angola Republican, 254

Anheuser-Busch Brewing Co., 229

Anna Held Opera Co., 320

Annapolis (U.S. Naval Academy), 316, 353, 377

Anshe Chesed Congregation (New York City), 70, 91, 130, 610

Anshe Emeth Congregation (Albany, N.Y.), 60, 68, 75

Anshe Maarav Congregation (Chicago), 68, 351

Anthony, Susan B., 471

Anthropologists, 272, 316, 534

Anti-Defamation League, 665

Antin, Mary, 324, 575

Der Anti-Semit (newspaper), 145

The Anti-Semite (proposed New York City newspaper), 170

“Anti-Semite,” as term, origin of, 145

Anti-Semitic League, 145

Anti-Semitism, 9, 101, 143, 146, 183, 185, 243, 701, 715, 717

    among academics and intellectuals, 169–175, 177–178

    in advertisements, 168, 186, 188

    and Americanization, 180, 183, 188

    and American Jewish Historical Society, 536

    in armed forces, 33, 162–163, 273

    at colleges and universities, 302, 704

    at funeral of Jacob Joseph, 622

    attempt to declare Jewish witness incompetent, 148

    and Brandeis appointment, 204

    causes of, 180–183, 359

    during Civil War, 33, 45–47, 50

    counteracted by reality and contact, 371

    and cultural integration, 704

    economic aspects of, 15, 45, 46, 47, 49, 55, 144, 147, 182–183, 262, 263

    in employment, 182, 183, 273

    in Europe, 111, 113, 144, 145, 146, 182, 184, 185, 199, 291, 292, 316, 357, 535, 200

    extent of, 183–184

    and farming, 444

    Gentile condemnations of, 181, 374, 379

    among Germans in U.S., 292

    historical aspects of, 143–144, 147

    and immigration, 183, 433

    Jewish responses to, 119, 164, 189–190, 295, 321, 324, 410, 428, 434, 505, 509, 574, 574, 632, 704, 715, 717

    lessened by Catholic-Protestant mutual hostility, 184

    and Abraham Lincoln, 47, 48–49

    in literature and film, 188, 370–372, 373

    in medicine and medical education, 182, 302, 303, 367, 452, 458, 460

    Moses’ letter to Tuggle, 164

    and opposition to slavery, 23

    in Poland, 146, 200

    in politics, 46–47, 48, 163–164, 181–182, 191, 252

    and Populism, 165, 166

    in the press, 101, 168, 170, 177, 187, 187, 188

    in public accommodations, 156–158, 158, 159–162, 168, 182, 186, 188, 327, 371, 425, 429

    racialist elements of, 144, 170, 171, 173, 174, 178, 183

    and Reform Judaism, 62, 648, 665, 708

          religious aspects of, 36, 143, 165, 359, 666

          and ritual murder accusation, 123, 143, 156

    and retail establishments, 45, 166, 666

    and Theodore Roosevelt, 146, 172, 183

    as scapegoating, 45, 50, 181

    at schools and colleges, 148, 161, 182, 185, 186, 301, 303, 308, 316, 370, 395

    in social and business circles, 281, 370, 389, 389, 470

    stereotyped views of Jews, 55, 167, 168, 174, 181, 187, 359, 374, 404

          accepted by Jews, 188, 589

          as coward and slacker, 45, 46, 161, 163, 187, 371, 536, 573

          as criminal, 371

          dual-loyalty, 677, 682

          international conspiracy myth, 144, 147, 175, 177, 181–182

          as parasite, 177

          as profiteer, 45, 46, 151, 182

          as revolutionary, 144, 148, 176, 181

          stage Jew, 167, 168, 185, 188, 328, 371, 375

          as usurer, 143, 370

    and Sunday blue laws, 665

    and William H. Taft, 162, 204

    as unifying force, 140, 664–665

    victims of

          Bernard Baruch, 184

          Judah Benjamin, 36, 37, 38

          S. A. Bierfield, 152

          Frank Bloom, 161

          Edna Ferber, 183, 580

          Leo Frank, 154

          Ludwig Lewisohn, 161

          Raphael Moses, 161, 190

          Adolph Ochs, 313

          Joseph Seligman, 156

          Theodore Seligman, 156

          Oscar Straus, 160, 252

          Gus Wald, 160

          David Yulee, 192

    of Wagner, 692

    during World War I, 162, 182–183, 187

    and xenophobia, 170, 173, 173, 174

    and Zionism, 190, 225, 243, 433, 678, 678, 681

    See also Civic and political rights; “Jew,” as pejorative term; Sunday closing laws; Social acceptance, of Jews

Anti-Zionism, 126, 133

Antokolski, Mark M., 555

Anzeiger des Westens, 293

Apocrypha, 548

Apologetics and polemics, 547, 576

    against Reform Judaism, 346, 511

    and anti-Zionism, 677

    on Christianity, 306, 513, 514, 574, 575, 700

    Christian opinion as factor in hiring rabbi, 94

    on Jewish role in history, 190, 352, 385, 509, 534, 536–537, 573

    and Mission of Israel, 677

Apostasy and defections, 296, 311

    causes of, 130, 361, 389–391, 400–401, 703–704

    and Christian Science, 396, 650

    instances of

          Felix Adler, 118, 393

          August Belmont, 263, 370

          Belmont family, 287

          De Leon family, 37

          Dillon family, 287

          Charles Fleischer, 118, 650

          Fleischman family, 287

          Louis Gratz, 41, 296

          Abraham Jacobi, 356

          Frederick Knefler, 40

          Fritz Kreisler, 337

          Albert Michelson, 353

          Ernestine Rose, 205

          James Speyer, 370

          Leo Wiener, 681

          David Yulee, 193

          Elias Yulee, 193

          Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler, 321

    among intelligentsia, 391, 681

    and intermarriage, 396–397

    and Unitarianism, 396, 681

    Wise on, 130

          See also Conversion, to Christianity; Intermarriage

Apparel industry. See Garment industry

Arabists, 519, 520, 525

Arbeiter Zeitung, 241

Arbeter Ring. See Workmen’s Circle

Archaeologists, 307, 315, 316

Architects, 223, 272, 288, 344, 350–351

Arc lamp, 352

Argentina, 435

Arion Society (New York City), 146, 292, 294

Arkansas, 277, 286

    Jewish farming colonies, 434

    Jews empowered to perform marriages, 377

Army purveyors, 90

Aronson, Edward, 327

Aronson, Rudolph, 327

Art, Jewish, 555

Art collectors and dealers, 198, 247, 251, 258, 320, 324, 344

Art critics and historians, 272, 344, 350

Artisans. See Skilled workers

Artists and sculptors, 51, 103, 272, 290, 320, 339, 343–346 passim, 348, 349, 350, 406

Arukh ha-Shalem (Kohut), 524

Asher, Joseph M., 684

Asheville, N.C., 374

Ashinsky, Aaron Mordecai Halevi, 627

Ashkenazim. See German Jews, in U.S.

Asmonean, 19, 585

Assimilation, 38, 118, 184, 389–390, 488, 576

    as literary theme, 579, 581

    and religious apathy, 130, 391

    and socialism, 213

Associated Hebrew Charities of the United States, 497

Associated Press, 187

Association for the Relief of Women and Children in Reduced Circumstances, 325

Assyriologists, 524

Astor Library (New York City), 302

Astor Place Opera House (New York City), 342

Astronomers, 352, 352

As You Like It Association (Lexington, Ky.), 409

Atheists, 299

Athletes/athletics, 266, 301, 406, 413, 692. See also Boxing

Atlanta, Ga., 156, 381, 698

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 154, 221, 249, 264, 278

    communal activities, Jewish, 429, 454, 670, 696

    High Holy Days as excused school absence, 700

    interfaith relations in, 382

Atlanta Penitentiary

    Sabbath school and services at, 671

Atlantic City, N.J., 460, 538, 548

Atlantic Monthly, 376, 585

Atonement, Day of (Yom Kippur)

    during Civil War, 44

    Cleveland Stock Exchange closed on, 389

    court proceedings on, 381

    services held in county courthouse, 381

    Steffens fasting on, 389

    See also High Holy Days

The Auctioneer, 328, 330, 331

Auerbach, Berthold, 304, 407

Auerbach, Maurice, 229

Auerbach Co. (department store), 250

Augsburg, Synod of, 88

Augusta, Ga., 246

Austria-Hungary, 199, 378, 503

Austrian Jews, in U.S. See German and Central European Jews, in U.S.

Authors. See Writers

Autobiographies and memoirs, 82, 177, 290, 306, 320, 575, 590

Automobile industry, 223

Autopsies, 457

Avondale, Ohio, 642

Bach, Johann Sebastian, 163

Bache, Jules S., 344

“Backward or Forward” (Kohler), 109

Bacteriologists, 439

Baeck, Leo, 716

Baker, La Fayette Cohen, 25

Baker, Newton D., 311

Baldwin, Edward C., 671

Baldwin, L. W., 438–439

Balfour Declaration, 203, 218, 563, 569, 625, 679, 680, 681

Balls and communal social affairs, 130, 371, 411, 420, 423, 427, 430, 475, 476

Baltic Jews, in U.S., 315

Baltimore, Md., 31, 284, 344, 448, 510, 712

    commerce and industry, Jews in

          department stores, 249, 250

          doctors, 355, 360

          garment manufacturing, 53, 232, 233

          importers, 228

          junk industry, 224

          meat packing, 227

          printing and publishing, 222

          real estate, 262

          retailing, 232, 249, 250, 254

          seal engraving, 346

          umbrella manufacturing, 230

          wholesaling, 258

    communal institutions, Jewish, 447, 454, 458, 459, 483, 484, 551, 599

    East European immigrants in, 447, 712

    German Jews in, 429

    Jewish education in, 599, 603, 604, 611, 630

    and Jewish farming settlements, 434

    Jewish press in, 583

    Nyburg’s fictional depiction of, 581

    Orthodox Judaism in, 626, 630, 636

    politics and government, Jews in, 214

    recreational and cultural activities, 422, 428

    Reform Judaism in, 712. See also Har Sinai Congregation

    during War of 1812, 30

    wife-desertion rate, 464

Baltimore American, 310

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 223, 264

Baltimore Bargain House, 247

Baltimore Hebrew Congregation, 698

Baltimore Hebrew Guards, 31

Baltimore Museum of Art, 320

Baltimore News, 310

B. Altman (department store) 251

Bamberger, Florence Eilau, 323

Bamberger, Louis, 249

Bamberger, Simon, 194

Bamberger’s (department store), 249

Bancroft, George, 532

Bandmann, Daniel E., 330–331

Bankers and financiers, 9, 53, 156, 196, 209, 222, 223, 228, 228, 230, 245, 246, 258, 261, 262–270, 268, 274, 280, 280, 286, 304, 307, 336, 363, 367, 379, 399, 405, 406, 406, 417, 448, 483, 489, 543

    See also names of bankers and financiers

Bank of Rhode Island, 262

Bankruptcies, 222, 245, 280

Baptists, 302

Bara, Theda, 332

Barbed Wire, 352

Bar mitzvah, 140, 414, 420, 455, 507, 597, 598, 606, 611, 614, 615, 649, 658, 694, 698, 703

Barnard, George Gray, 345

Barnard College, 325, 368

Barnert, Nathan, 208

Barnhart, Lazarus, 46

Baron, Bernhard, 712

Baron, Louis, 712

Baron de Hirsch Fund, 435, 437, 438

Baron de Hirsch Trade School, 444, 495

Barrett, Jacob, 257

Barton, Clara, 319, 377

Baruch, Bernard M., 161, 184, 201, 207, 355, 404

Baruch, Simon, 292, 355

Baruch family, 256

Bates, Edward, 48

Bates, Edwin, 47

Baton Rouge, La., 260, 387

Bauer, Bruno, 67

Bavarian Jews, in U.S. See German and Central European Jews, in U.S.

Bayard, Thomas F., 378

Beacon Light Literary and Pleasure Association, 421

Beard, Charles, 704

Beatrice Creamery Co., 221

Beatrice Foods, 221

Beaumont, Texas, 689

Beecher, Henry Ward, 18, 66, 157, 379, 380

Beer, George Louis, 316

Beersheba, Kans., 100, 434

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 556

Beethoven Society (Chicago), 340, 341

Beggars. See Schnorrers

Behrend, B., 187

Beilis, Mendel, 156, 386

Be Kind to Animals Week, 406, 406

Belais, David, 352

Belasco, David, 328, 330, 331

Bellamy, Edward, 79, 201

Belles lettres, 559

Bellevue Hospital (New York City), 457

Bellows, H. W., 385

Belmont, August, 54, 147, 167, 198, 263, 340, 370, 399, 402

Belmont, Carolina Slidell Perry, 198

Belmont family, 287

Benderly, Samson, 491, 550–551, 552, 604, 605, 611, 613, 617

Benevolent societies, 431, 466, 485

Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ (Wallace), 360

Benjamin, Henry M., 216

Benjamin, I. J., 320, 366, 406

Benjamin, Judah P., 54, 223

    anti-Semitic attacks on, 36, 46, 47, 50

    as Confederate official, 36–38, 200, 201, 223

    Jewish identity of, 36, 38, 193

    as lawyer, 35, 38

    offered ministry to Spain, 377

    offered Supreme Court seat, 204

    on secession, 14

    as senator, 36, 192

    on slavery, 36, 37

    in Who’s Who, 407

Benjamin F. Teller & Brother, 262

Bennett, James Gordon, 158

Ben Yehuda, Eliezer, 449, 680

Berenson, Bernard, 272, 301, 344

Berg, Albert Ashton, 357

Berger, Victor L., 211, 273

Berkmann, Alexander, 212

Berkowitz, Henry, 552, 616

    and Jewish Chautauqua Society, 125, 185, 491, 546–549

    and Jewish Publication Society, 543

    and Rodelph Shalom, 132, 547

    as social reformer, 114, 491, 671

    and Zionism, 681

Berlin, Congress of, 104

Berlin, Irving, 337, 342

Berlin, University of, 263

Berliner, Adolf, 684

Berliner, Emile, 296, 352

Berlin Hochschule (Lehranstalt), 633, 653

Bernard, Samuel, 331

Bernays, Charles L., 21, 206, 293

Bernhardt, Sarah, 327, 330–331, 332, 336

Bernheim, Isaac Wolfe, 654, 655

Bernheim, “Little Sam,” 260

Bernheimer, Gustav, 483

Bernheimer, Marcus, 228

Bernstein, Herman, 579, 585, 590

Bernstein, Hirsch, 684

Bernstein, Zvi Hirsch, 561, 566

Beth Ahabah Congregation (Richmond), 32, 249, 699

    membership rules, 17

Beth Ahabah Ladies Auxiliary, 666

Beth El Congregation (Albany, N.Y.), 58, 110, 131, 211, 658, 692

Beth El Emeth Congregation (Philadelphia), 140

Beth Elohim Congregation (Charleston), 59, 61, 65, 129, 367

Bethesda Orphan Society (Bethesda, Ga.), 453

Beth Israel Hospital (New York City), 442, 442

Bettelheim, Albert, 133, 363

Bettelheim, Rebekah (Mrs. Alexander Kohut), 133

Better government organizations, 468

Bettman (New York oil entrepreneur), 223

Bettmann, Abraham, 458

Bible, Hebrew (Old Testament)

    adult study of, 473, 592, 593, 692, 698

    ancient manuscripts of, 540

    Book of Job, 520

    and charitable giving, 431

    Christian view of, 629

    ideals of, 547

    in Jewish education, 473, 547, 609, 610, 611, 611, 614

    modernist views of, 10, 273, 521, 553, 585, 698

    and Orthodox Judaism, 120, 620, 624, 628

    on Palestine as Jewish homeland, 574

    quoted, 18, 47, 51, 143, 252, 345, 349, 353, 388, 395, 425, 445, 505, 513, 544, 546, 677

    rabbinic commentaries on, 523, 526, 527, 592

    reading of in public schools, 186, 665

    and Reform Judaism, 75, 112, 522, 545, 655, 659

    scholarly study of, 274, 518, 519, 520–523, 531, 545

    slavery in, 14, 18, 20, 21

    and social justice movement, 393, 671

    Ten Commandments, 18, 343, 610, 691

    traditional view of, 120, 521, 624

    translations of

          American Revised Version, 546

          Jewish Publication Society, 123, 518, 522, 524, 531, 534, 545, 546, 628, 685

          Leeser’s, 545

          proposed Jewish Literary Union version, 125

          proposed Reform edition of Revised Version, 545

    veneration of as means of earning Gentile respect, 404

Bible, New Testament, 67, 359, 360

    Jewish views of, 473

    quoted, 101, 391

    reading of in public schools, 101, 150

    slavery in, 18

The Bible and Its Plain Meaning (Ehrlich), 521

“The Bible View of Slavery” (Raphall), 18

Bibliographers, 510, 534

Bien, Hermann M., 575, 576

Bien, Julius, 348, 428

Big Brothers, 456, 700

Bijur, Nathan, 440

Billikopf, Jacob, 496

Billings Survey, 283

Bingham, Theodore, 169, 377, 456

Binswanger, Bettie H. (Mrs. B. A. Feineman), 420–421

Binswanger, Elise, 421

Biochemists, 354

Biologists, 354

Birds of America (Audubon), 348

Birmingham, Ala., 249, 267, 387, 387, 466

Birnbaum, Edward, 558

Birney, James G., 29

Birth control, 366

The Birth of a Nation (film), 155

Bismarck, Otto von, 379

Blackfoot, Utah, 228

Blacks, 690

    in Atlanta politics, 156

    Boas on, 316

    business dealings with, 247, 255

    civil rights of, 197, 206, 256, 651

    at Dropsie College, 553

    efforts in behalf of, 189, 197, 206, 208, 275, 342, 365, 394, 652, 653, 657, 672

    employed by Jews, 152–153

    and Jewish political candidates, 194

    liaisons/marriages with, 16

    lynchings of. See Lynchings

    musical motifs of, 337

    philanthropy for, 367, 368, 369

    prejudice against, 33, 37, 153, 154, 169, 177, 178, 187, 327, 363, 374

    Rosenwald’s aid to, 369

    social equality with, 298

    See also Slavery

Blackstone, William E., 361, 574, 678

Blackwell, Elizabeth, 322

Blaine, James G., 146, 147, 678

Blease, Coleman L., 322

Bleichroeder family, 182

Blindness, 355, 366, 460, 462, 474

Bliss, George, 251, 252

Bloch, Edward, 588, 589

Bloch, Ernest, 558

Bloch, Jacob, 340

Bloch, Joseph, 15

Bloch Brothers Tobacco Co., 225

Bloch Publishing Co., 588

Block, Joseph, 224

Block, Paul, 312

Bloom, Frank, 161

Bloom, Nathan, 245

Bloomfield, Maurice, 318

Bloomgarden, Yehoash Solomon, 568

Bloomingdale, Joseph R., 251

Bloomingdale, Lyman G., 251

Bloomingdale family, 458

Bloomingdale’s (department store), 251

Blossom Time (Romberg), 342

Blowitz, Henri de, 347

Blue book for Jews, proposed, 370

Blue-collar workers, 569

Blum, Edward C., 344

Blum, Hyman, 245

Blum, Leon, 245

Blumenberg, Leopold (Levy), 39

Blumenfeld, David, 391

Blumenfeld, Ralph, 392

Blumenthal, George, 344

Blumenthal, Joseph, 631

Blumenthal, Max, 489

Bluntschli, J. K., 300

B’nai B’rith, 89, 364, 489, 490, 632, 664, 690, 692

    and Anti-Defamation League, 187, 188

    during Civil War, 25, 48

    communal defense work of, 187, 188, 665

    Covenant Hall (New York City), 418

    educational and cultural activities of, 462, 539. See also Maimonides Library

    and Ezekiel’s statue of Religious Liberty, 103, 189

    and foreign Jewries, 184, 500, 662

    and German language/culture, 290, 295

    and intra-Jewish prejudice, 428–429

    lodges

          Atlanta, 102, 154

          Chicago, 428

          Cleveland, 483

          Denver, 216

          District Grand Lodge No. 5, 428

          Galveston (Zacharias Frankel Lodge), 531

          Leadville, Colo., 462

          New York City, 458

          Philadelphia, 462

          Portland, Oreg., 490

          San Bernardino, Calif. (Paradise Lodge), 422

          San Francisco, 618

    and Menorah, 583, 585

    motto of, 462

    and National Jewish Hospital, 463

    national youth auxiliary, 411

    officers of, 154, 274, 304, 317, 348, 417, 428, 458, 495, 515

    philanthropic and relief activities, 102–103, 454, 462, 500

    program and goals of, 65, 66, 134, 184, 426, 437, 442, 462

    and proposed Jewish college, 94

    secular, nonreligious aspects of, 125, 299, 396

    Wolf as lobbyist for, 102

    women’s auxiliary lodges, 470

    and Zebulon Vance, 374

B’nai El Congregation (St. Louis), 130

B’nai Israel Congregation (Cincinnati), 98, 636

B’nai Jehudah (Kansas City), 411

B’nai Jeshurun Congregation (New York City), 18, 215, 638, 649

B’nai Yeshurun Congregation (Cincinnati), 60, 67, 68, 90, 385, 388, 469

Board of Charities (Portland), 490

Board of Delegates of American Israelites

    and anti-Semitism, 184, 186

    and Board of Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights, 99–100

    and church-state issues, 184

    during Civil War, 13, 25, 44

    Eastern domination of, 86, 89

    and foreign Jewries, 104, 500

    founding of, 661

    and General Order No. 11, 49

    and Jewish Publication Society, 542

    leaders of, 217, 458, 489

    and Maimonides College, 94, 95

    and Orthodox Judaism, 663

    and proposed national Jewish historical society, 536

    and Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 91, 92, 135

Board of Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights

    and agricultural colonization, 100

    and American Jews in Russia, 105

    and anti-Semitism, 101, 184, 665, 715

    and church-state issues, 101

    compared to American Jewish Committee, 186

    and Dreyfus Affair, 102

    and foreign Jewries, 103–107, 500

    leaders of, 102, 489–490

    overview of, 107

    and Russian Jewry, 102–103

Board of Deputies of British Jews, 89

Board of Jewish Ministers (New York City), 530

Boas, Franz, 272, 300, 316

Boernstein, Henry, 293

Bogen, Boris D., 482, 491, 494, 495, 496

Bond brokers, 53

Bondi, August, 21, 41, 42, 43

Bondi, Jonas, 514

Bonds, for building, 266

Boni, Alfred, 309

Boni & Liveright, 309

Bonn, University of, 316

Bookbinders, 309

Book collectors/personal libraries, 304, 307, 308, 355, 357, 515, 539, 540, 540

Book dealers and stationers, 265, 277, 308, 331, 540, 566

Bookkeepers, 102, 245, 246, 276, 332, 654

Booth, Edwin, 195, 327

Booth, John Wilkes, 50

Booths. See Tabernacles

Borgenicht, Louis, 235

Born a Jew (Bogen), 495

Boston, Mass., 146, 214, 284, 341, 425, 442, 478

    board of education, 489

    charity federation, 480, 481, 484

    chief rabbinate, 622

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 201, 208, 233, 249, 286

    federated fund-raising results, 486

    Jewish education, 603, 612

    Jewish press, 587

    teacher-training institutions, 551

    Yiddish newspapers, 567

Boston Club (New Orleans), 279

Boston Investigator, 205

Boston Opera Company, 335

Boston Opera House, 341

Boston Transcript, 46, 574

Boxing, 298, 331, 588, 693

Boycotts, 157

Boy Scouts, 635, 692, 698

Brahms, Johannes, 338

Brandeis, Adolph, 363

Brandeis, Alfred, 204

Brandeis, Alice Goldmark, 202

Brandeis, J. L., & Sons, 250

Brandeis, Jonas L., 250

Brandeis, Louis D., 215, 252, 325, 402, 586, 653

    and Dembitz, 91, 202

    education and writings of, 208, 528

    as lawyer, 159, 201–202

    political views of, 202

    as social reformer, 206, 209, 238, 481, 488

    and Supreme Court, 173, 204–205, 406, 684

    and Wilson, 202, 203, 204, 653

    and Zionism, 203, 586

Brandeis University, 539

Breach of promise suits, 448

“Break the News to Mother” (Harris), 341

Brenner, Victor David, 346

Brentano, August, 308

Breslau, Sophie, 557

Brewers, 228, 229

Brice, Fannie, 320, 321, 327

Bricklayes, 182, 327

Bridge builders, 266, 572

Bridges, Horace J., 321

Brien (anti-Semitic Nashville judge), 148

Briggs, Charles A., 521

Brill, Abraham A., 319

B’rith Abraham, 442

Brokerage, 265

Brooklyn, N.Y., 211, 262, 453, 461, 565, 636

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 227

    department stores, 252

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 344

Brooklyn Jewish Center, 636

Brooks (show business figure), 327

Brooks, Julius, 297

Brotherhoods, 698, 701

Brough (Ohio governor), 36

Brown, B. Gratz, 371

Brown, John, 21

Browne, E. B. M., 50, 127

Brownlow, William Ganaway, 46–47

Brucker, Simon, 42

Brudno, Ezra S., 579

Brunner, Arnold William, 351

Bryant, Elizabeth, 147

Bryant, William Cullen, 168

Bryn Mawr College, 322, 354

Buber, Martin, 716

Buchanan, James, 18, 19, 28

Buffalo, N.Y., 233, 327, 423, 425, 447, 480, 503, 690

Buffalo, University of, 689

Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show, 327

Builders and contractors, 221, 223, 262, 275, 288

Bulgaria, Jews of, 501

Bullock’s (department store), 250

Bund, 212

Bureau of Jewish Education (New York City), 491, 550, 596, 604, 605, 611

    musical activities of, 557

Bureau of Jewish Social Research, 498

Bureau of Jewish Statistics and Research, 498

Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, U.S., 355

Bureau of Philanthropic Research (New York City), 498

Burgess, John W., 174, 286

Burials and funerals

    Christian clergy officiating at, 197, 387, 390

    in Jewish law and custom, 125, 635, 638

    of Jacob Joseph, 153

    Masonic rites at, 66

    in non-Jewish cemetery, 391, 694

    of non-Jewish spouse, 694

    for the poor, 452, 479

    of Joseph Seligman, 394

    shrouds, 71, 447, 635, 686

    See also Cemeteries

Burial societies, 211, 299, 452–453, 627, 635

Burns, Robert, 307

Burrell, James, 204

Burroughs, John, 172

Bush (member of St. Louis B’nai B’rith lodge), 48

Bush, Isidor, 21, 228, 391, 404

Bush, Solomon, 191

Bushberg, Mo., 228

Business executives, 223, 246, 247

Butchers, 31, 227, 233, 276, 622

Butler, Benjamin F., 27, 47–48, 163

Butler, Nicholas Murray, 308

Buttenwieser, Moses, 519, 521, 522, 641

Buyers, 225, 282

Byrd, Richard E., 369

Cabinet officials, 200, 406

    Commerce and Labor Secretary, 200, 252, 371, 377

    in confederacy, 36–37, 200, 377

    proposed appointments

          Brandeis, 202

          Bush, 191

          Rayner, 197

          Seligman, 53

Caesar’s Column (Donnelly), 165

Cahan, Abraham, 183, 237, 242, 568, 570, 579, 580, 581

Calaveras County, Calif., 195

Calendar, Jewish, 588

Calhoun, John C., 363

California

    Benjamin on role of Jews in, 406

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 228, 405, 406

          ironworks, 228

          land speculation, 261

          mail-order, 247

          paper and pulp, 222

          railroad construction, 223

          theatre manager, 328

          woolen mills, 228, 258

    Jewish farming colonies, 434

    politics and government, Jews in, 194

    See also Los Angeles; San Francisco

California, University of, 322, 354, 529

    Jewish faculty at, 519, 522

    philanthropy to, 448

California State Library, 540

Calisch, Edward M., 132, 670, 700

Cambridge, University of, 258, 316, 526, 633

Canals, 222

Canaway and the Lustigs (Leiser), 577–578

Cantor, Eddie, 327, 342

Cantor, Jacob A., 310

Cantors, 44, 74, 132, 134, 202, 334, 511, 535, 556, 558, 627, 635, 642, 688

    as financial asset to synagog, 557, 621

    training of, 692

Cantors’ Association of America, 556

Capital punishment, 700

Capmakers, 198, 207, 221

The Captive (Kipling), 352

Cardozo, Albert J., 217, 388, 511

Cardozo, Benjamin Nathan, 16, 139, 217

Cardozo, Francis Louis, 16

Cardozo, Jacob Newton, 16, 309

Cardozo family, 54, 623

Card-playing, 130, 297, 426, 427, 695

Carmel, N.J., 434–435, 439

Carnegie, Andrew, 368, 449, 539

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 305

Carnegie Hall (New York City), 338, 339, 645

Carnegie Steel Co., 212

Carrie Harrington (Moos), 578

Cartoonists and caricaturists, 272, 339, 344, 347

Cartoons and caricatures, of Jews, 589

Caruso, Enrico, 328, 337

Carvalho, David, 347

Carvalho, Solomon Nunez, 51, 54, 343

Casanowitz, Immanuel Moses, 519

Cass, Lewis, 379

Cassel, Abraham Harley, 261

Castle Garden, 478

Catechisms, 139, 611, 611, 611, 617

Catherine the Great (Russian czarina), 105

Cattle drovers, 227

Cattlemen, 379

Cedar Knolls School, 456

Cemeteries, 387, 499, 621, 690

    burial of intermarried Jews in, 397

    burial of non-Jewish spouse in, 694

    in Cincinnati, 642

    desecrations of, 153

    in Goldsboro, N.C., 693

    in Knoxville, 42

    in Memphis, 32

    in Meridian, Miss., 689

    of old-stock “Sephardim,” 429

    in Philadelphia, 17

    in Richmond, 32

    in Savannah, Ga., 298

Central Conference of American Rabbis, 497, 645

    and Bernheim, 654

    on child labor, 672

    on circumcision of proselytes, 112

    and college students, 593, 701, 703

    communal defense efforts of, 185–186, 655, 655, 713, 715

    and conscientious objectors, 673

    consensus as method and source of influence of, 640, 647, 654, 660

    and East European immigrants, 675, 686

    and East-West conflict, 136, 530

    effort of to gain national hegemony, 709, 710

    and Greek-letter fraternities and sororities, 701

    and Haifa Technion, 680

    and Hirsch, 651

    on intermarriage, 399, 669

    on “Jewish” choirs and organists, 692

    on Jewish Christian Scientists, 396

    on Jewish education, 613

    on Jewish law/tradition, 128, 694

    and Jewish music, 558

    on Jewish nationalism, 680

    on Kaiser's hymnal, 556

    latitudinarian approach of, 648

    and Luncz’s edition of Jerusalem Talmud, 684

    and Mission of Israel, 675, 677

    as model for United Synagogue, 637

    Montefiore’s address to, 710

    as most Reform of Reform Jewish institutions, 136

    nonbinding resolutions of, 85

    and peace movement, 672

    presidents of, 649, 650, 656, 681

    program and activities of, 85, 126–127, 648, 713

    and proposed Central Jewish Association, 662

    on proposed Jewish encyclopedia, 541

    proposed missionizing campaign among Gentiles, 677

    and proposed national lyceum, 693

    and proposed national rabbinic synod, 85, 662

    publications and proposed publications of, 74, 545, 610, 648, 660, 662, 675, 688

    on ritual slaughter, 665

    Rochester convention (1895), 128

    and Russian Jewry, 686

    on Sabbath, 707

    and Schechter, 685

    and Sephardim, 675

    size and membership of, 655, 713

    small-town focus of, 675

    and social justice movement, 494, 671, 672, 673, 674, 675

    as sounding board for discussion of issues, 127, 136

    standing committees of, 673, 701–702

          church and state, 186, 665

          contemporaneous history, 684

          dependents, defectives, and delinquents, 671

          instruction of the blind, deaf-mutes, etc., 672

          president's message, 680

          responsa, 694, 702, 714

          social justice, 675

          synagogue and industrial relations, 673

    on Sunday service, 708

    on synagog dues and unassigned seating system, 702

    on Turkish slaughter of Armenians, 666

    and Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 610, 713

    and Union Prayer Book, 127

    and Wise, 71, 127, 128, 136, 530, 541

    on women's status, 469

    on women's suffrage, 696

    and Zionism, 680, 680

Central Conference of American Rabbis Yearbook, 648

Centralization and unity, trends toward, 476, 504

Central Jewish Association, 662

Central Jewish Institute (New York City), 606

Central Park (New York City), 338

Central Relief Committee, 502

Central Society of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, 185

Century Magazine, 286, 576

Ceremonial objects, seized to pay debt, 381

Chaliapin, Feodor Ivanovich, 337

Challenge Accepted (Newman), 513

Chamberlain, Houston Stewart, 145, 534

Chamber music, 334, 337, 339, 341, 354

Chambers of commerce, 381, 490

Chapel attendance, compulsory, 150

Chaplaincy Law, 43, 55

Chaplains

    congressional, 149

    hospital, 460

    military, 43–46, 149, 385, 627, 716

    prison, 381, 491, 514, 527, 671

Chapultepec, battle of, 31, 32

Charity, as a mitzvah, 446. See also Philanthropy

Charity federations, 418, 442, 467, 470, 474, 476, 477, 478, 480, 481, 481, 482, 483, 483, 485, 485, 486, 487, 490, 497, 504

Charity Organization Movement, 494

Charity Organization Society (Colorado), 463, 478, 480

Charleston, S.C., 513, 621

    blacks in synagog of, 17

    boycott of antislavery merchants in, 15

    during Civil War, 26

    commerce and industry, Jews in

          banking and finance, 265

          merchants, 26

          newspapers, 309

          printing trades, 406

          slave trade, 26

          soft goods, 232

          wholesalers, 247

    communal services and institutions,

          Jewish

          benevolent society, 381, 451

          burial society, 452

          child care, 453, 456

          Jewish education, 606

    earthquake of 1886, 500

    East European Jews in, 451, 629

    interfaith relations in, 381, 384

    intermarriage in, 399, 400

    philanthropy by Jews, 26, 381, 451

    as spiritual/cultural capital of southern Jewry, 54

Charleston, W.Va., 93

Charleston College, 161

Charleston Hebrew Benevolent Society, 381, 451

Charleston Orphan Care Association, 453

Chase, Salmon P., 54

Chattanooga, Tenn., 388

Chattanooga Commercial, 313

Chattanooga Times, 314

“Cheer Boys Cheer” (Russell), 335

Chekhov, Anton, 321

Chemists, 307, 339, 353–354, 495

Chess players, 274, 286, 304, 315

Chicago, Ill., 471, 498, 626

    bathing beaches, 325

    commerce and industry, Jews in

          advertising, 246

          banking and finance, 261, 266–267

          baseball-team ownership, 247

          department stores, 250

          doctors, 356

          garment manufacturing, 232, 233, 234, 239

          meat-packers, 227

          movie exhibitors and distributors, 332

          peddlers, 261

          scrap iron dealers, 224

          shoe manufacturing, 230

          waste materials, 277

    communal institutions, Jewish

          charity federations, 477, 479, 484, 497

          chief rabbinate, 622

          free-loan societies, 621

          hospitals and hospices, 458

          Jewish Agriculturalists’ Aid Society, 434

          newspapers and periodicals, 570, 583, 587

          old-age homes, 461, 494

          schools, 595, 596, 596, 599, 601, 603, 608

          settlement houses, 416, 471

    cultural activities, Jewish, 340, 508, 560

    East Europeans in, 234, 236, 484, 621

    fire (1871), 266, 387, 447

    Friedman on ghetto of, 580

    Hebrew in public schools of, 596

    as major Jewish regional center, 284, 618

    militia companies, Jewish, 33

    opposition to statue of Queen Isabella, 310

    philanthropic activities by Jews, 367, 369, 447, 449

    politics and government, Jews in, 40, 195, 207

    rabbis and rabbinical associations in, 623, 626, 685

    social clubs, Jewish, 426, 427

    synagogs, 67–68, 702

    unions and strikes in, 236, 239, 240

Chicago, University of

    Felsenthal’s honorary degree from, 523

    Jewish faculty at, 115, 303, 352, 353, 354, 356, 513, 519, 529, 631

    Jewish philanthropy to, 367, 369, 426, 519

    Jewish students at, 496

    Sinai Congregation’s donation of Torah scroll to, 651

    Yerkes Observatory, 352

Chicago Art Institute, 369

Chicago Civic Federation, 208

Chicago Columbian Exposition, 310, 470, 555

Chicago Conservatory of Music, 341

Chicago Courier, 538

Chicago Cubs, 247

Chicago Ethical Society, 321

Chicago Hebrew Mission, 361

Chicago Tribune, 46, 369

Chicago Women’s Club, 470

Chicago World’s Fair, 116, 386, 410, 411

Chickamauga, battle of, 41

Child, Lydia, 374

Child care, 453, 498

Child labor, 325, 366, 468, 472, 636, 672

Children’s institutions, 453, 466

    reformatories, 456

    See also Orphanages

Children’s literature, 602, 607. See also Textbooks

Chillicothe, Ohio, 268

Chimborazo military hospital (Richmond), 27

China trade, 272

Chinese, in U.S., 106, 153, 176, 178, 254, 258

    prejudice against, 423

Chiropodists, 52

Chizuk Amuno Congregation (Baltimore), 626, 636, 684

Choirs and organs, 74, 121, 388, 469, 558, 635, 649

    Gentile singers, 688

Cholera, 357, 367, 457

Chopin, Frederic, 338

The Chosen People (Nyburg), 581

Choynski, Joe, 331

Christ Church (St. Louis, Mo.), 351

Christian Endeavor Movement, 296, 409, 492

Christianity

    and abolitionism, 22, 30

    in colleges and public schools, 150, 598, 667

    evangelical, 119, 134, 179, 191

    identified with Americanism, 149, 362–364, 579

    Jewish views of, 306, 359, 360, 362, 365, 514, 704

    and Judaism, 299. See also Anti-Semitism

    predominance of, 148, 556, 704

    proposed establishment of, 22, 149–150. See also Church and state, separation of as subject for Jewish study, 553

    viewed as Jewish sect, 666

    See also Interfaith relations; Missionaries, Christian; names of denominations

Christianity and the Social Crisis (Rauschenbusch), 672

Christian Sanitary Commission, 42

Christian Science, 395–396, 650, 663

Christian Social Workers’ Party (Germany), 101, 145

Christmas

    celebrated by Jews, 298, 299, 321, 365, 390, 426, 668, 704

    and Hanukkah, 79, 110, 111, 629

    in Jewish hospitals, 459

    in public schools, 150, 623

Christy, Howard Chandler, 332

Chromolithography, 348

Chronik, I., 79

Chrysler’s Field, battle of, 30

“Church,” as substitute for “synagog,” 655

Church and state, separation of, 99, 101, 148, 149, 184, 218, 665, 701, 714

    registration of immigrants by religion, 103

Cigar dealers, 53, 276

Cigarette makers, 221, 225, 226

Cigarmakers, 207, 207, 222, 225, 249, 276, 327, 511, 689

    female, 466, 570

Cigar store Indians, 225

Cincinnati, Ohio

    Americanization in, 482

    anti-Semitism in, 181, 666

    and Beersheba farming colony, 434

    during Civil War, 29, 42, 49, 53

    commerce and industry, Jews in

          banking and Finance, 267, 268

          book publishing, 588

          cotton trade, 49, 53

          department stores, 250

          doctors, 271

          garment manufacturing, 53, 231, 233, 240, 268

          lawyers, 271

          liquor business, 229

          Pike’s Opera House, 326, 334

          retailers, 31, 268

          shoe manufacturing, 230

          teachers, 271

          tobacco industry, 276–277

          wholesale dry goods, 269

          wholesale millinery, 246

    communal services and institutions,

          Jewish

          adult education, 593

          aid to mothers, 457, 462

          Big Brother society, 456

          charity federation, 464, 478, 480, 481, 482, 505

          child-care facilities, 454

          hospitals, 457, 458

          mutual-aid societies, 478

          schools, 603

          settlement houses, 496

    East European immigrants in, 447, 450, 482

    and Hebrew Union College, 96

    interfaith relations in, 381, 667

    labor unions in, 240

    Memorial services for Benjamin Harrison, 364

    as mother city and world center of Reform Judaism, 135, 497, 618

    musical activities involving Jews, 229, 326, 334, 337

    Orthodox Judaism in, 139, 482, 623

    social clubs, Jewish, 425, 426, 428

    and western frontier, 29, 136, 284, 618

Cincinnati Presbyter, 43

Circle for Jewish Children (New York City), 605

Circuit preachers, 92

Circumcision, 90, 298, 367

    and conversion, 87, 112, 119, 125, 130, 658, 669, 693

    at Jewish hospitals, 459

    lawsuit for unauthorized performance of, 112

    mohelim (circumcisers), 112, 139, 635, 689

    in Pittsburgh Platform, 119

    rabbi arrested for performing, 148

    rejection of, 63, 67, 87, 112, 138, 296, 391, 658, 669

Circus performers, 331

Citizens Unions, 208

City College of New York, 291

    exam on Jewish holidays at, 148

    fraternities at, 161, 185

    Hebrew in curriculum of, 593

    Jewish students at, 161, 265, 294, 301, 301

City Federation of Women’s Clubs (Buffalo, N.Y.), 325

City of Hope, 463

City of Hope Hospital, 463

Civic and political rights

    of blacks, 189

    during Civil War, 55

    defense efforts, 100, 101–102, 107, 140, 160, 189

    opposition to Christian encroachments on, 149, 189, 191, 218

    proposed residential restrictions on Maryland Jews, 153

    registration of immigrants’ religion, 103

    and Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 136

    See also Anti-Semitism; names of defense organizations Civic and social reform. See Social reform/social welfare

Civil service laws, 207, 472

Civil War

    aid to southern congregations during, 43, 257

    army suppliers, 53, 230, 232

    and Board of Delegates of American Israelites, 13

    bond sales by Jews, 53, 253, 263

    Confederate Jews, 23, 37–38, 253, 323, 363, 543

    effect of on American Jewry, 28, 54–56

    home front activities during, 42–43, 364, 365, 469

    and Jewish-Christian relations, 43–50

          passim, 149, 162, 164, 187

    martial law during, 206

    military service during. See Military service

    pro-Union Jews, 23, 53, 54, 293

    and unity tendencies, 416

Civil War Centennial Commission, 50

Clara de Hirsch Home for Working Girls (New York City), 444, 495

Clark University, 552

Class distinctions, among Jews, 287

Claxton, Philander P., 548

Clay, Anna Gratz, 401

Clay, Cassius M., 31

Clay, Henry, 343, 379, 458

Clerical collar, worn by rabbis, 657, 698

Clerks and bookkeepers, 33, 222, 254, 276, 277, 278, 280, 294, 314, 352

Cleveland, Grover, 157, 178, 199, 378, 380

Cleveland, Ohio, 284

    Chamber of Commerce, 483

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 229, 233, 239, 249, 277, 389

    communal institutions, Jewish, 454, 461, 478, 482, 483

    social institutions, Jewish, 425

Cleveland Conference, 60–62, 78, 126, 661

Cleveland Orphan Asylum, 482

Cleveland Rabbinical Assembly, 661

Cleveland Rabbinical Conference, 88

Clews, Henry, 165

Clothiers, 53, 543

Clothing industry. See Garment industry

Clubwomen, 467, 468, 472, 489

Coal industry, 221–222

Cobb, Irwin S., 168

Cocaine, 357

Cohen, 54

Cohen, A., & Co., 226

Cohen, Alfred Morton, 417

Cohen, Caroline, 399

Cohen, Eleanor H., 27, 363

Cohen, Henry, 440, 538

Cohen, Hermann, 585, 716

Cohen, Isaac, 33

Cohen, Jacob A., 26

Cohen, Jacob da Silva Solis, 356

Cohen, Jacob R., 261

Cohen, J. Barrett, 381, 399

Cohen, Joshua I., 355, 515

Cohen, Katherine M., 320

Cohen, McDuff, 297

Cohen, Morris Raphael, 303, 395

Cohen, Nina Morais, 271, 324

Cohen, Solomon, 381

Cohen, Mrs. Solomon, 32

Cohen, Solomon Solis, 679

Cohen & Isaacs (Richmond), 16

Cohen family (Baltimore), 223

Cohen family (Philadelphia), 320

Cohensburg, Pa., 261

Cold Harbor, battle of, 52

Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 282

College and university teachers, 300

    of American history, 303, 689

    of anthropology, 272

    of Bible and Semitic languages, 316, 392, 393, 514, 516, 519, 520, 529

    of chemistry and physics, 353–354, 495

    of Christian ethics and applied Christianity, 362

    college presidents, 302

    discrimination against, 272, 302, 303, 308, 519, 531

    of economics and political science, 175, 317

    of English and literature, 303, 308

    of European languages, 316, 512

    female, 322

    of fine arts, 258, 316

    of law, 515

    of mathematics, 302–303, 353

    of medicine, 302, 303, 322, 354, 356–357, 360

    of philosophy, 517

    of psychology, 318, 370

    rabbis as, 513, 519, 711

    of Sanskrit, 316

    of sociology and economics, 496

    See also names of colleges and universities

College scholarships. See Scholarships

Colonial Dames of America, 174

Colorado

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 223, 368, 405

    philanthropic activities of Jews in, 325, 368, 377

    politics and government, Jews in, 196, 377

Columbia, District of, 19

Columbian Exposition, 310, 470

    display of Jewish ritual silver at, 555

Columbia University, 95, 174, 338, 656

    anti-Semitism at, 161–162

    1800 graduation oration on American Jewish history, 535

    Gottheil lectureship, 514

    honorary degree to Steinschneider, 510

    Jewish faculty at, 258, 286, 308, 316, 317, 393, 395, 406, 458, 468, 519, 529

    Jewish students at, 40, 273, 275, 286, 301, 519, 522, 527

    Law School, 273, 286, 336

    Miller chair, 656

    School of Journalism, 313

    School of Mines, 368

    Teachers College, 209

    Zionism at, 678

Columbus, Christopher, 536

Columbus, Ga., 26, 45, 251, 424, 427

Columbus, Ohio, 249

Columbus Platform, 681

Comedians, 327, 331, 427

Commission on Information About Judaism, 648

Commodity brokers, 268, 307

Commons, John R., 174

Communal and kinship feelings, Jewish, 42, 42–43, 287, 629, 687

    and aid to accused lawbrakers, 280

    and aid to Jewish communities in need, 191, 257, 688

    and anti-Semitism, 190, 717

    and associational emphasis of synagogs, 692

    and charity federations, 486, 487

    and intermarriage, 669

    and intra-Jewish frictions, 140–141, 428, 686

    and Jewish education, 613

    and Jewish enculturation, 509

    and the Jewish press, 591

    and joint defensive action, 48, 140, 157, 184–188, 190, 191

    and pro-Christian legislation, 189, 218. See also Church and state, separation of

    and social activities, 427, 430

    and social welfare activities, 140, 431–432, 461

    See also Family relationships, in business; Social organizations, Jewish

Communal workers, 325, 417, 513, 515, 515, 534

Communists, 206, 673

Community centers, 419, 420

Community Chest, 86, 483, 484, 484, 486

Community planning agencies, 488

Composers, librettists, and songwriters, 294, 327, 330, 334–335, 336, 337, 338, 340, 341–342, 556, 578

Compositors, 312, 537

“Concerning the Jew” (Twain), 161

Concerts, 411, 413, 426, 427, 692

Concordia Club (Los Angeles), 426, 427, 429, 490

Conductors and concertmeisters, 336, 337, 338, 339, 341

Cone, Caesar, 258

Cone, Claribel, 272, 320, 322

Cone, Etta, 320

Cone, Moses Henry, 258

Cone Export and Commission Co., 258, 259

Cone family, 286

Coney Island (Brooklyn, N.Y.), 158

Confederate Monument, Arlington National Cemetery, 345

Conference of Jewish Charities, 495

Conference of Rabbis of Southern Congregations, 125

Conference on Child Labor and Labor of Women, 378

Conference on Dependent Children, 378

Confirmation, 59, 60, 98, 117, 126, 140, 420, 455, 469, 556, 575, 595, 597, 606, 614, 615, 635, 635, 643, 658, 660, 694, 695, 703

    and Pentecost, 691

Confraternities, 235

Congress, U.S.

    and anti-immigration sentiment, 440

    anti-Russian protests in, 106

    and General Order No. 11, 49

    House of Representatives

          Banking and Currency Committee, 275

          Immigration and Naturalization Committee, 440

          Lasker Affair, 379

          Military Affairs Committee, 195, 364

          Pujo Committee, 209

          Rules Committee, 195

    invocations by rabbis, 18, 55, 290, 377

    Jewish members of. See Elected officials

    literacy bills, 178, 179, 666

    proposed legalization of U.S. as Christian country, 101

    secessionist sentiment in, 27

    Sunday rest bills, 151

Congress of American Prison Associations, 377

Congress of Industrial Organizations, 240

Congress of Liberals, 386

Coningsby (Disraeli), 147

Connecticut

    Jewish farming settlements, 438

Conquest of the World by the Jews (Osman Bey), 147

Conried, Heinrich, 329, 330, 337

Conservative Judaism, 81, 515, 646

    and Americanization, 624, 635, 643, 713, 717

    and confirmation, 635

    congregational diversity of, 641–643

    and congregational participation, 706

    and decorum, 635, 637, 644

    and dietary laws, 635, 637, 643

    and Dropsie College, 531

    and family pews, 635, 643

    and foreign Jewries, 710

    and Friday night services, 635

    and Hebrew, 637, 640, 643

    and Jewish education/scholarship, 509, 606, 613, 635, 640, 643

    and Jewish law, 635, 642, 658, 664, 683

    and Kohut, 524

    as largest Jewish denomination in U.S., 122, 443

    and Mission of Israel, 676

    musical aspects of, 556

    and National Women’s League, 468

    and Orthodox Judaism, 121, 137, 443, 624, 631, 634, 635, 636, 642, 644

    rabbis of, 631, 697, 699

    and Reform Judaism, 134, 556, 632, 636, 637, 638, 644, 645, 684, 706, 712

    and Schechter, 526–527, 527, 641, 643

    and Science of Judaism, 512, 527

    self-image of, 61, 644, 645

    significance of name of, 121

    and traditional ritual practices, 634–635, 637, 644

    and women’s status, 121, 470, 635, 644

    and Zionism, 643, 678

    See also Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Rabbinical Assembly; United Synagogue of America

Conservative Party (Germany), 144–145

Constitution, U.S., 365, 370, 378

    Bill of Rights, 155

    First Amendment, 44, 150

    Fourteenth Amendment, 151

    Hebrew translation of, 562

    proposed Christianization amendment, 22, 46, 150, 184

    seizure of ceremonial objects for debt a violation of, 381

Constitutional Union Party, 19

Consumers’ League of New York, 325

Consumers’ leagues, 325, 488

Convalescent homes, 460, 482

Conversion, to Christianity

    and abolitionism, 22

    anti-Semitic views of, 146, 161, 177

    conversionists, Christian, 186, 360–361, 512. See also Missionaries, Christian

    instances of

          Immanuel M. Casanowitz, 519

          Leopold Damrosch, 294

          Arnold Ehrlich, 521

          Ephraim M. Epstein, 302

          Charles Goldberg, 44

          Otto Goldschmidt, 399

          Heinrich Heine, 146

          Isidor Loewenthal, 361

          Hugo Muensterberg, 318

          Simon Pollak, 355

          Max Rossvally, 362

          Samuel Schereschewsky, 362

          Edward Steiner, 362

          David Yulee, 36, 38, 39, 46, 192, 193

    Jewish attitude toward, 360, 361, 421

    as literary theme, 360, 578

    reasons for, 142

Conversion, to Judaism, 714

    of blacks, 16–17

    and circumcision, 87, 112, 125, 130, 658, 669, 669, 693

    and Conservative Judaism, 638

    instances of

          Valentin Potocki, 573

          Joseph Pulitzer’s grandmother, 312

    and intermarriage, 130, 396–397, 669–670

    as literary theme, 578

    and Reform Judaism, 85, 112, 112, 125, 658, 660, 662, 677, 701, 714, 714

    for religious reasons, 669–670, 714

Conwell, Russell H., 657

Cooperatives, 212, 286, 437, 542

Cooper Union (New York City), 338, 346

Cooper Union Institute, 352

Copland, Aaron, 338

Copperheads, 29, 46

Copper industry, 631

Coram, Thomas, 175

Corbin, Austin, 158, 181, 190

Corbin, Daniel, 158

Corbin Affair, 184, 385

Corinne, Utah, 228, 250

Corinth, Miss., 47

Cornell University, 171, 291, 368, 393, 529

Correspondence courses, 548

Corvallis, Oreg., 148

Costa Rica, 198

Cotton Exchange, 39

Cotton industry, 39, 49, 53, 54, 256, 257, 268, 277, 279, 280

Coughlin, Charles E., 50, 166

Couglin, Joseph, 201

Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds, 499

Council of National Defense, 201

Council of Women of the United States, 471

Council of Young Men’s Hebrew and Kindred Associations, 418, 420

Country clubs, 419, 428

Coverley, Sir Roger de (literary character), 158

Cowboys, 211

Cowen, Israel, 490

Cowen, Philip, 172, 590

Crafts, Wilbur F., 151

Craftsmen. See Skilled workers

Credit Mobilier, 90

Credit sales, 247, 248, 254, 255, 256

Credit unions, 437

Cremation, 85, 662, 693

Criminals and lawbreakers, 168, 169, 280, 671

    Jewish prison inmates, 449, 452, 474, 481, 496, 671, 699

    types of crimes

          assault, 398

          counterfeiting, 362

          espionage, 211

          political corruption, 217

          theft to finance voyage to America, 479

          violations of proslavery laws, 15, 16

          wife desertion, 464

    See also Juvenile delinquency

Critical Grammar of the Hebrew Language (Nordheimer), 512

Critics, 246, 272, 307, 310, 339

    literary, 534

    music, 338

Crockery, china, and glassware, 224, 251

Cronbach, Abraham, 395

Crown Zellerbach, 222

Cuba, 208

Culberson, Charles A., 204

Cultural activities, 304, 421, 515, 539, 546, 547, 549, 554, 555, 566

    on farming colonies, 435

Cultural historians, 316

Cultural pluralism, 203

Cumberland Presbyterian Church (Birmingham), 387

Curtis, George W., 172, 181, 327, 376

Cutler, Harry, 224

Cyclopaedia of Political Science, 206

Czechoslovakia, 198

Da Costa, H. B., 16

Da Costa, Jacob Mendez, 356

Dahlmann, Isaac, 227

Daily News (Yiddish paper), 567

Dairy farming, 438

Dakota, University of, 302

Dakota Territory

    Jewish farming colonies, 434

Dale, Alan, 307

Dallas, Texas, 249, 483

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 227

Daly, Charles Patrick, 508, 535

Damascus Affair, 105, 191

Damrosch, Clara (Mrs. David Mannes), 294, 321

Damrosch, Frank, 294

Damrosch, Leopold, 146, 294, 427

Damrosch, Walter, 294, 321, 321, 328

Damrosch family, 318

Daniel Deronda (Eliot), 576

Daniel Webster Debating Society (Newark, N.J.), 19

Danish-Prussian War (1848–50), 39

Da Ponte, Lorenzo, 334–335

Darlington, S.C., 310

Darwin, Charles, 81, 112, 118

Daughters of the American Revolution, 174

Davenport, Iowa, 312

David, Star of, 587

Davidson, Israel, 527

Davidson, Jo, 346

Davis, Abel, 273

Davis, Jefferson, 36, 37, 39, 47, 205, 306, 312

Dawison, Bogumil, 292, 330–331

Dawson, Yukon Territory, 228

Daylight Saving Time, 405

Day schools, 598, 598, 599, 599

Dayton, Ohio, 246

Deadwood, S.Dak., 193

Deaf-mutes, 366, 466, 489

Deafness, 460

Dearborn Independent, 148, 201

Deborah, 583

Decatur County, Ga., 226

Declaration of Independence Hebrew translation of, 562

De Cordova, Albert, 265

De Cordova, Raphael J., 678

Decorum, in synagog, 59, 82, 121, 129, 299, 630, 635, 637, 643, 644, 656, 688, 706, 712

Defections. See Apostasy and defections

De Haas, Jacob, 203

Deinard, Ephraim, 540, 698

Deism, 75, 299, 389, 415, 656, 689

Delaware Club (Philadelphia), 425

Del Banco, Miriam, 271

De Lee, Joseph Boliver, 356

De Leon, Daniel, 241

De Leon, David Camden, 32, 37

De Leon, Edwin, 37, 197, 309

De Leon, Thomas Cooper, 37, 306, 309

Dell, Floyd, 309

Del Norte, Colo., 254

Dembitz, Lewis H., 207, 515

Dembitz, Lewis N., 21, 91, 202, 293, 319

Democratic Party, 153, 158, 193, 194–197 passim, 204, 205, 209, 213, 214, 216, 490, 575

    anti-Semitic attacks on during Civil War, 46, 181–182

    and Catholic immigrants, 180

    Democratic National Committee chairmen, 54, 198

    Democratic National Convention vice-chairman, 215

    Peace Democrats, 29

    and slavery, 19, 24, 26

    urban machines and Jewish candidates, 192, 216. See also Tammany Hall

    and Isaac M. Wise, 29, 62

    See also Elected officials

Democratic-Republican Party, 163

Demographic information

    American Jewish population

          (1813), 30

          (1850’s), 192

          (1855), 533

          (1860’s), 141, 306, 407, 618

          (1870’s), 490, 543, 561

          (1880–1920), 503

          (1880’s), 503, 543

          (1890), 417

          (1892–1912), 186

          (1900), 138, 141, 516, 709

          (1920), 244, 289, 407, 618, 713

          occupational distribution of, 276–278

          percentage able to understand Hebrew (1917), 563

          as percentage of world Jewry, 433

    Americans studying abroad before World War I, 528

    Cincinnati

          admissions at Jewish Hospital (1890), 459

          Jewish population (1850’s), 60

    heders in U.S. (1920), 598

    immigrants

          arrivals from Eastern Europe (1869–1880), 450

          arrivals in Galveston, 441

    intermarriage rate, 400

    Jewish Chautauqua Society (1892, 1905), 547, 549

    Jewish college and medical students (1904–1905, 1918–1919), 301

    Jewish farmers

          (1899), 438

          (1910), 220

          (1912), 438

    Jewish papers and magazines (1860, 1921), 582

    Jewish Publication Society membership (1910), 546

    Jews serving in military

          Civil War, 32

          World War I, 273

    New York Jewry, 137, 313, 479

          (1880–1900), 271 (1907), 186

          Jewish socialists, 212, 213

          Lower East Side, 451

          melamdim (1917), 597

          New Amsterdam, 146

          relief and charitable-aid recipients, 453, 479, 504

    rabbis in U.S. (1900, 1917), 713

    Reform Jewry, 138

    relief and charitable aid

          Buffalo Jews requesting aid from non-Jewish agencies (1911), 503

          New Yorkers applying to United Hebrew Charities (1900, 1904), 479, 504

          New Yorkers receiving free burial (1917), 453

          Philadelphia petitioners for aid (1870, 1894), 478

    resettlement and removal

          city residents resettled in rural towns, 441

          immigrants diverted to Galveston, 441

    Sabbath school students and teachers (1889), 607

    socialists

          national vote and membership (1912), 243

          New York Jewish vote for (1913), 212

          New York Jewish vote for (1917), 213

    synagogs and congregations

          (1860), 141

          (1900), 141, 712

          (1913), 637

          (1920), 712–713

          proportion of American Jews affiliated with, 704

Demuth, William, 225

Denominations, Jewish. See names of demominations

Dentists, 272, 307, 410

Denver, Colo.

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 216, 222, 250, 254, 276, 294, 568

    communal institutions, Jewish, 484, 495, 626

    politics and government, Jews in, 193, 216

    recreational and cultural activities, Jewish, 339, 411, 423

    synagogs, 629, 636

Denver Tribune, 216

Department stores, 199, 208, 248–251, 286, 371

    Macy’s, 251–253

Dependent mothers, aid to, 468

Depressions, economic, 145, 476, 477, 478

Des Moines, Iowa

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 250

    communal institutions, Jewish, 466, 484, 625

    intermarriage rate, 400

    rabbis of, 623, 628

    youth organizations, 411

De Sola, Abraham, 588

De Sola, Mendola, 661

Detroit, Mich., 284, 582

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 225, 229, 232, 276, 278

    communal institutions, Jewish, 460, 460, 466

    interfaith relations in, 691

    patriotic memorial services in, 691

    rabbis of, 627, 702

Detroit Symphony Orchestra, 341

Deutsch, Gotthard, 521, 532, 533, 585, 615, 641, 684

Deutsche Handelszeitung (New York), 33

Deutsch-Israelitischer Gemeindebund, 89

Dewey, Melvil, 160, 188

De Witte, Sergei, 287

De Young, Charles, 312

De Young, Michel Harry, 312

Dialect comics, 331

Diaspora nationalism, 238, 241, 569, 639

Dickens, Charles, 167, 320

Dickstein, Henry A., 235

Dictionary of American Biography, 375

Dictionary of the Targumim (Jastrow), 524

Die cutters, 346

Dietary laws (kashrut), 222, 560

    and Conservative Judaism, 635, 637, 638, 643

    disregard for, 113, 298, 391, 589, 698

    and fund-raising, 483–484

    in Jewish institutions, 115, 442, 454, 457, 461, 482

    and New York chief rabbinate, 622

    and Orthodox Judaism, 120, 138, 139, 454, 461, 621, 625, 630, 706

    in Pittsburgh Platform, 113

    and proposed Jewish regiment, 33

    at P.S. 9, New York City, 381

    and Reform Judaism, 62, 71, 90, 113, 610, 693

    and slave cook, 15

    and Terefah Banquet, 108, 125

    Isaac M. Wise and, 80, 108

Dietetics/dietitians, 325, 489

Differences (Mayer), 578

Dillon family, 287

Diplomatic and consular officials, 15, 102, 157, 160, 258, 372, 377, 380, 575

    in Albania, 585

    of Confederacy, 37, 198, 223

    in Egypt, 102, 197

    in Mexico, 198–199

    in Netherlands, 198

    in Poland, 200

    in Rumania, 50

    in Sweden, 198

    in Turkey, 157, 160, 198, 199, 252, 361

    in Vienna, 191

Di Post, 566

Discourses of Keidansky (Richards), 574–575

Discussion groups, 592

Dispensaries, 482

Disraeli, Benjamin, 50, 147, 173, 401, 407, 421

Dittenhoefer family, 256

Divine and Moral Songs (Watts), 148–149

Dixie Social Club (Richmond), 425

Dock workers, 537

Doctor Rast (Oppenheim), 580

Dodd, Charles E., 53

Dodge City, Kans., 193

Dominican Republic, 317

Donaldson, La., 226

Donnelly, Ignatius, 165, 374

Dorsey, Hugh M., 155, 190

Dowering societies, 452

Doylestown, Pa., 21, 436

Drachman, Bernard, 95, 510, 626, 634, 645

Draftsmen, 351

Dramatists. See Playwrights

Dreeben, Sam, 273

Dreiser, Theodore, 309

Dreyfus Affair, 80, 102, 144, 185, 360, 569, 643, 682

Dr. Herzl Zion Club (New York City), 508

Dropsie, Aaron Moses, 28, 398

Dropsie, Moses Aaron, 96, 398, 553, 554

Dropsie College, 274, 627

    Adler’s presidency of, 520, 553, 634

    curriculum of, 519, 522, 525, 531, 553

    and Dropsie legacy, 96, 398, 553, 554

    faculty of, 522, 525, 553, 554

    and Jewish Quarterly Review, 587, 617

    library of, 540

    as nonsectarian secular institution, 531, 553

    Ph.D. degrees at, 529, 554

    Zionism at, 679

Drumont, Edouard, 144

Drunkenness, 422

Dry goods, 53, 90, 199, 199, 221, 222, 245, 251, 267, 269, 352

Dual loyalty, 654

Duarte, Calif., 463

Dubnow, Simon, 545

Dueling, 23, 298, 312, 316, 357

Duke, James, 221

Dun, R. G., & Co., 277

Durkheim, Emile, 407

Dushkin, Alexander M., 613

Dutch Reformed Marble Collegiate Church (New York City), 204

Dyer, Isadore, 356

Eads, J. B., 266

Early County News (Sandersville, Ga.), 168

Easter, 150

East European Jews, in U.S.

    and agricultural colonization, 124, 140, 220, 434, 450

    aid to, 275, 422, 447, 450–451, 453, 461, 484

    Americanization of, 138, 188, 415, 417, 451, 507, 565, 571, 579, 587, 608, 616, 631, 632, 686, 704, 717

    and anti-Semitism, 169, 173, 177, 182, 188

    and Conservative Judaism, 122

    contributions of, 309, 315, 337, 338, 406–407, 511, 524–525, 526, 529, 537, 557, 558, 564–566, 578

    and dietary laws, 454

    in drama and fiction, 568, 569, 581

    in garment industry, 182, 231, 233, 234, 235, 278

    and German Jews, 297, 706

    and Hebrew, 561

    immigration of, 173, 179, 182, 275

    and Jewish education, 551

    and Jewish Theological Seminary, 124, 634

    and labor movement, 236, 238, 285

    libraries for, 539

    as majority of U.S. Jewish population, 507

    Markens’ indifference to, 535

    and Menorah Society, 412

    and missionaries, 361

    mutual-aid societies, 442, 461, 503

    occupations of, 221, 222, 259, 278, 283, 316. See also names of occupations

    and Orthodox Judaism, 109, 137–138, 525, 712, 713

    and Reform Judaism, 712

    removal and dispersal of, 438, 439, 440, 443

    status and poverty of, 446–447, 713

    and tuberculosis, 463

    unemployment among, 446

    in Wiernik’s history, 538

    and Stephen Wise, 652, 653

    and Yiddish, 570

East Lynne (Wood), 330

Eckman, Julius, 18, 361, 365

Eckstein, Louis, 340

Economic contribution, of Jews, 285

    in postbellum South, 286

Economic depressions, 312, 337

Economists, 16, 175, 266, 309, 317–318, 322

Eddy, Mary Baker, 395

Edison, Thomas, 352

Editors, 272

    of Anglo-Jewish papers and periodicals, 18, 140, 298, 514, 534, 560, 590, 615, 679, 698

    of general papers and periodicals, 21, 118, 195, 205, 276, 293, 306, 310, 312, 338, 347

    of German-language papers, 21, 33, 133, 199, 211, 293

    of publishing firms, 303, 533

    of Yiddish papers, 538, 566, 568

Educational Alliance, 253, 345, 405, 416, 437, 495, 527, 539, 597, 603, 631, 641

Edwards, Charles G., 161

Egypt, 198

Egyptologists, 566

Ehrich, Louis R., 344

Ehrich Brothers (department store), 251

Ehrlich, Arnold Bogumil, 520–521

Ehrlich, David, 617

Eichel, Jacob, 285

Eidlitz, Leopold, 351

Eidlitz, Marc, 351

Eight-hour day, 673

Einhorn, David, 75, 112, 115, 513, 658

    and German language, 66, 290, 628, 704

    at Har Sinai, 20, 21, 66, 67

    on intermarriage, 66, 78, 398, 668

    and Philadelphia Conference, 86, 88, 110

    and rabbinic school, 94, 95

    as religious reformer, 20, 61, 65, 66, 77, 84

    and Sinai, 20, 78

    on slavery, 20–21, 24

    and Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 91

    and Wise, 70, 78, 79, 82, 126, 137, 398, 658

    on women’s status, 469

Einstein, Albert, 249, 353

Einstein, David, 258

Einstein, Hannah Bachman, 325, 326, 468

Einstein, Lewis, 198, 258

Einstein, Lewis (II), 258

Einstein, Max, 40

Eisenschiml, Otto, 352

Eisenstadt, Benzion, 562

Eisenstein, Judah David, 395, 512, 525, 542

Eisler, Dr. (New York Jewish abolitionist), 19

“Elaine” (Rosenthal), 349

Elected officials, 273, 381

    city councils, 40, 192, 193, 194, 207, 216, 266, 275, 458

    county, 168, 192, 246

    defeated candidacies, 21, 29, 30, 195, 209, 211, 213, 216, 252, 490

    elected but not seated, 211, 213

    governors, 39, 194, 251, 271, 356

    House of Representatives, 24, 118, 154, 173, 188, 192, 194, 195, 196, 211, 213, 214, 253, 312, 364, 365, 636

    Hungarian parliament, 122

    mayors, 30, 156, 166, 193, 194, 195, 196, 208, 215, 216, 222, 266, 285

    political affiliations of, 214

    proposed candidacies, 197, 253, 652

    school boards, 300, 446, 490

    Senate, 36, 39, 192, 194, 196–197, 216, 271, 356, 405

    state and territorial legislatures, 24, 30, 36, 164, 192, 194, 213, 217, 225, 327, 417, 438, 631, 636

    See also Democratic Party; Republican Party

Electrical industry, 285, 286

Electric Boat Co., 286

Electric Storage Battery Co., 286

Elements of Qualitative Analysis (Stieglitz), 354

Eliassof, Herman, 560, 574

Eliot, Charles W., 172, 316, 593

Eliot, George, 576

Elkin, Lewis, 367

Elks, 700

Elkus, Abram I., 198, 199, 200

Ellinger, Moritz, 590

Elliott, Stephen, 381

Ellis, David A., 489

Ellis Island, 442

Elman, Mischa, 337

Elmyra, N.Y., 376

Elson, Mary Anna, 322

Emancipation Proclamation, 25, 37, 48

Emanuel, David, 194

Emanu-El Hebrew Preparatory School, 95, 98

Emanu-El Sisterhood of Personal Service, 513

Emanu-El Theological Seminary Association, 95

Emanu-El Theological Seminary Society, 95

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 116, 324, 373, 393, 576

Employment bureaus, 452, 462, 466, 467, 473, 479, 480, 482, 505, 673

Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, 317

Enelow, Hyman G., 654, 656, 662, 668

Engineers, 199, 223, 272, 279, 288, 342

English classes, 505, 603

English Jews, in U.S., 52, 66, 207, 307, 310, 330, 334, 337, 339, 427, 580, 623, 678

English School and Family Reader for the Use of Israelites (Abarbanel), 610

Engravers, 272, 346, 348

Entomologists, 307, 439

Entre Nous Literary and Social Club (Philadelphia), 425

Epigrams of Eve (Loeb), 326

Epstein, Jacob (b. 1864), 247

Epstein, Jacob (1880–1959), 344–345, 346

Epstein, Max, 344

Equitable Building (New York City), 262

Erlanger, Abraham Lincoln, 329, 334, 360

Erlanger, Joseph, 302

Espionage Act (1918), 211

Espionage agents, 362

Espy, Heidelbach & Co., 268

Estate Stove Co., 222

Etchers, 348, 349

Ethical Culture, 9, 78, 95, 109, 157, 266, 322, 392–395, 396, 650, 663, 675

Ethics of the Fathers, 595

Ethnicity, Jewish, 391, 412. See also Communal and kinship feelings, Jewish

Etting, Frank, 399

Ettlinger, Julia, 96

Evansville, Ill., 285

Evolution, 118

Excelsior (Longfellow), 562

Excelsior Club (Cleveland), 425

Explorers, 343, 352

Exporters, 226

Eye and ear clinics, 355

Eytinge, Rose, 320

Ezekiel, Jacob, 90

Ezekiel, Moses Jacob, 103, 171, 345, 349, 364, 654

Fabian Society, 209

Factory workers, 39, 211, 224–225, 234, 284, 324

Fagin (literary character), 167, 188

The Fair (department store), 250

Fairmount Park (Philadelphia), 189

Faith healing, 395, 396

Falashas, 637

Falk, Joshua, 511

Familien Waisen Erziehung’s Verein (Philadelphia), 457

Family pews, 60, 61, 75, 131, 138, 139, 469, 635, 635, 643, 643, 658, 658, 688, 688

Family relationships, in business, 248, 250, 254, 264, 269, 270, 284

Family visitors, 486

Family Welfare Board (Cincinnati), 482

Famous-Barr Co., 250

Famous Players, 332, 333

Famous Players—Lasky Corp., 333

Fanny Herself (Ferber), 580, 581

Farm associations, Jewish, 437

Farmers, 220, 229, 235, 258, 277, 284, 357, 436, 438, 439, 444, 466, 473

Farmers’ and Merchants’ National Bank (San Francisco), 267

Farrar, Geraldine, 337

Fatman, Joseph, 226

Faust (Gounod), 558

Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, 663, 671, 672, 674

Federal Reserve Act, 263

Federal Reserve System, 203, 204, 269

Federated Department Stores, 250

Federation for Charity and Philanthropy (Cleveland), 483

Federation of American Zionists, 678

Federation of Jewish Philanthropic Societies (New York City), 482

Federation of Jewish Philanthropies (New York City), 487

Federation of Jewish Women’s Organizations (New York City), 468

Federation of Women’s Clubs, 409, 410, 471

Feinberg, Louis, 642

Feineman, B. A., 420–421

Fels, Joseph, 208, 209

Felsenthal, Bernhard, 113, 458, 530, 534, 556

    and Adler, 116, 291

    on Anglo-Jewish press, 589

    on dietary laws, 693

    and German language, 291, 523, 599

    honorary degree conferred on, 124, 523

    on Jewish studies and history, 529, 532, 536, 595

    and Mission of Israel, 677

    and proposed Chicago day school, 595, 599

    as religious reformer, 68, 690

    and Sinai Congregation, 67–68

    on slavery, 28

    and Wise, 70, 523, 525

    as writer and scholar, 68, 523, 585, 617

    and Zionism, 392, 523, 678

Fels Naphtha, 208

Ferber, Edna, 324, 326, 580, 581

Fernbach, Henry, 351

Fertilizer industry, 222

Festschrifts, 529

Feuerlicht, Jacob, 494

Feuerlicht, Maurice, 667, 711

Feuerlicht, Morris J., 494

Fidelio Club (New York City), 425

Field, Lewis Maurice, 331

Fifth Avenue Baptist Church (New York City), 666

Filene, A. Lincoln, 238

Filene, Edward Albert, 208, 286

Filene’s (department store), 249, 286

Filipowski, Zebi Hirsch, 511

Fillmore, Millard P., 204

Financiers and Financial speculators, 39, 199, 201, 220, 286

Fine Arts Federation (New York City), 351

The Firebug (film), 152

Fire insurance, and Jewish purchasers, 151–152

The Fireside Companion, 168

First Baptist Church (New York City), 181

First Benevolent Hebrew Society (San Francisco), 423

First Presbyterian Church (Fort Wayne, Ind.), 387

First Zionist Congress, 678

Fischel, Arnold, 44, 535

Fisher Body Co., 223

Fishman, Simon, 438–439

Fisk, James, Jr., 326

Fiske, John, 81, 172

Fitzdale Paper Mills, 222

Flashlights, 352

Fleischer, Charles, 80, 117, 118, 650, 654

Fleischman family, 287

Fleischmann, Charles Louis, 228

Fleischner, Isaac N., 490

Fleisher, Edwin, 405

Fleisher, Samuel Stuart, 405

Fleisher family, 405

Flexner, Abraham, 271, 305

Flexner, Simon, 322, 354

Flexner, William W., 354

Floersheim, Sol, 383

Florida, 192, 261, 356

Florsheim Shoe Co., 230, 286

Fluegel, Maurice, 514

Foch, Ferdinand, 346

Folklorists, 315, 528, 534

Folk music, Jewish, 557, 558

Folk Schools, 601

Food processing industry, 221, 228

Ford, Henry, 148, 166, 180, 201, 259, 275, 582

Ford, John (1586–1639), 401

Ford Motor Co., 288

Foreman, Gerhard, 266

Foreman family, 266

Foresters, 272

Fort Douglas, Utah, 371

Fort Fisher, 41

Fort McHenry, Md., 30

Fort Meyer, Va., 161

Fortress Monroe, Va., 47

Fort Sumter, S.C., 13, 191

Forty-eighters, 133, 191, 202, 211, 214, 291, 300, 348, 353, 392, 403, 513, 514

Forum, 286

Forum Club (Philadelphia), 425

The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (Chamberlain), 145

Foundries, 26

Four Years in Rebel Capitals (De Leon), 306

Fox, Samuel, 258

Fox, William, 332

Fox family, 249

Franco, Solomon, 146

Franco-Prussian War, 79, 144, 146, 292, 345, 501

Frank, Jacob, 202

Frank, Leo M., 154–156, 187, 190, 345, 382, 548

Frank, Sigmund, 250

Frank, Waldo, 307, 309

Frankel, Benjamin M., 671

Frankel, Jacob, 44

Frankel, Lee K., 210, 479, 495–496

Frankel, Zacharias, 510, 531

Frankland family, 25

Frankie (Fraenkel), Jonas, 39

Franklin, Benjamin, 176

Franklin, Fabian, 303, 310, 310, 317

Franklin, Leo, 681, 702

Franklin, Tenn., 152

Fraternal Knights of Honor, 41

Fraternal orders, 295, 371, 422, 423, 442, 452, 461, 587, 620, 648. See also names of orders

Frauenthal (Fronthall), Mark (Max), 33

Free Academy (New York City), 301, 302

Free burial societies, 442

Freedom of speech, 673

Freedom of the pulpit, 130, 652, 674, 678, 686, 699

Free loan societies, 442, 452, 462

Free lunches, 488

Free Religious Association, 116, 386, 393

Free-Soil movement, 21

Free Sons of Israel, 461

Free Synagogue (New York City), 118, 494, 652, 671, 702, 707

Freidus, Abraham Solomon, 315, 540

Freie Arbeter Stimme, 241

Freitagabend Klaenge, 584

French and Indian War, 15

French Jews, in U.S., 343

French Revolution, 143, 147, 561

Freud, Sigmund, 318, 319, 357, 407

Freundschaft (New York City), 425

Frick, Henry Clay, 212, 344

Friday night service, 72, 635, 688, 712

Friedenwald, Aaron, 360

Friedenwald, Betsey (Mrs. Moses Wiesenfeld), 447

Friedenwald, Jonas, 71, 224, 447

Friedenwald family, 25

Friedlaender, Israel, 518–519, 526, 605, 679, 710

Friedlaendler, Julius, 302

Friedman, Isaac, 15

Friedman, Isaac Kahn, 580

Friedman, Joseph, 15

Friedman, Lee M., 539

Friedman, Max, 43

Friedman, William S., 463

Friedsam, Michael, 344

Friend, Morris, 221

Friendly Enemies, 331

Friends of Truth, 65

Frisch, Willilam, 310

Frohman, Charles, 328, 329

Frohman, Daniel, 328, 333

Frohman, Gustave, 328

Fromenson, Abraham H., 570

Fruiterers, 38

Fuld, Caroline, 249

Fund-raising, 371, 412, 475, 479, 481

Funerals. See Burials and funerals

Funk, Casimir, 354

Funk & Wagnalls, 541, 542

Furniture industry, 222, 246

Furriers, 332, 333

Furst, Moritz, 346

Fur traders, 250

Gabrilowitsch, Ossip S., 328, 341

Gainesville, Texas, 499

Galesburg, Ill., 138

Galicia, Jews of, 500

Galician Jews, in U.S., 202, 235, 320, 517, 526

Galsworthy, John, 328

Galveston, Texas, 367, 531, 538

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 226, 245, 246, 257, 266

    diversion of immigrants to, 440, 441

    politics and government, Jews in, 215

Galveston Movement, 440, 441

Gambling, 422, 426. See also Card-playing

Gamoran, Emanuel, 552, 613

Gannett, William Channing, 114

Gans brothers, 230

Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 117, 345

Garment industry, 224

    advertising by, 229, 233–234, 246

    contribution of to American society, 286, 406

    East Europeans in, 221, 233, 234, 278, 284, 435, 672, 673

    extent of, 236, 277

    in fiction, 580

    manufacturers, 53, 55, 208, 220, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 235–236, 238, 239, 247, 268, 304, 324, 430

    reasons for Jewish involvement in, 230–231

    retail clothiers. See Retail establishments

    as typical Jewish enterprise, 220, 229, 233, 276, 284, 285

    unions and labor disputes, 231, 237, 239, 241–244. See also names of unions

    wages and working conditions, 231, 234–235

    wholesalers. See Wholesalers

Garnett, Kans., 584

Garrison, William Lloyd, 15, 23

Gas, illuminating, 245

Gaster, Moses, 585

Gates of Prayer Congregation (New Orleans), 688

Gatti-Casazza, Giulio, 337

Geiger, Abraham, 392, 510, 513, 517, 518, 617

Gelbfish, Samuel, 297

Gellman, Abe, 621

General Education Board, 305

General Federation of Jewish Workers (Bund), 238

General Federation of Women’s Clubs, 469

General Jewish Workers’ Association of Lithuania, Poland, and Russia, 212

General Motors Co., 223, 264

General Order No. 11, 48–50, 51, 55, 102, 214

General Society of Colonial Wars, 174

Geologists, 352

George, Henry, 201, 208

Georgia, 175, 194

    University of, 190

Georgia Historical Society, 381

Gericke, Wilhelm, 341

German and Central European Jews in U.S.

    Alsatians, 26, 221

    American attitudes toward, 403

    Americanization and patriotism of, 55, 159, 203, 295, 296, 363, 506, 507, 573, 579, 615

    and anti-Semitism, 159, 169, 173, 177, 185

    Austrians, 308, 335, 340, 341, 357, 404, 532, 534, 541

    Badeners, 516

    Bavarians, 9, 20, 31, 38, 53, 68, 78, 109, 156, 195, 196, 258, 279, 283, 310, 428, 489, 590

    Bohemians, 57, 195, 227, 250, 342, 351, 515

    and Civil War, 23, 39, 40–41, 55, 172, 185

    cultural contributions of, 335, 340, 353, 403, 507, 524, 529, 572, 573, 577, 578, 580

    and East European Jews, 102, 177, 297, 391, 415, 417, 418, 428, 429, 432–433, 434, 441, 484, 506, 581, 686, 706

    educational and cultural background of, 264, 294, 300

    and English language, 507, 572

    Frankforters, 269

    and fraternal organizations, 422

    and German culture. See German language/culture

    and German patriotism, 318, 501

    viewed as “goyim” by Eastern European immigrants, 441, 562

    Hungarians, 19, 20, 22, 40, 79, 109, 122, 123, 133, 202, 211, 229, 249, 293, 335, 342, 363, 524, 534, 583

    Jewish identity of, 510, 573

    and labor disputes, 207

    Markens on, 535

    Moravians, 90, 221, 336

    organizations and institutions of, 506, 507

    as peddlers, 259

    political contributions of, 403

    Poseners, 40, 222, 356, 513, 514, 525

    Prussians, 216, 318, 428

    and Reform Judaism, 55, 64, 66–71 passim, 77, 117

    scholarly contributions of, 524, 529

    and Science of Judaism, 512, 528

    Silesians, 40, 79, 118, 349

    Slovaks, 318, 357

    success of, 173, 232, 282

    and “unity” efforts, 418

    Westphalians, 229, 300

    Wuerttembergers, 229

German Hebrew Benevolent Society (New York City), 477

German language/culture, 289–293 passim, 296, 405, 423, 523

    books and publishing in, 509, 521, 559, 615

    hymnals in, 74

    and Jewish organizations, 291, 422

    newspapers and periodicals in, 20, 21, 133, 199, 293, 305, 312, 509, 528, 559, 583

    for organizational minutes, 88, 290

    in preaching, 59, 66, 615

    in school curricula, 291, 559, 598–599

    teaching of, 559

    textbooks in, 575, 610

    translations in, 77

German National Bank (Chicago), 267

German non-Jews, in U.S., 176

    and anti-Semitism, 146

    and fire insurance restrictions on Jews, 152

German Savings Bank (Chicago), 267

German Singers Society (Denver), 339

German Women’s Suffrage Association of New York, 325

Germany, 147, 379

    boycott against, 209

    Nazi period, 243, 496

Gerrard, Joseph, 161

Gershwin, George, 338

Gersoni, Henry, 573

Gerstle, Lewis, 228

Gettysburg, battle of, 53

Gibbons, James, 380, 649, 674

Giessen, University of, 18

Gilman, Isaac, 222

Gilman, Vt., 222

Gilman Paper Co., 222

Gimbel, Adam, 250, 391

Gimbel, Jacob, 391

Gimbel family, 228

Gimbel’s (department store), 250, 391

Ginzberg, Louis, 81, 521, 527–528, 545, 585, 586, 617

Girard, Kans., 309

The Girl of the Golden West (Puccini), 328

Girl Scouts, 692, 698

Gladden, Washington, 172

Gladstone, William E., 320

Glass, Montague, 579–580

Glass manufacturing, 222

Glove makers, 333

Gluck, Alma, 337

Glynn, Martin H., 164

Gobineau, Joseph A., 171

“God Bless America” (Berlin), 342

Godchaux, Leon, 226

Godowsky, Leopold, 294, 341

Goedsche, Hermann, 147

Goethe, Johann von, 565

Goldberg, Charles, 44, 44

Goldberg, Jeannette Miriam, 548

Goldberg, Rube, 347

Goldberger, Joseph, 357

Golden, Harry, 156

Goldenberg, Rosa H., 489

Goldfaden, Abraham, 294, 557, 564, 684

Goldfarb, Israel, 556

Goldfogle, Henry Mayer, 213

Goldman, Edwin Franko, 338

Goldman, Henry, 268

Goldman, Marcus, 268

Goldman-Sachs, 268

Goldmark, Alice (Mrs. Louis D. Brandeis), 202

Goldmark, Josephine Clara, 325, 488

Goldmark, Rubin, 338

Goldsboro, N.C., 689, 693

Goldschmidt, Otto, 399

Goldsmith, Bernard, 222

Goldsmith, Milton, 578–579

Goldsmith, Philip, 283

Goldsmith, Sophia Heller, 283

Goldsmiths, 90

Gold standard, 197

Goldstein, Isaac, 510

Goldwyn, Samuel, 297, 333

Golf, 428

Gomez, Benjamin, 308

Gompers, Samuel, 115, 151, 201, 207, 225, 241, 407, 672

Good Government Clubs, 208

Gordin, Jacob, 565, 684

Gorky, Maxim, 565

Gottheil, Gustav

    and Christian clergy, 66, 386, 667

    liturgical works of, 513, 556, 667

    on social prejudice, 159

    and Temple Emanu-El, 66, 78, 392, 394, 513–514, 652, 680

    and Stephen Wise, 652

    and Zionism, 678, 680

Gottheil, Richard J. H.

    at Columbia University, 392–393, 519, 522, 527, 529

    on Jesus, 668

    as scholar, 392, 510, 519

    and Temple Emanu-El, 652

    writings of, 519, 533, 585

    and Zionism, 519–520, 533, 678

Gotthelf, Henry, 44

Gotthold, Ellis M., 32

Gottlieb, Abraham, 272

Gottschalk, Louis Moreau, 336, 337

Gould, Jay, 326

Gounod, Charles, 558

Government employees and officeholders, 50, 273

    city, 51, 275, 305, 590

    confederate, 200, 306

    federal, 21, 21, 50, 52, 102, 191, 201, 216, 240, 311, 316, 346, 439, 496

    state, 117, 300, 377, 439

    See also Cabinet officials; Diplomatic and consular officials; Elected officials; Judges and judicial officials; Lawenforcement officers

Graduate School for Jewish Social Work, 491

Graetz, Heinrich, 533, 535, 543, 545, 585, 586

Gramophone, 352

Grand Army of the Republic, 185, 194, 376

Grand Island, N.Y., 678

Grand Opera House (New York City), 229

Grand Rapids, Mich., 195, 254

Grand Union Hotel (Saratoga, N.Y.), 158

Grange, 212

Grant, Jesse, 49, 53

Grant, Madison, 178

Grant, Ulysses S., 39, 47, 215

    and General Order No. 11, 48–49, 50, 51, 102, 214

    Jewish political support for, 50, 214

    Mayer’s portrait of, 343

    as president, 50, 90, 206, 211, 327

    and Simon Wolf, 50, 102

Grant, Ulysses S., III, 50

Graphic Sketch Club (Philadelphia), 405

Gratz, Anna (Mrs. Thomas Clay), 401

Gratz, Benjamin, 25, 149, 149, 223, 371, 401

Gratz, Herman, 592

Gratz, Hyman, 344, 550

Gratz, Louis A., 40, 296

Gratz, Rebecca, 31, 325, 398, 455, 468, 550

Gratz College, 274, 514, 515, 538, 550, 551, 553

Gratz family, 398

Gratztown, Pa., 261

Grau, Jacob, 334, 336

Grau, Maurice, 336

Great Depression, 266, 312, 337

Greece, Jews of, 501

Greek-letter fraternities and sororities, 161, 185, 410, 412, 520, 701

Greely, A.W., 352

Greeley, Horace, 88, 311

Greeley County, Kans., 438

Greenback Labor Club (Washington, D.C.), 147

Greenback Party, 165, 195

Greene (show business figure), 327

Greenebaum, Henry, 304, 340, 428, 477

Greenebaum, Michael, 471

Greenebaum family, 266

Greensboro, N.C., 258, 259

Grellet, Stephen, 449

Gresham, Walter Q., 106

Gries, Moses, 650, 653, 663

Grinnell College, 362

Grocers, 276, 277

Gross, Charles, 316

Gross, Nathan, 364

Grossmayer, Nathan, 42

Gruening, Emil, 356, 356

Grundlagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts (Chamberlain), 145

Guggenheim, Arthur, 246

Guggenheim, Meyer, 543

Guggenheim, Simon, 196, 197, 299, 344, 368

Guggenheimer, Charles, 390

Guggenheimer, Randolph, 274

Guggenheimer, Untermyer & Marshall, 274

Guggenheim family, 220, 258, 263, 287, 370

Guide for the Perplexed (Maimonides), 516

Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railroad, 223

Gun manufacturers, 221

Gutheim, James K., 26, 28, 387, 543

Hackenburg, William B., 489, 490

Hadassah, 303, 410, 533, 557

Haggadah, 575, 648

Hague Conference, 102

Hahn, Aaron, 73, 514

Haifa Technion, 448, 639, 680

Halakah. See Jewish law

Haldeman, Isaac M., 181

Haldeman-Julius, Emanuel, 309

Halevy, Jacques Franois, 407

Half-tone screens, 351

Hall, Prescott Farnsworth, 174

Hall, Stanley, 552

Halleck, Henry W., 48

Halle family, 249

Hallgarten & Co., 268

Hallgarten family, 263

Hall of Fame for Great Americans, 446

Hamburger, Jacob, 541

Hammerslough, Julius, 369

Hammerslough family, 51

Hammerstein, Oscar, I, 327, 337

Hammerstein, Oscar, II, 342

Handicapped people, 460, 474, 505

Handwriting experts, 272, 347

Hannover, Nathan, 614

Hanukkah, 388, 693

    and Christmas, 79, 110, 111, 629

    at Jewish hospitals, 459–460

    in synagogs and Jewish schools, 575, 602, 635, 642, 691, 692

Hapgood, Hutchins, 345

Happy Hooligan (cartoon character), 347

Harby, Isaac, 34, 54, 75, 272, 323

Harby, Leah (Lee) Cohen, 272, 324

Harcourt, Brace & Co., 308

Harmonie Club (New York City), 284, 291, 427, 427, 427

Harper’s Weekly, 160, 181, 349, 376, 585

Harriman, F. H., 269

Harris, Charles K., 327, 341

Harris, Emil, 291

Harris, Maurice Henry, 533

Harrisburg Telegraph, 46

Harrison, Benjamin, 106, 199, 327, 364, 678

Harrison, Leon, 95, 712

Har Sinai Congregation (Baltimore), 20, 21, 61, 65–66, 67, 78, 196

Hart, Abraham, 90

Hart, Albert Bushnell, 174

Hart, Bernard, 192

Hart, Emanuel B., 150, 188, 192, 193

Hart, Harry, 233

Hart, Max, 233

Hart, Schaffner & Marx, 233, 234, 239, 240, 245, 286

Harte, Bret, 157, 192, 312

Hartford, Conn., 249, 438

Hartford Times, 307

Harvard Advocate, 301

Harvard Daily Crimson, 301

Harvard Law Review, 489

Harvard Monthly, 301

Harvard University, 97, 173, 302, 305, 322, 368

    anti-Semitism at, 161, 301, 303, 316

    High Holy Day services at, 593

    Jewish faculty at, 303, 316, 529, 569, 681

    Jewish students at, 174, 201, 266, 272, 273, 297, 301, 311, 318, 344

    Law School, 273, 318

    Littauer chair, 516, 517, 656

    Menorah Society, 161, 412, 489

    School of Public Health, 357

    Semitics Museum, 368, 540

    Socialist Club, 311

Hassidism, 621, 641

Hauptmann, Gerhart, 337

Hauser, Carl F., 292, 293

Hawaii, 208

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 371

Hawthorne, N.Y., 456

Hay, John, 104, 105, 106, 216, 349

Hayes, Isaac Israel, 352

Hayes, Rutherford B., 304, 389

Haymarket Massacre, 114

Hays, Isaac, 355

Ha-Zofeh, 561

Head covering, at worship, 71, 72, 75, 129, 138, 138, 139, 610, 635, 637, 640, 649, 658, 686, 688, 694, 698, 698

Hearne, Lafcadio, 373

Hearst, William Randolph, 310, 313, 314, 347, 567

Hebraica, 586

Hebrew Association (Cincinnati), 476–477

Hebrew Benevolent Society (Cincinnati), 371, 381, 477, 483

Hebrew Christian Alliance, 402

Hebrew Educational Society (Philadelphia), 490

Hebrew Education Society (Baltimore), 604

Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society, 103, 433, 435, 450

Hebrew Foreign Mission Society, 361

Hebrew Free School Association, 599, 603, 631

Hebrew General Relief Association (Cincinnati), 482

Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, 442

Hebrew Institute (Chicago), 416, 606

Hebrew Ladies’ Benevolent Society (Birmingham), 466

Hebrew Ladies’ Sewing Society (Baltimore), 447

Hebrew Ladies’ Society (Pittsburgh), 466, 466

Hebrew language

    books and other publications in, 511, 517, 520–521, 528, 540, 561, 563, 574. See also Newspapers and periodicals, in Hebrew

    Christian knowledge of, 513, 519

    at City College of New York, 593

    and Conservative Judaism, 637, 640

    Constitution translated into, 562

    Declaration of Independence translated into, 562

    election circulars in, 217, 511

    and Haifa Technion, 639, 680

    Hebraists, 19, 117, 123, 202, 274, 355, 508, 510–511, 513, 515, 560, 562–563

    and Jewish Chautauqua Society, 549

    in Jewish education, 95, 473, 525, 550, 595, 596, 597, 602, 604, 605, 606, 609, 613, 692

    and Jewish scholarship, 516, 517, 520–521, 528, 560

    and Jewish worship, 43, 72, 132, 507

    mechanical reading of, 602, 603, 611, 614

    Olendorf method of teaching, 603

    and Orthodox Judaism, 397, 596

    and Reform Judaism, 91, 127, 132, 142, 595, 640, 649, 657, 692, 694, 706

    translations from, 73, 123, 515, 574, 576

    Washington’s letter translated into, 537

Hebrew Orphan Asylum (Charleston), 257, 447, 455, 527

Hebrew Orphan Asylum Press, 394

Hebrew Orphans Society (Charleston), 454

Hebrew Publishing Co., 533

Hebrew Relief Association (Philadelphia), 477

Hebrew Review, 98, 125, 514, 586

Hebrew Sabbath-School Union, 92, 490, 497, 550, 551, 584, 595, 607, 609, 610, 613

Hebrew Sabbath Visitor, 584

Hebrew schools, 442, 452, 511, 522, 597, 609, 627

Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society of America (HIAS), 442

Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society, 631

Hebrew Sheltering House Association of New York, 442

The Hebrews in America (Markens), 375, 535

Hebrew Technical Institute for Boys (New York City), 305, 444, 495

Hebrew Technical School for Girls (New York City), 444, 495

Hebrew Theological College, 596

Hebrew Union Agricultural Society, 100

Hebrew Union College, 266, 491, 497, 595, 645

    as American institution for American Jews, 82, 136

    cantorial training at, 692, 692

    Christian students at, 554

    current status of, 71

    curriculum of, 97, 491, 519, 525, 538, 539, 640, 640, 685, 692

    Ezekiel’s bust of Wise at, 171

    faculty of, 81, 98, 99, 510, 517, 519, 521, 522, 525, 526, 527, 532, 548, 553, 587, 649

    financial support for, 282, 448, 632, 647

    funding and early history of, 96–98, 417

    and Jewish Institute of Religion, 95, 137, 653

    and Jewish music, 558, 692

    and Jewish Theological seminary, 122, 142, 631, 632, 685

    Kohler’s presidency of, 110, 522, 526, 552, 553, 562, 641, 647, 657–658, 658, 685

    Landsberg’s address to class of 1899, 684

    library of, 97, 540, 558, 647, 654

    memorial plaques in chapel of, 448

    and Middle Western/Southern Jewry, 131, 417

    Mielziner’s presidency of, 349, 527, 562, 680

    Morgenstern’s presidency of, 519

    name of, 375

    and National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods, 468

    physical facilities of, 97

    and Pittsburgh Platform, 119

    and Schechter, 526, 527, 645, 685

    scholarships to, 455, 466, 695

    and Science of Judaism, 510, 532, 641

    and social justice movement, 672

    students of, 80, 96, 110, 114, 118, 132, 362, 421, 455, 491, 586, 631, 714

    Szold’s 1883 visit to, 448

    teacher-training at, 551

    and Terefah Banquet, 108, 123

    and Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 124

    Wise’s presidency of, 71, 81, 96–98, 519, 527, 532, 552, 562, 641, 680

    women at, 96, 696

    Zionism at, 561, 678, 680, 680

Hebrew Union College Annual, 587, 586, 615

Hebrew Union College Journal, 561, 704

Hebrew Union College Monthly, 586

Hebrew Union School (New York City), 96

Hebrew Union Veterans Association, 185

Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 523, 649

Hebrew Veterans of the War with Spain, 185

Hecht, Ben, 309

Hecht’s (department store), 250

Heders, 597, 598, 602, 603, 608. See also Jewish education

Heidelbach, Ickelheimer & Co., 268

Heidelbach, Philip, 267

Heidelbach & Seasongood, 80

Heidelberg, University of, 322, 392

Heifetz, Jascha, 337

Heilprin, Angelo, 352

Heilprin, Michael, 310, 351, 353

    and Emma Lazarus, 576

    as librarian of Temple Emanu-El, 539

    and Polish Revolt, 191

    and Revolution of 1848, 19, 20

    and Russian refugees, 433, 576

    and slavery, 19, 21, 24, 191, 520

    writings of, 520

Heilprin family, 300

Heine, Heinrich, 146, 304, 324, 407

Heine, Marie Alice, 399

Heineman (Heyneman), Henry, 55

Heinsheimer, Louis A., 490

Held, Anna, 320, 321

Helicopter, 352

Heller, Adolph, 227

Heller, Bernard, 227

Heller, Max, 664, 674

Heller, Sophia (Mrs. Philip Goldsmith), 283

Hellman, Isaias Wolf, 267, 713

Hellman & Kuhn’s (Denver), 46

Hellman family, 268, 286

“Hello Central, Give Me Heaven” (Harris), 341

Helper, Rowan Hinton, 17

Helpful Thoughts, 584

Hemingway, Ernest, 324

Hendrick, Burton J., 177, 262, 272

Hendricks family, 623

Henry, Henry S., 26

Henry, Mabel, 26

Henry Street Settlement, 209, 489

Henschel, George, 341

Heppner, Henry, 367

Heppner, Oreg., 367

Hergesheimer, Joseph, 309

Hermann, Isaac, 168, 363

Herrmann, Carl, 331

Herrmann, Leon, 331

Herschell, Solomon, 334

Hertz, Joseph H., 124

Hertzberg, Hyman, 49

Herz, Henri, 335

Herzl, Theodor, 190, 203, 432, 440, 533, 639, 679

Hess, Selmar, 308

Hessberg, Samuel, 265

Hess family, 249

Heydenfeldt, 54

Heydenfeldt, Solomon, 17

Heyman, Levy, & Brother (Columbus, Ga.), 26

High Holy Days, 120, 414, 593, 688

    business operations on, 26, 251, 699

    during Civil War, 26, 33, 42, 44–45, 129

    during Franco-Prussian War, 292

    in Jewish hospitals, 457

    school absences on, 301, 700

    second day of, 689, 698

    during Spanish-American War, 623

    synagog attendance for, 298, 630, 675, 691, 702, 703

    and synagog fund-raising, 138, 475

Hildesheimer, Hirsch, 684

Hill, James J., 269

Hillel Foundation, 671, 701

Hillman, Sidney, 240, 243

Hillquit, Morris, 213, 237

Hilton, Henry, 157, 158, 190

Hirsch, Aaron, 383

Hirsch, Edmond de, 502, 505

Hirsch, Emil G., 82, 395, 617, 670

    on East European immigrants, 686

    on NCJW Sabbath resolution, 703

    as preacher and lecturer, 112, 411, 509, 548, 585, 650, 712

    rabbinic training of, 78, 95, 115, 510

    as religious radical, 68, 115, 117, 518, 650–651, 654, 683

    as scholar, 395, 513, 595, 617, 653

    and Sinai Congregation, 68, 470, 471, 595, 652, 692, 699

    as social reformer, 115, 134, 189, 207, 472, 620, 671

    and Sunday Sabbath, 111, 651, 708

    at University of Chicago, 513, 519, 529, 631, 711

    and Zionism, 679, 682

Hirsch, Maurice de, 106, 435

Hirsch, Samson Raphael, 657

Hirsch, Samuel, 82

    on intermarriage, 668

    at Keneseth Israel, 67, 78, 457, 704

    as religious radical, 65, 77, 115, 290, 595–596, 668, 704

    and Talmud, 596, 610

    as writer and scholar, 513, 520, 610

Hirsch, Solomon, 198, 199

Hirschmann, Love Rosa, 322

Hirschorn, Jacob, 31

Histadrut Ivrith, 562

Historians, 272, 274, 306–307, 316, 399, 532, 534, 538

The Historical Poetry of the Ancient Hebrews (Heilprin), 520

History of Jewish Literature (Karpeles), 585

History of Labour in the United States (Commons), 174–175

History of Literary Criticism in the Renaissance (Spingarn), 308

A History of Medieval Jewish Philosophy (Husik), 517

History of Philosophy in Jewry (Neumark), 517

History of the Dogmas (Neumark), 517

History of the Great American Fortunes (Myers), 307

A History of the Jewish People (Marx & Margolis), 523

History of the Jews (Graetz), 533, 667

History of the Jews in America (Wiernik), 537

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland (Dubnow), 545

Hitler, Adolf, 101, 144, 145, 717

Hochheimer, H., 28, 73

Hodge, Charles, 521

Hoe, R. H., & Co., 153, 622

Hofheimer, Nathan, 223

Hollander, Jacob H., 317, 684

Holland Tunnel (New York City), 279

Holly Springs, Miss., 48

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 97, 172, 371, 380

Holocaust, 145, 502, 503, 717

Holzman, Elijah, 139

Home and family life, 394, 420, 430, 618

Home care, of children, 457

Home for the Aged (Cincinnati), 459

Home missions, 675

Home-reading courses, 547

Homer Laughlin China Co., 222

Homestead Strike, 201, 212

Home visitors, 482, 486, 489

Honorary degrees, awarded to Jews, 124, 388, 523, 590

Hoover, Herbert, 183

Hoover Dam, 288

Hornik, M., 247

Hornik’s Bargain House, 247

Horowitz, Louis Jay, 262

Horowitz, Moses, 564, 565

Horsemen, 265

Horticulturists, 308

Horwitz, James, 22

Horwitz, Jonathan Phineas, 355

Hospitals and hospices

    child and elder care in, 453, 458, 462

    under Jewish auspices, 442, 457–458, 459, 460

    philanthropic support for, 282, 442, 449, 451, 458, 466, 476, 480, 484, 494, 717

    and social-welfare movement, 488, 491

    staffing of, 452, 458, 460, 491

    See also names of hospitals and hospices

Hot Springs, Ark., 515

Hourwich, Isaac A., 186

Houseman, Julius, 195, 254

The House on Henry Street (Wald), 575

Housing reforms, 673

Houston, Texas, 582

Hoveve Zion, 678

Howard University, 496

Howe, Julia Ward, 370

Howells, William Dean, 373

The Hub (department store), 250

Hubert, Conrad, 352

Huebsch, Adolph, 73, 114, 513

Huebsch, Benjamin W., 308, 513

Huhner, Leon, 538

Hull House (Chicago), 426

Hungarian Jews, in U.S. See German and Central European Jews, in U.S.

Hunting and target shooting, 297

Huntington, Henry E., 344

Hurst, Fannie, 324, 580

Hurwitz, Henry, 593

Husik, Isaac, 517, 545

Hutzler, Abraham G., 249

Hutzler, Charles, 699

Hutzler, M., & Son, 249

Hyde, Ida Henrietta, 322

Hydrotherapy, 355

Ibsen, Henrik, 321, 329, 565

Ichthyologists, 307

Idaho, 194

Iliowizi, Henry, 579

Illinois, 194, 216

    Jewish farming settlements, 438

    University of, 671

Illinois Industrial School for Girls, 471

Illiteracy, 226, 614

Illowy, Bernard, 28

Illuminating gas industry, 223

Illustrators, 339, 343, 345, 348

Il Trovatore, 336

Imber, Naphtali Herz, 587

Immigrants Aid Society (Philadelphia), 450

Immigration

    American Jewish reactions to, 92, 130, 187, 188, 432–433

    Antin on, 324

    attempts to divert, 432

    from Eastern Europe, 100, 105, 109, 114, 208, 212, 361, 406

    and funding of national Jewish philanthropies, 497

    and Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, 442

    legislation regarding, 175, 178–180. See also Immigration Restriction Act

    number of arrivals (1869–1880), 450

    opposition to, 174, 176, 176–178, 178–179, 179, 186, 213

    restrictions on, 103, 105, 107, 174, 175, 177, 178, 211, 275, 440, 623, 666, 686

    Turner’s view of, 17, 370

    and wife desertion, 465

Immigration, Bureau of, 103

Immigration and Labor (Hourwich), 186

Immigration Commission, U.S., 179, 186

    1911 Report of, 174

Immigration Restriction Act (1921), 175, 177, 180, 183, 207, 418, 419, 503

Immigration Restriction League, 174, 176

Impending Crisis of the South (Helper), 17

Imperial Mexican Railway, 199

Importers, 224, 267, 448

    tea, 228

    tobacco leaf, 225, 226

Impresarios, producers, and managers, 292, 294, 327–328, 329, 334, 335–337, 406, 564

Income tax, 209

Incunabula, 515, 539

Indentured servants, 17

Independent, 307

Indiana, 194

    State Board of Charities, 494

Indianapolis, Ind., 40, 222, 483, 494

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 246

Indiana Society of Ohio, 483

Indians, as subject of Hebrew poetry, 563

Indian Territory, 204, 438

Indian traders, 250

Indifference, religious, 703, 705, 709

Indigent, 461, 477

    aid to, 466

    medical care of, 457, 460

Industrialists, 209, 406, 489

Industrial Removal Office, 439, 496, 671

Industrial Removal Organization, 441

Infant mortality, 253, 496

Infant welfare stations, 453

Ingersoll, Robert G., 369, 426

“In God We Trust” (phrase on coins), 149

Inland Steel Co., 224

Insane asylums, 377

Insecurity, of American Jews, 93, 94, 404

Installment credit, 247, 254

Institute of Musical Art, 294

Insurance industry, 230, 245, 278, 344, 422, 423, 496, 550

Intercollegiate Menorah Association, 412, 586, 593, 594, 616

Interfaith relations

    Christian facilitation of holy day observances, 381, 389

    Christian minister officiating at intermarriage, 398

    Christian orphans raised by Jew, 346

    Christians attending lectures/sermons by rabbis, 387, 593, 656, 708, 711

    Christians as members of synagogs, 93, 115

    Christians as synagog and Jewish-school functionaries, 365, 388, 556, 694

    Christian support for Jewish causes, 93, 371, 382, 384, 386, 444, 445, 524

    church and synagog dedications, 46, 196, 377, 459, 523, 629, 667

    in college clubs, 508

    at Dropsie College, 553

    and Free Religious Association, 116, 386

    and Free Synagogue, 652

    at funerals, 388, 403

    and Jewish Chautauqua Society, 548, 549

    and Jewish farming and credit cooperatives, 437

    at Jewish hospitals,

    Jewish Relief Day, 502

    Jewish support for Christian and/or secular non-Jewish causes, 365, 381, 383, 383, 384, 666

    in literature, 578, 581

    protection of missionaries by Jewish diplomats, 199

    at Purim balls and other social functions, 371, 423

    religious ecumenism, 666, 667

    and religious liberalism, 116, 365, 386, 666, 711

    Rosenau’s friendship with Cardinal Gibbons, 649

    shared pulpits/buildings and joint services, 79, 117, 385, 386, 387, 667, 691, 700

    Thanksgiving services, 117, 403, 667

    Wisconsin legislature meeting in synagog, 377

    and World’s Parliament of Religions, 116, 386, 470, 547

    Zeisler’s cultural salon, 321

    See also Christianity

Intermarriage

    and assimilation/defection, 396, 397, 399

    and burial in Jewish cemetery, 397, 694

    causes and frequency of, 370, 391, 397–398, 399, 400, 401, 668, 669

    and Conservative Judaism, 643

    and conversion, 130, 397, 660, 701, 714

    Einhorn on, 66, 78, 668

    in Europe, 400

    Samuel Hirsch on, 78, 668

    instances of

          August Belmont, 370, 399

          Judah Benjamin, 34, 37

          Louis Brandeis’ sister-in-law, 202

          Irwin Cobb’s son-in-law, 168

          Barrett Cohen, 399

          Leopold Damrosch, 294

          Edwin De Leon, 32, 197

          Aaron Dropsie, 398, 553

          Frank Etting, 399

          Charles Fleischer, 118

          Ossip Gabrilowitsch, 168

          Otto Goldschmidt, 399

          Louis Moreau Gottschalk, 337

          Benjamin Gratz, 398

          Louis Gratz, 41, 296, 398

          Marie Alice Heine, 399

          Anna Held, 320

          Love Rosa Hirschmann, 322

          Jonathan Horwitz, 355

          David Isaacs, 16

          Abraham Jacobi, 39

          Samuel Judah, 391

          Mrs. Anthony J. Keiley, 378

          Frederick Knefler, 40

          Ward McAllister’s sister-in-law, 370

          Solomon Nathan’s daughter, 398

          Rose Harriet Pastor, 399

          Joseph Pulitzer, 312, 399

          Isidor Rayner, 197

          Margarethe Meyer Schurz, 322

          James Speyer, 370, 399

          Isaac Mayer Wise’s daughter, 398

          David Yulee, 192

          Israel Zangwill, 398

    interracial, 16

    in Jewish history, 397

    in the Jewish press, 587

    as literary theme, 373, 397, 398, 578, 579, 581

    opposition to, 87, 112, 359, 398, 399, 422, 578, 621, 656, 668, 669

    and Orthodox Judaism, 397, 400

    proponents of, 118, 148, 152, 171, 172, 173, 177

    rabbis officiating at, 78, 669, 669

    and Reform Judaism, 63, 85, 87, 112, 648, 662, 668–669

    Malcolm Sterne on, 400

    Tarshish on, 397, 400

International Council of Jewish Women, 472

International Council of Women, 471

International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, 237, 238, 239, 244

International Red Cross, 377

International Uniform Bible Lessons, 611

Interpreters, 471

Interstate Commerce Act (1887), 206

Interstate Commerce Commission, 206

Intramarriage, and business success, 284

Inventors, 272, 294, 296, 307, 327, 339, 351–353

Invocations, by rabbis

    in Congress, 18, 377

    in state legislatures, 18, 148, 377, 389

    at White House, 700

Iowa, 227, 258

    University of, 357

Ireland, relief for, 366

I Remember (Flexner), 305

Irish, in U.S., 150, 153, 154, 156, 173, 176, 187, 214

Iron and steel industry, 224, 228

Irving, Henry, 327

Isaacs, Abram S., 510, 529, 536, 590, 605

Isaacs, David, 16

Isaacs, Isaiah, 16

Isaacs, Myer S., 500, 665

Isaacs, Samuel Hillel, 511

Isaacs, Samuel M., 18, 139, 427

Isaacs, Schachne, 139

Isaiah (biblical prophet), 657

Isolationism, 218

Israel, Edward, 352

Israel, State of, 137, 563

Israelite. See American Israelite

Israëls, Jozef, 555

Italian Jews, in U.S., 123

Italians, in U.S., 153, 154, 175, 187

Jackson, Miss., 390

Jackson, Peter, 331

Jacksonianism, 116

Jacobi, Abraham, 17, 206, 211, 316, 346, 356, 366, 391, 399

Jacobs, Frances Wisebart, 325, 463

Jacobs, George, 385

Jacobs, Isaac, 258

Jacobs, Joseph, 508, 534, 541, 590, 618

Jacobs, Ralph, 258

Jacobs, Solomon, 15

Jacobsohn, Simon Elias, 341

Jacobson, Moses P., 665

Jacoby, Ludwig Sigmund, 360

Jaffa brothers, 326

James (philosemitic member of Tennessee legislature), 389

James, Henry, 373

James, William, 318, 389

Japan, Ethical Culture in, 394

Japan Advertiser, 405

Japanese, in U.S., 153, 178

Jastrow, Benjamin, 73

Jastrow, Joseph, 303, 318, 319, 370

Jastrow, Marcus, 70, 77, 318, 392, 414, 520, 524, 545, 649

Jastrow, Marcus, Jr., 510

Jastrow, Morris, 318, 392, 524, 529

Jastrow, Rachel Szold, 370

Jefferson, Joseph, 195

Jefferson, Thomas, 25, 148, 654

Jefferson Club (Richmond), 421

Jefferson Literary and Social Circle (Richmond), 421

Jesuits, 176

Jesus

    in Christian Science, 395

    described as Jew by Cardinal Gibbons, 380

    Jewish views of, 118, 365, 365, 385, 473, 513, 514, 553, 574, 585, 657, 666, 667, 668

    race of, 145, 178

    in Sabbath/Sunday school curricula, 609

    as theme for Jewish artists, 345, 349

“Jew,” as derogatory term, 46, 69, 96, 187, 375, 607, 654

Jewelers/jewelry manufacturing, 224–225, 352, 510, 553

The Jew in America (Reform tract), 648

Jewish Agency, 276, 681

Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society, 437, 438, 439

Jewish Agriculturalists’ Aid Society, 434

Jewish Agricultural Society, 437

Jewish Center (New York City), 692

Jewish Charities, 499

Jewish Charity, 499, 587

Jewish Chautauqua Society

    apologetic aspects of, 185, 547

    and Berkowitz, 125, 185, 491, 546–547, 548, 549, 616

    educational and cultural work of, 125, 185, 509, 546, 547, 592, 594, 613

    interfaith activities of, 548, 549

    lectures, study aids, and syllabi of, 548–549

          American Jewish history, 537, 538

          Apocrypha and New Testament, 548

          social work, 491

    and The Menorah, 585

    and Reform Judaism, 547, 548

    students and study circles served by, 190, 473, 537, 548, 549, 593

    supporters and staff of

          Adler, 538

          Blumenthal, 489

          Frankel, 496

          Jeannette M. Goldberg, 548

          Hirsch, 548

          Miriam D. Louis, 495, 547

          Morgenstern, 548

          Schiff, 190

          Steinbach, 515

Jewish Colonization Association, 435, 437, 439

Jewish community centers, 418–420

Jewish Community of New York City. See New York Kehillah

Jewish Consumptives’ Relief Society, 357

Jewish Contributions to Civilization (Jacobs), 534, 618

Jewish Contributions to Medicine in America (Kagan), 357

Jewish Cookery Book (Levy), 618

Jewish culture clubs, 508

Jewish Daily Forward, 183, 242, 568

    “rogues gallery” in Sunday edition, 465

Jewish education, 139, 484, 594, 615, 625

    and Americanization, 612, 613

    and Conservative Judaism, 637

    curricula, 611, 613

    diversity of, 612

    first Ph.D. for thesis on, 613

    of girls, 597, 598, 602, 605, 606, 608, 612, 618, 694

    and Hebrew, 596, 609, 610

    and Jewish identity, 611, 613, 616

    as reaction to missionaries, 401

    textbooks, 140, 610–611, 613

    See also Adult education; Day schools; Hebrew schools; Yiddish schools; Talmud Torahs; Yeshivot

Jewish Educational Alliance (New York City), 508

Jewish Encyclopedia

    on Jewish art, 555

    on Jewish artists, 348

    on Judaism in America, 620, 645

    Lewisohn’s funding of, 631

    publication and significance of, 537, 541–542, 619

    and Science of Judaism, 509

    staff of, 519, 524, 529, 541

          Dembitz, 319, 515

          Ginzberg, 527–528

          Hirsch, 115, 513

          Jacobs, 534, 541

          Kohler, 518

          Lauterbach, 526

          Singer, 541

    on Talmud, 515

    on women, 319

    on Yiddish theatre, 564

Jewish Exponent, 590

Jewish Farmer, 437, 587

Jewish foods, 446

Jewish Foster Home (Philadelphia), 454, 455

Jewish history, 532, 533

Jewish hospital (Cincinnati), 458, 460

Jewish identity

    and Americanism, 289, 405

    and anti-Semitism, 708

    attenuated, 130, 488

    and Christian Science, 395

    and Ethical Culture, 394–395

    of German Jews, 289, 296, 405, 573

    of isolated small-town storekeepers, 578

    and Jewish education, 594, 597, 598, 611, 614

    and the Jewish press, 591

    latitudinarian definition of, 690

    and respectability, 404, 690

    secular forms of, 130, 487, 568, 717

    of social workers, 493, 499

    and Yiddish, 568

Jewish Immigrants’ Information Bureau, 440

Jewish Institute of Religion, 97, 99, 122, 137, 198, 653, 696

The Jewish Invasion of America (Hendrick), 262

Jewish law (halakkah)

    on abandoned wives (agunot), 87, 469–470, 638

    conflicts with in U.S., 511, 525, 617, 628

    and Conservative Judaism, 638, 640, 642

    Kohut’s view of, 123

    Leeser’s view of, 141

    on marriage and divorce, 465, 515, 526, 622, 638, 658, 693

    Morais on, 123

    and Orthodox Judaism, 128, 511, 525, 586, 622, 625, 628

    and Reform Judaism, 87, 113, 128, 469, 693, 714

    responsa on, 511, 525

    Wise’s view of, 59, 141

    See also Dietary laws

Jewish learning, 202, 516, 516, 519, 531

    and rabbinical associations, 530

Jewish Literary Union, 125

Jewish Mansion House Fund, 435

Jewish Messenger (New York), 26, 416, 427, 585, 586, 590, 590, 591

Jewish Ministers’ Association of America, 126

Jewish Ministers’ Association of New York City, 550

Jewish Mission Schools, 473

Jewish music, 618

“Jewish Music Historically Considered,” 558

“Jewish” names, 40

Jewish nationalism, 576, 577

Jewish National Labor Alliance of America, 442

Jewish National Workers’ Alliance of America (Farband), 241, 601

Jewish Philanthropy in the United States (Bogen), 495

Jewish press, 509, 510, 514. See also Newspapers and periodicals

Jewish Publication Society

    and American Jewish Year Book, 545, 589

    Bible translation project, 123, 518, 546, 685

          and Dembitz, 515

          and Jastrow, 524, 545

          and Margolis, 522, 524, 545

    books published by, 110, 533–534, 544–545, 546, 548

    founding and program of, 543, 544

    and intellectual growth of American Jewry, 509, 544

    “Jewish” in name of, 375

    officers and supporters of

          Adler, 520, 589, 634

          Bernheim, 654

          Felsenthal, 523

          Guggenheim, 543

          Kohler, 110, 543

          Krauskopf, 110, 543

          Newburger, 265–266, 543

          Schiff, 448, 543, 545

          Sulzberger, 274, 543

    proposed publication of scholarly quarterly by, 586

    readership of, 473, 546, 549

    seal of, 544

    and Henrietta Szold, 303, 533, 546, 589

Jewish Quarterly Review, 586, 587

The Jewish Question (Walston), 316

The Jewish Question and the Mission of the Jews (Waldstein), 573

Jewish Record (New York), 43, 140

Jewish Relief Day (Jan. 27, 1916), 502

Jewish Religious Union, 710

Jewish Sabbath Association, 625

Jewish Science, 396

Jewish Services in Synagogue and Home (Dembitz), 515

Jewish Settlement (Milwaukee), 446

Jewish Socialist Federation, 241

Jewish Social Service, 499

Jewish solidarity. See Communal and kinship feelings, Jewish

Jewish studies, 517, 523, 529, 534, 541

Jewish success, factors contributing to, 284

Jewish Teacher, 550

Jewish Teachers’ Association, 550

Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 582

Jewish Territorialism, 208

Jewish Theological Seminary (Breslau), 39, 122, 512

Jewish Theological Seminary Association, 95, 122, 661

Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 515, 616, 618, 626, 630, 633, 640, 710

    Adler’s presidency of, 520, 633, 634

    alumni association of, 530, 638

    Breslau seminary as model for, 39, 122

    curriculum of, 519, 640, 685

    faculty of, 518–519, 520, 527–528, 534, 553, 586, 634, 684

    and Hebrew Union College, 96, 142, 526, 631, 632, 685

    library of, 540

    and Marshall, 275

    and Mendes, 623, 634

    and Morais, 96, 122, 123–124, 634

    and Orthodox Judaism, 122, 123, 126, 624, 633, 634, 637

    Schechter’s presidency of, 518–519, 526–527, 552, 553, 623–624, 633, 640, 643

    and Schiff, 448, 643

    and Science of Judaism, 527, 586, 641

    students and graduates of, 514, 556, 623

    and Sulzberger, 274

    Teachers’ Institute, 550, 551

Jewish Theological Seminary Society, 95

Jewish Theological Society, 530

Jewish Theology (Kohler), 518

Jewish Times, 590

Jewish unity, 686

Jewish vote, 105, 204, 214, 217–218

Jewish War Veterans of the United States, 185

Jewish Welfare Board, 42, 187, 225, 419–420, 448, 449, 462, 520, 634

Jewish Welfare Fund, 484

Jewish Women’s Religious Congress, 470, 556

Jewish Workmen’s Circle, 238

Jewish Year Book, 534

The Jews (Myers), 121

The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans (Radin), 533

Jews’ Hospital (New York City), 42, 95, 388, 459

The Jews in America (Hendrick), 177

Jews of Philadelphia (Morais), 352, 590

“Jew Store,” 254

Joachimsen, Caroline Cohen, 272, 324

Joachimsen, Philip J., 40

Job, Book of, 520

Johns Hopkins University

    German influence on, 291

    Jewish faculty at, 302, 303, 310, 317, 323, 353, 354, 520, 529, 684, 698

    Jewish students at, 301, 354

John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, 197, 344

Johnson, Andrew, 46, 47, 199

Johnson, Edward, 341

Johnson, James W., 341

Johnston, Joseph E., 26, 37

Johnstown (Pa.) Flood, 500

Joint Distribution Committee. See American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

Jolson, Al, 317

Jonas, Abraham, 51, 196

Jonas, Benjamin Franklin, 196

Jonas, Charles H., 52

Jonas, Joseph, 24

Jonas, Rosalie (Mrs. Adolph Meyer), 196

Jones, Alfred T., 140

Jones, Israel I., 339

Jonesboro, Tenn., 258

Jordan, David Starr, 182

Joseffy, Rafael, 338

Joseph, Jacob, 153, 622

Joseph family, 263

Josephus, Flavius, 163, 545

Jost, Isaac Marcus, 532

Journalists

    for Anglo-Jewish papers, 514, 560, 585

    critics and columnists, 246, 307, 311

    female, 323, 326

    foreign correspondents, 310, 311, 311, 339, 345

    for general papers, 37, 206, 209, 272, 274, 293, 306, 307, 310, 314, 327, 328, 356, 585

    for German-language papers, 133, 211, 560, 585

    for Hebrew and Yiddish papers, 399, 537, 538, 560, 566, 567, 568, 570, 574

Journal of Jewish Communal Service, 499

Journal of Jewish Lore and Philosophy, 587

J. Pierpont Morgan Library (New York City), 351

Judaeans, 592

Judah, Abraham, 329

Judah, Henry Moses, 40

Judah, Isaac, 16

Judah, Naphtali, 308

Judah, Samuel B., 391

Judaism

    as folkways and life-style, 506, 620

    recognized by government as equal to Christianity, 716

    theology of, 517–518, 654

    See also Conservative Judaism; Orthodox Judaism; Reconstructionist Judaism; Reform Judaism

Judaism and Its History (Geiger), 617

Judaism as a Civilization (Kaplan), 449

Judaism in Music (Wagner), 144

Judaism on the Social Question (Berkowitz), 114

Judas Iscariot (Timayenis), 170

Der Jude (newspaper), 375

Judeophobia. See Anti-Semitism

Judges and judicial officials

    federal bench, 204

    Hague Court, 200

    justices of the peace, 132

    state, county, and municipal bench, 198, 206, 217, 271, 274, 274, 381, 514, 514, 516

    Supreme Court, 139, 204–205, 217, 406

Judy (comic paper), 339

Juedische Hochschule (Berlin), 510

Juilliard School, 338

Julia Richman High School (New York City), 323

Julius Rosenwald Fund, 369

Jung, Carl, 318, 319

Junk dealers, 224

Juvenile delinquency, 322, 451, 455–456, 473, 498, 604

    female, 489

    juvenile courts, 482, 491

Kaddish, 621, 656, 657, 694

Kagan, Solomon R., 357

Kahan, Isaac Meir, 716

Kahn, Albert, 288

Kahn, Felix, 288

Kahn, Herman, 258

Kahn, Joseph, 288

Kahn, Julius, 154, 195, 288, 364

Kahn, Moritz, 288

Kahn, Otto, 270, 282, 334, 336, 337, 368, 370

Kahn family, 222

Kai Feng Fu, China, 361

Kaiser, Alois, 556

Kalisch, Bertha, 320–321

Kalisch, Isidor, 274, 514

Kalisch, Samuel, 514

Kallen, Horace M., 178, 303, 389

Kander, Lizzie Black, 446

Kansas, 21, 24, 438

    Jewish farming colonies, 434, 450

    University of, 322

Kansas City, Mo., 411, 420, 496, 547

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 225, 276, 329

    communal institutions, Jewish, 411, 483, 696

    interfaith relations in, 367, 385

    politics and government, Jews in, 689

Kansas Post, 21

Kaplan, Mordecai M., 395, 449, 550, 636, 679, 692

Karaites, 525

Karpeles, Gustav, 585

Kashrut. See Dietary laws

Katholische Volkszeitung (Baltimore), 146

Kattowitz Conference, 113

Kaufman family, 249

Kaufmann, Sigismund, 21, 51, 211

Kayserling, Moritz, 536

Kayton, Henry, 343

Kearney, Philip, 21

Keiley, Anthony J., 378

Kemble, W. H., 167

Kempner family, 226

Keneseth Israel Congregation (Philadelphia), 21, 67, 78, 656

Kentucky, 260

Kern, Jerome, 342

Key, Francis Scott, 30

Keyser, Ephraim, 344

Kiesel, Fred J., & Co., 228

Kindergartens, 366, 445, 453, 466, 467, 482, 488, 494, 505

Kingsley, Charles, 351

Kirsch, Sadie, 666

Kishinev massacre, 43, 502, 515, 662, 709

Kitsee, Isador, 352

Klaw, Marc, 329, 352, 360

Klein, Charles, 330

Klein, Philip, 626

Knefler, Frederick, 40

Knights of Pythias, 626

Knopf, Alfred, 308

Knowledge Seekers, 421

Know-Nothingism, 20, 69, 365, 374, 379

Knoxville, Tenn., 42, 313

Knoxville Chronicle, 314

Kodachrome, 294

Koheleth America: Catalogue of Hebrew Books Printed in American from 1735–1925 (Deinard), 540

Kohler, Kaufmann, 394, 470, 495

    and Beth-El Congregation, 110, 211

    on centrality of Torah, 683

    at dedication of Jewish Theological Seminary, 684

    education and early life of, 109–110, 657

    on Hebrew, 562

    and Hebrew Union College, 110, 137, 522, 525, 526, 552, 562, 641, 647, 657–658

    on intermarriage, 668

    and Jewish Publication Society, 110, 542

    as pietist, 109, 647, 657

    and Pittsburgh conference, 110, 111, 113, 114, 126, 129

    as preacher and lecturer, 79, 211

    as religious reformer, 109, 110, 112, 126, 659, 693

    and Schechter, 526, 684–685

    as scholar and theologian, 109, 517, 518, 617, 647, 658

    on social reform, 113, 114, 211–212

    and Sunday services, 111, 518

    writings of, 518, 545, 585

    and Zionism, 522, 562, 678, 680, 680, 682

Kohler, Mrs. Kaufmann, 110

Kohler, Max J., 538

Kohlmayer, Jacob, 514

Kohn, Abraham, 51, 90

Kohn, August, 310

Kohut, Alexander, 109, 121, 122, 122–123, 524, 585

Kohut, George A., 510, 534, 535, 598

Kohut, Rebekah, 133, 584, 598

Kol Kore Bamidbar: Ueber Juedische Reform (Felsenthal), 68

Koller, Carl, 357, 359

Konti, Isidore, 344

Kook, Abraham I., 716

Kopperl, Moritz, 266

Kopperl, Morris, 223

Kopplemann, Herman P., 636

Kory, Sol Lysander, 686

Kossuth, Louis, 19, 40

Krackowizer, Ernest, 205

Kraus, Adolf, 187, 207, 304

Krauskopf, Joseph, 611, 699

    and agricultural colonization, 106, 436, 680

    on Christianity and anti-Semitism, 574, 666

    on intermarriage, 668

    and Jewish Publication Society, 110, 543

    as preacher and lecturer, 656, 707, 711, 712

    as religious radical, 656–657

    as social activist, 657, 671

    and Sunday service, 707

    writings of, 73, 574, 581, 657

Kreisler, Fritz, 337

Krochmal, Nachman, 509

Krock, Arthur, 311

Kruttschnitt, Julius, 223

Kuhn, Abraham, 269

Kuhn, Loeb & Co., 204, 264, 268, 269, 270

Kuhn, Netter & Co., 269

Kuhn-Loeb family, 368

Ku Klux Klan, 152, 155, 165, 179, 311, 374, 643

Kupperman family, 229

Labor Advisory Board, 240

Laborers, 220, 521, 537

Labor unions. See Unions

Ladenburg, Thalmann & Co., 268

Ladies Aid Society (Vicksburg), 686

Ladies’ Benevolent Society (New York City), 460

Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Societies, 690

Ladies’ Hebrew Benevolent Society (Vicksburg), 132, 138, 642

Ladies Home Journal, 583

Ladies Relief Sewing Society (Milwaukee), 446

Ladies’ Society for the Support of Hebrew Widows and Orphans (Detroit), 460

Ladies’ Society for the Support of Widows and Orphans (Detroit), 466

Laemmle, Carl, 332

Lafayette, Ind., 269

Lafayette College, 361

La Follette, Robert, 368

La France Juive (Drumont), 144, 170

La Grange, Ga., 164

Lake Placid Club (Lake Placid, N.Y.), 160, 188

Lakewood, N.J., 253

Landsberg, Max, 73, 114, 117, 385, 479, 494, 656, 673, 684

Landsmanshaften, 424, 442, 504, 621, 705

Land speculators, 93, 261, 277

Lane Seminary, 29

Langtry, Lily, 327

LaPorte, Ind., 93, 258, 311

Lasker, Albert D., 156, 246, 247

Lasker, Eduard, 379, 428

Lasker, Moritz (Morris), 246, 379

Laski, Harold, 705

Lasky, Jesse, 333

La Traviata (Verdi), 336

Latteiner, Joseph, 564, 565, 566

Latvian Jews, in U.S., 350

Lauterbach, Edward, 215, 394

Lauterbach, Jacob Z., 526, 696

Law-enforcement officers, 145, 291–292, 325, 381

Lawrence, David, 311

Lawyers, 27, 35–36, 38, 40, 41, 51, 102, 139, 159, 160, 186, 188, 192, 195, 198, 199, 201, 205, 209, 211, 215, 217, 245, 252, 286, 315, 329, 336, 368, 458, 489, 513, 514, 515, 538, 553, 579

    congregational rabbi as, 689

    number, training, and influence of, 271, 273–276, 301, 304

    professional fraternities of, 410

    Sabbath-observing, 665

    See also Judges and judicial officials; names of lawyers

Laymen, role of, 93, 140

Lazard, Alex, 267

Lazard, Eli, 267

Lazard, Simon, 267

Lazard Frères, 258, 267, 279

Lazaron, Morris, 686, 698

Lazarus, Emma, 271, 324, 343, 576, 577, 597, 678

Lazarus, Fred, II, 250, 250

Lazarus, Jacob Hart, 343

Lazarus, Josephine, 271

Lazarus family, 249

Leadville, Colo., 250, 462

League for Jewish Youth (New York City), 596, 605

League of Nations, 198, 252, 316, 318, 653

    Refugee Settlement Commission, 200

Leather and hides industry, 227–228, 232

Lectures/lecturers, 350, 426, 495, 508, 535, 538, 548, 573, 573, 592, 618, 626, 656, 692, 703, 711, 712

Lee, Robert E., 32, 33, 38, 39

Leeser, Isaac, 18, 28, 89, 215, 414, 421, 535, 545

    during Civil War, 28, 32, 149

    and Cleveland Conference, 61

    and efforts to Christianize America, 46, 149

    and Jewish education, 542, 549, 553, 595, 605, 612

    and Maimonides College, 95

    and Mikveh Israel, 68, 123, 140

    and Mission of Judaism, 76

    on need for national Jewish organizations, 59, 85, 86, 94, 124, 476, 542, 549, 661

    and Occident, 28, 274, 388, 585

    as Orthodox leader, 86, 95, 96, 139, 141, 544

    and Wise, 59, 141, 661

    and Zionism, 679, 682

Legal aid, 496

Legends of the Jews (Ginzberg), 528

Legion of Honor, 225

Lehigh Valley Railroad, 9

Lehman, Herbert H., 39, 271

Lehman, Irving, 271

Lehman, Mayer, 38–39, 268

Lehman, Philip, 268

Lehman Brothers, 268

Lehman family, 256, 257, 263, 271

Leipziger, Henry Marcus, 305

Leipziger Lectures, 305

Leipzig Synod, 86, 131

Leiser, Joseph, 577–578

Lemann family, 226

Lemlich, Clara, 238

Lenin, Vladimir, 209

Leon, Lewis (Louis), 33, 42, 363

Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital (Hot Springs, Ark.), 515

Leopold, Izzie Edwin, 427

Leopold Morse Home (Boston), 118

Leo-Wolf family, 65

Leo XIII (pope), 114, 629

Lesser, Abraham J. G., 574, 623

Letters of Benjamin Dias Fernandez on the Evidences of Christianity, 360

Levene, Phoebus Aaron, 354

Levi, Harry, 712

Levi, Leo N., 274, 515

Levias, Caspar, 519

Levin, Lewis C., 192, 193

Levinthal, Bernard L., 623, 626, 627, 628, 629

Levinthal, Israel H., 627, 636

Levirate marriage, 658

Levis, 286

Levy, A. (Victoria, Tex.), 266

Levy, Aaron, 344, 384

Levy, Andrew, 15

Levy, Asser, 227

Levy, Benjamin, 15, 41

Levy, Clifton Harby, 396

Levy, David, 73

Levy, Esther, 618

Levy, Eugene Henry, 27, 129

Levy, Eugenia (Mrs. Philip Phillips), 27

Levy, Florence Nightingale, 320

Levy, Harry, 549

Levy, Hayman, 247

Levy, Jacob, 524

Levy, Jacob Clavius, 24, 26, 306

Levy, Jacob Yates, 306

Levy, J. Leonard, 73, 657, 697

Levy, Jonas P., 31

Levy, Louis Edward, 351

Levy, Lyon J., 248

Levy, Max, 351

Levy, Moses Elias, 17, 36, 192, 356

Levy, Myer, 45

Levy, Uriah P., 31, 366

Levy County, Fla., 193

Levy family (New Orleans), 256

Levytype, 351

Lewin, Raphael da Costa, 73

Lewin, R. C., 535

Lewisohn, Adolph, 209, 291, 338, 366, 368

Lewisohn, Alice, 489

Lewisohn, Irene, 489

Lewisohn, Leonard, 631, 632

Lewisohn, Ludwig, 161, 307, 309, 401, 586

Lewisohn family, 220

Lewisohn Stadium (New York City), 338–339, 351

Lewith, Henry F., 406

Lexington, Ky., 31

Lexington & Ohio Railroad, 223

Libanon, 290

Liberalism, 142, 209

Liberator, 15

Liberty Bonds, 693

Libman, Emanuel, 357

Librarians, 272, 315, 322, 534, 539, 540

Libraries and reading rooms, 467, 473, 507, 509, 539–540, 546, 572, 593, 607, 618, 618, 638, 692. See also Book collectors/personal libraries

Library Journal, 160

Library of Congress

    Semitic Division, 540

Librettists. See Composers, librettists, and songwriters

Lichtenstein, Morris, 396

Lichtfreunde, 67, 98

Lieber, Franz, 300

Lieberman, Max, 555

Liebling, Emil, 340

Life-cycle ceremonies, 430, 603. See also names of ceremonies

Life insurance, 462

“A Life on the Ocean Waves” (Russell), 335

Light, velocity of, 353

Light and power industry, 228

Ligonier, Ind., 266, 582

Lilien, E. M., 555

Lilienthal, Max, 394, 477–478, 592

    and Christians, 381, 384, 385, 386, 388

    during Civil War, 26, 28

    and Hebrew Review, 586

    and Hebrew Union College, 96, 98

    patriotism of, 99, 363

    and proposed ecclesiastical court, 58

    and Rabbinical Literary Association, 125, 529

    and Sabbath School Visitor, 584

    and Temple Emanu-El, 381

    and Wise, 58, 69, 416, 514

    writings and scholarship of, 99, 514

Lilienthal, Moses, 75

Lilienthal family, 263

Lincoln, Abraham, 13, 42, 54, 57, 151, 216, 320, 627

    and anti-Semitism, 47, 48–49

    assassination of, 27, 50

    birthday of celebrated in synagogs, 691

    Carvalho’s portrait of, 343

    and chaplaincy law, 44

    commemorations on death of, 364, 369, 510

    First Inaugural, 29

    use of German/Yiddish terms by, 51

    Jewish friends/associates of, 51–52, 53, 196, 316, 371

    Jewish political support for, 21, 51, 199, 293

Lincoln, Nebr., 221

Lincoln penny, designer of, 346

Lind, Jenny, 399

Linguists and translators, 315, 315, 318, 512, 566, 567, 568

Linotypists, 406

The Lion and the Mouse (Klein), 330

Lipchitz, Jacques, 346

Lipman, Charles B., 439

Lipman, Hyman L., 352

Lipman, Jacob (soil chemist), 439

Lippman, Jacob (rabbi), 524

Lippmann, Walter, 209, 311

Lipsky, Louis, 585, 590

Liquor and beer industry, 228–229, 277, 326

Lit, Rachel P., 249

Lit Brothers, 249

Literacy bills, 174, 179

Literary societies, 292, 477, 508, 508, 539, 543, 559, 593, 594, 695, 711

    German, 292

Lithographers, 272, 308, 343, 348, 349, 351

Lithuanian Jews, in U.S., 240, 247, 272, 344, 362, 511, 516, 554, 560, 569, 574, 626, 656, 689

Litt, Jacob, 327

Littauer, Nathan, 516, 656

Little Blue Books, 309

Little Theatre Movement, 333

Liturgy and prayerbooks

    chaunts and musical settings, 59, 71, 74, 98, 127, 134, 339, 473, 555, 556, 556, 688, 692, 701

    editions of prayerbook, 72–73

          Einhorn’s, 73, 78

          Hamburg (1841), 66, 72–73

          Landsberg’s, 117

          Merzbacher’s, 66, 73

          nondenominational military edition, 627, 685

          Szold and Jastrow’s, 73, 77, 82, 688

          traditional siddur, 120, 127, 624, 642, 676

          Union Prayer Book, 127, 556, 562, 648, 661, 688, 715

          Wise’s (Minhag America), 61, 73, 120, 127, 134, 138

    English translations of, 72, 82, 298, 509

    German translations of, 72, 509, 559

    Hebrew in, 72, 391

    hymnals, 74, 127, 513, 556, 648

    Passover Haggadah, 575, 648

    references to persecution by Christians in, 365

    Reform, 62, 72–73, 87, 88

    in religious school curricula, 73, 603

Liveright, Horace B., 309

Livestock industry, 245

Livingston, Sigmund, 188

Lloyd George, David, 311

Loans, 366, 437, 438

Lobbying, 102, 107, 150, 653

Lodge, Henry Cabot, 173

Loeb, Jacques, 322, 354

Loeb, James, 294, 368, 545

Loeb, Louis, 348

Loeb, Moritz (editor), 21

Loeb, Morris (chemist), 368

Loeb, Solomon, 269

Loeb, Sophie Irene Simon, 325–326

Loeb Classical Library, 368, 545

Loew, Marcus, 332

Loew, Maurice, 332

Loewenberg, L. M., 131, 132, 140

Loewenthal, Isidor, 361

Loew’s, Inc., 333

London, Meyer, 213, 502

London, University of, 302, 633

Londoner, Wolfe, 193, 194

London Jewish Chronicle, 633

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 348, 371, 421, 562

Long Island, N.Y., 236

Looking Backward (Bellamy), 79

Lopez, Aaron, 231, 248

Lopez, Abraham, 319

Lord & Thomas (advertising firm), 246

Lorraine Jews, in U.S., 226

Los Angeles, Calif., 420, 426, 626, 713

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 233, 267, 276, 463

    communal institutions, Jewish, 291, 454, 463, 495

    number of synagogs (1899, 1920), 713

    politics and government, Jews in, 216, 293

    Protestant supplanting of pioneer Jews in, 161, 216

Loth, Moritz, 90, 91, 215, 221, 433, 436, 577

Lotus Club (New York City), 425

Louis, Minnie D., 547, 608

Louis, Miriam Dessau, 495

Louisiana, 194, 196, 226

    Jewish farming colonies, 434

    University of, 514

Louisville, Ky., 44, 139, 207, 245, 497, 654, 656

Loveman, Joseph, & Loeb, 249

Lovers of Zion (Hoveve Zion), 678

Lowell, A. L., 301

Lowell, James Russell, 173, 373

Lowenberg, Isaac, 266

Lowenstein, Solomon, 483

Lower East Side

    children’s attitudes toward Christianity on, 190

    congressional representatives of, 213

    and Conservative Judaism, 122, 633

    disturbances at Jacob Joseph funeral, 153

    election campaigns on, 212, 213

    in fiction, 580

    and garment industry, 221

    Gentile attitudes toward, 169, 172

    Abraham Jacobi’s medical practice on, 356

    movement away from, 169, 236, 262, 445

    and Orthodox Judaism, 122, 511, 600

    population density of, 451

    and Julia Richman, 323

    school attendance on Jewish holidays, 301

    settlement houses on, 210, 445

    socialism on, 212

    social pathology of, 169, 446–447

    social-welfare efforts by Uptowners, 208, 253, 294, 445, 675, 695

    and Steffens, 389

    and Yiddish culture, 242, 327, 564

Lubin, David, 208, 247, 580

Luggage manufacturing, 22

Lumber industry, 195, 230

Luncz, Abraham Moses, 684

Luther, Martin, 143, 144

Luxembourg Jews, in U.S., 115

Lying-in, 466

Lynchburg, Va., 258, 274, 390

Lynchings

    of blacks, 106, 154, 155, 298, 621, 672, 673, 700

    of Leo Frank, 152, 154, 155, 187, 345

    Jewish efforts against, 298, 672, 673, 700

Lyons, Frank, 215

Lyons, Jacques J., 139, 535, 588

Maas, Sam, 23

McAllister, Ward, 370

Maccabaean (periodical), 587, 590

“Maccabee” (pseud. of Asmonean writer), 19

Maccabees (organization), 163

McCall’s (periodical), 583

McClellan, George, 29, 46

McClure’s (periodical), 177

Machinists, 223

Machzike Talmud Torah, 603

Mack, Julian, 204, 449

Mack family, 53

McKinley, William, 199, 215, 349, 691

Macmillan Co., 533

Macon, Ga., 33, 130

McTamany, John, 694

Macy, R. H., & Co., 199, 251

Madam Butterfly (Puccini), 328

Madison, Ind., 138, 508

Madison, Ohio, 68

Madison, Wis., 265, 279, 289

Magen David (Shield of David), 350

Magicians, 272, 331

Magnes, Judah L., 605, 649

Magnin’s (department store), 250

Magnus, Katie, 533

Mahler, Gustav, 337, 407

Mail-order business, 247–248, 286

Mail Pouch chewing tobacco, 225

Maimonides, Moses, 421, 616

    Guide for the Perplexed, 516

    Thirteen Principles of the Faith, 620

Maimonides College, 77, 95–96, 97, 123, 365, 520, 553

Maimonides Library, 65, 539

Maine (warship), 691

Makers of Hebrew Books in Italy (Amram), 515

Malaria, 357, 434

Mallory, Stephen Russell, 47

Malter, Henry, 525, 526, 617, 641, 679

“Mandate,” origin of term, 316

Mandel Brothers (department store), 250

Manhattan Beach Hotel (Brooklyn, N.Y.), 158, 190

Manhattan Opera House (New York City), 337

Mann, Henry, 285

Mann, Joseph, 285

Mann, Louis, 331

Mannes, Clara Damrosch, 294

Mannes, David, 294, 321

Mannes, Leopold Damrosch, 294

Manning, S.C., 270

A Manual of Instructions for Medical Advisory Boards, 161

Manufacturers, 225, 276, 285. See also Garment industry

Manumission societies, 16

Mapmakers, 348

Marcosson, Isaac Frederick, 311

Marcus, Aaron, 539

Marcus, Jacob R., 510

Maretzek, Max, 306, 336, 342

Marginal Notes to the Hebrew Bible (Ehrlich), 521

Margolies, Moses Zebulon, 622, 626

Margolis, Max L., 521, 522, 524, 525, 526, 545, 617, 679

Marietta, Ga., 345

Marix, Adolph, 316

Marix, Henry, 315–316

Mark, Louis Benedict, 352

Mark, Morris, 206

Markens, Isaac, 341, 375, 535, 536

Marks, Marcus M., 239, 405

Marks, Martin A., 86, 483

Marr, Wilhelm, 145

Marranos, 147

Marriage and divorce, 465

    breach of promise, 448

    Christian officiating at, 392

    Dembitz’ book on, 515

    in Jewish law and practice, 63, 71, 87, 120, 125, 126, 465, 469, 638, 658, 694

    Mielziner’s book on, 526

    in secular law, 472, 673

    See also Wife desertion

Marshall, John, 69

Marshall, Louis, 649, 685

    and American Jewish Committee, 186, 274

    and blue laws, 665

    and cloakmakers’ strike, 238

    and Frank lynching, 156

    influence of, 275, 520

    on Jewish cultural heritage, 593, 612, 632

    as lawyer, 275, 286

    and Temple Emanu-El, 652

    and Stephen Wise, 652

    and Zionism, 681

Marx, Alexander, 274, 523, 534, 540

Marx, David, 687, 692, 698, 699, 700, 700

Marx, Joseph, 111

Marx, Karl, 144, 147, 175, 263, 401, 407, 657

Marx, Marcus, 233

Marxism, 114, 211, 242, 442

    and Yiddish secular schools, 241

Maryland, 194, 196, 410

Maryland Hospital for Consumptives, 489

Maryland Ladies’ Society for Promoting Christianity Among the Jews, 360

Marysville, Calif., 381, 423

Maskilim, 510, 561, 562, 563, 568

Masons, 25, 41, 49, 51, 66, 102, 289, 295, 366, 376, 384, 388, 422, 459, 489, 538, 626, 699, 700

Massachusetts, 194

    Jewish farming settlements, 438

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 173, 351

Mastbaum, Jules, 382

Masterson, William Barclay (“Bat”), 193

Maternity homes, 460

Maternity relief, 479

Mathematicians, 302, 353

Mattuck, Israel, 710, 712, 714

Matzo (unleavened bread), 452

Maugham, W. Somerset, 328

Maxmilian (Mexican emperor), 310

Maxwell Street Settlement (Chicago), 471

May, David, 250

May Department Stores Co., 250, 268

Mayer (Kansas City rabbi), 693

Mayer, Constant, 34

Mayer, David, 381

Mayer, Hi (Henry), 347

Mayer, Jacob, 88

Mayer, John, 26

Mayer, Joseph Eggleston Johnston, 26

Mayer, Leopold, 261

Mayer, Lippmann, 381

Mayer, Louis (peddler), 261

Mayer, Louis B. (film magnate), 332

Mayer, Maurice, 70

Mayer, Moritz, 513, 514

Mayer, Nathan, 307, 578

Mayerberg, Julius, 689

Mayerberg, Samuel, 689

May Hosiery Mills, 230

Mazzini, Giuseppe, 123

Meadville Theological Seminary, 667

Mears, Otto, 285

Meat-packing industry, 198, 220, 222, 226, 227, 286

Mechanics’ and Traders’ Bank (New York City), 265

Medallists, 339, 344, 346, 351

Medical and dental clinics, 482

Medical Diagnosis (Da Costa), 356

Medical schools, 302, 305

Meier, Aaron, 250, 251

Meier, Julius, 251

Meier & Frank Co., 250

Meir, Golda, 273

Melamdim (itinerant teachers), 597, 597

Mellon, Andrew W., 344

The Melting Pot (Zangwill), 398

Meltzer, Samuel James, 322, 354

Memminger, Christopher Gustavus, 47

Memories of an American Jew (Cowen), 590

Memories of Rose Eytinge (Eytinge), 320

Memphis, Tenn., 32, 245, 388, 478, 582, 599

Menace (anti-Catholic periodical), 154, 180

Mencken, H. L., 307, 309

Mendel, Henry M., 340

Mendel, Lafayette Benedict, 353, 354

Mendelssohn, Louis, 223

Mendelssohn, Moses, 389, 421, 509, 531, 602

Mendelssohnian Society, 66

Mendelsson, Aaron, 224

Mendes, Frederick de Sola, 649, 717

Mendes, Henry Pereira, 139, 623, 624, 634

Menken, Adah Isaacs, 576

Menken, Nathan 245

Menken family, 245

Menorah (periodical), 536, 585, 590, 591

Menorah Journal, 585–586, 591, 593

Menorah Movement, 161, 637, 701, 703

Menorah Society (Harvard University), 411–412

Mercantile Club (Richmond), 421, 425, 426, 427

“Merchant,” meaning of term, 276

The Merchant of Venice (Shakespeare), 167, 185, 188, 328

Merchants, 195, 196, 246

Mergers and unity trends, 632

Meridian, Miss., 365, 688–689, 690, 698

Merriam Co., 187

Merzbacher, Leo, 66, 73, 130

Messianism, 87

Messing, Abraham Joseph, 672

Meteorologists, 351, 352

Methodist Episcopal Church, 671

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 332, 333

Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 209, 496

Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City), 313, 321, 344, 348, 367

Metropolitan Opera (New York City), 329, 336, 337, 351, 557

Mexican War, 30, 31–32

Mexico, 198

    national anthem, 335

Meyer, Adolph, 196

Meyer, Annie Nathan, 325, 326

Meyer, Eugene, Jr., 201

Meyer, Marcus R., 327

Meyer, Maurice, 262

Meyerbeer, Giacomo, 334, 407

Michael Beer Prize, 345

Michael Reese Hospital (Chicago), 115, 448

Michelbacher, Max, 28, 44

Michelson, Albert A., 195, 353, 391, 402, 407

Michener, James, 711

Michigan, 194

    Jewish farming settlements, 438

    University of, 97, 318

Mick, Stadler, & Glazer (Cincinnati), 53

Microphones, 352

Middle-class status, of American Jewry, 283

Middle man, Jew as, 255

Middlesex, Va., 447

Mielziner, Leo, 349, 527

Mielziner, Moses, 130, 349, 521, 525, 526, 562, 641, 680, 684

Mikveh (ritualarium), 59, 120, 625

Mikveh Israel Congregation (Philadelphia), 17, 122, 123, 282, 350, 398

Military Order of the Loyal Legion, 50

Military service

    Canadian army, 627

    Civil War, 47, 161, 194, 352, 364, 573

          Confederacy, 25, 32, 32, 33, 34, 49, 129, 164, 168, 196, 201, 246, 260, 274, 297, 307, 310, 323, 345, 355, 363

          espionage agents, 362

          Union, 21, 22, 25, 32, 39–41, 43, 52, 172, 249, 266, 293, 307, 312, 351, 355, 356, 356, 489

    Danish-Prussian War (1848–50), 39

    desertions, 52

    exemptions and furloughs for religious reasons, 623

    with Garibaldi’s Red Shirts, 117

    Indian wars, 246

    Marine Corps, 333

    Medal of Honor winners, 41

    mercenaries and filibusters, 273

    Mexican War, 312, 34, 355

    militia, 30, 31, 40, 168, 192, 196, 225, 273, 344

    national guard, 161

    navy, 31, 34, 41, 316, 355

    officers, 273

    Philippine Insurrection, 646

    Polish Revolt (1863), 117

    Prussian army, 39

    regular army, 25, 32, 161, 399

    Revolutionary War, 191, 192, 325, 536

    Seminole Wars, 32, 34, 363

    service academies, 377

    Spanish-American War, 364, 623, 657

    Texas War of Independence, 34, 341

    units

          1st Illinois Artillery Regiment, 351

          29th Illinois Volunteer Regiment, 42

          132nd Illinois Infantry Regiment, 273

          5th Kansas Cavalry Regiment, 41

          6th Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, 40

          17th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, 39

          16th Mississippi Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 33

          7th New Jersey Volunteer Regiment, 356

          1st New York Regiment, 31

          7th New York Regiment, 161

          54th New York Regiment, 44

          1st North Carolina Regiment, 33

          13th Ohio Cavalry Regiment, 41

          23rd Ohio Regiment, 45

          5th Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment, 385

          109th Pennsylvania Regiment, 41

          1st Virginia Cavalry Regiment, 45

          21st Virginia Infantry Regiment, 33

          23rd Army Corps, 40

          Baltimore Hebrew Guards, 31

          Cameron Dragoons, 43, 44

          Rough Riders, 657

          Waul’s Texas Legion, 33

    veterans’ organizations, 185, 194

    War of 1812, 30, 31, 34, 192, 344

    World War I, 187, 273, 364, 377, 671, 693, 701

Militia companies, “Jewish,” 31, 33

Milk stations, 453, 482

Mill, John Stuart, 205

Miller, Nathan, 656

Milligan, Frederick (Osman Bey), 147

Milliken’s Bend, Miss., 31, 364

Milliners and dressmakers, 278

Millionaires, 282, 344, 449

Mill Street Synagogue (New York City), 469

Millville, N.J., 235

Milton, John, 627

Milwaukee, Wis., 67, 273

    commerce and industry, Jews in

          banking and finance, 265

          cigar and cigarette manufacturers, 225, 276–277

          department stores, 250

          garment manufacturing, 233

          mail-order firms, 247

          meat-packing, 227

          merchants, 286

          retailing, 229

          theatres and concert halls, 327, 340

    communal services and institutions, Jewish, 446, 480, 491

    Jewish newspapers, 578, 585

    philanthropic activities by Jews, 496, 499

    politics and government, Jews in, 198, 211, 216, 446

    rabbis and synagogs of, 364, 398, 699, 702

    recreational and cultural activities, 340, 340, 425

    social reform activities, 207, 211, 366

Milwaukee Jewish Mission, 446

Milwaukee Jewish Settlement House, 44

    Milwaukee Musical Society, 340

Milwaukee Sausage Works, 227

Miners, 229, 276, 333

Minerva Press, 170, 170, 536

Minhag America (Wise), 60, 60, 61, 61, 73, 73, 73, 78, 78, 91, 91, 120, 120, 120, 127, 127, 127, 134, 134, 134, 138

Minimum wage, 673

Mining industry, 166, 220, 267, 368

Minister’s Handbook, 660

Minneapolis, Minn., 327, 448, 698

Minnesota, 333

Minority feeling, 200

Minyan (synagogal quorum), 120, 142

Missionaries, Christian

    conversion rate of, 401

    free schools run by, 453, 473, 477, 599

    in hospitals, 457

    of Jewish origin, 88, 362, 700

    Jewish reactions to, 134, 360, 362, 543, 640

    in Ottoman Empire, 199

    and social work, 486

Missionaries, Jewish, 361

Mission of Israel, 543, 595, 675–677, 716

Mission schools, 608

Mississippi, 194, 272, 277, 665

Missouri, 194

    University of, 316, 496

Missouri Pacific Railroad, 438

Missouri Post, 21

Mistakes I Have Made (Schindler), 118

Mitteldorfer, Marx, 45

Mizrachi, 551, 630

Mobile, Ala., 339, 340, 388, 396, 547

Mobile Register, 309

Modern Library, 309

Moehring, Gotthelf, 67

Moïse, Edwin Warren, 363

Moïse, Penina, 306, 576

Moïse, Theodore Sidney, 343

Moisseiff, Leon S., 572

Molly Maguires, 195

Moment, Alfred H., 181

Monatsschrift fuer Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums, 528

Money-back guarantees, 248

Moneylenders, 448

Monopolies, 206, 208, 212, 311

    in production of matzo, 452

    theatrical, 329

Montana, 227

Montefiore, Claude G., 633; 656, 710

Montefiore, Moses, 379–380, 421, 500, 545

    celebrations of 100th birthday of, 423

Montefiore Agricultural Aid Society, 433

Montefiore Hospital and Home for Chronic Invalids (New York City), 448, 458, 464, 631

Montgomery, Ala., 38, 230, 582, 667

Montgomery Ward & Co., 247

Montreal, P.Q., 627, 661

Moody, Dwight L., 135, 148

Moore, George Foot, 520, 559

Moore, J. S., 272

Moos, Hermann M., 578

Morais, Henry S., 590

Morais, Sabato, 271, 324, 590, 634

    and East European immigrants, 140

    and Gratz College, 550

    as Hebraist, 123, 520

    and Jewish law, 123

    and Jewish Theological Seminary, 96, 122, 123, 124, 520, 634

    and Maimonides College, 96, 520

    and Mikveh Israel, 122, 123, 124, 138

    patriotism of, 138

    and Philadelphia YMHA, 414

    on slavery, 28

    and Zionism, 679

Mordaunt (show business figure), 327

Mordecai, Alfred, Jr., 25

Mordecai, Alfred, Sr., 25, 199, 348, 371

Mordecai, Benjamin, 26

Mordecai, Mrs. Jacob, 400

Mordecai, Julia, 400

Mordecai, Rosa, 371

Mordecai, Samuel Fox, 401, 402

Mordecai family, 256

Morgan, John Pierpont, 165, 269, 281, 344

Morgan, John Pierpont, Library (New York City), 351

Morgenstern, Julian, 519, 522, 523, 548

Morgenthau, Henry, Sr., 177, 199–200

Morgenthau, Max, 258

Moritz, Jacob, 228

Mormons, 153, 207, 374

Morning Journal (Yiddish paper), 538

Morocco, Jews of, 501

Morris, Arthur J., 265

Morris, Ira Nelson, 198

Morris, Nelson, 220, 227, 286

Morris Plan System, 265

Morse, Leopold, 118, 173

Morse, Samuel F. B., 176

Mortara Affair, 191, 477

Morwitz, Edward, 293

Moses, 602, 657

Moses, Adolph, 117, 579, 654

Moses, Alfred G., 396

Moses, Felix, 260

Moses, Franklin J., Jr., 13

Moses, Isaac S., 398, 556, 699, 702

Moses, Montrose, 307

Moses, Octavia Harby, 323, 576

Moses, Raphael J., 15, 164, 190

Moses brothers, 262, 585

Moskowitz, Belle, 209, 209

Moskowitz, Henry, 209

Mosler, Gustave E., 222

Mosler, Henry, 345, 349

Mothers’ pensions, 472, 673

Motion pictures. See Movies

Mount Sinai Hospital (New York City)

    children’s department, 272

    nonsectarian admissions policy of, 459

    nursing school, 460, 468, 495

    origin of as Jews’ Hospital, 95, 388, 459

    staff of

          Koller, 357–358

          Libman, 357

          Waller, 272

    supporters and board members of

          Ellis, 489

          Schiff, 448

          Simson, 95

Mount Vernon, Ind., 412

Mount Vernon, N.Y., 461

Mount Vernon, Va., 364, 700

Mourning customs, 621, 694. See also Burial and funerals

Movies, 220, 297, 328, 331, 334, 406

    based on works of Hurst and Ferber, 324

    contribution of, 333

    Jews in, 332

    performers, 321

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 556

Muckrakers, 313, 330, 494

Muensterberg, Hugo, 292, 318

Muhr, H., & Son, 224

Munich, University of, 512, 514

Municipal baths, 355, 496

Munk, Salomon, 513

Murder, victims of, 312

Museum curators, 519

Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago), 369

Music, Jewish, 493, 555–559, 692

Musical Courier, 312

Music critics and musicologists, 304, 308, 558

Musicians, 272, 274, 303, 623

    female, 278, 338

    See also Pianists; Violinists

The Music Master (Klein), 330, 331

Music School Settlement (New York City), 321

Music School Settlement for Colored People (New York City), 321

Mussolini, Benito, 311

Mutual-aid and benevolent societies, 184, 241, 241, 404, 422, 431, 441, 442, 451, 452, 461, 466, 600

Myers, Abraham Charles, Jr., 32, 39

Myers, E. M., 121

Myers, Gustavus A., 208, 307

Myers, Mordecai, 30

Myers, Samuel B., 223

Myerson, Golda, 273

Naar family, 309

Nagel, Charles, 202

Name-changing, 32, 82–83, 192, 258, 327, 342, 362

    during World War I, 297

Names, “Jewish,” 40

Naming ceremonies, 693

Naming practices, 26, 317, 364

    of Jewish organizations, 421, 422, 425

Napoleonic Consistory, 89

Nashville, Tenn., 46, 48, 230, 239, 425

Natanya, Israel, 253

Natchez, Miss., 384, 470

    during Civil War, 42, 266

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 26, 31, 266, 279

    politics and government, Jews in, 266

Nathan, Adolph, 208

Nathan, George Jean, 307

Nathan, Grace Seixas, 576

Nathan, Maud, 325, 366

Nathan, Robert, 307, 576

Nathan, Solomon, 398

Nathan Brothers (clothing store), 254

Nathan family, 623

The Nation, 160, 307, 496

National Academy of Science, 353

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 189, 208, 258, 308, 365, 700

National Association of Clothiers, 239

National Association of Jewish Social Workers, 498

National Association of Manufacturers, 674

National Big Brother Movement, 456

National Board of Censorship, 188

National Cigar Manufacturers’ Association, 226

National Conference of Charities and Correction, 79, 378, 497, 700

National Conference of Jewish Charities, 482, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499

National Conference of Jewish Communal Service, 498

National Conference of Jewish Social Service, 498, 498

National Conference of Jewish Social Workers, 496

National Council of Jewish Women, 417, 488, 496, 549, 583, 593

    and German culture, 291

    “Jewish” in name of, 375

    local sections, 690, 692, 714

          Atlanta, 698

          Baltimore, 489

          Maryland, 410

          New York, 495

          Oregon, 410

          Pittsburgh (Columbian Council), 608

    origin and class aspects of, 410, 422, 470, 471–472

    program of, 437, 462, 467, 472–473, 474, 504, 546, 613, 616

    on Sabbath observance, 703

    and Sabbath/Sunday schools, 473–474, 489

National Defense Advisory Commission, 240

National Democrat, 309

National Deserters’ Bureau, 465

National Education Association, 377

National Farm School, 436, 455, 657

National Federation of Jewish Farmers, 437

National Federation of Temple Brotherhoods, 549, 646, 695

National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods, 468, 646, 695

National Historical Publications Commission, 407

National Industrial Recovery Board, 240

National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives (Denver), 463, 468, 490, 495

National Labor Federation, 241

National Liberal Immigration League, 187

National Liberal Party (Germany), 379

National Lithographers’ Association, 348

National Museum, U.S., 520

National Radicals, 601

National Radical Schools, 241

National Reform Association, 101, 149, 150

National Retail Furniture Association, 246

National Saengerfest, 99

National Union of Jewish Sheltering Societies, 464

National Women’s League of the United Synagogue, 468, 638

National Youth Administration, 240

Native American Party, 192

Nativism, 178

Nat Turner Insurrection, 15

Naturalization and citizenship, 443, 473

Naumbourg, Samuel, 556

Nazimova, Alla, 321

Nazism, 707, 717

    anti-Nazi boycott, 275

Needle trades. See Garment industry

Negri, Pola, 332

Neighborhood Playhouse (New York City), 489

Netter, Jacob, 269

Neumark, David, 517, 522, 525, 526, 587

Nevada Bank (San Francisco), 267

New Almaden Mine Case, 34

New Amsterdam, 146, 225, 508

Newark, N.J., 19, 222, 227, 249, 284

New Boston Symphony Orchestra, 341

Newburger, Morris, 265, 542

The New Colossus (Lazarus), 577

New Deal, 195, 202, 209, 240, 243, 310, 468, 496

New Era (periodical), 587

Newfield, Morris, 387, 711

New Haven, Conn., 222, 349, 400

New Jersey, 194, 514

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 309

    Jewish farming colonies, 434

Newman, Leopold, 40

Newman, Selig, 513

New Menace (anti-Semitic magazine), 180

New Mexico, 32, 286

    proposed Jewish reservation in, 170

New Orleans, battle of, 30

New Orleans, La., 229, 491, 514, 582, 617

    during Civil War, 26, 27, 28

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 35, 224, 226, 257, 279, 310, 399

    communal institutions, Jewish, 361, 454, 455, 458, 478, 599

    interfaith relations in, 387

    politics and government, Jews in, 196

    and southern rabbis’ association, 125, 530, 647

    in War of 1812, 30

Newport, Ark., 383

Newport, R.I., 248, 262, 263, 424

New Republic, 311, 414

Newsboys, 349, 636

New School for Social Research, 304, 496

Newspapers and periodicals, 21, 309–310, 312, 679, 371, 406

    and Americanization, 570, 590

    Anglo-Jewish, 304, 312, 339, 582–588, 698

    for children, 584, 587, 602, 611, 668

    denominational affiliations of, 583

    in German, 292–293, 315, 559, 583, 583, 584, 585

    in Hebrew, 560, 561, 562, 563, 583, 590, 596

    and Jewish loyalty/identity, 591

    in Ladino, 590

    for women, 583, 587

    in Yiddish, 212, 214, 235, 241, 242, 437, 509, 537, 538, 561, 564, 566–568, 569, 570, 571, 572, 574, 583, 590, 600, 624

    Zionist, 587, 596

    See also Editors; Journalists; names of newspapers and periodicals

New Theatre (New York City), 329

New Thought, 396

New York American, 118

New York Association for the Improving of the Conditions of the Poor, 467

New York Board of Jewish Ministers, 513

New York Bureau of Jewish Education, 613, 624

New York Chemical Society, 354

New York City

    adult and vocational education in, 305, 444, 592

    aid to foreign Jewries, 476, 496, 500

    as American Jewry’s main center, 136, 284, 362, 618, 632

    anti-Semitism in, 145, 153

    art collectors and donors, 344

    chief rabbinate and ecclesiastic court of, 86, 98, 622

    church membership in Fifteenth Assembly District, 705

    college and medical students, Jewish, 301

    commerce and industry, Jews in

          actors, 281

          architects and builders, 268, 350, 351

          art dealers, 344

          artists, 343

          banking and finance, 39, 259, 264, 265, 268, 269, 277, 281

          booksellers and stationers, 308

          bricklayers, 182

          butchers, 227

          caterers, 281

          cigar stores, 225, 226

          construction, 275

          department stores, 251

          doctors and dentists, 271, 272, 281, 307, 355, 357

          fire insurance, 151–152

          garment industry, 53, 221, 224, 231, 232, 233, 236, 244, 259, 277

          jewelry industry, 224

          journalists, 307, 310, 313

          lawyers, 198, 205, 271, 274, 281, 304, 513

          merchants, 26

          movie exhibitors, 333

          musicians, 271, 281

          newspaper publishing, 310, 313, 314

          oil speculators, 223

          pawnbrokers, 224

          play production, 328, 329

          police officers, 145

          printers and publishers, 222, 308

          range and size of Jewish enterprises, based on Dun ratings, 277

          real estate, 262, 268, 275

          retail clothing and dry goods, 53, 247, 254, 281

          second-hand clothing, 231

          soft goods, 277

          teachers, 271

          theatre bookings, 329

          tobacco trade, 225, 226

          wholesalers and jobbers, 53, 224, 227, 229, 244, 247, 277

          wines and spirits, 229, 277

    communal services and institutions, Jewish

          burial societies, 453

          charity federations, 449, 476, 477, 478, 482, 487, 498, 504

          children’s/orphans’ homes, 454, 455

          deaf-mutes’ school, 460

          elder-care societies, 461

          Hebrew literary societies, 560

          hospitals and hospices, 358, 359, 366, 442, 476, 566

          landsmanshaften, 442

          loan societies, 366

          mutual-aid societies, 451

          relief organizations, 465

          settlement houses, 209, 415, 416

          women’s organizations, 465, 467, 468

          YMHA/YWHA, 409, 414, 415

          See also New York Kehillah

    Conservative Judaism in, 644, 713

    Covenant Hall, 418

    criminality among Jews of, 280, 456

    draft riots, 29

    educational level of city’s Jews (1845), 305

    ethnic conflicts in, 153

    German gentiles in, 146

    immigrants in, 114, 145, 433, 433, 440, 443, 450, 603, 623

          removal of, 439

    interfaith activities in, 383, 388

    intermarriage rate, 400

    Jewish education in, 552, 611

          Bureau of Jewish Education, 550–551, 605–606, 612

          congregational afternoon schools, 603, 605

          day schools, 599

          folk schools, 601

          funding of, 612

          heders, 603

          melamdim, 597

          mission schools, 608

          Sabbath-Sunday schools, 603, 605

          Talmud Torahs, 603, 605, 606

          teacher-training, 550

          yeshivot, 596, 600, 604

    Jewish population of, 45, 137, 186, 271, 272, 313, 373, 378

    Jacob Joseph funeral, 153

    Lasker funeral, 379

    libraries, Jewish, 539

    Marr’s visit to, 145

    memorial services on death of Benjamin Harrison, 364

    musical activities in, 294, 335, 336, 338, 339, 339

    neighborhoods of Jewish residence, 19. See also Lower East Side

    Orthodox Judaism in, 511, 621, 605, 626, 629, 712–713

    politics and government, Jews in, 192, 209, 214, 215

          acting mayor, 275, 458

          board of aldermen (city council), 275, 458

          board of education, 157, 186, 478

          Congress, 192, 193, 194, 213, 216

          coroner, 590

          election campaigns, 206, 216, 511

          mayoral candidates, 213, 253

          state legislature, 631

    public schools of

          evening high schools, 275

          kosher kitchens in, 381

          and Julia Richman, 323

          Zionist activities in, 596

    publishing, Anglo-Jewish

          almanacs and calendars, 588

          newspapers and periodicals, 582, 583

    Purim balls, 423, 424

    rabbis and synagogs of, 94–95, 139, 461, 476, 511, 530, 712–713. See also names of rabbis and synagogs

    Sabbath observer exempted from jury service in, 139

    slave executions (1741), 14

    social/cultural organizations and clubs, 424, 425, 427, 590

    social elite, Jewish, 282, 283, 488, 649

    socialism in, 212, 213, 243, 287

    social-welfare activities/activists in, 325, 366, 367, 433, 467, 479, 490, 495, 638, 671

    Tammany Hall, 205, 207, 208, 213, 631

    unions and labor disputes in, 182, 238, 239, 240, 241

    Uptown-Downtown relations, 484, 605

    Webster’s address in, 378

    Yiddish culture in, 564

          newspapers, 241, 242, 538, 567, 570

          theatre, 565

New York City Board of Education, 157

New York City Federation of Jewish Philanthropies, 449

New York Evening Post, 310

New York Federation of Philanthropies, 603

New York Herald, 158, 293, 345

New York Historical Society, 18, 535

New York Home Journal, 310

New York Journal, 347

New York Kehillah, 169, 417, 417, 491, 498, 551, 604, 611, 612, 624, 649

New York Morning Telegraph, 194

New York Oratorio Society, 406

New York Philharmonic Society, 312

New York Psychoanalytic Society, 319

New York Public Library, 315, 357, 368

    Jewish Division, 540

    Oriental Division, 520

New York School of Philanthropy, 468

New York State

    chaplaincy law, 44

    Jewish farming settlements, 438

    politics and government, Jews in, 105, 205, 213, 271

New York State Conference of Charities and Correction, 117, 494

New York State Conference of Religion (1900), 386

New York State Conference of Religions, 667

New York Stock Exchange, 192, 265, 351

New York Sun, 281, 308, 376

New York Symphony Orchestra, 294, 321, 328, 406

New York Teachers Association, 302

New York Times, 307, 310, 311, 313, 314, 339, 496

New York Tribune, 311, 366

New York University, 262, 303, 353, 529, 590

    Jewish students at, 525

New York World, 52, 310, 311, 312, 326, 403, 567

Nicaragua, proposed canal across, 228

Nicholas II (Russian czar), 102

Nieman-Marcus family, 249

Night schools, 496

Nilsson, Christine, 336

Nineteenth Century, 171

Ninth of Ab, 71, 82

Nixon (show business figure), 327

Noah, Mordecai Manuel, 15, 65, 191, 298, 309, 319, 326, 378, 592, 678

Noah, Zipporah, 319

Nobel Prizes, 177, 302, 353, 407

Nome, Alaska, 228

Nondenominational Jewish seminary, proposed, 97–98

Nordau, Max, 639

Nordheimer, Isaac, 512

Norfolk, Va., 42

North Africa, 104

    Jews of, 500

North American Review, 169, 286

North American Saengerbund, 340

North Carolina, 249

North Dakota, 547

    Jewish farming settlements, 438

North German-Lloyd Shipping Line, 440

Northwestern University, 356

Norwich, Conn., 397

Nostalgia, for Jewish practices, 687

Notaries, 132

Notions, 248

Notre Dame University, 301, 301

Novelists. See Writers

Numismatists, 315

Nurseries and kindergartens, 453, 467, 505, 638

Nurses, 325, 452, 460, 488

Nurses Settlement, 209

Nutrition, 354

Nyburg, Sidney, 581

Oberlin, Ohio, 29

Occident, 28, 274, 388, 584–585, 586, 591

Occupations, 221, 256, 272, 274, 284, 285, 332, 405

    distribution of, 276–278, 439

    See also names of occupations

Ochiltree, Thomas Peck, 379

Ochs, Adolph S., 286, 312, 313–314, 407

Ochs, Effie Miriam Wise, 314

Ochs, Julius, 23, 46–47, 388

Odd Fellows, 295, 422, 626

Offenbach, Jacques, 336, 407

Office of Production Management, U.S., 240

Office of War Records, U.S., 187

Ogden, Utah, 228, 250

Oheb Sholom Congregation (Baltimore), 649, 698

“Oh How I Hate to Get Up in the Morning” (Berlin), 342

Ohio, 232

    Jewish farming settlements, 438

    State Tuberculosis Commission, 481

Ohio Bible Case (1869–72), 150

Oil City, Pa., 223

Oil industry, 223

Oko, Adolph S., 540, 647

Olath Tamid (Einhorn), 73, 78

Old-age homes, 282, 350, 381, 413, 451, 461, 477, 490, 491, 494

Old-age pensions, 673

Old Billy (black hanger-on at Charleston synagog), 17

The Old World in the New: The Significance of Past and Present Immigration (Ross), 178

Olympia Club (San Francisco), 160

Omaha, Nebr., 250, 484

Omaha Bee, 312

O’Neill, Eugene, 309, 321

One-price system, 248

Opelousas, La., 413

Open Air Sanatorium (Portland, Oreg.), 490

Opera, 294, 335, 336, 339, 340, 388, 558

Opera clubs, 692

Oppenheim, James, 307, 580

Oppenheim, Moritz Daniel, 555

Oppenheim, Samuel, 538

Oppenheimer, Anton, 267

Oppenheimer, Daniel, 267

Opper, Adolphe, 347

Opper, Frederick Burr, 347, 348

Optical interference, 353

Optometrists, 410

Order of Prayer (Merzbacher), 73

Oregon

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 222, 250, 258

    Jewish farming colonies, 434

    NCJW in, 410

    politics and government, Jews in, 194, 196, 210, 251

Oregon City, Oreg., 222

Organs, in synagogs, 39, 388, 635, 649

Orientalists, 392, 512

The Original Mr. Jacobs (Timayenis), 170

Orphanages/orphans, 282, 350, 366, 377, 431, 442, 448, 451, 453, 455, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 464, 466, 466, 476, 477, 489, 491, 494, 547, 717

Orphans’ Guardian Society (Philadelphia), 457

Orth, Samuel Peter, 176

Orthodox Judaism

    and Felix Adler, 395

    and Americanization, 137–138, 142, 443, 579, 616, 625, 626, 628, 633, 703

    and auctioning of synagog honors, 138, 626

    and beards, 625, 629, 704

    and Bible, 120, 620, 624, 628

    and Christmas, 298. See also Christmas

    and Cleveland Conference, 60, 61

    and congregational singing, 626

    and Conservative Judaism, 121, 123, 630–631, 634, 637

    and dietary laws, 120, 138, 139, 454, 461, 621, 625, 630, 706

    disunity and separatist tendency of, 622, 625, 628, 629, 706

    and East European immigrants, 109, 433, 621, 625, 630, 706, 717

    and Friday night lectures/services, 626

    and Hassidism, 621, 641

    and Hebrew, 397, 596

    hiring of professional worshippers to ensure minyan, 120

    institutions and organizations of, 141, 461. See also names of institutions and organizations

    and intermarriage, 397, 400

    and Jewish education, 509, 551, 554, 598, 602, 608, 613

    and Jewish law, 120, 128, 511, 511, 525, 586, 622, 625, 628, 658, 664

    marriage and divorce, 120. See also Marriage and divorce

    and messianism, 624

    and Mission of Israel, 676

    modernist (leftward) trends and developments in, 10, 11, 121, 133, 137–138, 138, 512, 524, 625–628, 630

    “Orthodox” as designation, significance of, 624

    and foreign Jewries, 710

    and philanthropy, 492, 505, 671

    and public schools, 596

    rabbis of, 510, 579, 621–622, 624, 697, 699. See also names of rabbis

    rate of affiliation with, 712

    and Reform Judaism, 66, 89, 91, 119, 121, 122, 129, 134, 137, 139, 511, 542, 543, 623, 629, 654, 675, 712, 716

    and Sabbath, 138, 467, 606, 621, 625, 626, 627

    Schechter on, 646

    and Science of Judaism, 510, 511, 512, 525, 542, 554

    and secular knowledge, 512, 626, 628, 634

    synagogs of, 621, 628, 713. See also Union of Orthodox Rabbis

    theology and beliefs of, 120, 620, 624, 628

    uncompromising character of, 625

    and Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 107

    violent acts against, 153

    warmth and at-homeness of, 139, 687, 706

    women’s status in, 138, 139, 469, 470

    and Yiddish press, 567, 571

    and Young Men’s Hebrew Association, 414

    youth organizations of, 595

    and Zionism, 625, 630, 678

Osman Bey (Frederick Milligan), 147

Osterman, Rosanna, 367

Other People’s Money (Brandeis), 208

Otterbourg, Marcus, 198, 199

Ottolengui, Rodrigues, 307

Ottumwa, Iowa, 183

Our Foreigners (Orth), 176

Our Modern Debt to Israel (Baldwin), 671

The Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy (Fiske), 81

Outlines of Jewish History (Magnus), 533

Owen, Robert, 22

Oxford, Miss., 48

Oxford, University of, 303, 513, 633

Oxford Companion to American Literature, 407

Ozar Ha-Shemot (Rosenberg), 541

Ozar Yisrael (Eisenstein), 542

Pacific Jewish Annual, 589

Pacifists, 649

Packer, Asa, 9

Paducah, Ky., 48, 654

Paine, Thomas, 80, 415

Painters. See Artists and sculptors

Paleontologists, 352

Palestine, 241, 392

    American Jewish support for, 252, 253, 377, 442, 448, 449, 466, 476, 478, 500, 533, 666, 709

    and binationalism, 649

    British Mandate, 203, 218, 569

    resettlement of, 113, 275, 373, 399, 471, 563, 623, 663, 676, 677, 681

    U.S. government support for, 104, 218, 501

Palgrave, Francis, 401

Palmer, A. Mitchell, 164, 179

Palmer, Benjamin Morgan, 388

Pam, Max, 368

Pan Americanism, 318

Pan American Scientific Conference, 378

Pan American Union, 318

Panics, economic, 252, 263, 481, 638

Paper and pulp industry, 222

Paramount Pictures, 332

Paris Peace Conference (1919)

    American Jewish delegation to, 225, 681, 683

    distribution of Protocols of Elders of Zion at, 147

    and minority rights, 377, 663, 681

    U.S. delegation to, 147, 201, 311

Parker, Alton Brooks, 216

Parsifal (Wagner), 337

Particularism, Jewish, 717

Parton, James, 376

The Passing of the Great Race in America (Grant), 178

Passover (Pesah)

    aid to poor to celebrate, 452

    Bien’s home ritual for, 575

    during Civil War, 43, 45

    compared with Fourth of July by Wise, 363

    congregational seders, 693, 695

    identified with Easter, 298, 575

    and Jewish schools, 602, 691, 693

    and Jewish solidarity, 140

    at Sing Sing Prison, 449

    tax on flour for to finance chief rabbinate, 622

    Union Haggadah, 127

    and Young Men’s Hebrew Association, 419

Pasteurization, of milk, 253

Pastor, Rose Harriet, 399, 570

Pastoral psychology, 396

Paterson, N.J., 208

Patriotism

    and anti-Zionism, 682, 701

    Confederate, 25, 27, 32, 37, 363

    expressions of, 317, 364, 556

    grounded in acceptance of Jews, 77, 92, 142, 362–363, 404, 560, 570

    reflected in hymnals, 556

Patti, Adelina, 327, 336

Patti, Carlotta, 336, 337

Paul of Tarsus, 473, 585

Paupers, 280

Pawnbrokers, 224, 230, 276

Pawtucket, R.I., 233

Peace organizations, 468, 472

Peddlers, 9, 31, 53, 79, 156, 196, 221–229 passim, 232, 235, 245, 249–254 passim, 258, 267, 279, 282, 329, 344, 349, 361, 430, 444, 448, 527, 537, 654

    acculturation of, 260

    contribution of, 260–261

    dangers encountered by, 40, 153, 260, 457

    and General Order No. 11, 48

    and Jewish observances, 260

    new immigrants as, 259–260, 277, 278, 686

    range of goods handled by, 260

    sales techniques of, 260

    and slave trade, 15

    social status of, 404, 422, 444, 686

    Zevin’s description of, 568

Peixotto, Benjamin Franklin, 50

Peixotto, George Da Maduro, 349

Peixotto, Jessica Blanche, 322

Pellagra, 322, 357

Pember, Phoebe Yates Levy, 26–27

Pencil with attached eraser, 352

Pendergast, Tom, 689

Pennell, Joseph, 348

Pennsylvania, 194, 223, 249

Pennsylvania, University of

    Jewish faculty at, 303, 318, 392, 495, 515, 517, 529

    Jewish students at, 548

    Morais’ honorary doctorate from, 124

    Raphall’s lecture at, 18

Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 344, 348

Penologists, 405

Pensacola, Fla., 257

Pentecost (Shavuot), 134, 148, 466, 642

    as confirmation day, 691, 703

    rabbi-trustees conflict over, 699

Peoplehood, Jewish, 687

People’s Party, 155, 164, 165

People’s Relief Committee, 502

Peoria, Ill., 310, 582

Pereles, Benjamin Franklin, 364

Pereles, James Madison, 364

Pereles, Nathan, 364

Pereles, Thomas Jefferson, 364

Peretz, Isaac Loeb, 544, 684

Perlman, Selig, 175, 178

Permanent Court of Arbitration (Hague Tribunal), 200, 672

Perry, Carolina Slidell (Mrs. August Belmont), 198

Persia, Jews of, 104

Petach Tikvah Congregation (Brooklyn, N.Y.), 636

Peters, Elizabeth, 215

Petersburg, Va., 232, 621

Phagan, Mary, 154

Pharmacists, 266, 307, 475

Phi Beta Kappa, 701

Philadelphia, Pa.

    Anglo-Jewish and Yiddish newspapers in, 570, 587, 590

    civic defense efforts in, 666

    clubs and organizations in, 425, 426

    commerce and industry, Jews in

          banking and finance, 265

          bazaars and department stores, 248, 249

          doctors, 322, 355

          garment manufacturing, 231, 233, 236, 240, 249

          jewelry manufacturing, 224

          lawyers, 271, 274

          liquor business, 276

          oil speculators, 223

          pencil makers, 352

          publishers, 308, 309

          rag dealers, 276

          real estate, 262

          tobacco industry, 225

          umbrella manufacturing, 230

          wholesalers, 249

          yarn manufacturing, 405

    communal services and institutions, Jewish

          burial societies, 627

          charity organizations, 476, 477, 478, 479

          child-care institutions, 453, 455, 459

          elder care, 461

          hospitals and hospices, 366, 453, 458, 459

          libraries, 507

          maternity homes, 460

          settlement houses, 415

          Young Men’s Hebrew Association, 414, 507

    contributions to buy Mount Vernon, 364

    Fairmont Park, 103

    Jewish education in, 550, 592, 599, 603, 606, 627

    labor unions, 236, 240

    as major Jewish regional center, 284, 618

    and New Jersey farming colonies, 435

    Orthodox Judaism in, 623, 627

    politics and government, Jews in, 193

          board of education, 367

          city council, 207

          Congress, 192

          prison officials, 489

    public schools named for Jews, 382

    recreational and cultural activities in, 326, 341, 421, 427, 515, 516, 543

    Reform Judaism in, 67

    service on death of Benjamin Harrison, 364

Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, 103, 399

Philadelphia Hebrew Education Society, 95

Philadelphia Mint, 346

Philadelphia Public Ledger, 314

Philadelphia Rabbinical Conference, 86–88, 110, 115, 469, 661

Philalethen, 65

Philanthropy, 406, 447–450 passim, 484–485

    by Christians for Jewish causes, 381, 384, 388, 415, 459, 475, 502, 502

    for Civil War relief, 42, 43, 499

    for cultural purposes, 294, 344, 346, 543, 545

    for education. See names of educational institutions

    for farming colonies, 434, 435, 437

    federated fund-raising, 417, 485–486, 490

    for foreign Jewries, 104, 500, 501, 502

    to further Germanic studies, 291

    for hospitals, 442

    and immigrants, 105, 440, 473

    by Jews for Christian causes, 362, 366–368, 383, 403, 448, 451

    and matching grants, 369

    national fund-raising appeals, 43

    for old-age homes, 461

    scholarships for rabbinic students, 95

    and secular Jews, 130

    and settlement houses, 415

    as substitute for religion, 488

    for teacher training, 553

    women’s role in, 465

    See also names of philanthropists and recipients

Philip & Solomons (publishing firm), 308

Philippson, Ludwig, 85

Philipson, David, 617, 663, 666, 700

    as arbitrator of labor disputes, 673

    on intermarriage and Zionism, 681

    as lecturer and preacher, 667, 712

    as Reform leader, 73, 654, 656, 683, 684

    writings of, 73, 533–534

Philipson, Ella Hollander, 684

Phillips, Barnet, 307

Phillips, Eugenia Levy, 27

Phillips, Henry, Jr. (philologist and translator), 315

Phillips, Henry M. (congressman), 192, 193

Phillips, Jonas, 192

Phillips, Morris, 310

Phillips, Naphtali, 309

Phillips, Philip, 23, 27, 192, 193, 365

Phillips family, 623

Philologists, 315

Philo-Semitism, 43, 375–376, 388

Philosophers, 303

Phil the Fiddler (Alger), 539

Phoenix Club (Cincinnati), 425, 426, 430

Phonographs, 352

Phonograph records, 557

Photochemical engraving, 351

Photographers, 51, 307, 343, 344, 347, 347, 351, 354

Photographic Sketches of the War (Gardner), 308

Phylacteries (tefillin), 47, 59, 71, 635

Physicians, 17, 40, 266, 271, 339, 363, 447, 623

    and anti-Semitism, 182

    bacteriologists, 354

    education and training of, 271, 272, 301

    eye surgeons, 357–358

    female, 272, 321, 459

    in fiction, 580

    internists, 356, 357

    leprologists, 356

    military surgeons, 22, 32, 37, 201, 307, 355, 356, 489

    nose, throat, and chest specialists, 356

    number of, 271, 355

    obstetricians, 356

    ophthalmologists, 355, 360

    pathologists, 258, 272, 319, 322, 354

    pediatricians, 322, 356

    pharmacologists, 354

    physiologists, 302, 322, 354

    professional fraternities of, 410

    psychiatrists, 318–319

    and relief agencies, 457

    sanitarians, 357

    surgeons, 205, 302, 357, 515

Physicists, 353

Pianists, 321, 328, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 353, 471, 627

Piano manufacturing, 222

Pigeon fanciers, 265

Pike, Samuel N., 229, 326, 334

Pike Opera House (Cincinnati), 229

Pinheiro, Solomon, 41

Pinner, Moritz, 47

Pioneer clubs, 292

Pioneers (St. Louis), 508

Pisko, Seraphine Eppstein, 495

Pittsburgh, Pa., 284

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 246

    communal services and institutions, Jewish, 466

    Jewish education in, 606, 608

    rabbis of, 381, 623, 627, 697

Pittsburgh Platform, 79, 109–114 passim, 118–120, 121, 123, 125, 126, 129, 137, 661

Pittsburgh Rabbinical Conference. See Pittsburgh Platform

Pius IX (pope), 75

Pius X (pope), 629

“A Plan for the Abolition of Slavery Consistently with the Interest of All Parties Concerned” (Levy), 17

Planters, 32, 36, 36, 196, 220, 226, 436

Plant pathologists, 439

Playwrights, 37, 292, 306, 326, 328, 330, 339, 341, 370, 371, 528, 575, 578, 623

Plymouth Congregational Church (Milwaukee), 384

Poale Zion, 241, 557, 596, 601

Poems and Translations (Lazarus), 576

Poets, 40, 318, 494, 495, 528, 578, 623

    female, 306, 323–324, 570, 576–577

    in German, 99, 99, 290, 514, 528, 532, 599

    in Hebrew, 18, 123, 510, 514, 520, 528, 560, 563, 587

    in Yiddish, 564, 568, 569

Pogroms. See Russia, Jews of

Polacco, Georgio, 340

Poland

    anti-Semitism in, 146, 200

    Jews of, 186, 502, 503, 666, 686

    revolt against Russia (1863), 191, 524

Poles, in U.S., 146

Police officers. See Law-enforcement officers

Polish Jews, in U.S. See East European Jews, in U.S.

Political activism, 40, 215. See also Elected officials; names of political parties

Political scientists, 272, 286, 318

Pollack, August, 225

Pollack Tobacco Co., 225

Pollak, Emil, 224

Pollak, Gustav, 310

Pollak, Simon, 355

Pollak Steel Co., 224

Polock, Moses, 308

Popper, William, 519, 529

Popular History of the Jews (Graetz), 533

Populism, 153, 155, 164–166, 175, 197, 201, 207, 386

    and anti-Semitism, 165, 166

Populist Party, 155

Port Hudson, La., 25

Portland, Oreg., 194, 196, 216, 222, 250, 260, 490, 652

Potash and Perlmutter (literary characters), 380

Potocki, Valentin, 573

Pottsville, Pa., 195

Poughkeepsie, N.Y., 283

Poultry farming, 438

Poznanski, Gustavus, 65

Prague, University of, 133

Prayerbooks. See Liturgy and prayerbooks

Prayer shawl (talit), 62, 71, 75, 139, 635, 658

Preaching. See Sermons and preaching

Pregnancy and parturition, 460

Prejudice (Krauskopf), 574, 574

Prenatal and obstetrical care, 453, 482

The Presidents I Have Known from 1860 to 1918 (Wolf), 575

Pressers, 569

Preventive Medicine and Hygiene (Rosenau), 357

Price, George Moses, 357

Priestley, Joseph, 87

Princeton Theological Seminary, 521

Princeton University, 303, 361

    Institute for Advanced Study, 249, 305

Printers/Printing trades, 140, 222, 272, 308, 312, 343, 348, 349, 351, 351, 357, 406, 406, 537, 541

Prison Aid Society (Boston), 481

Prison reform, 366, 377, 672

Private schools, 526

    Jewish, 598

Probation officers, 491

    female, 494

Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, 530

Proceedings of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 648

“Prodigal’s Return” (Mosler), 349

Professionals, 285

Professional societies, 410

Professors. See College and university teachers

Progressive Party/Progressivism, 114, 200, 204, 207, 209, 209, 214, 252, 368, 445, 494

Prohibition, 72, 310, 699

The Promised Land (Antin), 324, 575

Pronaos (Wise), 521

Proofreaders, 406

Prostitution, 174, 394, 451

Protestant Episcopal Church, 387

Protestantism. See Christianity

Protest meetings, 490

    over fire insurance restrictions, 152

Protocol of Peace, 238

The Protocols and the World Revolution, 148

Protocols of the Elders of Zion, 147–148, 179–180

Providence, R.I., 225, 314

Provident Loan Society, 263

Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs, 203

Psychologists, psychoanalists, and psychiatrists, 303, 318–319, 370

Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, 538

Public defenders, 366

Public schools, 186, 404, 446, 488, 598, 599, 600, 616

    Bible reading in, 665

    hymn singing in, 665, 667

    Protestantization of, 150, 665, 701

    segregation of Japanese children in, 178

Public utilities, 230

Publishers, 222, 222, 272, 274, 351

    of almanacs, calendars, and yearbooks, 588–589

    of books, 308–309

    of German newspapers, 293

    of Hebrew books and papers, 521, 560, 618, 618

    of liturgical works, 265

    of Marxist works, 211

    of music, 338, 340, 341

    of newspapers and periodicals, 215, 308, 312–314, 340, 405

    of Talmud, 630

    of Yiddish and/or Hebrew songs, 557

    of Yiddish books and papers, 567, 618, 624

Puck, 146, 293, 347

Pueblo, Colo., 139

Puerto Rico, 204, 208, 317, 318

Pulitzer, Joseph

    in Civil War, 293, 312

    as defector from Judaism, 391

    fame and influence of, 402, 407

    as journalist, 293, 312

    as newspaper publisher, 286, 312–313, 314, 567

    and Pulitzer Prizes, 367

    and Schurz, 293

Pulitzer Prizes, 311, 313, 324, 367

Pumpernickel Club (Buffalo), 425

Purchasing agents, 223

Purim, 421, 423, 430, 564, 575, 602, 691, 692

Purim Association (New York City), 423

Purvin, Jennie Franklin, 325

Quakers, 16, 459

Quarry workers, 448

Queen Elizabeth (film), 332

Quincy, Ill., 51, 52, 466

Rabbi and Priest (Goldsmith), 578

Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Rabbinical Academy, 525, 540, 592, 600

Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, 551, 554, 624, 627, 634

Rabbinical Assembly of America, 530, 638

Rabbinic Alliance, 125

Rabbinical Literary Association, 98, 108, 125, 529

Rabbinic College of America, 554

Rabbinic learning, 511, 514, 517, 523, 553, 560, 656. See also Talmud

Rabbis

    centrality of, 558, 697, 703, 706

    Christian influences on, 73, 140, 142, 530, 621

    and congregational offices, 72, 119, 130, 196, 215, 215, 530, 651, 652, 672, 698, 699, 700, 702

    Conservative, 697. See also Rabbinic Assembly of America

    duties and functions of, 141, 493, 697, 698, 700, 701, 707, 714, 716

    ease of adopting title, 713

    education and training of, 94, 300, 554, 689

    as emissaries to Gentile world, 94, 384, 385, 493, 551, 666, 697, 700, 711, 714

    as exemplary surrogate Jews, 94

    female, 470, 696

    fictional depictions of, 581

    and freedom of pulpit, 130, 652, 678, 686, 699

    income and status of, 20, 131, 493, 524, 628

    influence of, 384, 402, 698, 706, 711, 716

    and intermarriage, 398. See also Intermarriage

    misconduct of, alleged and real, 93

    number of in U.S. (1900, 1917), 713

    officiating jointly with Christian clergy, 385, 387. See also Interfaith relations

    organizations of, 124–125, 529–530. See also names of rabbinic organizations

    Orthodox, 94, 139, 621, 624, 625, 626, 627, 628, 631, 697, 699, 716. See also Union of Orthodox Rabbis

    parsonages for, 693

    Reform, 132–133, 134, 139, 299, 558, 581, 697, 716. See also Central Conference of American Rabbis

    rogues, incompetents, and adventurers as, 93, 621

    as scholars and writers, 513, 524, 559

    as social activists, 492, 493–494, 495, 672, 674

    vestments and garb of, 62, 66, 71, 141–142, 299, 657, 698

    See also Chaplains; names of rabbis

Rabi, Isidor Isaac, 177

Races and Immigrants in America (Commons), 174

Rachel (actress), 168, 330–331

Racism, among Jews, 33, 256, 374. See also Blacks

Radcliffe College, 324

Radin, Max, 533

Radio and television performers, 311, 427.

    See also Actors

Rag dealers, 276, 276

Ragged Dick (Alger), 281

Railroad industry, 36, 192, 223, 228, 264, 268, 285, 286, 318, 336, 340, 357

Ranchers, 222, 227, 277

Range-finders, 352

Ranger, Morris, 257

Raphall, Morris (Marcus) J., 24, 28, 385

    and B’nai Jeshurun, 18, 215

    delivering invocation before Congress, 18, 55, 290

    as Orthodox stalwart, 18, 139, 365

    on slavery, 18–19, 20

Rapid Creek, Calif., 250

Rapoport, Solomon Judah Loeb, 509, 510

Rare book dealers, 308

Raritan Woolen Mills, 258

Rauh, Samuel, 222, 223

Rauschenbusch, Walter, 114, 672

Ravinia Park (Chicago), 340

Rayner, Isidor, 196

Reading Road Temple (Cincinnati), 75

Real estate entrepreneurs, 196, 199, 221, 228, 230, 261–262, 275, 332, 340, 448

Reconstructionist Judaism, 550, 643, 692

Records of the Myers, Hays, and Mordecai Families from 1707 to 1913 (Cohen), 399

Recreational activities, 420, 421, 424, 425, 426, 427, 429, 430, 467. See also Athletes/athletics

Red Cross. See American Red Cross

Redmen, 295

Red Scare (1919–20), 179, 213

Reese, Michael, 448

Reform Advocate, 509, 585, 587, 589

Reformatories, 456

Reform Church of American Israelites, 654

Reformed Society of Israelites, 34, 34, 65, 74, 75, 133

Reform Judaism

    and Americanization, 11, 55, 65, 68, 71, 109, 110, 127, 131, 364, 704, 715, 716

    and anti-Semitism, 665. See also Anti-Semitism

    avoidance of formal creed by, 660

    and Bible, 128, 593, 650, 655, 659

    and ceremonial aspects of Judaism, 90, 693, 694, 706

    and Christianity, 55, 62, 75, 79, 87, 110, 113, 115, 116, 132, 365, 386, 556, 558, 609, 611, 648, 655, 658, 671, 673, 676, 693, 694, 702, 706

    and Christian Science, 396

    Cincinnati as national center of, 497

    coldness of, 706, 716

    and Columbus Platform, 681

    and confirmation, 62, 72, 75, 614, 658, 694

    consensus as authority in, 664

    and Conservative Judaism, 649, 665, 683, 684, 684, 706

    and conversion, 85, 677, 701. See also Conversion, to Judaism

    and cremation, 85

    and democratization of synagog, 702

    and dietary laws, 649, 693. See also Dietary laws (kashrut)

    and East European Jews, 645, 659, 673, 675, 686, 686, 701, 707, 714, 715

    and East-West conflict, 136, 137

    and Ethical Culture, 394

    as ethnic Deism, 75, 656

    in Europe, 61–64, 63, 65, 131, 710, 710, 711, 711, 714

    as God-centered humanism, 78

    and Hebrew, 299, 562, 595, 649, 657, 658. See also Hebrew language

    history and growth of, 11, 60–62, 64–68, 71, 131, 135, 138, 141, 712, 715

    home missions, 675

    infant-naming ceremony, 693

    innovations of. See Choirs and organs; Decorum, in synagog; Family pews; Friday night service; Head covering, at worship; Sunday services

    and intermarriage, 85, 656, 669, 701. See also Intermarriage

    and Jewish Chautauqua Society, 547

    and Jewish education, 509, 551, 551, 593, 606, 606, 609, 609, 613, 613

    and Jewish history/tradition, 61, 683, 705

    and Jewish identity, 299, 715

    and Jewish law, 61–62, 113, 128, 640, 658–659, 693, 694, 696, 714

    and Jewish particularism, 299, 656, 706, 711, 716

    and Jewish Science, 396

    laity’s role in, 131, 544, 704, 716

    latitudinarian trend of, 133, 650, 654, 655, 656, 659, 669, 684

    liturgy of. See Liturgy and prayerbooks; Union Prayer Book

    and messianic belief, 62, 76, 113, 610, 658

    and Mission of Israel, 76, 87, 90, 657, 669, 675, 676, 677, 716

    number of adherents and congregations, 138, 713

    one-day observance of holy days by, 688

    and Orthodox Judaism, 75, 89, 109, 129, 511, 542, 543, 622, 623, 629, 651, 658, 665, 683, 684, 689

    Pittsburgh Platform, 386, 624, 649, 655, 676, 683

    predominance of, 11, 656–646, 687

    and priest-levite-Israelite “caste” system, 113

    and prophetic ethics, 63, 655, 658, 671, 683, 715

    publications of, 648

    and religious authority, 664

    responsa of, 694, 696

    role of rabbi in. See Rabbis

    and Sabbath, 72, 85, 531, 649, 649, 688, 701, 707, 708. See also Sabbath

    and Sabbath/Sunday schools, 607. See also Sabbath and Sunday schools

    and Science of Judaism, 512, 531, 715

    and social reform, 113–114, 115, 134, 134, 489, 672, 673, 715

    and Sunday Sabbath, 77, 78, 79. See also Sunday services

    theology of, 62, 75–76, 85, 109, 112, 133–134, 136, 137, 138, 395, 654, 655, 656, 659, 660, 674, 675, 683

    and Torah scroll in worship, 650, 651, 656

    universalist aspects of, 299, 365, 657, 676, 684, 711, 716

    and women, 62, 74, 75, 87, 113, 119, 126, 131, 134, 469, 469, 470, 646, 688, 696, 701, 712, 715

    and Zionism, 62, 87, 113, 133, 137, 364, 471, 518, 523, 605, 658, 678, 682, 701

    See also Central Conference of American Rabbis; Hebrew Union College; Union of American Hebrew Congregations

The Reform Movement in Judaism (Philipson), 533, 533–534

Refrigerator cars, 352

Refugees, from Nazis, 496

Reines, Isaac Jacob, 716

Relief societies, 450, 451, 491

Religious functionaries, 93, 628, 688, 689. See also Cantors; Rabbis

“Religious Liberty” (Ezekiel), 103, 364

Removal, of immigrants, 439

Renan, Ernest, 171

Republican Party, 18, 21, 22, 25, 39, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53, 102, 152, 180, 193, 195, 199, 200, 204, 209, 211, 213, 214, 293, 318

    and General Order No. 11, 49

    and Jewish demand for pressure on Russia, 216, 270, 490

    Republican National Committee members, 194, 215, 247

    Silver Republicans, 197

    state party officials, 194

    See also names of presidents and elected officials

Rerum Novarum (papal encyclical), 114

Research agencies, 498–499

Restaurateurs, 328

Retail establishments, 31, 172, 221, 232, 249, 272, 280

    advertising by, 14, 246, 254

    alleged fire insurance frauds by, 151–152

    and anti-Semitism, 45, 166, 666

    and black customers, 255

    candy, 568

    and charitable causes, 475, 478, 696

    cigars and tobacco, 53, 225, 226, 254, 276

    during Civil War, 45

    clothing, 53, 90, 226, 229, 231, 232, 233, 248, 248, 254, 257, 257, 268, 276, 279, 543, 543

    dry goods, 53, 90, 199, 221, 222, 229, 235, 245, 248, 251, 254, 267, 269, 276, 352

    economic and social contributions of, 253, 285

    educational requirements for, 300

    in fiction, 577–578

    general stores, 248, 258, 266, 279

    and German Jews, 300

    jewelry, 224, 276

    “Jew Store,” 254

    liquor, 254

    mail-order businesses, 247

    millinery, 249, 254

    notions, 248, 254

    and observance of Sabbath and/or holidays, 72, 120, 130, 691, 707

    and Populists, 153, 166

    range of goods offered, 254, 256, 276

    shoes, 230, 257

    soft goods, 45, 277

    in South, 45, 255, 256, 257

    tent store in mining camp, 250

    as typical Jewish enterprise, 122, 253–254, 257, 278

    See also Credit sales; department stores

Returners to Zion (Shave Zion), 678

The Return of Peter Grimm, 331

Revel, Bernard, 525, 526, 554, 626, 627–628

“Review of the Year 1903 in Jewish History” (Deutsch), 615

Revolutionary War, 163, 264

Revolution of 1848, 19, 21, 147, 205, 292, 335. See also Forty-eighters

Rheingold beer, 229

Rhodes, James Ford, 172

Ricardo, David, 401

Rice, Abraham, 66, 70, 400, 510

Rice, Henry, 478, 479

Rice, Isaac Leopold, 286

Rice gambit (chess), 286

Rich, Adolphus W., 229–230, 247, 249, 286

Richards, Bernard G., 574

Richman, Julia, 323, 473, 584

Richmond, La., 31–32

Richmond, Va., 364, 688

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 223, 249, 258, 265

    communal services and institutions, Jewish, 465

    Jewish education in, 599, 606

    Kayton’s picture of Virgin Mary in local convent, 343

    philanthropy by Jews, 367

    recreational and cultural activities, 411, 421, 425

    women’s relief societies, 461, 465, 478

Riesser, Gabriel, 24, 375

Rigoletto (Verdi), 336

Rindskopf, Elias, 211

Ripley, Ohio, 246

Ripley, William S., 173

The Rise of David Levinsky (Cahan), 581

Ritualarium. See Mikveh

Ritual-murder accusations, 123, 156, 366, 386

Robert the Devil (Meyerber), 334

Robinson (soldier buried in Richmond Jewish cemetery), 32

Roblin, Joseph M., 331

Rochester, N.Y., 494, 656

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 232, 233, 240

    communal institutions, Jewish, 418, 454, 479, 484, 630

    East European Jews in, 454, 479, 484, 630

    interfaith relations in, 385, 667

Rockefeller, John D., 170, 223, 346, 367, 449

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, 322, 354

Rock Island, Ill., 265

Rock Springs, Wyo., 584

Rodeph Shalom Congregation (Philadelphia)

    buildings of, 282

    identification of Passover with Easter at, 298

    intermarriage policy of, 398

    as oldest Ashkenazic synagog in U.S., 121

    rabbis of, 77, 392, 524

    and Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 121

Rodeph Shalom Congregation (Pittsburgh), 657

Rodrigues, B. A., 307

Rodriguez, Isaac, 16

Roget’s International Thesaurus, 187

Rohling, August, 146

Roman Catholicism, 69, 75, 76, 161, 176, 179, 180, 253, 275, 296, 365, 367, 368, 374, 380, 389, 536, 667, 674, 695

Romberg, Sigmund, 342

Rome, Ga., 660

Ronald, Landon, 335

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 209, 240, 318

Roosevelt, Theodore, 215, 238, 311, 368, 657, 676

    and Ahlwardt’s visit to New York, 145

    alleged Jewish family connections of, 146

    and anti-Semitism, 172, 183

    and Jewish voters, 209, 213, 214, 216

    Mielziner’s portrait of, 349

    and Rumanian Jewry, 105, 216

    and Schiff, 214, 287

    and Straus, 200, 406

Rose, Ernestine, 22, 205, 206, 209, 319

Rose, William E., 22

Rosecrans, William S., 206

Rosen, Joseph A., 439

Rosenau, Milton J., 357

Rosenau, William, 529, 649, 684, 698

Rosenbach, A. S. W., 308

Rosenberg, Abraham Hayyim, 541

Rosenblatt, Josef, 557

Rosenfeld, Monroe, 330

Rosenfeld, Morris, 569

Rosenfeld, Sydney, 330

Rosenfield, Laura, 278

Rosenfield, Zerlina, 278

Rosenhayn, N.J., 434–435, 439

Rosen rye, 439

Rosenthal, Albert, 349

Rosenthal, Herman, 292, 315

Rosenthal, Max, 348, 349

Rosenthal, Mordechai, 362

Rosenthal, Moritz, 321, 337, 338

Rosenthal, Samuel, 304

Rosenthal, Toby Edward, 290, 349

Rosenwald, Julius, 201, 247, 286, 369, 448, 449, 632

Rosenwald family, 287

Rosenzweig, Franz, 716

Rosewater, Edward, 215, 312

Rosewater, Victor, 215, 312

Rosh Hashanah (New Year), 59, 111

    as occasion for social calls, 420

    See also High Holy Days

Ross, Edward Alsworth, 177, 178

Rossvally, Max L., 362

Rothafel, Samuel Lionel, 333

Rothschild, Albert, 378

Rothschild, N. M., & Sons, 167

Rothschild family, 50, 54, 147, 181, 182, 190, 198, 263, 307, 370

Rowe, Leo Stanton, 318

Royal American Order of Isabella, 310

Rubinow, Isaac, 317

Rubinstein, Anton, 336

Rudko, Joseph, 555

Ruef, Abraham, 217

Rumania, Jews of, 50, 104–105, 182, 186, 216, 242, 252, 413, 501, 503, 633, 666

Rumanian Aid Society (Rochester, N.Y.), 630

Russell, Henry, 334–335, 341

Russell, Henry, II, 34

Russell, Waring, 152

Russia

    affection for Lincoln in, 52

    agricultural colonization in, 106, 439

    and American Jewish Committee, 662, 664

    and American passports held by Jews, 105, 186, 213

    Beilis case, 156

    Bolshevik Revolution, 147, 164, 179, 243, 563

    Civil War, 147

    efforts abroad in support of Russian Jewry, 50, 106, 186, 252, 270, 466, 490, 500, 501–503, 662, 666

    by Christians, 380

    emigration from. See East European Jews, in U.S.

    interventions by U.S. government, 105, 106, 200, 213

    Jewish historical-ethnographic commission in, 535

    Jewish status in, 102, 104, 105–107, 179, 213, 561, 574, 575, 678

    Kishinev massacre, 43, 502, 515, 662, 709

    in literature and drama, 373, 544, 575

    May Laws, 438

    Moscow expulsions, 450

    pogroms, 80, 92, 103, 105, 111, 119, 182, 212, 242, 324, 380, 381, 386, 429, 433, 440, 472, 501, 504, 511, 546, 569, 576, 630, 643, 678, 686

    Polish revolt against, 191

    and Protocols of the Elders of Zion, 147

    and Republican Party, 214

    Revolution of 1905, 200, 240

    Russo-Japanese War, 270

    Russo-Turkish War, 448

Russian-American Commercial Treaty (1832), 105, 106, 197, 686

Russian Jews, in U.S. See East European Jews, in U.S.

Russian Relief Fund

Russian Symphony Orchestra (New York City), 338

Saadia Gaon, 525, 527

Sabath, Adolph Joachim, 195

Sabbath

    Christian concern about storekeeper’s failure to observe, 384

    and Conservative Judaism, 635, 638

    employment problems of observers of, 452

    Hayes’ appointment of Sabbath observer to government post, 389

    at Hebrew Union College, 96

    infrequency of services in small towns, 690, 703

    in Jewish hospitals, 457

    and Jewish solidarity, 140

    and jury service, 139

    and National Council of Jewish Women, 472

    at National Farm School, 657

    nonobservance of, 321

          in Jewish clubs, 426

          on New Year’s Eve, 704

          by storekeepers, 60, 72, 130, 251, 298, 384

    organizations encouraging observance of, 489, 625

    and Orthodox Judaism, 138, 467, 606, 621, 625, 626, 627

    and Reform Judaism, 63, 66, 71, 72, 111, 125, 391, 531, 649, 662, 663, 691, 701, 707, 714

    school examinations on, 623, 637

    steamers remaining in port on, 381

    and Sunday laws, 101, 151, 625

    and Young Men’s Hebrew Association, 414

Sabbath and Sunday schools, 506, 602, 611

    and Americanization, 132, 473, 506, 546

    at Atlanta Penitentiary, 671

    charitable collections among pupils of, 367

    Christian influence on, 299, 473, 606

    and Conservative Judaism, 606, 635

    curricula of, 609–610, 668, 693, 715

    and East European immigrants, 597, 714

    and fraternal orders, 462

    good manners in curricula of, 610

    holiday celebrations in, 466, 691, 692, 695

    instructional materials for, 533, 552, 559, 573, 575, 607, 623

    and Jewish Chautauqua Society, 549

    and National Council of Jewish Women, 473–474, 489

    and Orthodox Judaism, 606, 626, 627

    periodicals oriented to, 583, 668. See also Sabbath School Visitor

    and Reform Judaism, 90, 91, 132, 387, 411, 471, 552, 606, 607, 693, 715

    at settlement houses, 445

    teachers at, 132, 211, 471, 489, 495, 607

    teacher-training for, 549, 551

    and Uptown social workers, 506

    and women’s organizations, 466, 468, 473–474, 489, 695

Sabbath Hours Thoughts (Adler), 575

Sabbath School Visitor, 98, 584, 607

Sabbath Visitor, 584

Sachs, Samuel, 268

Sachs family, 287

Safe manufacturing, 222

Saginaw County, Mich., 229

Saint Andrew’s Society (Charleston), 381

St. John’s College (Fordham University), 388

St. Joseph, Mo., 91, 229, 420, 421

St. Louis, Mo., 284, 438

    charity federation of, 478

    during Civil War, 206

    commerce and industry, Jews in

          banking and finance, 228, 266, 367

          clothing and dry goods, 53

          department stores, 250

          doctors, 355

          flour manufacturing, 228

          grocers, 228, 277

          lawyers, 201

          liquor, 277

          newspaper editors, 21, 206

          wholesalers, 53, 228

    Jewish education in, 603

    wife-desertion rate, 464

    women’s literary society in, 508

St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 312

Saint Paul (Meyerbeer), 334

St. Paul, Minn., 229, 448, 627, 680, 700

St. Paul’s Episcopal Church (Newport, Ark.), 383

Sale, Samuel, 510

Salesmen, 102, 246, 278, 278, 333, 349, 352, 654

Salk, Jonas, 177

Salomon, Charles Eberhard, 40

Salomon, Edward, 194

Salomon, Edward S., 40, 50, 290

Salomon, Frederick, 40

Salomon, Haym, 245, 264, 355

Salomon, Louis, 549

Salomon, William, 264

Saloonkeepers, 31, 276, 328

Salt Lake City, Utah, 229, 250, 297

Salt Lake City Brewing Co., 229

Samfield, Max, 388, 700

Sammett, Ben, 629

Samsonite luggage, 222

Samuel, Ellen Phillips, 346

San Antonio, Tex., 138, 267, 699

San Bernardino, Calif., 501

Sandersville, Ga., 168

San Diego, Calif., 381, 587

Sandusky, Ohio, 22, 328

San Francisco, Calif., 178, 448, 618

    commerce and industry, Jews in

          banking and finance, 272

          book dealers, 331

          cloth manufacturing, 258, 267

          department stores, 250

          dry goods, 267

          importers, jobbers, and wholesalers, 53, 267

          magazine publishers, 582

          newsboys, 349

          retailing, 276, 280

          steamship line, 228

          tailors, 349

          tobacco trade, 276, 277

    communal services and institutions, Jewish, 450, 454

    earthquake, 217, 413, 500, 688

    Jewish education in, 603, 609

    politics and government, Jews in, 166, 195, 217

    rabbis and synagogs of, 510, 530, 713

    segregation of Asians in schools of, 178

    steamers remaining in port on Sabbath, 381

San Francisco Chronicle, 312

Sanger, Adolph L., 458, 665

Sanger family, 249

Sanitariums, 357

Sanitary Commission, U.S., 42, 355, 365

Sarasohn, Kasriel H., 566, 570, 624

Saratoga, N.Y., 373

Sarner, Ferdinand L., 44

Sartorius, Philip, 33, 279, 364

Sasportas, T. K., 16

The Saturday- and Sunday-Sabbath (Krauskopf), 657

Saturday Evening Post, 311, 580

Saulsbury, Nate, 327

Savannah, Ga.

    during Civil War, 43, 257

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 254, 265, 276

    recreational activities, of Jews, 427

    synagog of, 15, 257, 298

“The Scattered Nation” (Vance), 374

Schaffer, Schepsel, 626

Schaffner, Joseph, 233, 239, 245

Scharff, Nicholas, 228

Schechter, Matilda, 470, 638

Schechter, Solomon, 703

    and Americanization, 641, 710

    and Catholic Israel, 639

    and Conservative Judaism, 527, 641, 643, 699

    education and early career of, 633

    on Higher Criticism, 521

    on Jewish Encyclopedia, 542

    and Jewish Theological seminary, 534, 552, 623, 633, 634, 643

    and Kohler, 526, 658, 684–685

    as lecturer, 508

    on Mission of Israel, 676

    and Orthodox Judaism, 633, 638, 639

    and Reform Judaism, 639, 639, 640, 640, 645, 646, 679, 685, 699

    as scholar, 508

    on Torah and Jewish law, 638, 640, 683

    writings of, 517, 527, 585

    and Zionism, 639, 679

Schenectady, N.Y., 30

Schereschewsky, Samuel Isaac Joseph, 362

Scheuerman family, 258

Schiff, Jacob H., 207, 504, 632, 636, 713

    and Brandeis nomination, 204

    business activities and influence of, 207, 220, 269, 270, 275, 286, 370

    and cloakmakers’ strike, 238, 270

    and Cornell University, 291, 368

    and Frank lynching, 156, 190

    and Galveston Movement, 440, 441

    and German language, 291, 559

    and Haifa Technion, 448

    and Harvard University, 368

    and Hebrew Union College, 448, 551

    and Jewish Chautauqua Society, 190

    and Jewish Publication Society, 448, 543, 545

    and Jewish Theological Seminary, 448, 550, 551, 643

    and Lower East Side, 92, 210

    and Metropolitan Opera, 336

    and Montefiore Home, 448, 458

    and New York Public Library’s Jewish Division, 368, 540

    and Orthodox Judaism, 269, 632

    as philanthropist, 368, 448

    political views of, 209, 270

    and proposed national convention of American Jewry, 92

    and Roosevelt, 214, 287

    and Russian Jewry, 270, 287

    and Taft, 270, 287

    and Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 92, 417

    and Warburg, 270, 449

    and Wilson, 214, 270

    and Young Men’s Hebrew Association, 92, 415, 417, 448

Schiff Library of Jewish Classics, 545

Schiff-Warburg family, 263

Schinasi, Morris, 226

Schinasi, Solomon, 226, 226

Schindler, Solomon, 79–80, 117, 118, 573

Schlesinger, Daniel, 335

Schlesinger, Frank, 352

Schlesinger, Jacob, 340

Schlesinger, Sigmund, 340

Schlesinger & Mayer Co., 250

Schmitz, Eugene E., 217

Schneeberger, Henry W., 510, 626, 684

Schnitzler, Arthur, 407

Schnorrers (beggars), 442, 446–447, 446–447, 464, 466, 477, 478, 510, 588

Scholarships, 449, 451, 473

    for graduate study abroad, 510

    for Hebrew Union College, 455, 466, 695

    for social-work training, 491, 496

School principals, 225

Schools, private, 453

Schulman, Samuel, 95, 385, 510, 679

Schumann, Robert, 556

Schurz, Carl, 199, 218, 293, 322, 392, 426, 448, 508

Schurz, Margarethe Meyer, 322

Science of Judaism

    in American seminaries and colleges, 525, 527, 531, 554

    books and periodicals on, 528, 573, 586–587

    in Europe, 10, 97, 509, 532

    and Jewish Encyclopedia, 541

    and Jewish history, 532–534, 586

    and Reform Judaism, 512, 531, 715

    U.S. as center of, 529, 531, 641

Scientists, 321–322, 439

Scrap iron dealers, 224

Scribner’s (periodical), 585

Sculptors. See Artists and sculptors

Sears, Richard W., 247

Sears, Roebuck & Co., 201, 247, 248, 268, 360

Seasongood, Jacob, 267

Seattle, Wash., 370

Seaver, Horace, 205

Secessionists, Jewish, 26–27, 36

Second-hand clothing dealers, 230, 231

Secret ballot, 207

Secret Service, U.S., 25

Sectionalism, 155

Secular schools, 241

Seeligson, M., 215

Seesel, Henry, 31

“See That My Grave’s Kept Green” (Rosenfeld), 330, 330

Seixas, Abraham, 14

Seixas, Gershom, 69, 387

Seixas, Moses, 262, 263

Seixas, Theodore Jonathan, 387

Self-defense groups, 153

Self-hatred, Jewish, 589, 704

Self-improvement activities, 473

Seligman, De Witt, 300

Seligman, Edwin R. A., 272, 317

Seligman, Isaac N., 406

Seligman, J. & W., & Co., 53

Seligman, Jesse, 160

Seligman, Joseph, 9, 53, 156–158, 160, 207, 393, 394, 402, 458

Seligman, Theodore, 160, 258

Seligman Affair, 181

Seligman family, 263, 264, 280, 287, 317

    and Grant, 50

Selikovitsch, Goetzel, 566

Selma, Ala., 280

Semitic Studies in Memory of Rev. Dr. Alexander Kohut, 524

Semitists, 513, 519, 520, 566, 698

Senior, Max, 481, 482, 483, 490, 497

Sephardim, 89, 309, 356, 391, 418, 429, 506, 572, 588, 600, 623, 675

Sepher Club of Allegeheny City (Pittsburgh), 411

Serbia, Jews of, 501

Sermons and preaching, 79, 112, 115, 118

    Christian influence on, 73–74, 142

    congregational control of, 130

    in English, 66, 74, 121, 132, 142, 291, 635, 688

    in German, 59, 66, 74, 74, 82, 98, 121, 290, 572, 615

    importance of, 133, 617, 697

    in Orthodox synagogs, 121, 625

    on political themes, 79

    published versions of, 509, 573

    on slavery, 18, 28

    by women, 470, 471–472

    in Yiddish, 627, 628, 698

    See also Freedom of the pulpit

Servants, 278, 324

Service industries, 278

The Service Manual (Krauskopf), 657

The Settlement Cook Book: The Way to a Man’s Heart, 446

Settlement houses

    as Downtown institutions, 415, 444

    and Jewish identity, 620

    and juvenile delinquency, 456

    and National Council of Jewish Women, 462, 474

    personnel of, 209, 444, 445, 482, 491, 496

    philanthropic supporters of, 368, 405, 415, 449

    programs of, 415–416, 419, 445, 446, 507, 539, 546, 555, 618

    See also names of settlement houses

Seventh-Day Adventists, 101

Seventh-Day Baptists, 160

Seward, William H., 54, 290, 376

Sewing machines, 231

Sewing societies, 447, 452, 489, 638, 693

Seymour, Ind., 385

Shaare Emeth Congregation (St. Louis), 79

Shakespeare, William, 167, 328, 329, 539, 565

Shaler, Nathaniel S., 173

Shamberg, Henry, 261

Shapira, M. W., 540

Sharfman, Isaiah Lee, 318

Sharps and Flats (Maretzek), 306

Shaw, George Bernard, 308

Shearith Israel Congregation (New York City)

    and Blumenthal, 631

    and Jewish education, 592, 610

    memorial services at for Harrison and Lincoln, 364

    and Mendes, 623

    Mill Street building of, 469

    and Noah, 191, 298, 592

    and Orthodox Judaism, 121, 139, 576

    Sephardic liturgy of, 556

    and Temple Emanu-El, 140, 610

    250th anniversary of founding of, 405

Sheffield, Ala., 262

Sheftall, Levi, 15

Sheftall, Mordecai, 227

Sheftall family, 152

Shehitah (ritual slaughter), 665

Sheridan, Philip H., 343

Sherith Israel Congregation (San Francisco), 696

Sherman, William Tecumseh, 48, 49

Shipping Board, U.S., 247

Shoe industry, 230, 286

Shoenberg family, 250

Shofar (ram’s horn) Gentile hired to blow, 693

Sholem Aleichem, 632

Shopkeepers. See Retail establishments

Showboat (Kern), 342

Shrouds, 452

Shubert, Jacob J., 329, 334

Shubert, Lee, 329, 334

Shubert, Sam S., 329, 334

Shulhan Arukh, 586

Shwayder Trunk Manufacturing Co., 222

Shylock (literary character), 143, 166, 167, 188, 263, 328, 330–331, 373

Siddur. See Liturgy and prayerbooks

Sidis, Boris, 319

Der Sieg des Judenthums ueber das Germanenthum (Marr), 145

Siegel, Cooper & Co., 250

Siegel, Henry, 250

Silber, Lewis, 386

Silver, Abba Hillel, 650

Silver, Herman, 216

Silverman, Sime, 312

Silversmiths, 346

Simhat Torah (Rejoicing of the Law), 423, 698

Simon, Fred, 207

Simon, Joseph, 194, 196

Simon, Samuel, 16

Simpson, Joseph, 346

Simson, Sampson, 95

Sinai (periodical), 20, 78

Sinai Congregation (Chicago)

    and Chicago fire, 387

    founding and early history of, 67–68

    Hebrew at, 595

    rabbis and beadles of

          Felsenthal, 67, 68

          Hirsch, 8, 470, 471, 595, 652, 692, 699

          Mayer, 261

    Sunday service at, 707

    and University of Chicago, 519, 651

    women’s status at, 470

Sinai Literary Association (Chicago), 508

Sinai Social Center (Chicago), 692

Singer, Isidore, 541

Singers, 321, 327, 337. See also Cantors

Singing waiters, 342

Sing-Sing Prison (New York), 449

Sisterhood for Personal Service (Milwaukee), 446

Sisterhoods, 452, 494, 638, 693, 695–696, 698, 701

    Christian origin of term, 695

Sisterhoods of Personal Service, 466–467, 479, 513

Sivitz, M. S., 623

Sketches of Jewish Life and History (Gersoni), 573

Skilled workers, 220–221, 277, 278, 284, 403. See also names of trades and crafts

Skullcaps, at worship, 71, 686. See also Head covering, at worship

Skyscrapers, 267, 351

Slaton, John M., 154

Slattery, Father (unfrocked priest in Savannah), 365

Slavery

    in Bible, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 526

    as cause of Civil War, 14

    defenders of, 15, 18, 23, 24, 26

    Greenebaum’s rescue of fugitive slave, 471

    liaisons with slave women, 16

    manumissions, 15, 16, 25

    opponents of, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 36, 471, 471

    Russell’s songs attacking, 335

    slave-owners, 14–16

    slave traders, 14, 15, 26

Slavery Amongst the Ancient Hebrews (Mielziner), 526

Slidell, Thomas, 34

Slimmer, Abraham, 367, 461

Smallpox, 357, 447

Smith, Alfred E., 209

Smith, Charles (“Silver Dollar Charley”), 217

Smith, Gerrit, 342

Smith, Goldwin, 171, 536

Smith, Henry, 32

Smith, Richard Mayo, 174

Smithsonian Institution, 377, 520, 555

Smuggling, 49

Snellenburg, Joseph, 249

Snellenburg, N., & Co., 249

Snellenburg, Nathan, 249

Snellenburg, Samuel, 249

Soap manufacturers, 208

Social acceptance, 287, 616

    of converts by Christians, 401, 402

    of immigrants by Reform Jews, 686

    Jewish desire for, 404

    of Jews, 93, 94, 295–296, 369–371, 376, 378–379, 381, 382, 390, 402, 403

    by presidents, 380

    and stage portrayals of Jews, 373

Social and civic reform, 365–366, 371, 571

    and women’s clubs, 468

Social and financial mobility, 264, 265, 266, 279–280, 281–282, 283, 284, 287. See also Suburbanization

Social Democratic Party (Russia), 208–209

Social Gospel, 113, 116, 480, 494, 657, 671, 676

Socialism, 210–213, 214, 241, 309, 311, 433, 445, 538, 567, 569, 571, 579, 601, 626

    and assimilation, 213

    and unionization, 237

Socialist Labor Party, 237, 241, 567

Socialist Party, 241, 242, 243

    first member elected to Congress, 211

Social justice movement, 675, 701

Social organizations, 408, 424, 425–427, 428, 430, 431. See also names of organizations

Social prejudice, 159–161, 163

    in armed forces, 161

    in club memberships, 160–161

    in colleges and schools, 161

    in employment, 159

    in housing, 159

    in public accommodations, 160

    in schools, 159

    See also Anti-Semitism

Social reform/social welfare, 50, 201, 202, 205–210, 222, 245, 259, 265, 285, 286, 325–326, 357, 386, 449, 450, 475, 503, 581, 651, 651, 671, 671, 673, 675, 695, 695, 701, 715

    activism as outlet for idealism of nonaffiliated, 705

    and Ethical Culture, 394

    foundations devoted to, 435, 443

    and fraternal orders, 461–462

    Jewish agencies compared to Gentile, 504, 505

    in Jewish tradition, 431

    as literary theme, 581

    number of agencies, 504

    See also Social workers

Social Science Review, 205

Social scientists, 315

Social workers, 325, 463, 467, 468, 481, 489, 504, 623, 646, 673, 698

    female, 488, 494, 495, 548

    Kohler’s view of, 495

    professional, 490–496

    volunteer, 489, 546

Society for Jewish Renascence, 643

Society for the Conversion of Jews, 401

Society for the Promotion of the Science of Judaism, 518

Society of American Authors, 590

Society of Jewish Social Workers of Greater New York, 498

Society to Prevent Cruelty to Animals and Children, 700

Soil chemists, 439

Solidarity, Jewish. See Communal and kinship feelings, Jewish

Solis, Jacob S., 453

Solis-Cohen, Solomon, 543, 596

Solomon, Hannah Greenebaum, 470, 471, 472

Solomon, Jacob P., 301

Solomons, Adolphus S., 51, 308, 371, 377

Solomons, Sampson S., 223

Soloveichik, Hayyim, 716

Some Aspects of Rabbinic Theology (Schechter), 517

Somerset County, N.J., 258

Songwriters. See Composers, librettists, and songwriters

Sonneborn, Henry, 232

Sonneborn, Jonas, 232

Sonnenthal, Adolph Ritter von, 330–331

Sonneschein, Rosa, 508, 583

Sonneschein, Solomon H., 73, 79, 117

South Bend, Ind., 387

South Carolina, University of, 451

South Carolina Historical Society, 381

South Dakota

    Jewish farming settlements, 438

Southern California, University of, 381

Southern Jewry, 23, 26, 27, 201, 255–258, 306, 323, 345, 362, 363, 469, 499, 548, 599, 690

Southern Pacific Railroad, 223

Southern Patriot, 309

Southern Quarterly Review, 306

Southern Rabbinical Conference, 647

Southern Railroad, 268

Southworth, Emma D. E., 578

Spain, expulsion from, 310, 424

Spanish-American War, 161, 208, 364, 378, 623, 657, 700

Spanish-MoroccanWar, 501

Sparger, William, 556

Spartanburg, S.C., 322

Speaker, Henry M., 514

Spear Co., 246

Spectator, 285

Speculators, 90

Speyer, James J., 263, 366, 370, 399

Speyer, Philip, 262

Spiegel, Modie, 247

Spingarn, Joel E., 189, 258, 308

Spinoza societies, 404

Spirit of the Ghetto (Hapgood), 345

Spitz, Moritz, 615

Spivak, Charles David, 357

Spottsylvania, battle of, 33

Sprague, William, 182

Springer, N.Mex., 383

Springfield, Ill., 369

Sprudel’s Club (Buffalo, N.Y.), 425

Stalin, Joseph, 209

Standard Club (Buffalo, N.Y.), 420, 426, 429

Stanton, Edwin M., 352

Stark, Edward, 558

States’ rights, 23, 36

Statesville, N.C., 221

Statisticians, 186, 272, 317, 534

Statue of Liberty, 577

Steamship companies, 228

Steffens, Lincoln, 389

Stein, Gertrude, 320, 324

Steinbach, Lewis W., 515

Steindler, Arthur, 357

Steiner, Burghard, 267

Steiner, Edward Alfred, 362

Steiner Brothers, 267

Steinhardt, Jakob, 555

Steinitz, William, 315

Steinschneider, Moritz, 510, 534

Stenographers, 278

Stern, Frances, 325, 488–489

Stern, J. David, 312

Stern, Simon Adler, 304

Sterne, Malcolm, 400

Sterne, Maurice, 346, 350

Sterne, Simon, 205–206, 217

Stettheimer (New York oil entrepreneur), 223

Stewart, A. T., 54, 157, 190, 251

Stiefel, Joseph, 254

Stieglitz, Alfred, 347, 354

Stieglitz, Julius, 353

Still, Peter, 15

Stix, Baer & Fuller, 250

Stix, Louis, 23, 282

Stock and Bond Exchange (San Francisco), 267

Stock and commodity exchanges, 265

Stock raisers, 31

Stock speculators, 448

Stoecker, Adolf, 101, 145

Stokes, James Graham Phelps, 399, 570

Stolz, Joseph, 715

Stone, Melville E., 187

Stone, Rosetta, 489

Storekeepers. See Retail establishments

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 319

Strakosch, Max, 334, 336, 340

Strakosch, Moritz, 335, 336

Strasburg, Sallie, 272

Strassburg, University of, 527

Strasser, Adolph, 207

Straus, Adolph Delisle, 310

Straus, Frederick William, 266

Straus, Ida (Mrs. Isidor Straus), 253

Straus, Isidor, 199, 207, 251, 252, 253

Straus, L., & Sons, 251

Straus, Lazarus, 251, 252

Straus, Levi, 286

Straus, Lina (Mrs. Nathan Straus), 253

Straus, Nathan, 199, 207, 251, 252, 253, 287

Straus, Oscar S., 253, 380, 415

    as ambassador to Turkey, 157, 160, 198, 199, 200, 252, 361, 380

    denied admission to New York club, 160

    and Hague Court, 200

    as Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 200, 252, 508

    as victim of “Potomac fever,” 215

    and Yale’s Hebraic Club, 508

Straus, Simon William, 26

Straus, S. W., & Co., 266

Straus family, 15, 45, 266, 286, 458, 536

Strauss, David Friedrich, 67

Street railways, 222, 223

Strikes, 207, 237, 238, 239

    cloakmakers’ strike (1910), 238, 270

    steel strike (1919), 243, 653

Strong, Josiah, 172, 676, 676

Strong, William, 149

Strouse, Myer, 195

Struck, Hermann, 555

The Student Prince (Romberg), 342

Stuyvesant, Peter, 146, 508

Suburbanization, 419, 690, 713

    and Americanization, 565

    and Yiddish, 572

Sudermann, Hermann, 337, 365

Sugar industry, 226, 576

Sugarland, 226

Sulamith (Damrosch), 294

Sullivan, Frank, 351

Sullivan, John L., 331

Sulzberger, Mayer

    and Adler, 520

    and American Jewish Committee, 275, 516

    as bibliophile, 274, 539, 540

    and Jewish Publication Society, 274, 542, 543, 544

    and Jewish Theological Seminary, 274

    as lawyer and judge, 274, 516

    writings of, 274, 516

    and Young Men’s Hebrew Association, 274, 414

Sulzer, Salomon, 59, 74, 556

Summer boarders, 438

Summer camps, 413, 453, 467, 482

Sunday closing laws (blue laws), 101, 149, 151, 182, 184, 204, 217, 280, 403, 625, 637, 665

Sunday Commons (Boston), 80, 118, 650

Sunday schools, Christian, 392

    Jews attending, 397, 401

Sunday schools, Jewish. See Sabbath and Sunday schools

Sunday services, 66, 78, 78, 79, 80, 87, 111, 112, 117, 120, 125, 125, 130, 138, 211, 299, 387, 393, 518, 650, 651, 651, 655, 688, 691, 707, 708, 714

Supreme Court, U.S., 275, 406

    reversal of Berger espionage conviction, 211

Surinam, 16

Sutro, Adolph, 166, 540

Sweatshops, 80, 234, 235, 357, 569, 620, 672

    Fannie Hurst employed in, 580

    and tuberculosis, 463

Sweden, 198

Swedenborgians, 193

Swedish Jews, in U.S., 18

Sweet Caporal cigarettes, 226

Swiss Affair, 191

Swiss Jews, in U.S., 223, 558

Swiss Treaty (1851), 379

Swope, Herbert Bayard, 311

Sylvester, James Joseph, 302–303, 353

Symphony Club (Philadelphia), 405

Synagogs

    adjudication of intra-Jewish disputes by, 404

    affiliation with, 703

          as basis for status, 141

          as means of earning Gentile respect, 404

          to provide education for children, 705

          rate of, 391, 704, 708–709, 712

          for social reasons, 421, 424, 430

    ark cover with patriotic symbols, 364

auctioning of honors in, 59, 71, 121, 138

auxiliaries of, 466, 468, 695, 695–696

buildings, 131, 141

    architectural styles of, 350, 351, 690

    Census Bureau valuations of Jewish religious property, 487, 618, 629

    Christian contributions to help finance, 384

    as reflection of growing Jewish prosperity, 282

    renovated churches as, 387, 690, 704

and burial societies, 452

cantors as financial asset to, 621

charitable activities of, 431, 487, 493, 499, 500

and Christian congregations, 387

Christian influences on, 60, 61, 74, 98, 141–142, 298, 556, 690, 690

Christians as organists in, 388, 556

closed for summer vacation periods, 691

“congregation” rather than “synagog” preferred term for, 298

constitutions and governance of, 196, 291, 689, 698, 702

dancing in, 692

decorum in, 121, 129, 630

dedications of, 384

family pews, 60, 61, 688

functionaries of, 132, 261, 556, 642, 689. See also Cantors; Rabbis

and German language, 291, 559

for the hard of hearing, 461

and intermarriage, 397, 398, 621

and Jewish education, 473, 549, 552, 597, 606, 608, 614, 615, 692, 705, 705

lay prayer leaders in, 93, 249

Lewin’s historical sketches of, 535

membership and dues of, 17, 397, 398, 636, 642, 673, 689, 690, 696, 702

as microcosm of Jewish community, 695

minutes of, 500

mixed seating in, 121

officers of, 32, 130, 140, 199, 216, 225, 266, 275, 289, 417, 420, 483, 489, 490, 530, 626, 689, 696, 699, 702, 703

Orthodox, 621, 630, 691

as outlets for philanthropy, 448

publications of, 583, 692

Reform, 688, 691, 692

and secular dating system, 298

services, attendance at

    difficulty of obtaining minyan, 120

          Friday night, 690

          Saturday morning, 391, 691

    and settlement houses, 415

    and social welfare issues, 431, 441, 493, 494

    and social workers, 493

    as sociocultural centers, 691, 692

    on “synagog row,” 690

    and the unaffiliated, 691

    as unifying force, 140

    women’s status in, 408, 469, 469, 470, 642, 673, 715

    youth organizations of, 595

    See also names of synagogs

Synagogue Center (New York City), 636

Synagog union, proposed, 103

“The Syndicate” (theatrical booking cartel), 329

Synod movement, 661, 663, 662, 664

Syracuse, N.Y., 33

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 233, 276, 329

Systematischer Katechismus der israelitischen Religion (Hirsch), 610

Szold, Benjamin, 73, 76–77, 303, 520, 649

Szold, Henrietta, 303, 319, 370, 410, 448, 533, 546, 589

Szold, Rachel (Mrs. Joseph Jastrow), 370

Tabernacles (Sukkot), 134, 609, 642, 691, 698

Taft, William Howard, 215

    appointed Jewish judge, 204

    and Brandeis, 203

    and Jewish Republicans, 209

    and Nathan Straus, 253

    and Oscar Straus, 199, 200

    reprimanded anti-Semitic colonel, 162

    and Schiff, 270, 287

    vetoed immigrant literacy bill, 174, 179

Tageblatt, 570

Tailors, 221, 276, 341, 349, 568, 569, 686

Talbotton, Ga., 45, 251

Talmud, 516, 610

    in adult education, 419, 508

    and Conservative Judaism, 524

    editions of, 630, 684

    at Hebrew Union College, 521, 525–526

    in Jewish Encyclopedia, 515

    at Jewish Theological Seminary, 123, 640

    Noah’s interest in, 592

    and Orthodox Judaism, 511, 524, 592, 604, 625, 627, 628

    at Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, 554

    and Reform Judaism, 62, 75

    study aids and reference works on, 77, 511, 515, 524, 524, 526, 541, 656

    talmudists and teachers/translators of Talmud

          Ashinsky, 627

          Dembitz, 515

          Ehrlich, 523

          Falk, 511

          Ginzberg, 528

          Hirsch, 595–596

          Jastrow, 77, 524

          Kohler, 523

          Kohut, 123, 524

          Lilienthal, 592

          Margolis, 523

          Mielziner, 349, 521, 525–526

          Raphall, 18

          Rice, 510

          Speaker, 514

    Wise’s view of, 57, 61

Der Talmudjude (Rohling), 146

Talmud Torahs, 550, 602, 603, 603, 604, 606, 609, 612, 613, 614, 624, 627, 627

Tammany Hall, 207, 208, 208, 209, 212, 214, 217, 252, 445, 567, 631, 671

Tancred (Disraeli), 173

Taney, Roger, 39

Tanners, 227, 448

Tarboro, N.C., 265, 413

Tariffs, 206, 310

Tarshish, Allan, 397, 400, 699

Taussig, Frank William, 266

Taussig, William, 266

Taussig family, 266, 396

Taylor, Bayard, 508

Taylor, Zachary, 290

Taylorsville, Calif., 584

Teachers, 494

    in agricultural schools, 439

    of art, 339

    of Hebrew, 388, 494, 511, 562

    in Jewish schools, 489, 491, 494, 495, 511, 549–552, 551, 560, 611

    of music, 294, 321, 338, 340, 341, 343, 467

    in public schools, 211, 271, 272, 276, 294, 323

    in settlement houses, 495, 527

    of singing, 340

    summer courses for, 548

    training of, 548, 549–552, 553, 592, 594, 595, 692

    in vocational schools, 491

    See also College and university teachers

Teenagers, 508. See also Youth organizations

Telephone industry, 222

Telescopic artillery sights, 352

Temperance movement, 22, 204

Temple Emanu-El (Milwaukee), 384

Temple Emanu-El (New York City)

    and Felix Adler, 392, 394

    brotherood and sisterhood of, 467, 468, 513, 695

    educational and scholarship programs of, 95, 97, 98, 115, 510, 608, 610

    and English translation of marriage certificate, 298

    family pews at, 469

    Fifth Avenue building of, 131, 282, 351

    freedom of the pulpit at, 130, 652, 678, 686

    and Richard Gottheil, 652

    Hebrew at, 610

    and Hebrew Union College, 98

    and Hirsch, 651

    income and expenditures of, 131, 282

    and interfaith relations, 385, 387

    library of, 539

    and Lilienthal, 381

    members of, 276, 284

          Hannah Einstein, 468

          Marshall, 275, 652

          Seligman, 157, 394

    mission school of, 608

    music in service at, 74

    and proposed religious congress, 59

    rabbis and preachers of, 685

          Adler, 78, 95, 392, 513, 678

          De Cordova, 678

          Enelow, 656

          Gustave Gottheil, 66, 159, 394, 513, 652, 680

          Gutheim, 543

          Magnes, 649

          Merzbacher, 66, 130

    relief and social-welfare activities by, 140, 513, 608, 675, 695

          Sunday school of, 495

    and Isaac M. Wise, 59, 91, 95, 130

    and Stephen Wise, 652

    and Zionism, 649, 678, 680

Temple Israel (St. Louis), 79, 688

“Temple of the Winds” (Loeb), 348

Temple Sholom (Chicago), 693

Temple Tifereth Israel (Cleveland), 483

Ten Commandments, 75, 90

Tenement house inspectors, 494

Tennessee, 277

    State Senate, 389

    University of, 548

Tennyson, Alfred, 421

Terefah Banquet, 108, 123, 123, 125, 125

Territorialism, 440

Terry, Elen, 327, 336

Testaments. See Wills and testaments

Texas, 227, 249, 261, 438, 538, 646

Textbooks, 533, 549, 552, 610, 617

Textile industry, 240, 257, 259, 286

    manufacturers, 258, 267, 268, 489

    sewing and machine silks, 489

    workers, 357

    See also Garment industry

Thalhimer, William, 249

Thalmann & Co., 268

Thalmessinger, M., 265

Thanksgiving Day, 82, 403, 667, 691

    interdenominational services on, 117, 700

    proclamations of, 69, 101, 149

Theatre managers, 306

Theatre Guild, 334

Theatres, 371, 406

Theatrical agents, 336

Thesaurus of Medieval Poetry (Davidson), 527

They Who Knock at Our Gates (Antin), 324

Thomas, Theodore, 427

Thompson Starrett Construction Co., 262

Thuringer, Charles, 279

Thuringer, Samuel, 279

Tichner, Abe, 260

Tifereth Israel Congregation (Cleveland), 514

Tillman, Benjamin, 310

Timayenis, Telemachus T., 170, 177, 182

Tisza-Eszlar ritual-murder accusation, 123

Tobacco industry, 225–226, 277, 438. See also Cigarmakers

Tolstoy, Leo, 316, 436, 565, 657

Tombstone, Ariz., 193

Tombstones, 15, 537

Torah reading, in synagog, 63, 71, 694

    by females, 469

Torpedo gun, 352

Torres, Luis de, 536

Toscanini, Arturo, 328, 337

“To the West, to the Land of the Free” (Russell), 335

Touro, Judah, 30, 343, 367, 448, 508

Touro Infirmary (New Orleans), 458, 478

Towanda, Pa., 139

Traders’ Bank (St. Louis), 266

Transcendentalism, 393

Translators/translations, 18, 123, 304, 306, 315, 319, 323, 324, 351, 513, 515, 516, 524, 543, 546, 560, 567, 574, 576, 585, 586

    of American patriotic materials, 537, 562

    from German, 573

    of Hebrew classics, 617

    from Yiddish, 573

Transparent window envelopes, 352

Traubel, Horace, 310

Treasury Department, U.S., 346

Treatise on the Law of Sale of Personal Property (Benjamin), 38

Tree of Life Congregation (Columbia, S.C.), 636–637

Triangle Waist Co. Fire, 500

Tribune, Kans., 438

Trinidad, Colo., 326, 423

Trinity Church (New York City), 383

Trotsky, Leon, 209, 311

Troy, N.Y., 316, 452

Troy (Treu), Ernst, 290

Truants, 505

Truck farming, 438

Trudeau, Edward Livingston, 463

Trunkmakers, 31

Truscon Steel Co., 288

Tuberculosis, 253, 357, 366, 463, 464, 479, 481, 482, 488, 498, 512, 568, 700

Tuggle, W. O., 164

Turkey, 157, 160, 197, 199, 361, 501

    as “ghetto” appointment for Jewish diplomats, 198, 200

    Jews of, 472

Turner, Frederick Jackson, 172, 370

Tumvereins, 21, 211, 289, 291

Tuscumbia, Ala., 15

Tuska, Simon, 365, 510

Tuskegee Institute, 672

Tutors, 133

Twain, Mark, 161, 168, 205, 312, 341, 348, 416

Tweed, Thurlow, 139

Tweed, William M., 90, 158, 205, 217

Two Rivers, Wis., 285

Tyler, John, 343, 371

Typesetters, 357

Typhus, 357

Uganda, as substitute for Palestine, 440

Ukraine, 519

    Jews of, 318, 503

Ullman, Bernard, 335

Ulmann, Albert, 265

Umbrella industry, 39, 230

Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Stowe), 21, 26, 331

Underground Railroad, 22

Undertakers, 453

Union Health Center (New York City), 357

Union Hotel (Saratoga, N.Y.), 156

Union League Club, 157, 158, 160

Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 282, 497, 610, 636

    agriculture committee, 100

    and Alliance Israélite, 103

    and anti-Semitism, 154, 665–666, 686

    autonomy of member congregations, 647

    and Bernheim, 654, 655

    and Board of Delegates for Civic and Religious Rights, 103, 107

    and Board of Delegates of American Israelites, 99–100

    and Central Conference of American Rabbis, 125

    in Cincinnati, 497

    and circuit work, 701

    and Columbian Exposition, 536

    Commission on Information About Judaism, 648

    and Congress of Liberals, 386

    constitution and governance of, 91, 98, 215, 458, 607

    conventions and meetings of, 417, 433, 436, 469

    Department of Synagogue and School Extension, 593, 607, 613

    and dietary laws, 108

    and Dreyfus Affair, 102

    and East European immigrants, 433

    effort of to gain national hegemony, 709, 710

    “Hebrew” in name of, 375

    and Hebrew Union College, 96, 124, 124, 632

    and home missions, 92

    and Jewish Chautauqua Society, 547

    and Jewish education, 552, 593, 607, 610, 688

    and Jewish Publication Society, 543

    lay influence and control of, 91, 672

    leftward trend of, 623, 709

    and Loth, 90, 215, 221, 436, 577

    and mission schools, 603, 608

    and National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods, 468

    in New York, 137

    nominally not Reform at outset, 126, 135

    and Orthodox Judaism, 90, 619, 646

    and Pittsburgh Platform, 119

    program and goals of, 92, 646, 709

    and proposed agricultural college, 436

    and religious issues, 85, 529

    resolution by denouncing anti-Jewish violence, 153

    and Russian Jewry, 686

    secession of Rodeph Shalom from, 121

    and settling Jews in West, 100

    size and affiliates of, 91, 642, 645, 661 712, 713

    small-town focus of, 646, 675

    and social justice movement, 215, 672, 674, 675

    and synod movement, 661, 663, 664

    and training of religious-school teachers, 551

    as unifying force, 709

    and United Synagogue, 637

    and Wise, 71, 90, 91, 137, 661

    and Young Israel, 584

    and Zepin, 646

    and Zionism, 680, 681

Union of Jewish Literary Societies of Great Britain, 549

Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations, 186, 623–624, 636, 642, 645, 661, 712

Union of Orthodox Rabbis, 530, 624–625, 627, 630, 634

Union Pacific Railroad, 265

Union Prayer Book, 127, 127, 127, 556, 556, 562, 562, 648, 648, 661, 661, 688, 688, 688, 715, 715, 715

Unions, 179, 202, 206, 207, 285, 293, 318, 371, 620, 671, 672, 674

    and garment industry, 231, 236–244

    and discrimination against Jews, 182

    and immigration restrictions, 182, 211

    and Schiff, 270

    and women, 470

    See also names of unions

Union Stock Yards (Indianapolis), 222

Union Theological Seminary, 388, 512

Unitarianism, 11, 79, 80, 16, 130, 149, 202, 385, 393, 396, 585, 667, 670, 675, 681, 711

United Cigar Manufacturers, 268

United Cloth Hat and Cap Makers Union, 237

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 345

United Garment Workers, 239, 240

United Hebrew Beneficent Society (Philadelphia), 476

United Hebrew Charities of New York, 444, 451, 468, 478, 479

United Hebrew Charities of Philadelphia, 478, 479, 480, 489, 490, 494, 495, 496, 499, 504

United Hebrew Relief Association (Chicago), 477, 497

United Hebrew Trades, 237, 238, 241

United Jewish Charities (Cincinnati), 464, 482, 482, 495, 505

United Jewish Social Agencies (Cincinnati), 482

United National Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, 39

United Order of True Sisters, 462

United States Hotel (Atlantic City, N.J.), 190

United States Steel Corp., 632

    1919–20 strike, 243, 653

United States Trust Co., 252

United Synagogue of America

    Adler’s presidency of, 634

    former Orthodox synagogs as members of, 636, 642

    founding and program of, 637–638, 645, 662

    growth of, 644

    and women’s status, 470

    and Zionism, 679

United Synagogue of London, 89

United Young Men’s Hebrew Association of America, 417

Unity and centralization, striving for, 396, 479, 483, 508, 709

Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 319, 654

Universal Pictures, 332

Universal Races Congress, 395

University Club (Cincinnati), 160

University of the City of New York, 512

Untermyer, Samuel, 209, 274, 275

Uprising of the 20,000, 238

Uptown vs. Downtown, 599

Urban League, 365

Ury, Lesser, 555

U.S. Military Commission to the Crimea, 348

U.S. News and World Report, 311

Utah, 194, 207, 223

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 228, 229

Utopia Club (Boston), 425

Utopian socialism, 22

Vallandigham, Clement L., 29, 43

The Valley of the Ghosts (Holzman), 139

Van Buren, Martin, 171

Vance, Zebulon B., 152, 172, 374

Vanderbilt, William K., 337

Van Vechten, Carl, 309

Variety, 312

Venereal diseases, 174

Venezuela, 223

Verein der Lichtfreunde (Friends of Light), 67

Vereinigung der liberalen Rabbiner Deutschlands, 711

Verein zus Abwehr ders Antisemitismus, 185

Versailles Peace Conference. See Paris Peace Conference

Vicksburg, Miss,

    during Civil War, 132, 257

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 31, 279

    interfaith relations in, 365

    laity’s role in, 132, 140

    synagogs and rabbis of, 132, 257, 384, 575, 686

Victoria, Tex., 266

Victory of Judaism over Teutonism (Marr), 145

Vienna, University of, 533

Views on the Synod (Central Conference of American Rabbis), 662

Vigilantes, 381

Vincennes, Ind., 228, 250, 391

Vindiciae Judaeorum (Levy), 306

Violence, instances of against Jews, 152–153

    cemetery desecration, 153

    against Christian officiant at intermarriage, 398

    against non-Jews, 153–154

    See also Lynchings

Violinists, 294, 308, 336, 337, 338, 339, 341, 353

Virginia, 23

    House of Delegates, 18

    University of, 148, 301, 302

Virginia City, Nev., 195

Vitamins, 354

Viticulture, 228, 438

Vocational education, 305, 436, 444, 445, 446, 450, 452, 455, 462, 467, 473, 479, 489, 498, 504, 505, 603, 612

Volunteer firemen, 289, 435

Voorsanger, Jacob, 711

Vulcan (ship), 377

Wade, Benjamin, 36

Wagner, Richard, 144, 558, 692

Waksman, Abram S., 177

Wald, Gus, 160

Wald, Lillian, 189, 209, 366, 444, 445, 446, 488, 575

Waldorf Astoria Hotel (New York City), 262

Waldstein, Charles, 573

Waldstein, Louis, 319

Waldstein family, 318

Walker, T., 371

Wallace, Isaac, 221

Wallace, Lew, 360

Waller, Josephine, 272

Walston, Charles J., 258, 316

Wanamaker, John, 157

Warbeck, Perkin, 401

Warburg, David, 16

Warburg, Felix M., 270, 334, 449, 637

Warburg, Paul M., 203, 270

Warburg family, 287

Ward, H. H., 32

Warfield, David, 330, 331, 332

War Finance Corporation, 201

War Industries Board, 201

Warner, Charles D., 172

Warner brothers, 332, 333

War of 1812, 30, 192, 346, 366

Washington (state), 194

    Jewish farming settlements, 438

Washington, Booker T., 672

Washington, D.C., 27, 138, 367

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 222, 250, 276, 309

    Jewish chaplain in army hospitals in, 44

    and Jewish farming settlements, 434

    Jews in press corps of, 311

    proposed national Jewish military hospital, 42, 364

Washington, George, 191, 380, 537

    Calisch’s memorial address for, 700

Washington and Lee University, 223

Washington National Museum, 519

Waste materials business, 277

Watchmakers, 349, 553

Water companies, 228

Watertown, N.Y., 280

Watertown, Wis., 322, 391

Watervliet, N.Y., 25

Watson, Thomas E., 155, 166, 178

Watts, Isaac, 148–149

Watts, T. H., 38

Waverly, Iowa, 367

Waverly and Bremer County Independent, 367

Waynesville, N.C., 15

Webb, Beatrice, 209

Weber, Joseph, 331

Weber, Max, 350

Weber & Fields (vaudeville team), 331

Webster, Daniel, 290, 378

Wechsler, Joseph, 252

Wechsler, Judah, 365

Wechsler, Abraham (department store), 252

Weddings, 420–421, 693

Weil, Abram Lincoln, 447

Weil, Isaac Henry, 304

Weill, Raphael, 250

Weinstock, Harris, 668

Weis, Julius, 23, 279, 280

Welch, William, 354

Wenk family, 32

Werne, Isaac, 626

Werner, Adolph, 302

Wesley, John, 59

Westchester County, N.Y., 453

Westheimer family, 229

West Point (U.S. Military Academy), 25, 32, 161, 377

West Point, Ga., 33

West Roxbury, Mass., 704

West Virginia, 194

Weydemeyer, Joseph, 211

Weyl, Walter E., 209, 311, 414

What Is Music (Rice), 286

What Jews Believe (Reform tract), 648

Wheeling, W.Va., 225

Whig Party, 192, 193

Whiskey Ring, 211

White, Andrew D., 106, 146, 147, 379

“A White Christmas” (Berlin), 342

White-collar workers, 236, 245, 276, 276, 277, 278, 283, 285, 313

“White gold,” 352

White House (department store), 250

White House Conference on Child Welfare (1909), 457

White slavery, 178, 473, 671

White supremacy, and Jews, 152

Whitman, Walt, 310

Whittier, John Greenleaf, 380, 421

Wholesalers, jobbers, and distributors

    advertising by, 246, 247

    clothing, 53, 229, 231, 232, 247, 265, 266, 268, 285, 286, 542, 543

    dry goods, 53, 199, 229, 233, 245, 267, 269, 279, 282

    general merchandise, 266

    groceries, 228, 258, 550

    liquor, 229, 276, 654

    meat, 227

    millinery, 207, 246, 340

    notions, 221

    paper, 222

    shoes, 230

    tobacco, 53, 285, 511

Who’s Who (1905 ed.), number of Jews listed, 407

Who’s Who in American Jewry (1926 ed.), 118

Why the Bible Should Not Be Read in Public Schools (UAHC pamphlet), 186

Widows, 452, 453, 458, 460, 466, 476, 498

    pensions for, 636

Wiener, Leo, 316, 569, 681

Wiernik, Peter, 537, 570

Wiesenfeld, Betsey Friedenwald, 71, 447

Wife desertion, 63, 452, 464, 465, 479, 484

Wilde, Oscar, 328

Wile, Frederic William, 311

Wile, Jacob, 93

Willamette Canal, 222

William Salomon & Co., 264

Willowski, David, 622

Willowski, Jacob David, 628

Wills and testaments, 15, 16, 257, 258, 320, 367, 550

Wilmington, Del., 441

Wilmington, N.C., 377

Wilson, Henry, 36, 47

Wilson, Woodrow, 194, 331

    believed in Anglo-Saxon superiority, 172

    and Baruch, 201

    and Brandeis, 202–204 passim, 653

    and Calisch, 514, 700

    Davidson’s bust of, 346

    and Fourteen Points, 673

    and Jewish Relief Day, 502

    and Jewish voters, 213, 214

    Mielziner’s portrait of, 349

    and Morgenthau, 199–200

    and New Freedom, 207

    and Rayner, 197

    and Schiff, 214, 270

    and Untermyer, 209

    and Versailles Treaty guarantee of minority rights, 377, 653

    vetoed immigrant literacy bills, 179

    and Stephen Wise, 653

Wisconsin, 194, 211, 229, 232, 250

    State Legislature, 377

    University of, 174, 178, 279, 302, 303, 304, 370

Wise, Aaron, 122

Wise, Effie Miriam (Mrs. Adolph Ochs), 314

Wise, Isaac Mayer

    and abolitionists, 29

    added American to name of Israelite, 83, 364

    and Felix Adler, 394

    and Samuel Adler, 82

    on agricultural colonization, 450

    as Americanizer, 82–83, 137, 297, 363

    on American Revolution, 76

    on anti-Semitism, 189

    and Asmonean, 585

    as autodidact, 57

    on Bible, 61, 69, 75, 81, 112, 393, 521, 633, 639

    and Bloch, 588

    and Central Conference of American Rabbis, 58, 71, 85, 89, 125, 126, 127, 127, 136, 530

    on Christian acceptance of Judaism, 365

    and Christianity, 30, 59, 69, 76, 115, 116, 148, 360, 574

    and Christian missionaries, 43, 69

    on church and state, 69, 218

    and circumcision of proselytes, 80, 87, 112

    during Civil War, 28–29

    and Cleveland Conference, 60–61, 661

    and confirmation, 469

    contribution and status of, 18, 57, 61, 68–71, 80, 135, 143

    correspondence of, 82, 290

    on Darwinism, 81

    and Deborah, 82, 583

    as defender of faith, 69

    education and early life of, 57–58, 67

    and Einhorn, 70, 78, 82, 110, 137

    on English, 572

    and Ethical Culture, 157

    Ezekiel’s bust of, 171

    and Felsenthal, 523

    and Friday-night service, 72, 111

    and German language/culture, 70, 82, 290

    and Ginzberg, 521, 525

    on Gottheil’s hymnal, 556

    on Gries’ refusal to read from Torah scroll, 653

    and Hebrew Union College, 58, 71, 81, 89, 93, 94, 96–98, 519, 521, 527, 532, 552, 562, 631, 633, 641, 680

    and Higher Criticism, 81, 522, 553

    and Hirsch, 82

    on intermarriage, 398

    and Israelite, 80, 577, 585

    and Jewish education, 599

    on Jewish fraternal orders, 462

    and Jewish law, 59, 60, 80, 108, 141

    on Jewish self-defense, 218

    and Jewish Theological Seminary, 124

    and Kohler, 658

    and Krauskopf, 657

    and Leeser, 59, 96, 141, 633

    and Lilienthal, 58, 98

    and Lincoln, 29, 51, 57

    and Malter, 525

    and Margolis, 522

    marriage and family life of, 58, 69, 82, 290, 314

    and Merzbacher, 130

    and messianism, 60, 655

    and Mielziner, 526

    as missionary, 68

    and Morais, 123

    on need for Jewish encyclopedia and books, 541, 542

    on occupational distribution of Jews, 277

    at Ochs funeral, 388

    and Orthodox Judaism, 70, 120, 126, 620, 623, 658, 685, 685

    on Passover, 363

    patriotism of, 290, 363

    personality and character of, 69, 70

    and Pittsburgh Platform, 119, 120

    political affiliation of, 29, 61

    and political corruption, 206–207, 216

    as preacher, 82, 130, 385

    program and goals of, 29, 30, 58, 59, 61, 84, 85, 89, 125, 127, 416, 661

    rabbinical career of, 58–60, 61, 62, 75, 86, 91, 690

    on Russian immigrants, 447, 450

    on Sabbath, 130, 426

    and Sabbath School Visitor, 607

    as scholar, 57, 514, 521, 523

    and Seligman Affair, 157

    on slavery, 30

    on social clubs, 426, 427

    on social radicalism, 114

    and Sunday services