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NOTES

CHAPTER TWO

SLAVERY AND THE CIVIL WAR: PART I

  1. NCHR, 10:112, n.3; “Moses, Franklin J.,” DAB.

  2. Long, Civil War, 18; Meade, Judah P. Benjamin, 139 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:106-14.

  3. Marcus, CAJ, 2:697 ff.; Korn, Jews & Negro Slavery, 44; Marcus, AJD, 446-48; “Slave Trade,” EJ; PAJHS, 50:150 ff.; Ginsberg, Petersburg, 43; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 129-30.

  4. Marcus, CAJ, 2:704-5; Noah, Travels, 40; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 108 ff.; Charleston Courier, Aug. 4, 1835, copy in Marcus Collections; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:303-4; Whiteman (ed.), Kidnapped and Ransomed, 1 ff.

  5. W. & W., Philadelphia, 192; Marcus, AJD, 416-17, 446-47, 456-57; E. & L., Richmond, 297-98; B. & B.. JOUS, 1:192-93; Minutes, Mickve Israel, Savannah, Aug. 17, 1854, copy in AJAr; Korn, New Orleans, 151 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 80; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:295-96.

  6. PAJHS, 50:151 ff., 53:75; Whiteman (ed.), Kidnapped and Ransomed, 2 ff.

  7. Marcus, EAJ, 2:183; E. & L., Richmond, 85-86, 327 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 99 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 77; Will of Hannah Delyon, Apr. 8, 1843, Court of Ordinary, Chatham County, Georgia, copy in Marcus Collections; W. & W., Philadelphia, 190-91; B. & B., JOUS, 1:206 ff., 262, n.41, 297, n.114; Schappes, JIUS, 42; Whiteman (ed.), Kidnapped and Ransomed, 20 ff.; PAJHS, 37:447-48; Will of Jacob De La Motta, Will Book 43 (1839-1845), Charleston Probate Court, 834-35, copy in Marcus Collections; Will of Jacob Cohen: E. & L. Richmond, 330-34; Will of Manuel Myers: Collections of the New York Historical Society, 39:156-57; Will of Isaiah Isaacs, Chancery Court of the City of Richmond, Apr. 24, 1806, copy in Marcus Collections.

  8. B. & B., JOUS, 1:109, 206 ff.; Will of Isaac Rodriguez, proved Nov. 15, 1816, Box 6, p.358, 1816, Orphan’s Court, City of Philadelphia, copy in Marcus Collections; Meyer Heller, “Some Notes on 72 Selected Wills of Jews of Charleston, South Carolina” (HUC term paper, 1949), 9-11; Ginsberg, Jews of Virginia, 61; Korn, New Orleans, 179 ff.; A.A. Taylor, The Negro in South Carolina During the Reconstruction (N.Y., 1924), 98, 128; R. & E., Charleston, 160-61, 304, n.231; John W. Cromwell, The Negro in American History (Washington, 1914), 26, 180.

  9. Marcus, EAJ, 2:223-24; Marcus, CAJ, 1:166; W. & W., Philadelphia, 261; Whiteman (ed.), Kidnapped and Ransomed, 22-24; R. & E., Charleston, 78, 279, nn.46-47; AI, Apr. 3, 1857, p.309, c.4, p.310, c.1.

10. Schappes, DHJUS, 293 ff., 596-97; PAJHS. 5:137 ff., 9:45 ff., 10:129 ff., 50:151 ff.; Wittke, Refugees of Revolution, 199; Jewish Life, 8(no.8):15 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 190-92; B. & B., JOUS, 1:263-64, n.53.

11. Korn, Eventful Years, 98 ff., 114; HUCA, 23(part 2):95 ff.; PAJHS, 9:48-49; Korn, Civil War, 16 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 405 ff.; “Raphall, Morris Jacob,” DAB.

12. Sinai, 6:45 ff.; Asmonean, Aug. 8, 1856, p. 132, c.1; Whiteman (ed.), Kidnapped and Ransomed, 79; Essex Story, 45; Schappes, DHJUS, 99 ff., 118 ff., 134, 293 ff., 312 ff., 332-33, 394 ff., 405-36, 444-49; Korn, Civil War, 15 ff.; “Heilprin, Michael,” JE; Pollak, Michael Heilprin, 169 ff.

13. The Midwest Journal, Winter, 1955-56, 317-18, copy in Marcus Collections; Korn, Civil War, 21; Sinai, 2:599-601.

14. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:300; Schappes, JIUS, 90; AJA, 13:150 ff., 158-60; Schappes, DHJUS, 444 ff., 691, n.3; 5:147 ff.; AI, May 31, 1861, p.382, cs.3-4; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 15 ff.; Fein, Baltimore, 95 ff.; Korn, Civil War, 20 ff., 44; Oswald Haberman, “David Einhorn, Pioneer of American Reform Judaism” (HUC term paper, n.d.); Einhorn, Phila., to R. Oppenheimer, Phila., May 12, 1861, AJAr; “Einhorn, David,” DAB; Wallach, “Sinai,” 549-52; Morais, Eminent Israelites, 66 ff.; Sinai, 1:259, 353-59, 2:599-601, 5:365-73, esp. 369, 6:2, 21-22, 32, 135-42, 169-73.

15. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:20; Adler, Kansas City, 8; PAJHS, 5:152-54, 17:136; Historia Judaica, 5:191 ff., 203; Schappes, DHJUS, 476 ff.; Schappes, JIUS, 98: AJA, 13:217; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 271-72; “Anti-Slavery Movement and the Jews,” UJE; Abe L. Nebel, Cleveland, to American Jewish Archives, July 6, 1966, AJAr; Biographical material on the Horowitz family in the Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland; Virginia R. Hawley, Cleveland, to JRM, Jan. 9, 1970, Marcus Collections.

16. Wolf, American Jew, 425-26; Schappes, DHJUS, 312 ff.; Morris U. Schappes, “Jews in American Democratic Movements,” 10, (typescript, 1949), copy in Marcus Collections; “Rose, Ernestine Louise Siismondi Potowski,” DAB, NAW; Suhl, Ernestine Rose; AZJ, June 30, 1851, pp.311-12; PAJHS, 5:137 ff., 147, 154; Asmonean, Aug. 8, 1856, p.132, c.1; Korn, Civil War, 15-16, 27; Jewish Life, 3(no.5):13, 8(no.8):22 ff.; Wittke, Refugees of Revolution, 55, 87, 149, 152, 272; Mielziner, Moses Mielziner, 212 ff.; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 271-72; AJHS, 61:175.

17. Whiteman (ed.), Kidnapped and Ransomed, 45-46; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 225; PAJHS, 42:153-54, 49:250; Schappes, DHJUS, 332-333; Nevins & Commager, United States, 219; Wish, Society and Thought, 533; AJA, 13:165, 169-70; Occ., 18:260-61; AZJ, Aug. 5, 1862, pp.444-46; Morison, History, 605 ff.; Wolf, American Jew, 103-4; Jewish Life, 8(no.8):25; Ginsberg, Jews of Virginia, 75; Ochs, Memoir, 23-24; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:338-39, 2:47 ff., 135 ff., 3:133 ff.; Rosenberg, Alexander, 3; Samuel Maas, Charleston, to his parents in Germany, May 1, 1832, copy in Marcus Collections; Levy, “Vindiciae Judaeorum,” 69-70.

18. Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 606 ff.; Speech of Hon. Joseph Jonas of Hamilton County in the House of Representatives of Ohio, Feb. 25, 26, 1861, pp.1 ff., offprint in Marcus Collections.

19. Der Israelitische Volkslehrer, 7(1857):104; Einhorn, Phila., to Felsenthal, Chicago, Sept. 3, 1862, copy in AJAr; Schappes, JIUS, 91; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 273, 278, 279; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:97; Schappes, DHJUS, 394 ff.; Russell, My Diary North and South, 88-89; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 401 ff.; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 106; Occ., 18:229-30, 260-61; AJA, 13:221-24.

20. Wolf, Presidents I Have Known, 10; Adler, Kansas City, 97; Gratzes: Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 100 ff.; Philipson, Gratz Letters, 426-27; Franklands: PAJHS, 6:156-57; Friedenwalds: Fein, Baltimore, 98 ff.; PAJHS, 51:85 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 157; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:197 ff.; Whiteman (ed.), Kidnapped and Ransomed, Introduction, 51; Mordecai: PAJHS, 48:147 ff.; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 266-67; AJA, 10:125 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:216 ff.; Frankfort Herald, Jan. 17, 1885, copy in Marcus Collections; “The Resignation of Major Mordecai,” unidentified newspaper clippings, May, 1861, Alfred Mordecai Papers, 3:365-74, LC, copy in Marcus Collections.

21. Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 607; PAJHS, 5:153; AZJ, Jan. 21, 1862, pp.44-46; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 370; Abram Minis, Jr. (ed.), Autobiography of a Mother, etc. (Privately Printed, Darien, Ga., 1970), 6.

22. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 221-22; “History of Benjamin and Constance Davis Mordecai,” 47, MS, copy in Marcus Collections; PAJHS, 50:172, n.70; Korn, Civil War, 28, 47 ff.; AI, Nov. 11, 1862, p.147, c.2; Schappes, JIUS, 91; Gutheim, New Orleans, to I.L., Phila., May 8, 1863, copy in Marcus Collections; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 17; Charleston Daily Courier, May 15, 1861, p.1, c.7, quoting New Orleans Picayune of May 9, copy in Marcus Collections; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:265 ff.

23. 13:44 ff.; “Pember, Phoebe Yates Levy,” NAW; Bell I. Wiley, Confederate Women (Westport, Conn., 1975), 145; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:21 ff., 2:151 ff., 158-59, 161 ff., 3:308 ff., 357 ff. It should not be forgotten that Phillips’s thoughts on slavery were not written down until 1876, over a decade after the war was over.

24. Occ., 18:267-68; Fein, Baltimore, 95 ff.; AI, Feb. 14, 1862, p.263, c.3, Feb. 21, 1862, p.270, c.3; Korn, Eventful Years, 131; Jewish Life, 8(no.8):22 ff.; Korn, Civil War, 18, 26, 29, 45, 47-51, 88-90; “Guttheim, James Koppel,” EJ; Whiteman (ed.), Kidnapped and Ransomed, Introduction, 55; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 17; PAJHS, 44:112.

25. Kahn, “Liberalism as Reflected in Jewish Preaching,” 97 ff.; AJA, 13:38 ff., 133; Korn, Civil War, 18 ff., 22-23, 45, 51; Schappes, DHJUS, 416 ff.; “Antislavery Movements in America,” JE; PAJHS, 5:151 ff.; AI, Apr. 28, 1865, p.349, cs.1-4, p.350, cs.1-2.

26. Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 590; Korn, Civil War, 22-27; Occ, 18:229-30, 274; Leeser, Discourses, 10:364-65; Schappes, DHJUS, 439 ff.; Gutheim, New Orleans, to I. L., Phila., May 8, 1863, copy in Marcus Collections; AI, June 14, 1861, p.198, c.3, Aug. 9, 1861, p.44, c.4, p.45, c.1, Dec. 6, 1861, p.181, c.4, Nov. 14, 1862, p.147, cs.2-3, July 6, 1866, p.5, c.3; Korn, Eventful Years, 139-41, 149, n.29; Wish, Society and Thought, 1:549; Joseph Stolz, Chicago, to JRM, June 11, 1931, re Wise and the South, Marcus Collections; MVHR, 36:8 ff.; Morison, History, 519, 605, 610, 616; Long, Civil War, 26-27, 523; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 213, 255 ff., 262; PAJHS, 5:197, 150; Schlesinger, New Viewpoints, 145.

27. Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 593-609; Korn, Eventful Years, 125 ff.; Wittke, Refugees of Revolution, 193; Korn, Civil War, 24-27, 40-43; AJA, 13:138-39, 143 ff., 15:120 ff.; Morison, History, 695; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 304; Schappes, DHJUS, 694, n.11; Marcus, Studies, 184 ff.; Wish, Society and Thought, 1:545; AI, Dec. 28, 1860, p.205, c.9, p.206, c.1, Apr. 19, 1861, p.334, c.1, Jan. 4, 1866, p.212, cs.1-2.

28. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:50 ff.; PAJHS, 4:81 ff., 26:173 ff., 199 ff., 46:1; “Louisiana,” UJE, 7:208; N.Y. Hebrew Standard, Feb. 7, 1919, pp.1 ff.; “Myers, Mordecai (2),” BDEAJ; W. & W., Philadelphia, 288-90; see U.S. Jewry, vol.1; Huhner, Judah Touro, 60-61; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 419 ff., 425-26.

29. Fein, Baltimore, 75; Ochs, Memoir, 19; PAJHS, 26:173 ff., 37:448-49, 39:307; Blum, Baltimore, 11; “Baltimore,” UJE, 2:54; Philipson, Gratz Letters, 426-27; Morais, Philadelphia, 471; “Levy, Jonas Phillips,” JE; W. & W., Philadelphia, 290 ff.; Marcus, AJWD, 102; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:353 ff., 2:88 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 226-27, 271-73.

30. Golden & Rywell, Jews in American History, 175-76; “Myers, Abraham Charles,” DAB; Heitman, Historical Register, 1:739; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 221; Wolf, American Jew, 100, 102-5, 109, 111; E. & L., Richmond, 154; PAJHS, 3:21 ff.; Korn, Civil War, 96, 116 ff., 185 ff.; St. Louis Jewish Tribune, Oct. 6, 1922, pp.3, 11-12; “United States,” JE, 12:364; Schappes, DHJUS, 466, 698 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 158-59; Markens, Hebrews, 339-41; Morais, Philadelphia, 480 ff.; AZJ, June 11, 1861, pp.338-39; “Chicago,” UJE, 3:138; Meites, Chicago, 83-100.

31. E. & L., Richmond, 160 ff., 178; PAJHS, 6:31 ff.; Max Frauenthal Service Record, NA, copy in AJAr; William E. Bergin, Office of the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., to JRM, Mar. 10, 1953, Marcus Collections; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 23; “Frauenthal, Max,” JE; Tarshish, “American Judaism “, 350; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:4, 3:205; NCHR, 25:343-44; Wolf, American Jew, 83, 102 ff., 116 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 136; Harby Service Record, NA, copy in AJAr: “Harby, Levy Myers,” BDEAJ.

CHAPTER THREE

SLAVERY AND THE CIVIL WAR: PART II

  1. Meade, Judah P. Benjamin, 71 ff., 127; “Benjamin, Judah Philip,” JE, UJE, EJ, DAB; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 163, 185-87; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 72.

  2. PAJHS, 25:1 ff.; Florida Historical Quarterly, 29:125 ff.; D.L. Yulee, NYC, to W. H. Babcock, ed. of the East Floridian, Oct. 18, 1860; this letter appeared in the St. Augustine Examiner for Nov. 17, 1860; information courtesy of P.K. Yonge Library, Univ. of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida; JM, Mar. 21, 1862, p.88, cs.1-2; Meade, Judah P. Benjamin, 139; Historia Judaica, 18:41 ff., 44, 51; Schappes, DHJUS, 678, n.7; AI, Mar. 22, 1861, p.30, cs.1-3.

  3. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, April, 1863, p.675; AI, Sept. 16, 1864, p.92, cs.1-3; Korn, Eventful Years, 142-43; Meade, Judah P. Benjamin, 219 ff., 234-35; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 273; Schappes, DHJUS, 398 ff.; “De Leon, Thomas Cooper,” DAB; Charles P. Cullop, Confederate Propaganda Abroad During the Civil War in Europe, 1861-1865 (Coral Gables, Florida, 1969).

  4. “Benjamin, Judah Philip,” UJE, DAB; Historia Judaica, 18:41 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 166 ff.; Meade, Judah P. Benjamin, PAJHS, 12:63 ff., 38:153 ff., 170; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 185 ff.; Benjamin, Three Years, 2:113 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 106; Korn, Eventful Years, 79 ff.; Jordan I. Taxon, “Jews in the American Slavery Controversy” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, N.Y., 1947); Schappes, DHJUS, 428 ff.; Goodhart, Five Jewish Lawyers, 4 ff.; Civil War History, 8:386-400; Sigmund Diamond, A Casual View of America: The Home Letters of Solomon de Rothschild, 1859-1961 (Stanford, Cal., 1961); Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 349-50; Louisiana Historical Quarterly, 19(no.4):3 ff.; AH, Sept. 30, 1921, pp.490, 492, 526; Wiernik, History, 221 ff.

  5. Morison, History, 1055; PAJHS, 20:154 ff., 54:113 ff.; Allan Nevins, Herbert H. Lehman and His Era (N.Y., 1963); Cole, Handbook, 258; Webster’s Guide to American History (Springfield, Mass., 1971), 1077-78.

  6. Wolf, American Jew, 164-70, 179, 199-200, 262-63, 349-50; “Blumenberg, Leopold,” UJE; Morais, Philadelphia, 481-82; Heitman, Historical Register, 1:434, 584, 605-6, 857; AI, Dec. 27, 1861, p.206, cs.1-2, July 3, 1863, p.2, cs.3-4; Meites, Chicago, 80 ff.; Indianapolis Jewish Post, Sept. 11, 1942, p.4 ff.; Knefler Service Record, NA, copy in Marcus Collections; AJYB, 6:179-80.

  7. PAJHS, 38:22 ff., 27-28; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:165 ff., 209 ff., 213, 3:226 ff.; Medal of Honor, xiii, 150; Wolf, American Jew, 106-7, 270-71; W. & W., Philadelphia, 524; Morais, Philadelphia, 474-76, 514; AJA, 13:182 ff., 191 ff.

  8. Marcus, Memoirs, 2:203; AI, Jan. 29, 1864, p.246, c.1; Korn, Civil War, 98 ff., 103; Schappes, DHJUS, 492: Occ., 20:330, 383; Hirsh & Doherty, Mount Sinai Hospital, 40-43; Nathan Grossmayer, Washington, D.C., to A. Lincoln, Nov. 16, 1864, LC, reprinted in Lincoln and The Jews: Portfolio No. 1, B’nai B’rith, (Washington, D.C., 1968); Korn, Civil War, 98-109, 113-15, 202 ff., 212-19, 224, 268, n.5, 271, nn.7-8; PAJHS, 12:136; AJA, 17:34 ff.

  9. AI, Oct. 17, 1862, p.118, c.1; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:261 ff.; JM, March 24, 1865, p.98, c.3; Korn, Civil War, 112-13.

10. Marcus, Memoirs, 2:211; AI, Oct. 10, 1862, p.110, c.1.

11. AI, Nov. 29, 1861, p.175, c.1, Dec. 20, 1861, p.196, cs.3-4, Jan. 10, 1862, p.220, cs.1-3, Mar. 28, 1862, p.308, cs.1-4; Korn, Civil War, 56 ff., 61 ff., 75; Morais, Philadelphia, 245; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 608 ff.; AJHQ, 60:338 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 462 ff.; BDAI Appeal for Funds, Dec. 10, 5622 (1861), broadside, copy in Marcus Collections; Occ., 19:476-80; AJA, 13:176 ff.; Fein, Baltimore, 205; PAJHS, 29:103-4.

12. Eichhorn, “Christianizing America’s Jews,” 117-18; American Army Chaplaincy: A Brief History (Washington, D.C., 1946), 24 ff.; PAJHS, 12:127 ff., 60:325 ff.; Korn, Civil War, 56-97; AI, Nov. 1, 1861, p.141, c.4, p.142, c.1; Occ., 19:417 ff., 20:128, 210 ff., 522 ff.; AJA, 1:6 ff., 13:176 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 462 ff.; AJHQ, 53:63 ff.

13. M. J. Michelbacher, Sermon Delivered . . . the 27th of March, 1863, etc. (Richmond, 1863); E. & L., Richmond, 183; Jewish Life, 8(no.8):25; Mearns, Jewish Background, 25; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:303-4; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 387; Korn, Civil War, 175 ff., 178-79, 185-86, 293, n.143; Occ., 18:197; AJA, 13:57 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1273; AJHQ, 62:251.

14. JM, Mar. 21, 1862, p.88, cs.1-2; Breck, Colorado, 22; Occ., 18:257 ff., 21:219, 22:440, 486; AJHQ, 53:381 ff.; PAJHS, 38:109 ff.; AI, Jan.18, 1861, p.229, cs.3-4, Aug. 14, 1863, p.53, cs.1-3, Sept. 23, 1864, p.99, cs.1-2; London Jewish Chronicle, May 22, 1863, p.5, c.2, Oct. 28, 1864, p.7, c.3; Korn, Civil War, 156-175; AJA, 13:139 ff., 208-13; Occ., 22:369, 433 ff., 441 ff., 481 ff., 487 ff., 529 ff.; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 626 ff.; Korn, Eventful Years, 142-45; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:223 ff.

15. Ochs, Memoir, 44; PAJHS, 17:139-40, 50:293-95; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 365-66; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 595; Korn, Civil War, 159, 169, 275, n.22; AI, Dec. 5, 1862, p. 172, cs.1-3, Sept. 23, 1872, p.8, cs.2-3; Howard K. Beale, “The Diary of Edward Bates, 1859-1866” (Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the year 1930, Washington, 1933), 4:243.

16. AJA, 13:190-91; Wolf, Presidents I Have Known, 8-9; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 351 ff.; Korn, Civil War, 164-65; JOAH, 49:635 ff.; Autobiography and Personal Reminiscences of Major General Benjamin F. Butler, Butler’s Book (Boston, 1892), 433-34, 510, 514.

17. PAJHS, 17:71 ff., 77, 120-22, 34:275; Korn, Civil War, 121 ff., 126, 143 ff., 149, 275, n.22; AI, Jan. 2, 1863, p.202, cs.2-3; AJA, 13:202 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 472 ff., 702, n.4.

18. Leo Shpall, The Jews of the South and the Civil War (offprint from The Jewish Forum, New York, Dec. 1942-July 1943); Korn, Civil War, 126, 129, 141, 147, 149, 153, 164, 274, 278, n.61, 279-85, 282, n.84, 374; AJA, 13:202 ff.; Occ., 20:405-10, 520, 26:440-41; PAJHS, 17:71 ff., 109 ff., 26:440-41; Schappes, DHJUS, 472 ff., 702, nn.4, 7; Fein, Baltimore, 97; Jacob I. Peres, Memphis, to I.L., Phila., Feb. 17, 1863, Leeser Papers, copy in Marcus Collections; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:115 ff., 123; AJA, 9:83 ff., 13:202 ff.; Morison, History, 668; AI, Jan. 2, 1863, p.202, cs.2-3, Dec. 11, 1863, p.188, c.4, p.189, c.1; Occ., 20:405 ff., 494 ff.; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 317-18, 401; JM, Dec. 18, 1863, p.209, c.1, June 9, 1864, p.134, c.3; “Hurlbut, Stephen Augustus,” DAB; The R. T. Lincoln Papers, LC, nos.23173-75; Diary of Gideon Welles (Boston, 1911), 2:66 ff., 138-39, 159-63, 167-68, 172-73; EIAJH, 38.

19. “Grant, Ulysses Simpson,” EJ; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 590; H. Van Bort, General Grant and the Jews (N.Y., 1868); Allan Nevins, The Ordeal of the Union (3 vols., N.Y., 1947); Occ., 20:405-10, 481 ff., 26:440-41; Schappes, DHJUS, 472 ff.; PAJHS, 17:71-79; Korn, Civil War, 135 ff., 145 ff., 281-82; Rothschild, Atlanta, 19; Phila. Jewish Exponent, July 24, 1959, p.13, cs.1-3.

20. AJA, 3:81; Korn, Civil War, 189 ff., 191 ff., 204-5; Wolf, Americans, 426-27; PAJHS, 17:112, 119-20, 123 ff., 128, 131, 133-37, 42:407 ff., 44:98 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:353-54; Wolf, Presidents I Have Known, 5-7 ff.

21. Korn, Civil War, 189 ff., 194 ff., 230 ff.; PAJHS, 17:109 ff., 156, 163 ff., 43:71-126, 44:106 ff., 50:248 ff.; N.Y. Hebrew Standard, Feb. 6, 1920, pp.1-2; AHR, 46:76-86.

22. AJA, 13:174-75, 208-10; Schappes, DHJUS, 451 ff.; The New Yorker, Oct. 30, 1954, 34 ff.; “Seligman, Joseph,” DAB; Markens, Hebrews, 141-42; Wells, “House of Seligman”; “Stewart, Alexander Turney,” DAB; Muir & White, J. & W. Seligman & Co., 24 ff.; Eugene H. Roseboom & Francis P. Weisenburger, A History of Ohio (Columbus, 1953), 123.

23. “Belmont, August,” DAB; Schappes, DHJUS, 451 ff., 693-96; Katz, August Belmont, 93 ff., 97 ff., 103; The four-line verse is from Punch and it is found in Katz, August Belmont, 102. For general references to Jews in the Civil War see the following memoirs: Marcus, Memoirs, 3:23, 73, 115, 133, 161, 197, 226, 199, 349.

24. Marcus, Memoirs, 3:299-300; AJA, 13:228-29; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 628-29.

CHAPTER FOUR

ISAAC MAYER WISE AND AMERICAN JUDAISM, 1846–1900

  1. Wise, Reminiscences, 28; Philipson & Grossman, Selected Writing of I. M. Wise, 1 ff.; AI, Apr. 4, 1862, p.316, c.4, p.317, c.1; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 77; A. Englander, San Francisco, to I.L., Oct. 20, 1860, copy in Marcus Collections; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 56, 59, 83-84, 100, 109.

  2. Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 25-26, 55, 59-61; “Familianten Gesetz,” JE; Kisch, Czechoslovakia, 26 ff., 45 ff.; Two of Wise’s pupils of the 1890’s, David I. Cohen of Nashville and Harry Lynch of Cincinnati informed JRM on May 21, 1949 and December 1969 that Wise had a slight accent.

  3. Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 124, 130-31, 171 ff., 177-78, 265 ff.; Occ., 6:308, 314, 321, 431-35, 614 ff., 7:41-42, 137 ff., 8:432; Asmonean, Sept. 10, 1852, p.197, c.1; CCARYB, 1:123-24; AI, June 2, 1871, p.8, cs.1-4; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:368-69; Zion, 26(no.3-4):v; Elbogen, Cent. of Jewish Life, 124 ff.

  4. Wish, Society and Thought, 1:30-31; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 148-49, 153-54, 165 ff., 238 ff., 247-48, 346, 350-51; AJA, 24:160 ff.; Occ., 5:275, 7:155 ff., 418-19; Wise, Reminiscences, 113, 147, 165; Asmonean, Jan. 27, 1854, p.117, c.4, p.118, c.1; AI, Nov. 11, 1859, p.148, cs.1-3, Dec. 16, 1859, p.188, cs.2-4; Knox, Isaac M. Wise, 41; Philipson, Reform Movement, 334 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 149 ff.; A. Rice, Baltimore, to I.L., Phila., 24th of Ab (Aug. 24, 1851), copy in Marcus Collections; Wise, World of My Books, 14, 41, n.10; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 77; Deborah, Mar. 22, 1867, p.146, cs.1-3.

  5. Heller, Isaac M. Wise, 67 ff.; Cist, Sketches, 197-98; Cole, Handbook, 103; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 160; Rubinger, “Albany Jewry”.

  6. Sinai, 1:4 ff., 25-30, 200, 244, 2:788 ff.; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 256-57, 293, 474 ff., 489 ff., 506 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 427 ff.; HUCA, 2:420-21; AI, Jan. 26, 1855, p.229, cs.1-3, Mar. 2, 1855, p.268, cs.1-4, p.269, c.1, Mar. 9, 1855, p.276, cs.1-4, Aug. 10, 1855, p.39, c.2, Aug. 17, 1855, p.44, cs.1-2, Sept. 21, 1855, p.84, c.1, Oct. 26, 1855, p.132, cs.1-2, p.134, c.2, Nov. 2, 1855, p.137, cs.1-3, p.140, cs.1-2, Nov. 9, 1855, p. 148, cs.1-4, p.149, c.2, Dec. 14, 1855, p.188, cs.3-4, p.189, c.1, Feb. 1, 1856, p.244, cs.1-3; Asmonean, Apr. 28, 1853, p. 18, cs.1-3, Sept. 16, 1853, p. 176, cs.1-3, Dec. 14, 1855, p.67, cs.3-4, p.68, c.1, Dec. 21, 1855, p.74, cs.3-4, p.75, cs.1-2, Jan. 11, 1856, p.101, cs.3-4, p.102, cs.1-2; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 159, 209 ff.; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 18 ff.; Occ., 13:421 ff., 14:505 ff.; “Protest,” Circular of Har Sinai, Baltimore, Nov. 6, 1855, copy in Marcus Collections; May, Isaac M. Wise, 323 ff.; Wallach, “Sinai,” 1:9-19; Shinedling, “Einhorn,” 148 ff.; AZF, Dec. 3, 1855, pp. 622-23, Dec. 10, 1855, pp.634-37.

  7. Cincinnati Daily Commercial, May 13, 1865, declared that the new synagog was the largest synagog in the U.S., in C.F. Goss, Cincinnati, The Queen City (Cincinnati, 1912), 2:33.

  8. Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 21, 25-26, 38-40; Marcus, Israel Jacobson, 52 ff.; “Judaism, Reform,” UJE, 6:240 ff.; Philipson, Reform Movement, 107-39, 225 ff., 245, 287 ff.; The Nation, June 18, 1868, pp.488-89; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 60 ff., 101; Albert Friedlander, “Early Reform Judaism in Germany” (mimeograph, N.Y., n.d.), copy in Marcus Collections; “Reform Judaism,” JE, EJ; CCARYB, 1:80 ff., 100 ff.; Asmonean, Mar. 17, 1854, p.175, cs.1-3, Mar. 24, 1854, p.181, cs.1-3; “Conferences, Rabbinical,” JE, 4:211 ff., UJE.

  9. CCARYB, 1:100 ff.; Philipson, Reform Movement, 284 ff.; Plaut, Rise of Reform Judaism, chaps. 2, 4; “Liberal Judaism,” Hastings (ed.), EORAE.

10. Philipson, Reform Movement, 291, 329 ff.; CCARYB, 1:100 ff.; Leeser, Discourses, 2:144-61; PAJHS, 21:200; Pool, Old Faith, 98; Silberman, American Impact; Meyers Konversations Lexikon, 13:835; W. & W., Philadelphia, 330.

11. Southern Quarterly Review, April 1844, pp.912 ff., copy in Marcus Collections; Markens, Hebrews, 57; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 208 ff., 215; R. & E., Charleston, 56, 60, 99, 140; Philipson, Reform Movement, 329 ff.; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 83 ff.; Sinai, 1:101 ff., 148 ff., 161 ff.; Occ., 1:204 ff., 600 ff.; “Organ,” JE; Marcus, Israel Jacobson, 1 ff.; Charleston Courier, Mar. 20, 1841, cs.3-4, copy in Marcus Collections; AJHQ, 54:411 ff.; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 45 ff.; Schlesinger, Age of Jackson, 142-43, 280 ff.

12. Philipson, Reform Movement, 335; Fein, Baltimore, 56, 60, 62-63, 113-14, 179-80; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 129-30; Blum, Baltimore, 11, 35; PAJHS, 48:216, n.55.

13. AI, Jan. 5, 1855, p.206, cs.1-2, Dec. 26, 1858, p.210, cs.1-3; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 138, xlv-li, n.407a; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, 33 ff.; “Gottheil, Gustav,” DAB; Emanu-El, 199 ff.; AJA, 6:21 ff.; Occ., 2:515; Grinstein, New York City, 88-90, 109, 277 ff., 353 ff., 501-7, 543-44, n.16, 582, n.3; Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute, 10:100; Deborah, Oct. 31, 1856, pp.81-83; Leo Merzbacher, Seder Tefilla (N.Y., 1855); S. Adler, Tefilla (3rd ed., N.Y., 1864).

14. “Freie Gemeinden,” Meyers Konversations Lexicon, 6:843-44; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 32, 47-48; Faust, German Element, 2:428; Marcus, Israel Jacobson, 87; Grinstein, New York City, 201-3; Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute, 10:102, 105; Philipson, Reform Movement, 340; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 25; Occ., 7:12, 139, 141 ff., 270 ff., 274-75; Sinai, 1:203 ff.; Wittke, Refugees of Revolution, 122.

15. AZJ, June 4, 1842, p.335; Morais, Philadelphia, 417; Philipson, Reform Movement, 117-18.

16. Philipson, Reform Movement, 337 ff.; Chicago Chronicle, Jewish Pioneers Number, n.d., pp. 11, f-15, copy in Marcus Collections; PAJHS, 17:218 ff.; B. Felsenthal, The Beginnings of the Chicago Sinai Congregation, etc. (Chicago, 1898), 9 ff., 39 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” lv-lvi; “Felsenthal, Bernard,” UJE; Irwin Hirsch, “Chicago Sinai Congregation, 1858-1879: A History” (M.A. thesis, Northwestern University, 1949); Constitution and Bylaws of the Sinai Congregation (Chicago, 1861); Detroit Jewish American, Dec. 27, 1901, p.2, cs.4-5.

17. Isaac M. Wise, History of the Israelitisch Nation from Abraham to the Present Time (Albany, 1854); Isaac M. Wise, History of the Hebrews’ Second Commonwealth (Cincinnati, 1880); Marcus, Americanization of Isaac Mayer Wise; Sinai, 1:8-10; Heller, Isaac M. Wise, 658 ff.; David E. Powers, “Isaac M. Wise as Anti-Christian Polemist” (HUC term paper, 1971); EIAJH, 325 ff.; Wise, Reminiscences, 60 ff.; CCARYB, 52:326 ff.; Wise, World of My Books, 5-8; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 453.

18. Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 400-1, 495, 504, 507, 528, 530, 537 ff., 550, 625, 642, 693, 787, 830-31, n.62, 870, n.48; Fein, Baltimore, 277, n.29; Glanz, The German Jew in America, nos. 1075-76; Levine, Am. Jew. Bibliography, nos. 368-70; CCARYB, 1:15, 52:326 ff.; PUAHC, 2:1036; AH, Aug. 26, 1887, p.44, Jan. 6, 1888, p.146; N.Y. Jewish Times, July 21, 1871, p.328, c.2, p.329, entire; AI, Dec. 21, 1855, p.196; Asmonean, Jan. 11, 1856, p.101, cs.3-4, p.102, cs.1-2; Marcus, Americanization of Isaac Mayer Wise; Marcus, Isaac Mayer Wise and the College He Built; PAJHS, 42:47, n.13; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1095-96; AJA, 24:160 ff.,; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:59, 99-101, 3:1 ff.; Cincinnati Alert, 2(no.1), and its Orthodox Counterparts” (HUC term paper, 1961); R. & E., Charleston, 167-68; Glanz, The German Jew in America, nos. 1164, 1166, 1167, 1169, 1172, 1177-1180, 1183-84, 1186, 1755, et passim; “America, Judaism in,” JE, 1:517; Stern, Temple Emanu-El, 38-39; Jerome W. Grollman, “Emergence of Reform Judaism in the U.S.” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, n.d.); Levy, Reform Judaism, 139 ff.

19. Philipson, Reform Movement, 339; AJA, 2(no.2):3-14; Lewin, What Is Judaism, 38 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 37 ff.; AI, Oct. 2, 1857, p.102, c.2; Judaism, 14:305 ff.; AZJ, Sept. 9, 1892, pp.436 ff.; Blum, Baltimore, 20 ff., 177; Marcus, Americanization of Isaac Mayer Wise; Minhag America, vol.2, Ritual Directions for Rosh Hashanah; Fein, Baltimore, 128, 134, 235; The Wiesenfeld story was related to JRM by Marie L. Rothschild of Baltimore, Dec. 14, 1948.

20. American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 39; Asmonean, Dec. 19, 1851, p.84, cs.3-4, p.85, c.1; Krause, “B’nai Yeshurun” JM, Jan. 9, 1870, p.4, c.5, May 16, 1884, p.4, c.2; PUAHC, 1:155-56.

21. Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 528, 687-688; Lewin, What Is Judaism, 59-61, 65; Philipson, Centenary Papers, 24 ff.; “America, Judaism in,” JE, 1:515, 517; copies of all these prayer books are found in the HUCL; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 43; Glanz, The German Jew in America, nos. 1164, 1166-67, 1169, 1172, 1177-80, 1183-84, 1755, et passim; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 245; Stern, Temple Emanu-El, 39; Kohler, HUC and Other Addresses, 71.

22. Historia Judaica, 15:117, n.47; Kahn, “Liberalism as Reflected in Jewish Preaching”; Gutheim, Temple Pulpit; Lewin, What Is Judaism, 64, 70; Robert L. Katz, “The Seder Tefillah of L. Merzbacher, 1855,” (HUC term paper, n.d.); Kahn, “Liberalism in Jewish Preaching, 154; Fish, Common Man, 3, 188; Wise, Reminiscences, 343-44; AI, Feb. 20, 1857, p.260, cs.1-2, May 19, 1865, pp.372, entire, 373, entire, 374, c.1, June 16, 1865, p.404, cs.1-3, Apr. 28, 1871, p.8, cs.1-2; Occ., 8:541 ff.; Philipson, Reform Movement, 342 ff.; Judaism at the World’s Parliament of Religions, 30-33; Lewin, What Is Judaism; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:1; CCARYB, 1:17 ff.; Marcus, Americanization of Isaac M. Wise; Petersburg, Va. Index Appeal, May 25, 1875 for an address of Isaac M. Wise, courtesy of Louis Ginsberg, copy in AJAr; Key, Theology of Isaac M. Wise; Hecht, Epitome of Post-Biblical History, 113 ff.; CCARYB, 52:326 ff.; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 53; Fein, Baltimore, 120-21; PAJHS, 42:47; Morais, Philadelphia, 90 ff.; Curti, American Thought, 306-8; I. M. Wise, Cincinnati, to I. W. Bernheim, Louisville, Aug. 2, 1899, AJAr; “Wise, Isaac Mayer,” JE, EJ; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 242.

23. Among the distinguished cantors in the Reform temples in the second half of the nineteenth century were Moritz (Morris) Goldstein, Edward Stark, Alois Kaiser, William Sparger, and Sigmund Schlesinger. Union Hymnal (1940), Preface; Idelsohn, Jewish Music, 316 ff.; Occ., 7:418-19; Grinstein, New York City, 355; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 153 ff., 165 ff.

24. Krause, “B’nai Yeshurun”; Elzas, Leaves, First Series, 5:1 ff.; Barnett A. Elzas (ed.), Sabbath Service and Miscellaneous Prayers adopted by the Reformed Society Israelites, etc. (N.Y., 1916), 53-54; HUCA, 14:582 ff.; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 314-15; “Confirmation, The Rite,” JE.

25. Moïse, Isaac Harby, 77, Art.vii; Historia Judaica, 15:109; Leeser, Discourses, 10:261; Davis & Meyer, American Jewish History, 268 ff.; Israels Herold, Apr. 27, May 4, May 18, 1849, cited in William Rosenthall, “Israels Herold: A Survey in Content & Spirit” (HUC term paper, 1956), 9; Asmonean, June 3, 1853, p.57, cs.2-4, p.58, c.1, Sept. 16, 1853, p.176, cs.1-3; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 254 ff., 291, 525-26; Curti, American Thought, chap.15; Kahn, Jan. 1945, p.2, copy in Marcus Collections.

26. NAR, 82:371 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 282, 286, 303-4; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 315-16; Shinedling, “Einhorn,” 361. ff.; Alexandra Lee Levin, The Szolds of Lombard Street: a Baltimore Family, 1859-1909 (Philadelphia, 1960); Fein, Baltimore, 117; AI, Nov. 25, 1859, p.164, cs.1-2; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 149 ff., 283 ff.; Deborah, Sept. 1, 1902, p.258; Markens, Hebrews, 286, 303-4; Morais, Philadelphia, 75 ff.; “Jastrow, Marcus,” JE, UJE; “Jastrow,” EJ.

27. Historia Judaica, 15:92, 129 ff.; Kranz, “Am. Jew. Relig. Radicalism”; Philipson, Reform Movement, 348 ff.; Chyet, Lives and Voices, 3 ff.; Glanz, The German Jew in America, nos. 2473-75; Kohler, HUC and Other Addresses, 67 ff., 75 ff.; Philipson, Reform Movement, 350 ff.; “Hirsch, Samuel,” JE, UJE, EJ; CCARYB, 25:174; Einhorn, N.Y., to Kohler, Chicago, Apr. 29, 1874, Marcus Collections.

28. PAJHS, 45:125; Historia Judaica, 15:105 ff.; Kahn, “Liberalism as Reflected in Jewish Preaching,” 121, 131-36; Kohler, HUC and Other Addresses, 71-72; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 827, n.31; Einhorn Memorial Volume, 90; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 14-15; Philipson, Reform Movement, 344 ff.; EIAJH, 315 ff.; Abraham Shusterman, The Legacy of a Liberal (Baltimore, 1967); Wallach, “Sinai”; Fein, Baltimore, 12, 82-83, 92, 121; “Einhorn, David, “JE, UJE, EJ, DAB; Menorah, 13:309 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 91-92; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 131-32; AJA, 4:3 ff.; Voorsanger, Emanu-El, 84 ff.

29. Meites, Chicago, 99, 109-10; Kranz, “Am. Jew. Relig. Radicalism,” 44 ff.; AH, Dec. 14, 1883, p.53, Jan. 4, 1884, p.90, Jan. 11, 1884, p.101; Wilansky, Sinai to Cincinnati, 265; Markens, Hebrews, 301-2; AJYB, 5(1903-1904):101; “Sonneschein, Solomon H.,” JE; Sonneschein Papers in the AJAr and in the Marcus Collections; broadsides on the Sonneschein Affair were issued on June 28, 1886, June 29, and July 28, 1886, in St. Louis, copies in Marcus Collections; Mann, Temple Israel, 45-62.

30. AI, Sept. 20, 1861, p.93, c.4, p.94, c.1; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:310; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 163-64, 328-29, liv; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 661, 794 ff., 869, n.39, 870, n.40; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 37 ff., 54-55; Wise, World of My Books, 38; Marcus, Americanization of Isaac Mayer Wise; Isaac M. Wise, The Martyrdom of Jesus of Nazareth (Cincinnati, 1874), Preface; B.F. Peixotto, Cleveland, to I.L., Phila., Nov. 16, 1859, copy in Marcus Collections; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 12-13; CCARYB, 1:17; Wise, Defence of Judaism, Preface.

31. “Fiske, John,” DAB; Curti, American Thought, 551; Wise World of My Books, 32 ff.; CCAR Journal, 8(no.1):34 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 62, 162; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 322; HUCA, 11:5-6; NAR, 82:370 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 78; Key, Theology of Isaac M. Wise, 20-21; Ralph D. Mecklenburger, “The Theology of Isaac M. Wise and Kaufmann Kohler” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1972).

32. Knox, Isaac M. Wise, 119 ff.; AJA, 10:145 ff.; PUAHC, 4:3208; Curti, American Thought, 542; Eli Ginzberg, Keeper of the Law: Louis Ginzberg (Phila., 1966), 59 ff.; Religion in Life, 24:381 ff.; “Ginzberg, Louis,” JE, UJE, EJ.

33. Marcus, Memoirs, 2:59; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 138; JM, June 8, 1866, p.4, c.2, Sept. 25, 1868, p.1, cs.1-2; Weizenbaum, “Pittsburgh”; Wise as German preacher: Oral communication of David I. Cohen, Nashville, Tenn., a former student of Wise, to JRM, May 21, 1949, Marcus Collections; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, 388; Curti, American Thought, 295 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 43-44, 5647 A.M. (1886-87), 55; PUAHC, 2:1386; AI, July 7, 1876, p.4, cs.2-5; Blum, Baltimore, 20-23; AJA, 3(no.2):3 ff.

34. PUAHC, 1:13, 5:3880; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 55; AI, Dec. 14, 1860, p. 188, cs. 3-4, Apr 16, 1908, p.4, cs.4-5; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 309 ff., 346, 627-28, 694, 835, n.82, 843, n.96; Menorah, 13:314-15; May, Isaac M. Wise, 249-50.

CHAPTER FIVE

WISE: UNITY, UNIFORMITY IN AMERICAN ISRAEL

  1. Martin B. Ryback, “The East-West Conflict in American Reform as Reflected in the Israelite, 1854-1879” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1949); AJA, 4:3 ff.; Joseph Abraham, Cincinnati, to I.L., Phila., July 11, 1859, copy in Marcus Collections; AI, Jan. 30, 1863, p.236, cs.1-3, Aug. 14, 1863, p.52, cs.1-3, Mar. 4, 1870, p.8, cs.1-2; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 508-9, 794-95, 870, n.48; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:14, 3:1; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 43 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 198 ff.

  2. AJA, 3(no.3):52-51; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 474 ff., 797-800; Philipson, Reform Movement, 284 ff., 301-2, 328; Philipson, My Life, 182 ff.; “Synod,” JE; CCARYB, 10:104 ff., 13:153 ff.; Views on the Synod, 159.

  3. Occ., 26:193 ff. JM, July 30, 1869, p.4, cs.2-3; AI, Mar. 26, 1869, p.4, cs.1-3, May 21, 1869, p.2, c.4, Nov. 12, 1869, p.8, cs.1-3; Youngstown Jewish Times, Oct. 1, 1937, p.8, cs. 1-2; Philipson, Reform Movement, 328; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 269, 627-28, 649 ff., 855, n.99; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 79 ff.; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 29 ff.

  4. Philipson, Reform Movement, 303-5, 320; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 79; “America, Judaism in,” JE.

  5. Wish, Society and Thought, 1:6, 455; Joseph Priestly, A Comparison of the Institutions of Moses with Those of the Hindoos, etc. (Northumberland, 1791), 393-94, 416-17; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 237 ff.; London Jewish Chronicle, Jan. 21, 1870, p.4, c.2; “Conferences, Rabbinical,” JE, 4:214-15; “America, Judaism in,” JE; Philipson, Reform Movement, 353-55; Temkin, Philadelphia Conference; Elbogen, Cent. of Jewish Life, 129, 696, n.17; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 29 ff.; CCARYB, 1:117-20; JM, June Nov. 19, 26, Dec. 3, 17, 1869, no pagination; AI, June 2, 1871, p.8, cs.1-2, p.9, cs.2-3; Knox, Isaac M. Wise, 119 ff.

  6. Heller, Isaac M. Wise, 394 ff.; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 698 ff., 709-15; David Einhom, N.Y., to Kaufmann Kohler, Chicago, June 24, 1870, copy in Marcus Collections; Asmonean, Jan. 11, 1856, p.101, cs.3-4, p.102, cs.1-2; AI, Mar. 4, 1870, p.8, cs.1-2, Nov.4, 1870, p.8, cs.1-4, Nov. 11, 1870, p.8, cs.1-3, Nov. 25, 1870, p.9, cs.2-4, p.10, c.1, Apr. 28, 1871, p.8, cs.1-2, p.9, cs.2-3, June 2, 1871, p.8, cs.1-4, p.9, c.3, June 9 1871, p.8, cs.1-4, p.9, cs.12, June 16, 1871, p.8, cs.1-4, p.9, cs.1-2, June 23, 1871, p.8, cs.1-4, June 30, 1871, p.6, cs.2-4, p.7, cs.1-3, July 14, 1871, p.9, c.4, p.10, cs.1-2, July 21, 1871, p.8, cs.1-4, p.9, c.1, Aug. 4, 1871, p.8, c.4, p.9, entire, Aug. 11, 1871, p.8, entire, p.9, c.1, July 1, 1878, p.8, cs.1-3; N.Y. Jewish Times, June 9, 1871, p.233, June 16, 1871, pp.248-49, June 30, 1871, pp.274-76, July 7, 1871, pp.280-83, Aug. 4, 1871, pp.355-57, 361-64, Aug. 11, 1871, pp.374, 378-79, the Jewish Times in general for June through September 1871, Aug. 18, 1871, pp.419-21, 424-28, Sept 8, 1871, pp.435-37; Fein, Baltimore, 111-12; Peskin, Cleveland Judaism, 24, 28, n.51; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 714 ff., 728 ff.; “America, Judaism in,” JE; St. Louis Jewish Times, June 23, 1871, pp.264-65, June 30, 1871, pp.280-83, July 7, 1871, pp.296-300, July 14, 1871, pp.309, 312 ff., July 21, 1871, pp. 328-29, July 28, 1871, pp.342-43, July 11, 1873, p.309; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 239 ff.; Philipson, Reform Movement, 955, 378; Deutsch-Amerikanisches Conversations Lexicon, 5:795; CCAR Journal 9(no.2):29 ff.; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 26; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 81 ff.; Samuel Hirsch, Phila., to S. Adler, N.Y., June 26, 1872, copy in Marcus Collections.

  7. “Deutsch-Israelitscher Gemeindebund,” JL, EJ, (German); Lipman, Soc. Hist. of Jews in England, 63-64; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 83 ff.; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 188, 274; Korn, Eventful Years, 38-39; Asmonean, Jan. 25, 1850, p.108, c.3, p.109, c.1, Apr. 5, 1850, p.189, c.1; Occ., 2:196 ff., 3:217 ff., 222 ff., 10:577 ff., 20:216-17, 21:145 ff.; AJA, 4:3 ff.; PUAHC, 1:ii, 38, 42; AI, Jan. 14, 1859, p.220, cs.1-2, Oct. 6, 1871, p.8, cs.1-2, Oct. 13, 1871, p.8, cs. 1-4, June 20, 1873, p.4, cs.2-5; Temkin, Philadelphia Conference, 99-100; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 274; Jacob Ezekiel, Richmond, to I.L., Phila., Sept. 4, 1852, Feb. 15, 1867, copies in Marcus Collections; R. & E., Charleston, 165; A. Kohn, Chicago, to I.L., Phila., Sept. 23, 1849, copy in Marcus Collections; Grinstein, New York City, 179; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 198 ff., 236 ff.

  8. “United States,” JE, 12:362-63; Cincinnati Enquirer, (Feb. 1913?), undated clipping, Marcus Collections; PUAHC, 1:i-xiii, 36, 42, 74, 130; AJA, 32:145 ff.

  9. AI, May 18, 1873, p.4, cs.2-4, May 23, 1873, p.4, cs.3-5, May 30, 1873, p.5, cs.3-5, Aug. 15, 1873, p.9, c.2; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 248, lxiii-iv; Heller, Isaac M. Wise, 421 ff.; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 8; PUAHC, 1:i-xiii, 3 ff., 15, 18, 35 ff., 118 ff.; “Union of American Hebrew Congregations, The,” JE; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 733-36, 739 ff.; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 26-28, 175-76.

10. AJA, 25:7 ff., 32:145 ff.; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 736 ff., 774; AI, Aug. 14, 1874, p.8, cs.2-3; Phila. Jewish Record, May 28, 1880, p.9, c.2; PUAHC 1:36, 428 ff., 2:1602, 3:1991 ff., 1995 ff.; A. Guttmacher, Fort Wayne, to Board of Trustees of his congregation, Sept. 12, 1889, copy in Marcus Collections; Gershon, “History of Am. Ref. Jud.,” 164 ff.; “Hebrew Sabbath-School Union of America,” JE.

11. American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 46-47; AH, July 18, 1884, p.146; Sapinsley, “Split Between Reform and Conservative Jewish Movement,” 113-14; Goodman, Documentary Story, 26; “Hebrew Sabbath-School Union of America,” JE; PUAHC, 1:187 ff., vols. 1-10; “Union of American Hebrew Congregations, The,” JE, UJE, EJ; AI, Sept. 8, 1871, p.8, cs.1-3, June 20, 1873, p.4, cs.2-3; Beifield, “Founding of UAHC”; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 8; Heller, Isaac M. Wise, 405 ff.

12. May, Isaac M. Wise, 314-15; AJA, 2:21 ff.; N.Y. Jewish Times, Aug. 4, 1871, pp.357, 361; Ellis, Am. Catholicism, x; Morison, History, 532-33; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 241; Fein, Baltimore, 67; Occ., 5:87-90, 10:352 ff.; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 328; Markens, Hebrews, 112; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 63, 93-94; Uchill, Pioneers, 77; Shinedling, West Virginia Jewry, 581, 619; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 533; Peskin, Cleveland Judaism, 28, n.51.

13. Marcus, Isaac Mayer Wise and the College He Built; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 135-37, 229-30; Asmonean, Mar. 10, 1854, p.165, cs.1-2; “Hebrew Union College,” JE; PUAHC, 1:16, 19, 21; Schappes, DHJUS, 554-55; Korn, Eventful Years, 199 ff.; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 62; Markens, Hebrews, 309-10; Occ., 1:301-7, 6:431 ff., 18:299; PAJHS, 21:246; AJA, 2:41 ff., 12:143 ff.; Heller, Isaac M. Wise, 267 ff.; Wise, Reminiscences, 315; JM, July 17, 1857, p.13, c.1, Aug. 3, 1866, p.4, cs.2-3; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 276-88, 460 ff., 672, 691-92, 759-76, 780 ff.; AJHQ, 51:94; AI, Nov. 2, 1860, p.140, cs.1-4, Jan. 29, 1864, p.244, cs.1-3, Mar. 2, 1866, p.276, cs.1-2, Mar. 23, 1866, p.100, cs.1-2, Jan. 18, 1867, p.4, cs.1-2, June 6, 1873, p.5, c.4; Deborah, Mar. 23, 1866, p.150, cs.2-3; Pittsburgh Evening Chronicle, 1866, n.d., copy in Marcus Collections; Josiah Cohen in Pittsburgh wants a college, Josiah Cohen Scrapbook, copy in AJAr; Korn, Eventful Years, 151 ff., 199 ff.; I.O.B.B. lodges in Baltimore: “An Appeal to the Israelites of Maryland, 1866, For the Establishment of an Institute for the Better Education of Their Youth,” Feb. 25, 1866, copy in Marcus Collections; D. Einhorn, Phila., to S. Adler, N.Y., Jan. 2, 1864, AJAr; Fierman, “Jewish Education,” Appendix 12; Fierman, “Some Higher Educational Efforts”; American Jews’ Annual for 5650 A.M. (1889-90), 97 ff; Washington, D.C. wants a Jewish college, AI, May 9, 1873, p.7, c.1; Temkin, Philadelphia Conference, 105.

14. Markens, Hebrews, 309-10; Archives Israélites, 25(1864):588; London Jewish Chronicle, May 6, 1864, p.5, c.3, July 1, 1864, p.7, c.3; EIAJH, 359 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 252; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 231-32; AI, Dec. 8, 1854, p.175, c.2; JM, Sept. 28, 1860, p.100, cs.1-2; AJA, 2:29 ff.; Korn, Eventful Years, 160 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5650 A.M. (1889-90), 98 ff.; N.Y. Jewish Times, Aug. 4, 1871, p.361, Aug. 11, 1871, pp.374, 378-79; Schappes, DHJUS, 554-55, 733, n.7; Fierman, “Some Higher Educational Efforts,” 39 ff.

15. Korn, Eventful Years, 151 ff.; Grusd, B’nai B’rith, 50-52; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 234 ff.; Occ., 10:65 ff., 113 ff., 177 ff., 225 ff., 23:258 ff., 24:193 ff.; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 319-15; CCARYB, 59:273 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 188-89; PAJHS, 29:107-8; Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute, 10:104.

16. Kiev Festschrift, 200, no.142; Menorah, 12:288; American Jews’ Annual for 5650 A.M. (1889-90), 102; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 25, 246; “Hebrew Union College,” JE, UJE; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 691-92, 782; Fierman, “Some Higher Educational Efforts,” 22 ff.; AI, Mar. 9, 1866, p.284, cs.1-2, Sept. 8, 1871, p.8, cs.1-3, Aug. 7, 1874, p.4, cs.3-5, Sept. 3, 1875, p.4, cs.1-5; Philipson & Grossman, Selected Writings of I.M. Wise, 389-90; PUAHC, 1:22-23, 96 ff., 228, 2:1278 ff.; PAJHS, 19:103, n.7, 40:17 ff., 24 ff.; Schlesinger, New Viewpoints, 214; World Almanac, 1972, p 48; Karff, HUC-JIR, part 1.

17. PAJHS, 40:18-19, 31; PUAHC, 1:148-49, 168-70, 347, 570, 700-11; Wise, World of My Books; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 229 ff.; N.Y. Jewish Times, Mar. 31, 1876, p.32, cs.1-2, p.33, c.1; Fierman, “Some Higher Educational Efforts,” 32 ff., 42 ff.; M.S. Isaacs, BDAI, to Congregations in N.Y., 1877, copy in Marcus Collections; N.Y. Hebrew Leader, June 2, 1876; AI, June 9, 1876, p.9, cs.2-3, July 18, 1879, p.9, cs.2-5; Menorah, 12:309 ff.; Hecht, Epitome of Post-Biblical History, 120-21; “Gottheil, Gustav,” EJ; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, 48 ff.; National Jewish Post, Dec. 11, 1953, p.3; The Hebrew Theological Seminary Association, Proceeding of the First Convention (N.Y., 1876), copy in Marcus Collections; Stern, Temple Emanu-El, 204; AJA, 4(no.2):21; EIAJH, 359 ff.

18. AI, Apr. 14, 1882, p.1, cs.2-6, pp.4, 5 entire; Hebrew Review, 2:183 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 255; 19(no.4):48 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 294-95; Philipson, Lilienthal, 1 ff., 450 ff., 457; “Lilienthal, Max,” DAB.

19. Menorah, 12:210 ff.; Uchill, Pioneers, 78; AJA, 25:7 ff., 26:103 ff.; AZF, Sept. 16, 1892, p. 450; PAJHS, 40:17 ff.; Fierman, “Some Higher Educational Efforts”; Philipson & Grossman, Selected Writing of I.M. Wise, 382; American Jews’ Annual for 5650 A.M. (1889-90), 96 ff.; PUAHC, 1:i-xiii; AI, Apr. 24, 1874, p.4, cs.3-4; AJA, 2(no.1):21 ff.; HUCA, 2:419 ff.; May, Isaac M. Wise, 314-15; Heller, Isaac M. Wise, 405 ff.; Leon J. Jick, “The Efforts of Isaac Mayer Wise to Establish a Jewish College in the U.S.” (HUC prize essay, 1954); Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 230-35, 253 ff.

20. PUAHC, 1:422-23, 578, 3:2280 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 251-52; JM, May 12, 1876, p.4, cs.1-2, Feb. 16, 1877, p.4, c.1.

21. PUAHC, 1:249, 580, 2:791 ff., 1073 ff.; “Board of Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights,” UJE; Phila. Jewish Record, June 4, 1880, p.8, c.2; JM, June 4, 1880, p.4, cs.3-4; AJA, 17:114; “Agricultural Colonies in the United States,” JE; New York World, July 8, 1879, copy in Marcus Collections; Kohler, Simon Wolf Addresses, 291 ff., 334 ff.

22. PUAHC, 2:1400 ff., 1788-89, 3:2129, 2636 ff., 2815 ff., 4:3007 ff., 3013, 3078 ff., 3133-40, 3354 ff., 3459 ff., 3648 ff., 5:3948 ff., 4009-10, 4121-24, 4230 ff.; American State Papers (1949), 236-53; Kohler, Simon Wolf Addresses, 339-40; “Stoecker, Adolf,” JE, EJ.

23. PUAHC, 2:1148-49, 3:2129, 2475-76, 2507, 2510-11, 2636 ff., 2670-71, 2815 ff., 4:3133 ff., 3774-81, 5:4121-24, 4474 ff., 4657 ff.; “Wolf, Simon,” JE, UJE; PAJHS, 29:198 ff.; Wolf, Presidents I Have Known; Stanton J. Peelle, “Sketch of Honorable Simon Wolf” in Some of the Personal Reminiscences at Home and Abroad of Simon Wolf (Washington, D.C., 1914); Kohler, Simon Wolf Addresses, 12 ff.; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 70-71.

24. PUAHC, 2:1067 ff., 1148-49, 1400 ff

25. PUAHC, 2:1067 ff., 1400 ff., 3:2636 ff., 2670 ff., 2815 ff., 4:3698 ff., 3704 ff., 3774-77, 5:3948 ff., 9230-32, 4657-83; PAJHS, 24:1 ff., 36:11 ff., 19 ff., 42 ff., 171 ff.; Straus, Under Four Administrations, 86.

26. PAJHS, 36:172, 389 ff., 401; PUAHC, 2:1067 ff., 3:2636 ff., 2639, 2670-71, 2815 ff., 9:3133 ff., 3354-61, 3709-5, 3774 ff., 5:3948 ff., 4322 ff., 4479 ff., 9657 ff.; Blood, Joseph Krauskopf, 65 ff., 69-69, 236-37.

27. PUAHC, vols. 1-9, 2:791 ff.; PAJHS, 29:198 ff.; AJA, 25:17; “Board of Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights,” UJE.

CHAPTER SIX

AMERICAN JEWRY: RADICALISM AND CONSERVATISM, 1883–1889

  1. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 252; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 55; Commentary, 141:75 ff.; Frank J. Adler, Kansas City, Mo., to JRM, Jan. 12, 1970, AJAr; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 53-55; Cincinnati Enquirer, July 12, 1883, p.4; AJA, 25:18-20; Philipson, My Life, 23; PAJHS, 40:34; JM, July 13, 1883, p.5, c.6, p.6, c.1, July 27, 1883, p.4, cs.3-4, p.5, cs.1-2, Aug. 10, 1883, p.5, c.5; AI, Aug. 3, 1883, p.4, cs.2-3; Jean Wise May, New York City, to JRM, Feb. 15, 1966, AJAr, Kansas City Journal, Oct. 31, 1880, p.6, cs.1-2; Daniel Jeremy Silver, “The Terefa Banquet Story or a Study in Causation” (HUC term paper, 1950).

  2. CCARYB, 45:196 ff.; PUAHC, 2:1601, 1616, 1795; AJYB, 74:45 ff.; Samuel S. Cohen, Dr. Kaufmann Kohler: Theologian of Reform Judaism (Cincinnati, 1943); CCAR Journal, 24:10 ff.; HUCA, 2:427 ff.; PAJHS, 31:268 ff., 45:112 ff.; “Kohler, Kaufmann,” JE, UJE, EJ; Elbogen, Cent. of Jewish Life, 343 ff.; Pittsburgh Platform. Wise said that some thought it was slanted: American Jews’ Annual for 5647 A.M. (1186-87):62 ff., 64. These proceedings were originally published in the Jewish Reformer in January 1886; Marx, “Kaufmann Kohler”; Kaplan Jubilee Volume, 137 ff.; H.U.C. Monthly, 4(no.8); Kohler, Studies, 201-35; Kohler, HUC and Other Addresses; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 32 ff.

  3. Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 759; Kohler, Living Faith, 19 ff., 31 ff., 33; Pittsburgh Platform, 9, 19, 32-36, 38; K. Kohler, Chicago, to I. Snydacker, President of Sinai, Oct. 21, 1877, AJAr; Blum, Baltimore, 12, 20; Chicago Chronicle, Jewish Pioneer Number, 15; Einhorn Memorial Volume, 454; Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute, 10:102; Fein, Baltimore, 67; Kahn, “Liberalism as Reflected in Jewish Preaching,” 146-47; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 195-97, xiv, n.407A, lvii, n.440; Grinstein, New York City, 369; Chicago Sinai Congregation Bulletin, Dec. 13, 1951; JM, July 8, 1870, p.4, cs.1-2; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 40, 5647 (1886-87), 57-58; “Chicago,” JE, 4:24; Philipson, Reform Movement, 122, 373 ff., 485, n.76; Markens, Hebrews, 288-89; AH, June 17, 1881, pp.55-56, Sept. 2, 1887, p.102; AI, Feb. 23, 1855, p.262, cs.2-4, Nov. 25, 1859, p.165, cs.1-3, June 6, 1873, p.5, c.4, Apr. 3, 1874, p.5, cs.1-3; H.U.C. Journal, 5:24 ff., 33:108 ff.; Isaac Leeser, Religious Manual for Jewish Children for House and School (Cincinnati, n.d.), 84; Niles Weekly Register, Mar. 13, 1824, p. 19; Kansas City Journal, June 19, 1886, (reference given to JRM by Frank J. Adler); Adler, Kansas City, 72, et passim, see Index; Occ., 8:602, 14:118; Menorah, 11:284 ff.; PAJHS, 37:49, 42:371 ff.; Kohler, HUC and Other Addresses, 79; CCARYB, 12:103 ff., 148 ff., 16:87 ff., 45:192; “Sabbath and Sunday,” JE; Congregation Emanu-El, 210; Temkin, Philadelphia Conference, 12; Chronik: Einhorn, N.Y., to Kohler, Chicago, Jan. 29, 1872, copy in Marcus Collections; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 419; Joseph Marx, Richmond, to S. Myers, Norfolk, Mar. 2, 1819, AJAr; Stern, Grundriss, 64; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:384-86; Plaut, Rise of Reform Judaism, 193; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 269 ff.; AJA, 4:15-16; Kaufmann Kohler, Das neue Wissen und der alte Glaube (Chicago, 1874); “New York City” JE, 9:277, “Reform Judaism,” 10:357-59; Report of the Services in Commemoration of the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Services in Chicago Sinai Congregation, Jan. 15, 1899 (Chicago, 1899), AJAr; Pittsburgh Post, Nov. 17, 1885, copy in Marcus Collections.

  4. B. Felsenthal, Zur Proselytenfrage in Judenthum (Chicago, 1878), 28-29; Pittsburgh Platform, 16-17, 20-21, 29-32; RA, Aug. 20, 1892, p.4, c.3, p.5, cs.1-2, Oct. 22, 1892, p. 199, cs.2-3; Philipson, Reform Movement, 369 ff.; Lewin, What Is Judaism, 73-74; CCARYB, 2:66 ff., 84 ff., 105, 45:204; “Conferences, Rabbinical,” JE, 4:216; “America, Judaism in,” JE; Curti, American Thought, 482.

  5. Pittsburgh Platform, 9-11, 25, et passim; Adolph Huebsch: A Memorial, 201-4, 263, 287; Commager, American Mind, 165, 170; Felsenthal, Chicago Sinai Congregation, 17, 53 ff.; Berkowitz, Judaism on the Social Question, 119 ff., 128-29; Stokes, Church and State, 3: 869; Charles H. Hopkins, Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism, 1865-1915 (New Haven, 1940); Glanz, The German Jew in America, no.970; Kahn, “Liberalism as Reflected in Jewish Preaching,” 159; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 339, 343-44, 349, 365; Curti, American Thought, 629-32; Klose, Modern Western Civilization, 380-86; Albert H. Friedlaender “Reform Judaism in America: The Pittsburgh Platform” (mimeograph, N.Y., 1958), 20, 29; Ahlstrom, Relig. Hist. of Am. People, 785 ff.

  6. Pittsburgh Platform 9, 23; “Hirsch, Emil Gustav,” JE, UJE, EJ; Menorah, 13:317; AH, Aug. 5, 1881, p. 136; Temkin, Philadelphia Conference, 74, 96 ff.; PUAHC, 4:3208; AJA, 6:151 ff.; Kranz, “Am. Jew. Relig. Radicalism,” 22 ff., 27 ff.; Chicago Sinai Congregation Bulletin, Dec. 13, 1951; Gerson B. Levi (ed.), Emil G. Hirsch: My Religion (N.Y., 1925); CCARYB, 6:90-112; Robert Schur, “The Reform Judaism of Emil G. Hirsch as Reflected in His Editorials in the Reform Advocate from 1891-1896” (HUC term paper, 1946) ; AJYB, 27:230-37; Hirsch, Emil G. Hirsch; Kaul, Radical Reform Judaism, 32-35.

  7. Stow Persons, Free Religion (New Haven, 1947); “Free Religious Association,” Oxford Companion to American Literature; Gabriel, American Democratic Thought, 175 ff., 187 ff.; Commager, American Mind, 165 ff.; PAJHS, 17:221; AJA, 10:137; AI, Nov. 4, 1870, pp.8-10, Nov. 11, 1870, p.8, c.3; Wm. J. Potter, Grantville, Mass., to B. Felsenthal, July 8, 1879, Felsenthal Papers, AJHSL; A. W. Gould, Chicago, American Congress of Liberal Religious Societies, to Joseph Stolz, Chicago, Jan. 10, 1895, copy in Marcus collections; Ahlstrom, Relig. Hist. of Am. People, 764-65.

  8. “Landsberg, Max.,” JE, UJE; Sermon of Philip Bernstein, Nov. 6, 1970, copy in AJAr, Max Landsberg (ed.), Ritual for Jewish Worship (Rochester, 1884, 1911), 157; May 5, 1901 resolution of the Rochester Jewish Congregation refusing to join in worship with the Rev. W. T. Brown’s Plymouth Congregational Church, copy in AJAr; Max Landsberg, to Board of Trustees, Congregation B’rith Kodesh, Rochester, May 9, 1901, copy in AJAr; “Moses, Adolph,” JE; Enelow (ed.), Yahvism and Other Discourses, ix ff.; PAJHS, 11:201-3; Detroit Jewish American, Jan. 10, 1902, p.2, cs.3-4; Kranz, “Am. Jew. Relig. Radicalism,” 36 ff.; A. Moses, Religion of Moses (Louisville, 1894); Plaut, Reform Judaism, 38-40.

  9. “Schindler, Solomon,” JE, DAB; AJA, 7:118-24; WWW, 1601-1896, 1:1087; Kranz, “Am. Jew. Relig. Radicalism,” 59 ff., 63 ff.; Mann, Temple Israel, 45 ff., 63 ff.; Boston Jewish Advocate, Apr. 3, 1908, p.1, c.8, Mar. 31, 1911, p.1, cs.1-3, Apr. 19, 1912, p.1, cs.1-2, May 7, 1915, p.1, cs.1-2, p.8, c.6; AJYB, 5(1903-1904):54.

10. PAJHS, 40:34-35; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 31 ff.; PUAHC, 3:2005-6, 2053; AJA, 26:130 ff.; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:387-88; AZJ, Sept. 16, 1892, p.451; CCARYB, 95:190 ff.; AI, Nov. 27, 1885, p.4, cs.2-4, Dec. 4, 1885, p.6, cs. 4-6, Dec. 18, 1885, p.6, cs.1-3, Dec. 25, 1885, p.5, cs.2-6, p.8, cs.2-3; American Jews’ Annual for 5641 A.M. (1886-87), 64-65.

11. Fein, Baltimore, 117; Eisenberg, et al, Eyewitnesses to Jewish History, 203 ff.; PAJHS, 37:90, n.266, 42:91 ff.; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 37-38; “Judaism,” UJE, 6:243 ff.; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 211 ff.; Religion in Life, 24:381 ff.; CCARYB, 45:190 ff.; AH, Sept 2, 1887, pp.50 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5641 A.M. (1886-87), 66.

12. YA, 6:177 ff.; Judaism at the World’s Parliament of Religions, 238 ff.; Laszlo Berkowitz, “The Attitude Toward Liberal Judaism as Reflected in the Occident, 1843-1869” (HUC term paper, 1961); AJA, 18:128; AZJ, Mar. 27, 1866, p.202; JM, Feb. 16, 1866, p.4, c.4, p.5, c.1, June 21, 1867, p.4, cs.2-3; AI, Sept. 17, 1858, p.85, c.4; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 253; Morais, Philadelphia, 85; Blum, Baltimore, 68; AJHQ, 57:153 ff.; Drachman, The Unfailing Light, 164 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 72-73; Breck, Colorado, 149; E. & L., Richmond, 197, 252; “America, Judaism in,” JE, 1:516; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 109 ff.; Berman, Shehitah, 287 ff.; Fein, Baltimore, 118; Watters, Utah, 66 ff.; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 99; M.J. Raphall, N.Y., to Morris S. Joseph, N.Y., Feb. 23, 1963, Marcus Collections.

13. E. & L., Richmond, 252-53; Minutes of a Special Meeting, June 3, 1872, of Shearith Israel, Leeser Papers, copy in Marcus Collections; Myers, The Jews, 6; Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 95 ff.; AH, Apr. 9, 1880, p.89; American Jews’ Annual for 5647 A.M. (1886-87), 64; Phila. Jewish Record, Dec. 5, 1884, p.4, cs.2-3; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:379.

14. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 106, 165, liii, n.434; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 156-58, 268; AZJ, May 14, 1855, p.263; Parzen, Architects, chaps.2 and 3; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 37-38, 60 ff.; Historia Judaica, 15:49 ff.; JSS, 17:167-68; PAJHS, 40:35, n.36, 42:102, nn.54, 80; Kahn, “Liberalism as Reflected in Jewish Preaching,” 144-45; Grinstein, New York City, 247; References to the words “conservative” and “conservatism”: Menorah, 13:315; “America, Judaism in,” JE, 1:513-14; Hecht, Epitome of Post-Biblical History, 115; AI, Aug. 17, 1855, p.44, cs.1-2, Jan. 14, 1859, p.220, cs.1-2, May 31, 1861, p.382, c.4, Aug. 14, 1863, p.52, c.1, Apr. 28, 1871, p.9, cs.2-3, June 2, 1871, p.9, c.3. In the 1850’s the word “conservatism” in England and in the United States meant an Orthodox believer or an anti-radical. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary; cf. also Mitford M. Mathews (ed.), A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historic Principles (Chicago, 1951), and AI, Nov. 20, 1885, p.26 (yet as early as 1861 Wise uses the term and applies it to those who are to the left of Orthodoxy); JE, May 5, 1865, p. 139, c.1; Joseph Abraham, Cincinnati, to I.L., Phila., July 27, 1859, copy in Marcus Collections; in 1879, Myers, The Jews, does not use the term conservatism at all. Occ., 25:539; Kohler, Studies, 201; Bernard Drachman, Jersey City, to S. Morais, Phila., Dec. 27, 1885, copy in Marcus Collections; Pittsburgh Platform, 7; AH, Feb. 9, 1886, p.19; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 37-38; “Morais, Sabato,” JE; NAR, 82:370-72; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 39, 44, 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 44, 89; Burder, History of All Religions, 583; Jonah Bondi to I.L., Phila., May 1853, Leeser Papers, copy in Marcus Collections; Moses Montefiore, Ramsgate, England, to S. Morais, Phila., July 20, 5641 (1881), copy in Marcus Collections; Issues, 19:(no.4):53; Views on the Synod, 144-45; Jewish People, 4:199; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 176. In the early twentieth century the Jewish Theological Seminary was often known as Schechter’s seminary. The term “Conservative” or “Conservatism” was still not used or known to many.

15. Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 109; Markens, Hebrews, 322; AJA, 2(no.1):39 ff., 12:123 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 46 ff., 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 44 ff.; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 55-56; Lyons & De Sola, Jewish Calendar, 167; PAJHS, 27:159, 48:231; AJA, 54:481 ff.,; JM, July 13, 1883, p.5, c.6, p 6,. c.1; David M. Piza, NYC, to S. Morais, Phila., Dec. 15, 1885, copy in Marcus Collections; Waxman (ed.), Conservative Judaism, 4 ff.; Drachman, The Unfailing Light, 176 ff.; Parzen, Architects, chaps. 2, 3; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 235 ff., et passim; “Jewish Theological Seminary of America “JE, UJE, EJ; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:386 ff.,; Adler, JTS Semi-Centennial Volume, 35-48; Morais, Philadelphia, 189-90.

16. “Tisza-Eszlar,” JE; “Kohut, Alexander,” JE, DAB; PAJHS, 4:225-26; Markens, Hebrews, 289-90; Waxman (ed.) Conservative Judaism, 65 ff.; AH, May 29, 1885, p. 55:171 ff.; Drachman, The Unfailing Light, 176 ff.; Nahum N. Glatzer (ed.), Dynamics of Emancipation, etc. (Boston, 1965), 88-90.

17. PAJHS, 8:149-50, 37:55 ff., 58, 40:35, n.36, 45:115; “America, Judaism in,” JE, 1:515; CCARYB, 33:356 ff.; Davis, Conservative Judaism, see Index for “Morais, Sabato”; Morais, Philadelphia, 59 ff., 65, 189-90; “Morais, Sabato, “JE, UJE, EJ, DAB; Markens, Hebrews, 230-31; Sabato Morais, Italian Hebrew Literature, Julius H. Greenstone, ed. (Phila., 1926); Tarshish, “American Judaism,” xliv, n.377; Waxman (ed.), Conservative Judaism, 3 ff., 157 ff.; Goldman, “Conservative Movement”; Parzen, Architects, 18-25; Commemoration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of the Reverend Dr. Sabato Morais by the Congregation Mikveh Israel in the City of Philadelphia, Wednesday Evening, April 18, 1923 (Phila., 1924), 20 ff., 27 ff., 34 ff., 50-51; Glazer, American Judaism, 58; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:391; “Hertz, Joseph Herman,” UJE; “Jewish Theological Seminary of America,” JE, UJE, EJ; “Judaism,” UJE, 6;293-44; “Jastrow, Marcus,” DAB; Drachman, The Unfailing Light, 183 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 44-45; Sapinsley, “Split between the Reform and Conservative Jewish Movements.”

18. Grinstein, New York City, 170, 299, 397; Occ., 19:1 ff., 25:23 ff.; “Chicago,” UJE, 3:140; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 274; PUAHC, 1:727; Hebrew Review, 1:6, 72 ff., 85 ff., 2:8-10; Philipson, Max Lilienthal; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 177, 255-56; Rabbinical Literary Association Constitution (n.d.), copy in Marcus Collections; AI, May 17, 1878, p.4, last col., Aug. 1, 1879, p.4, last col., Feb. 6, 1880, p.4, cs.3-5, Feb. 15, 1894, p.4, c.1, Nov. 10, 1898, p.6, c.4; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 2; Gershon, “History of Am. Ref. Jud.,” 71-72, 78-79; Markens, Hebrews, 277-78; CCARYB, 2:57 ff.; AJYB, 42:185-86; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 47-48, 5646 A.M. (1885-86), n.p., sub Wise, “American Judiasm: Meetings,” 5647 A.M. (1886-87), 61 ff., 5648 A.M. (1887-88) 46.

19. Philipson, Reform Movement, 357 ff.; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 2; CCARYB, 1:4-14, 19 ff., 25 ff., 2:8 ff., 69 ff., 3:15-20, 33-40, 69-95, 13:18 ff.; HUCA, 11:11-12; Wise, World of My Books, 38; Matz, “Theological Developments in American Reform Judaism”; “Central Conference of American Rabbis,” UJE, EJ; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:389; Gershon, “History of Am. Ref. Jud.,” 56 ff.; AJYB, 42:179 ff., 195-97.

20. CCARYB, 1:13; JM, Dec. 19, 1873, p.4, c.4, p.5, cs.4-5; Wise, World of My Books, 23, 41, n.18; Occ., 6:431 ff., 13:414-17; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 298 ff.; “Central Conference of American Rabbis,” UJE, 3:90; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 5-8, 46 ff.; Clifton H. Levy interview by JRM, CCAR convention, New London, June 21, 1951, Marcus Collections; Rothschild, Atlanta, 11-12; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:371; Schappes, JIUS, 83-84; Philipson, Reform Movement, 366-67; “America, Judaism in,” JE.

21. Philipson, Reform Movement, 359 ff.; CCARYB, 5:59 ff.; “Conferences, Rabbinical,” JE.

CHAPTER SEVEN

REFLECTIONS ON JEWISH RELIGIOUS LIFE, 1860–1920

  1. Sinai, 3:1175-77; AJA, 18:128; Occ., 12:329 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 46-47.

  2. Peskin, Cleveland Judaism, 21; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:307; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 140 ff.; Alma Spitz, “Biographical Sketch of Morris Spitz,” MS, Marcus Collections; H. Loewenthal, Macon, Ga., to I.L., Phila., Aug. 17, 5620 (1860), copy in Marcus Collections; Bertram W. Korn, “An American Jewish Leader in 1860 Voices His Frustration” (typescript, HUC, N.Y., n.d.), copy in Marcus Collections; Lawrence A. Forman, “Congregational Life During the Civil War as Reflected in the Following Minute Books, 1865-1866: Temple Emanu-El, N.Y.C., Baltimore Hebrew Congregation, Anshe Chesed Congregation, N.Y.” (HUC term paper, 1960), 16.

  3. Felsenthal, Bernhard Felsenthal, 308-9, 315-16; Morris Spitz, An Address, 1884, copy in Marcus Collections; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 54 ff.; Historia Judaica, 15:98. The exact source of this particular denunciation by Wise is lost, but it accurately reflects views he expressed repeatedly. Fein, Baltimore, 119-20; PAJHS, 37:31 ff., 44-48, 47:43; AZJ, Mar. 11, 1844, p. 151; “America, Judaism in,” JE; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 47-48; Krause, “B’nai Yeshurun”. This paper shows that the membership in this great Cincinnati congregation was relatively small and that most of the minutes concern themselves with financial problems. Howard R. Greenstein, “Jewish Religious Life in the South and in the North During the War Between the States as Reflected in the Following Congregational Minutes, 1861-1865: Memphis, Savannah, Charleston, S.C., Shaaray Tefila, NYC” (HUC term paper, 1960); AI, Dec. 1, 1892, p.4, c.3.

  4. Si Gitin, “American Jewish Reform as Reflected in the Proceeding of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1891-1907” (HUC term paper, n.d.); Emanu-El, 204; AI, Mar. 6, 1868, p.6, cs.2-3, Oct. 6, 1871, p.8, cs.1-2: American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 40; HUCA, 2:423; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 189, 195, 261-62; Grinstein, New York City, 368; B.F. Peixotto, Cleveland, to I.L., Phila., April 12, 1861, copy in Marcus Collections; “America, Judaism in,” JE, 1:517; H. Berkowitz, Mobile, to E.N. Calisch, Peoria, March 4, 1888, copy in Marcus Collections; Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute, 10:106.

  5. AI, July 20, 1855, p.15, c.1, Dec. 1, 1892, p.4, cs.2-4; JM, Mar. 16, 1883, p.4, c.3, Oct. 10, 1884, p.4, c.1; Jerome B. Cohen, “The Attitude of the Jewish Messenger Toward Liberal Judaism for the Five Years, 1880-1884” (HUC term paper, n.d.); Blum, Baltimore, 64, 177; E. & L., Richmond, 268-69; “Bettelheim, Albert,” UJE; Commager, American Mind, 177; Markens, Hebrews, 301 ff.; Kohut, Autobiography; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 134 ff., 142.

  6. Sweet, Story of Religion in America, 374; Adler, Kansas City, 79 ff.; Plaut, Reform Judaism, xxii-xxiii; Morais, Philadelphia, 191-92; “Kaiser, Alois,” JE; Blum, Baltimore, 15-16, 36-37; Philipson, Reform Movement, 373-79; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 113-15; Marcus, JAL.

  7. AI, June 20, 1973, p.5, cs.3-4; PUAHC, 1:393 ff., 436 ff., 585-87, 2:1387, 3:2470.

  8. AJA, 4:3 ff.; AI, Dec. 1, 1892, p.4, c.3.

  9. “America, Judaism in,” JE; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” lvii, n.439; Jacob Voorsanger, Washington, D.C., to S. Morais, Phila., May 11, 1877, Morais Papers; Sajowitz, “San Antonio,” p.25; Atlantic Magazine, 26:400; Supplement to Minute Books and Correspondence, Mikveh Israel, Philadelphia, Minutes, March 1852, AJAr; Sabato Morais, A Sermon Delivered on Thanksgiving Day, etc. (Phila., 1852?); Benjamin, Three Years, 1:83; “Chicago,” JE, 4:25; Occ., 20:429-30; Constitution of the Galesburg Hebrew Congregation, 1867, AJAr; Grinstein, New York City, 272 ff.; PAJHS, 21:221; “Conservative Judaism,” EJ; B. & B., JOUS, 2:503-5; Spiro, “Jewish Religious Life on the Pacific Coast”; Paul Menitoff, “The Akron Jewish Community, 1865-1965, as Reflected in the Records Deposited in the American Jewish Archives” (HUC term paper, 1968).

10. U.A.H.C. Statistics, 55, 57; AI, May 22, 1863, p.364, cs.3-4, p.365, c.1; London Jewish Chronicle, Apr. 21, 1865, p.2, last column; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 189; Uchill, Pioneers, 73; PAJHS, 37:32, 34; Pool, Old Faith, 98 ff., 101.

11. Walter H. Plaut, “An Appraisal and Comparison of Three Theological Treatises of the Last Century” (HUC term paper, 1945); Leonard H. Devine, “A Comparison of Theological Views in Three Manuals by Isaac M. Wise, Isaac Leeser and Benjamin Szold” (HUC term paper, n.d.); Morais, Philadelphia, 331 ff.; AZJ, May 21, 1872, pp.416-17; Atlantic Magazine, 26:401.

12. Kahn, “Liberalism as Reflected in Jewish Preaching,” 28-29; “United States,” JE, 12:377; AJYB, 1(1899-1900):283, 3(1901-1902):153, 31:109; PAJHS, 6:143-49; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, 411; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 40, 93.

13. Glazer, American Judaism, 46; Atlantic Magazine, 26:395; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 113; Menorah, 12:7.

CHAPTER EIGHT

REJECTION: PART I

  1. Wilansky, Sinai to Cincinnati, 32 ff., 68; Marcus, Jew in the Medieval World, 167-69; Sachar, Modern Jewish History, 221 ff.; “Anti-Semitism,” “Driemont, Edourd Adolphe,” UJE; Graeber & Britt, Jews in a Gentile World, 362 ff.; Karl Marx, On the Jewish Question, trans. by Helen Lederer, mimeograph (Cincinnati, 1958).

  2. AI, Dec. 12, 1879, p.4, cs.4-5, Oct. 12, 1893, p.4, c.1; Jacob Rader Marcus, Facts of Contemporary Life Upon Judaism (Cincinnati, 1969); “Anti-Semitism,” JE, EJ; “Antisemitismus,” EJ (German); “Marr, Wilhelm,” EJ; Holbern, Modern Germany, 3:212, 281 ff.; H.E., Leiden, 132 ff.; Marcus, Rise and Destiny of the German Jew, 28-29, 174; “Ahlwardt, Hermann,” “Stoecker, Adolf,” JE; “Anti-Semitism,” “Chamberlain, Houston Stewart,” “Germany,” UJE; Der Anti Semit, copy of issue in Marcus Collections.

  3. Selzer (ed.), “Kike!”, 23; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 372; Glanz, Milieu, 34-36; Furnas, The Americans, 709; JSS, 31:87; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 169; “Hauser, Carl Frankl,” “Rohling, August,” JE; Fein, Baltimore, 203; Dieter Cunz, The Maryland Germans, A History (Princeton, 1948), 356, 361; PAJHS, 36:354 ff.

  4. Cohn, Warrant for Genocide, 18, 22-23, 33-34, 37, 57-60, 108 ff., 139; E.H. Lindo, History of the Jews of Spain and Portugal (reprint, N.Y., 1970), 297-98; Osman Bey, Die Eroberung der Welt durch die Juden (Wiesbaden, 1875), 32 ff., 48, 55-56; Selzer (ed.), “Kike!”, 104 ff.; Higham, “Anti-Semitism”; Dan Litt, “Reflections on the Beginnings of Modern Racial Anti-Semitism in Germany as Seen in the American Israelite, 1863-1880” (HUC term paper, 1957); “Elders of Zion, Protocols of,” UJE, 4:56.

  5. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 343, n.795, 346-47, 364; PAJHS, 12:92, 29:105; AI, Apr. 16, 1869, p.4, cs.2-3, July 23, 1869, p.6, c.2, May 16, 1873, p.5, c.4, Jan. 8, 1876, p.6, c.3, Apr. 16, 1914, p.4, cs.3-4, Jan. 17, 1973, p.6, cs.1-2; Kraus, Reminiscences, 235-36; Schappes, DHJUS, 559-61; AJHQ, 61:58-59; Louis Levinthal, “The American Jew in Court” (Phila., ca. 1915), typescript, AJAr; AJYB, 21:643-44; Suwol, Oregon, foreword.

  6. Hunter Miller (ed.), Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America (Washington, D.G., 1931), 2:349, 364-65, 371-72, 384; B. & B., JOUS, 1:6-7, 239-40; Noah, Correspondence, 105; AI, Oct. 18, 1861, p.124, cs.1-4, Jan. 24, 1862, p.236, cs.2-3; E. Frisch, Is the United States a Christian Nation? (n.p., 1906); Louis Marshall, NYC, to Oscar Straus, Washington, D.C., Mar. 10, 1908, Oscar Straus Papers, LC. Baltimore Jewish Comment, Nov. 3, 1905, p.2, Jan. 29, 1909, pp.273-74; American State Papers (1911), 487, (1949), 724 ff.; AH, Apr. 1, 1910, pp.573, 576; PAJHS, 31:105-34; RA, Jan. 15, 1910, pp.924-26; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 329 ff.; Commager (ed.), Living Ideas, 439 ff., 493 ff.; Kohler, Simon Wolf Addresses, 177 ff.; Occ., 22:440, 481 ff., 485-86; “Strong, William,” DAB; Stokes, Church and State, 3:565 ff., 583 ff., 866, sub 1828, 873, sub 1872.

  7. M.A. Musmanno, Proposed Amendments to the Constitution 70th Congress, 2nd Session H.D. no.551 (Washington, D.C., 1929); Glanz, The German Jew in America no. 1011; AI, Feb. 19, 1864, p.268, cs.1-4, Mar. 3, 1865, p.284, cs.1-3, Apr. 10, 1890, p.1, cs.6-7, May 7, 1896, p.7, c.3; JM, Feb. 5, 1864, p.36, c.3, Jan. 19, 1872, p.5, cs.1-2; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 329-32; PAJHS, 37:65, no.40; Temkin, “Isaac Mayer Wise,” 691-92; Occ., 22:433 ff., 481 ff.; American State Papers (1911), 408; American State Papers (1949), 259 ff.; Blau, Cornerstones, 202 ff.; Benjamin Nathan, N.Y., to I.L., Phila., Dec. 11, 1864, Leeser Papers, Dropsie College, copy in Marcus Collections; London Jewish Chronicle, Apr. 14, 1865, p.2, c.3, Apr. 21, 1865, p.7, c.3, May 19, 1865, p.7, c.1; Stokes & Pfeffer, Church and State, 559 ff., 567; Stokes, Church and State, 3:582 ff.; Johnson, Legal Status, 23.

  8. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 344-46, n.799; Jefferson’s letter to Harby: Moïse, Isaac Harby, 95; AI, Nov. 29, 1872, p.8, cs.3-5, July 9, 1875, p.7, c.2, Oct. 17, 1901, p.1, cs.2-4, Mar. 10, 1904, p.4, c.7, May 22, 1913, p.1, cs.6-7; B’nai B’rith News, 8(no.4):l2; Educational Forum, March 1951, pp.335 ff., copy in Marcus Collections; Philipson, Max Lilienthal, 101 ff., 474 ff.; Philipson, Centenary Papers, 182-84; Schappes, DHJUS, 520 ff.; Jewish Layman, 14(no 7):8; CCARYB, 15:180; Fink, CCAR on Church and State, Levy, “Vindiciae Judaeorum,” 146-47; American State Papers (1911), 341 ff., 360 ff., 402-8; American State Papers (1949), 723 ff.; Stokes, Church and State, 2:567 ff., 3:153 ff., 877, sub 1914.

  9. AJYB, 10(1908-1909):152 ff., 169, 15(1913-1914):242, 16(1914-1915):139, 17(1915-16):204; M. Newfield and P.B. Wells correspondence, April-May, 1918 in Morris Newfield Papers, AJAr; PAJHS, 10:129 ff., 136-37, 11:101 ff., 12:87, 171 ff.; Baltimore Jewish Comment, Mar. 25, 1905, pp. 1-2: Fink, CCAR on Church and State, 7; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 331 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 337 ff.; Benjamin H. Hartogensis, Studies in the History of Maryland (Baltimore, 1949), 36 ff., 90 ff.; Lewis, Sunday Legislation, 10-11; AH, Jan. 1, 1909, pp.232-33; American State Papers (1911), 485, 557; Wiernik, History, 307-8; AI, July 7, 1876, p.5, cs.3-4, Feb. 18, 1887, p.4, c.2; Johnson, Legal Status, 231 ff.; Wilbur F. Crafts, The Sabbath for Man, etc. (N.Y., 1885), 258 ff.

10. Occ., 14:579-80; Schappes, DHJUS, 510 ff., 716, nn.11, 17; Korn, Civil War, 219; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 135-36; Schappes, JIUS, 114-15; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 359-61; Sloan, Jews in America, 102-4; E. & L., Richmond, 196-97; JM, Mar. 8, 1867, p.4, c.1, Mar. 22, 1867, p.4, c.4, Apr. 12, 1867, p.2, c.4, May 17, 1867, p.4, c.2; AI, Dec. 7, 1866, p.4, c.4, Feb. 8, 1867, p.6, cs.2-3, Feb. 22, 1867, p.6, c.1, Mar. 1, 1867, p.6, cs.2-3, Mar. 29, 1867, p.3, c.3, Apr. 5, 1867, p.2, c.5, p.3, cs.1-2, Apr. 19, 1867, p.6, cs.3-4; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:382-84; L.L. Lewis, Chicago (ADL), to E.J. Wheeler, editor, Current Opinion, NYC, Dec. 1, 1913, copy in Marcus Collections.

11. Cracker Progressive Club resolution of sympathy to family of Col. Waring Russell, 1914, copy in B. Sheftall Papers in AJAr. Simon Benjamin was a member of the Klan in Ocala, Marion County, Florida. Statement of Dr. Julian Benjamin to JRM in the 1940’s; Frank, Nashville Jewry, 69; Nashville Republican Banner, Aug. 23, 25, 1868, copies in Marcus Collections; AJHS, 41:56-57; Schappes, DHJUS, 515 ff.; AI, Jan. 21, 1876, p.2, c.2, Oct. 28, 1887, p.10, c.1, Oct. 3, 1912, p.1, c.5, p.4, c.2; Oesterreichische Wochenschrift, 10(no.5):88-89; AZJ, Dec. 8, 1893, p.3; AH, Apr. 1, 1897, p.123; Higharn, Strangers in the Land, 92; PUAHC, 3:2129; MGWJ, 12:370; Schappes JIUS, 124, 149; Uchill, Pioneers, 156 ff.; Fein, Baltimore, 204; Higham, “Anti-Semitism”; PAJHS, 44:129, 181 ff.; “New York,” JM, 9:282; Where We Stand, 7.

12. Lachtman, “Julius Kahn”; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 346, 383; Stokes, Church and State, 2:392 ff.; Handlin, Danger in Discord, 1, 11-13; Higham, Strangers in the Land, 173, 288, 290; “Lynching,” DAH (1942); Slosson, The Great Crusade, 257-58; AHR, 77:214; Janowsky, American Jew, 183 ff.; Myers, Bigotry, 219 ff., 267 ff.; W. Brooks Graves, Anti-Discrimination Legislation in the American States (Washington, D.C., 1948), 1 ff.; Where We Stand, 7.

13. Rothschild, Atlanta, 69-72; AI, Nov. 19, 1914, p.4, c.4; Harry Golden, A Little Girl is Dead (Cleveland, 1965), xv; AJA, 20:107 ff.; “Frank, Leo, case of,” UJE; Frank, Leo Max,” EJ; Dinnerstein, Leo Frank Case; Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U.S., 87 ff.; Morison, History, 319, 791-94.

14. National Jewish Post, Jan. 21, 1966, pp.2-3; JTA-DNB, Oct. 23, 1969, p.4; Dinnerstein, Leo Frank Case; Myers, Bigotry, 248 ff., 258 ff.; Handlin, Adventure in Freedom, 200-1; Schappes, JIUS, 150-51; Rothschild, Atlanta, 69 ff.; C. Vann Woodward, Tom Watson: Agrarian Rebel (N.Y., 1938); Gan, “Documentary Source Book,” 197 ff.; AI, Sept. 25, 1913, p.4, cs.3-4, Nov. 20, 1913, p.4, cs.1-2, Dec. 11, 1913, p.4, c.3, Mar. 12, 1914, p.1, cs.1-5, May 14, 1914, p.4, c.3, May 28, 1914, p.4, cs.3-4, June 11, 1914, p.4, c.5, Oct. 8, 1914, p.4, c.3, Oct. 22, 1914, p.4, c.3, Nov. 12, 1914, p.4, c.1, Nov. 19, 1914, p.4, c.4, Nov. 26, 1914, p.1, cs.5-6, Dec. 3, 1914, p.4, cs.3-5, Dec. 17, 1914, p.4, cs.4-5, Jan. 14, 1915, p.4, c.3, Jan. 21, 1915, p.4, cs.4-5, Apr. 29, 1915, p.4, cs.5-6, May 27, 1915, p.4, cs.4-5, June 3, 1915, p.1, cs.6-7, June 24, 1915, p.4, cs.1-2, Oct. 30, 1969, p.1; Stephen S. Wise, “Case of Leo Frank: A Last Appeal,” Free Synagogue Pulpit, 3(May 1915)no. 5; Charles and Louise Samuels, Night Fell on Georgia (N.Y., 1956); AJHQ, 55:294-95, 61:60-62; Roche, Quest for the Dream, 88 ff.; Journal of Negro History, 55:99 ff.; Watson’s Magazine, 21:182 ff.; Higham, Strangers in the Land, 185-86, 281 ff.; GHQ, 54:339 ff.; Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U.S., 87 ff.; AJA, 20:107 ff.; “Watson, Thomas Edward,” DAB.

15. Myers, Bigotry, 140 ff.; Einhorn Memorial Volume, 169; Higham, “Anti-Semitism”; Friedman, Pioneers, 275; Eaton, An Hour With the American Hebrew, 41 ff., 52 44.; AJA, 11:184 ff.; “Seligman, Joseph,” UJE, DAB; AI, Oct. 14, 1870, p.10, c.3: Stewart had fired his Jewish employees when they did not go to work on the Jewish holidays, July 6, 1877, p.2, cs.4-5, p.3, c.1, July 13, 1877, p.5, cs.4-5; New York World, Apr. 15, 1882, copy in Marcus Collections; Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 141 ff., 147 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 373-74; Wells, “House of Seligman”; George S. Hellman, “The Story of the Seligmans,” typescript, NYHSL, copy in AJAr, Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 383; Seligman letter to Hilton, AI, June 22, 1877, p.6, c.2; The boycott letter of the Cincinnati merchants is found in AI, June 29, 1877, p.4, cs.3-4; Friedman, Pioneers, 267 ff.; Herman E. Sterne, Peru, Indiana, to Judge Henry Hilton, NYC, June 26, 1877, copy in Marcus Collections.

16. Eisenstein, Zikhronothai, sub 1879, p.45; Eaton, An Hour With the American Hebrew, 77 ff.; AI, July 25, 1879, p.6, c.3, Aug. 1, 1879, p.2, c.2, p.4, cs.3-5, p.6, cs.2-4, p.7, c.4, Aug. 8, 1879, p.4, c.2; Coney Island and the Jews; Schoener, Portal to America, 53; Nomination of Louis D. Brandeis.

17. Schappes, JIUS, 115-17; New York Herald, Apr. 26, 1901, quoting the National Jewish Post and Opinion, Dec. 2, 1960, Editor’s Chair, copy in Marcus Collections; AI, Aug. 7, 1913, p.4, c.5; The Education of Abraham Cahan (Phila., 1969), 353; Uchill, Pioneers, 158; The Forum, 3:523-31; Higham, “Anti-Semitism”; “United States,” JE, 10:367; “Gottheil, Gustav,” DAB; Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U.S.; Baltzell, Protestant Establishment, 126; AJYB, 14(1912-13): 117.

18. AI, Feb. 2, 1905, p.4, c.1, p.5, cs.4-5, Feb. 16, 1905, p.4, cs.2-3; Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 1:12-14; CCARYB, 15:184; Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 147; “Dewey, Melvil,” DAB, Supplement 1.

19. San Francisco Hebrew, Feb. 12, 1864, p.4, cs.1-2, June 9, 1864, p.1, c.5, July 1, 1864, p.4, c.4; Uchill, Pioneers, 87, 129, 156 ff.; Breck, Colorado, 70; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 281-82; Wald: communication of former Mayor Murray Seasongood to JRM, Feb. 1945, Gus Wald Papers, AJAr; Eisenstein, Zikhronothai, sub 1890, p.67; Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 239-40; Commentary, 4:410; Rischin, Promised City, 258 ff.; Higham, “Anti-Semitism”; The Nation, May 12, 1881, p.327, Mar. 16, 1893, pp. 186-87; JSS, 31:82 ff. on clubs in general, and 87 in particular.

20. AI, Nov. 29, 1872, p.8, cs.3-5, Apr. 4, 1907, p.1, cs.1-2, Aug. 31, 1972, p.1, c.1; Glazer, American Judaism, 45; Lewisohn, Up Stream, 146-47; Baruch, My Own Story, 58-59; Rischin, Promised City, 261; Baltzell, Protestant Establishment, 73, 131, 134-35, see Index sub “Anti-Semitism”; R. & E., Charleston, 182 ff.; Sloan, Jews in America, 17; Commentary, 52:70; Kohler, Simon Wolf Addresses, 329 ff.; Harper’s Weekly, Jan. 15, 1916, pp.53-55; Richard Gottheil, N.Y., to Felix Warburg, N.Y., Nov. 1, 1912, Warburg Papers, AJAr, including copy of Resolutions, 1914; Columbia Board of Columbia University, Oct. 1, 1912, copy in Marcus Collections; Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U.S., 63 ff., 70; PAJHS, 47:1 ff., 14-15; Uchill, Pioneers, 87, 129, 156 ff.; “Anti-Semitism,” JE, UJE, EJ; Stanley Franklin Chyet, “Ludwig Lewisohn: The Years of Becoming” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1957); CCARYB, 15:180 ff.; “America,” JE, 1:505; Fishberg, The Jews, 440-41; Century 25:602-11; Higham, Strangers in the Land, 278; Higham, “Anti-Semitism”.

21. Schappes, DHJUS, 559-60; AI, Sept. 29, 1898, p.4, cs.5-6; Wolf, Presidents I Have Known, 383 ff.; AJYB, 13(1911-1912):210-11; R, see Index sub “Josephus.”

22. New York Times, Nov. 1, 1916, p. 10, c.8; Roche, Quest for the Dream, 94; Harper’s Monthly Magazine, 99:527 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 88-89; Marcus, EAJ, 2:349-50; Learsi, Jews in America, 97, 250; Detroit Jewish News, “Jewish War Veterans Supplement,” Mar. 20, 1970, p.28, cs.1-3; NAR, 152:70 ff., 153:761-62.

23. Schappes, JIUS, 71, 117; JSS, 31:82 ff.; Handlin, Danger in Discord, 21; Glanz, Studies, 169 ff.; AJHS, 62:272; Higham, Strangers in the Land, 57; AI, Apr. 16, 1914, p.1, c.7, p.4, c.6; Nov. 30, 1916, p.4, c.3.

24. Cincinnati Daily Commercial, Sept. 11, 1958; AI, Nov. 29, 1872, p.8, c.2, Sept. 6, 1878, p.6, c.2; AJHQ, 61:56 ff.; Eaton, An Hour With the American Hebrew, 27 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 199 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:146 ff.; Moses letter republished by AJAr as an art item, copy in Marcus Collections; Higham, Strangers in the Land, 278; N.Y. Evening Post, Oct. 29, 1914; Rischin, Promised City, 266; Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U.S., 4; For W. O. Tuggle, see Shem, Ham, & Japheth: the Papers of W.O. Tuggle, Comprising His Indian Diary Sketches, Observations, Myths & Washington Journal in the Territory & at the Capital, 1879-1882, edited by Eugene Current-Garcia with Dorothy B. Hatfield (Athens, 1973).

25. Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U S., 59-86; JOAH, 51:391 ff.; PAJHS, 40:338-40; AHR, 68:76 ff., 910-11; Nugent, Tolerant Populists; Hofstadter, Age of Reform; Pollack, Populist Response; AJHQ, 63:244 ff.; R.J. Moses, Columbus, Ga., to W.O. Tuggle, Ga., Aug. 29, 1878, copy in AJAr; Tarbell, Nationalizing of Business, 254; “Sutro, Adolph,” DAB ; Jewish Voice, Aug. 14, 1896, p.4, c.2.

26. EIAJH, 46-47; American Scholar, 29:55-72; Nugent, Tolerant Populists; Tarbell, Nationalizing of Business, 247 ff.; Morison, History, 790 ff.; JOAH, 51:391 ff.; Handlin, Adventure in Freedom, 185 ff., 201; Congress Bi-Weekly, Mar. 23, 1964, pp.12-13; Hofstadter, Age of Reform; Pollack, Populist Response; AHR, 68:76 ff.; Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U.S., 48 ff.; PAJHS, 40:323 ff.; Higham, “Anti-Semitism”; Weyl, Jew in American Politics 68 ff.

CHAPTER NINE

REJECTION: PART II

  1. AI, July 22, 1859, p.23, c.1, Feb. 28, 1868, p.5, c.5, p.6, c.1, Mar. 20, 1868, p.2, c.5, Oct. 31, 1912, p.4, cs.1-2, Sept. 18, 1913, p.1, cs.1-5, July 26, 1973, p.17, cs.1-3; Handlin, Adventure in Freedom, 186-87; Higham, Strangers in the Land, 92; August Belmont, N.Y., to Treasurer of the State of Pennsylvania, Jan. 26, 1842, Belmont Papers, HSPL, copy in Marcus Collections; H.U.C. Journal, 6:185-86; Not the Work of a Day, 18-19; ADL Story; For Max Weinreich on His Seventieth Birthday: Studies in Jewish Languages, Literature, and Society (London, 1964), 68; “Houser, Carl F .,” JE; Wolf, American Jew, 509-10.

  2. For this gibberish see the Nones letter in Gazette of the United States & Daily Advertiser, Aug. 5, 1800, copy in Marcus Collections; Schappes, DHJUS, 92 ff., 728; William A. Bell, New Tracks in North America (London, 1869), 227; ADL Story, 1; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:236 ff.; Fink, CCAR on Church and State, 7-8; Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, 12(no.2):7; W.J. Cash, The Mind of the South (Garden City, N.Y., 1954), 300, 334; Kraus, Reminiscences, 227 ff.; Wolf, American Jew, 506 ff.; PAJHS, 40:323 ff.; AI, July 22, 1859, p.23, c.1, July 28, 1871, p.7, c.1, June 6, 1873, p.5, c.4, June 9, 1876, p.4, c.2, May 22, 1913, p.5, cs.4-5; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 135-36; ADL Bulletin, 30(no.5):5; Herzog, “Anti-Jewish Stereotype”.

  3. NAR, 188:383-94; AI, Dec. 3, 1908, p.4, c.2; “Anti-Semitism,” UJE, 1:396; “Kehillah Movement,” UJE.

  4. “Drumont, Edouard Adolphe,” JE; PAJHS, 37:421 ff. For the term the “Original Mr. Jacobs” see the London Jewish Chronicle, Mar. 2, 1860, p.2, c.3; Korn, Eventful Years, 98 ff.; Mr. Jacobs: A Tale of the Drummer, Burlesque (Boston, 1883); Baron Festschrift, 265 ff.; Johanna von Bohne, Jew and Gentile: A Commentary on “The Original Mr. Jacobs” and “The American Jew” (N.Y., 1889). Very little is said about The American Jew. She has about 15 pages of an appendix with extracts from The Original Mr. Jacobs. Is it possible that this is an anti-Semitic work? If it is not anti-Semitic then why publish extensive extracts? The publisher was the Judge Publishing Company and it was not sympathetic to Jews.

  5. PAJHS, 22:96-97; Wish, Society and Thought, 1:517; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 367-80; Curti, American Thought, 670-71; “Smith, Goldwin,” WWW, vol.1; AI, Mar. 18, 1881, p.300, cs.3-4, Oct. 28, 1881, p.340, c.2; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 356; Patricia Harland Gaffney, Ithaca, to JRM, June 18, 1974, AJAr; Nineteenth Century, 3:637-46, 875-87, 9:338-57; NAR, 153:129-43, 257-71, 513-23; Goldwin Smith, Essays on Questions of the Day, Political and Social (2nd edition, N.Y., 1894), 221 ff.; Elizabeth Wallace, Goldwin Smith: Victorian Liberal (Toronto, 1957), 102 ff., 287; “Anti-Semitism,” JE, 1:648-49; N.Y. Jewish Spectator, 37(no.5):22-24.

  6. Philip Cowen, Prejudice Against the Jew: Its Nature, Its Causes, and Remedy (N.Y., 1928); Cowen, Memories of an American Jew, 130-33; Kraus, Reminiscences, 227 ff.

  7. “Strong, Josiah,” DAB, Curti, American Thought, 670-71; Judaism, 2:140 ff.; Saveth, American Historians and European Immigrants, 128 ff., 137 ff., 156 ff.; Ray Allen Billington, Frederick Jackson Turner: Historian, Scholar, Teacher (N.Y., 1973); Riis, How the Other Half Lives; Harper’s Weekly, Jan. 1, 1916, pp.33-34; AJA, 8:147 ff.; Roche, Quest for the Dream, 14, et passim.

  8. Solomon, Ancestors, 9, 18 ff., 90 ff., 141, 168 ff.; Sachar, Modern Jewish History, 338-39; AH, Jan. 8, 1892, p.201, Jan. 15, 1892, p.223, Feb. 21, 1919, pp.362, 376, Mar. 7, 1919, pp.401, 408-9; Nomination of Louis D. Brandeis, 68-99; N.S. Shaler, The Neighbors: The Natural History of Human Contacts (Boston, 1904), 72 ff.

  9. Judaism, 2:140 ff.; John R. Commons, Races and Immigrants in America (N.Y., 1920), 93; Solomon, Ancestors, 132-33, 174, and Index sub John R. Commons, Prescott F. Hall, Henry Pratt Fairchild, William Z. Ripley, Richard Mayo Smith; Handlin, Adventure in Freedom, 191-92; Handlin, Danger in Discord, 14 ff., 17, 21; “Perlman, Selig,” UJE, WWW, vol.3.

10. MVHR, 39:144-45; Thornton Anderson, Brooks Adams: Constructive Conservative (Ithaca, 1951); “Adams, Brooks,” DAB; Saveth, American Historians and European Immigrants, 23 ff., 65-89; Rogow (ed.), Jew in a Gentile World, 292 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 1:353; Vern Wagner, The Suspension of Henry Adams: A Study of Manner and Matter (Detroit, 1969); Solomon, Ancestors, 23 ff.; Harold Dean Cater (ed.), Henry Adams and His Friends (Boston, 1947) ; Arthur F. Beringause, Brooks Adams: A Biography (N.Y., 1955); Contemporary Jewish Record, 8:250 ff.; W.C. Ford (ed.), The Letters of Henry Adams (Boston, 1930-1938); Baltzell, Protestant Establishment, 90 ff.; “Chapman, John Jay,” DAB, Supplement 1; Ernest Samuels, Henry Adams (3 vols., Cambridge, Mass., 1964); Chicago Jewish Forum, 25:3 ff.

11. Myers, Bigotry, 160 ff.; “Morse, Samuel Finley Breese,” ACOAB; “American Protective Association,” DAH; Sherman, Jew Within American Society, 16-17; Solomon, Ancestors, 159; Sklare (ed.), The Jews, 17; AJHQ, 53:99 ff., 123 ff.; “Migrations,” UJE, 7:548-49; Statistical History of the U.S., 56; Handlin, Adventure in Freedom, 191 ff.; Freehling, “Immigration Policy of U.S.,” 30; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 369-70; Samuel Peter Orth, Our Foreigner (New Haven, 1921), 179; Judaism, 2:144; Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U.S., 76; “Hendrick, Burton J.,” WWW, vol.2; “Hendrick, Burton Jesse, DAB, Supplement 4; Burton J. Hendrick, Jews in America (Garden City, 1923), 29-30, 54-57, 69, 94, 96, 105, 141-48, 171; McClure’s, 28(no.3):307-21, 40(no.6):92-106.

12. Selzer (ed.), “Kike!”, 62 ff., 76-80; Baltzell, Protestant Establishment, 96; “Grant, Madison,” DAB, Supplement 2; Higham, Strangers in the Land, 155, 201; Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race, etc. (N.Y., 1916), 14, 81, 199, et passim; Solomon, Ancestors, 201 ff.; Oscar Handlin, American People in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, Mass., 1954), 152-53; Handlin, Adventure in Freedom, 196; Handlin, Danger in Discord, 16-17.

13. CCARYB, 24:172; George M. Stephenson, A History of American Immigration, 1820-1924 (N.Y., 1926), 134 ff., 142 ff., 159-60, 176; Kraus, Immigration, 86 ff.; Solomon, Ancestors, 195 ff.; Higham, Strangers in the Land, 128; Statistical History of the U.S., 56; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 369; Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U.S., 68, 76; Freehling, “Immigration Policy of U.S.,” 30, 33, 38, 41-42; AJHQ, 53:99 ff., 103; Judaism, 2:140 ff.; Sherman, Jew Within American Society, 16-17; Whom Shall We Welcome, 85 ff.; Handlin, Danger in Discord, 13, 24 ff.

14. NAR, 133:265-75; Atlantic Magazine, 101:433-39; Correspondence between Lyman Abbott of the New York Outlook and Sigmund Livingston of the B’nai B’rith, Aug. 10, 14, 19, 1911, copies in Marcus Collections; AI, Apr. 16, 1914, p.4, c.4.

15. Wolf, American Jew, 506-8; Rischin, Promised City, 259.

16. Graeber & Britt, Jews in a Gentile World, 62-100; AI, June 17, 1870, p.2, cs.3-4, Apr. 16, 1914, p.4, c.4; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 133-34; Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, 99:527-35; Eaton, An Hour with the American Hebrew, 7-8, 21; Gan, “Documentary Source Book,” 46; Coney Island and the Jews; Myers, Bigotry, 222-24, 230, 236 ff.; Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U.S., 58 ff.; Sachar, Modern Jewish History, 339; PAJHS, 40:329 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1, 19; Schappes, DHJUS, 543 ff.; Century, 23:905-20; Higham, “Anti-Semitism”; David Starr Jordan, “The Waste of War,” in Proceedings of the International Conference under the Auspices of the American Society for Judicial Settlement of International Disputes, Washington, D.C., Dec. 15-17, 1910, (Baltimore, 1911), 234-56, esp. p.237; Higham, Strangers in the Land, 93; Cohn, Warrant for Genocide, 21 ff.; Herzog, “Anti-Jewish Stereotype”; “Anti-Semitism,” UJE, 1:392 ff

17. Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U.S., 70-73; Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, 99:527 ff.; AJA, 16:5; AI, June 9, 1876, p.6, cs.4-5, June 29, 1877, p.4, cs.4-5, Dec. 19, 1879, p.4, cs.3-4; Higham, “Anti-Semitism”; JSS, 4:109 ff.; Schappes, JIUS, 117; Handlin, Adventure in Freedom, 197 ff.; Century, 25:602-11; The Forum, 3:523-31; Rischin, Promised City, 260; By Myself I’m a Book, 57-58, 63-64; AJYB, 16(1914-1915):140, 21:637 ff.

18. Marcus, AJWD, 373 ff.; Rischin, Promised City, 258; PAJHS, 40:323 ff.

19. Occ., 18:257; Allan Tarshish, “Board of Delegates of American Israelites (1854-1878)” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1932), 5, 18-19; London Jewish Chronicle, Apr. 14, 1865, p.2, c.3, May 19, 1865, p.7, c.1; Where We Stand, 1; 41, Aug. 1, 1879, p.6, c.2; PUAHC, 4:3774 ff.; “Germany,” UJE, 4:564.

20. “Fraternities,” “Jewish War Veterans of the United States,” UJE; Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, 99:527 ff.; Congress Weekly, Dec. 6, 1954, pp.16-18; Detroit Jewish News Jewish War Veterans Supplement, Mar. 20, 1970, p.28, cs.1-3; PAJHS, 50:405-6; AI, Aug. 31, 1972, p.1, c.1, p.9, cs.1-3; Commentary, 52:71.

21. CCARYB, 14:32, 120, 122, 15:111, 137, 180 ff., 16:150 ff., 156, 21:77 ff.; Fink, CCAR on Church and State; Stokes, Church and State, 3:177-78; “American Jewish Committee, The,” UJE; for the American Jewish Committee, see Nathan Shachner, The Price of Liberty (N.Y., 1948) and Naomi W. Cohen, Not Free to Desist: American Jewish Committee, 1906-1966 (Phila., 1972).

22. Rischin, Promised City, 265; AI, Aug. 7, 1913, p.4, c.6; Louis Marshall, N.Y., to O. Levinson, Chicago, Jan. 8, 1915, copy in Marcus Collections; Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 1:245-46, see chaps.3 and 4; AJA, 24:6 ff.; Isaac A. Hourwich, Immigration and Labor (N.Y., 1912), esp. 1-39; Kraus, Immigration, 87; Kraus, Reminiscences, 227 ff., 235-36; “Anti-Semitism,” UJE, 1:396; AJYB, 21:637 ff., 24:357-58; Occ., 22:518 ff.; Adolph Kraus, Chicago, to Melville E. Stone, manager, Associated Press, N.Y., Dec. 23, 1908, copy in Marcus Collections; Grusd, B’nai B’rith, 140-41, 150 ff.

23. Grusd, B’nai B’rith, 151-52; Roche, Quest for the Dream, 91 ff.; Weyl, Jew in American Politics, 85-86; ADL Story; R. & E., Charleston, 229; Circular letter of the ADL to all vaudeville theatres, ca. 1916, n.d., copy in Marcus Collections; AI, Sept. 25, 1913, p.1, cs.5-6.

24. AI, Nov. 29, 1872, p.8, cs.3-5, Feb. 16, 1905, p.4, cs.2-3; Krauskopf, Prejudice, 89; NAR, 133:265-75; Coney Island and the Jews, 22-23; Higham, “Anti-Semitism”; The Forum, 3:527 ff.; JM, May 10, 1889, p.5, c.4; AH, Mar. 30, 1894, p.1.

25. American State Papers (1911), 401 ff.; Herzog, “Anti-Jewish Stereotype,” 30; Stokes, Church and State, 3:495, 565 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 520 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 186-87; “Spingarn, Joel Elias,” UJE; Roche, Quest for the Dream, 86-87; B. Joyce Ross, J.E. Spingarn and the Rise of the NAACP, 1911-1939 (N.Y., 1972).

26. AI, Sept. 13, 1872, p.8, c.3, Nov. 29, 1872, p.8, cs.3-5, June 22, 1877, p.6, cs.2-3, June 29, 1877, p.4, cs.1-3, p.5, cs.1-3, Aug. 1, 1879, p.4, cs.3-5, Dec. 19, 1879, p.4, cs.3-4, May 27, 1881, p.372, cs.2-3, Aug. 25, 1882, p.60, c.3, Oct. 11, 1894, p.4, c.3.

27. Henry Berkowitz, Phila., to Jacob H. Schiff, N.Y., Jan. 2, 1918, Jan. 17, 1918, copies in AJAr; Jacob H. Schiff, N.Y., to Jeanette M. Goldberg, secretary, J.C.S., Phila., Feb. 25, 1918, copy in AJAr; Schoener, Portal to America, 133; Coney Island and the Jews, 9, 24-26; Wolf, Presidents I Have Known, 459; Open letter of Raphael Moses, Columbus, Ga., to W.O. Tuggle, La Grange, Ga., Aug. 29, 1878, copy in Marcus Collections; “Speech Delivered by Hon. Meyer Friede in the Missouri Legislature in answer to the insult against the Jews from the Representative of Jackson County Mr. Claiborn in the year 1861,” copy in Marcus Collections.

CHAPTER TEN

ACCEPTANCE: POLITICS, 1860–1920

  1. Marcus, AJD, 277 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 425-26; PAJHS, 39:158-60.

  2. PAJHS, 22:139 ff., 25:1; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 192-93; Arthur William Thompson, “David Yulee: A Study of Nineteenth Century American Thought and Enterprise” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1954); Florida Historical Society Quarterly, 2(no.1):26 ff., 2(no.2):3 ff., 19:319 ff., 30:193 ff.; “Yulee, David Levy,” DAB; B. & B., JOUS, 2:625, n.178; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 94; Smucker, History, 327.

  3. “Masterson, William Barclay,” DAB; “Simon, Joseph,” UJE, Biographical Directory of the American Congress; “New York,” JE, 9:276, 280, UJE, 8:192-93, 199; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 136; “Brooklyn,” UJE, 2:556, “Indiana,” 5:557-58, “Kentucky,” 6:363, “Louisiana,” 7:208-9, “Michigan,” 7:537, “Mississippi,” 7:589, “New Mexico,” 8:171, “New York City,” 8:182, “Ohio,” 8:290-91, “Pennsylvania,” 8:433, “Public Office,” 9:29-31, “Rhode Island,” 9:153, “West Virginia,” 10:509; Nodel, The Ties Between, 72 ff.; AH, Apr. 10, 1914, pp.677-81; Breck, Colorado, 7, 119-20; Uchill, Pioneers, 144 ff., 146-48; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 97 ff.; PAJHS, 17:187 ff.; “Cincinnati,” JE, 4:91, “San Francisco,” 11:35; “Chicago,” JE, 4:26, UJE, 3:146-48; “Saint Louis,” JE, 10:641, UJE, 9:315; AI, Apr. 23, 1875, p.6, c.2, Sept. 16, 1881, p.92, c.2, June 25, 1882, p.9, cs.1-2, Nov. 12, 1886, p.4, c.1, Dec. 31, 1886, p.4, c.4; Markens, Hebrews, 174 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 191, 194, 196, 249 ff.; Auerbach, “Nebraska,” 95-96; AJYB, 33:26467; Golden & Rywell, Jews in American History, 228 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 389 ff., n.899.

  4. U.A.H.C. Statistics, 17; “Grand Rapids,” UJE; AI, Nov. 17, 1882, p.170, cs.1-2; biographies of all the congressmen listed can be found in the Biographical Directory of the American Congress; Stealey, 130 Pen Pictures, 241 ff.; AJYB, 10(1909-1910):70 ff.; Kisch, Czechoslovakia, 127-35, et passim; Lachtman, “Julius Kahn,” 106.

  5. PAJHS, 14:259; Stern, FAJF, 136; Coming, Dict. of Oregon History, 224; Nodel, The Ties Between, 67, 97, 129; Suwol, Oregon, 7-8; Simon, Jonas, Rayner, Guggenheim in Biographical Directory of the American Congress.

  6. Blum, Baltimore, xl, 153; Fein, Baltimore, 65-66; PAJHS, 40:288 ff., 42:88 ff.; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide. 215-17; W.B. Rayner, compiler, and edited by Essary, Addresses of Honorable Isidor Rayner (Baltimore, 1914); Stealey, 130 Pen Pictures, 350 ff.; AI, Dec. 5, 1912, p.1, cs.3-4; Isidor Rayner Memorial Addresses, Delivered in the Senate and House of Representatives of the U.S., Third Session, Feb. 2, 22, 1913 (Washington, D.C., 1914); “Rayner, Isidor,” DAB; “Guggenheim, Simon,” DAB, Supplement 3; “Guggenheim,” UJE, 5:121; for all the senators mentioned in the preceding paragraphs see the Biographical Directory of the American Congress.

  7. “Franks,” UJE, 4:418; see also “Noah, M.M.,” and “Hart, Joel,” UJE; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 271-73; for De Leon papers see the Records of the Department of State, Consular Dispatches, Egypt, ii, Dec. 1, 1853 to Aug. 24, 1860, esp. De Leon, Alexandria, to Carrole Spence, Constantinople, Apr. 29, 1854; “Leon, Edwin De,” JE.

  8. “New York City,” JE, 9:273; Katz, August Belmont; “Belmont, August,” DAB, JE.

  9. Stern, FAJF, 173; “Einstein, Lewis,” “Elkus, Abram I.,” “Morris, Ira Nelson,” UJE.

10. PAJHS, 32:65 ff., 47:49 ff.; NCHR, 23:402 ff., 419; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 897 ff.; “Public Office, Jews in,” UJE.

11. Straus, Under Four Administrations, 42 ff., 46-47, 70 ff., 79 ff., 130 ff., 271 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 215 ff.; Learsi, Jews in America, 201; statement of Jacob Plaut, a Straus kinsman, to JRM, Nov. 28, 1969.

12. Oregonian, Dec. 16, 1902, copy in Marcus Collections; Hebrew Standard, Sept. 2, 1901, pp. 1-2; Records of the Dept, of State, Diplomatic Dispatches, Turkey, 54, Oct. 1, 1892-Feb. 28, 1893, NA, letter of Solomon Hirsch to the President, Oct. 10, 1892; Coming, Dict, of Oregon History, 115.

13. Henry Morgenthau, All in a Life-Time (Garden City, N.Y., 1922), 174 ff., 348 ff.; “Morgenthau, Henry,” UJE; “Morgenthau,” JE; “Morgenthau Commission,” EJ; Henry Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story (Garden City, N.Y., 1918).

14. “Straus,” UJE, 10:77; Straus, Under Four Administrations, chaps.9, 11; William L. Langer, An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed., Boston, 1972), 777; Schappes, JIUS, 146; Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 314; Oscar S. Straus, NYC, to Simon Wolf, Washington, D.C., Nov. 7, 1918, Kohler Papers, AJHSL.

15. “Meyer, Eugene, Jr.,” UJE; “Council of National Defence,” “War Industries Board,” DAH; Learsi, Jews in America, 254; Baruch, The Public Years, chaps.3 and 4; American Industry in the War: A Report of the War Industries Board (Washington, D.C., 1921); “Baruch, Bernard Mannes,” WWW, vol. 4.

16. De Haas, Louis D. Brandeis, 40; New York Times, Mar. 14, 1939; Urofsky, Mind of One Piece, 14, 155-56; “Ballinger, Richard Achilles,” DAB; “Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy, The,” DAH (1942); Congress Bi-Weekly, Oct. 13, 1972, p.28; Mason, Brandeis, 56 ff., 72-75, 82 ff., 351 ff.; Baltzell, Protestant Establishment, 179 ff.; Urofsky & Levy, Letters of Louis D. Brandeis; Nomination of Louis D. Brandeis; NEQ, 41:67 ff.; Levy, “Gus Karger”; Sachar, Modern Jewish History, 334-35; “Brandeis, Louis Dembitz,” DAB, Supplement 3; Suwol, Oregon, 10; Ervin H. Pollack, The Brandeis Reader, etc. (N.Y., 1956), 9, 12-13; Louis D. Brandeis, Other People’s Money (Washington, 1933); Louis D. Brandeis, The Curse of Bigness (N.Y., 1935); AJHQ, 55:199 ff.; Jewish Frontier, 3:6 ff.; AJA, 15:6 ff., 18:129 ff.; Dilliard, Mr. Justice Brandeis; Alfred Lief, Brandeis: The Personal History of an American Ideal (N.Y., 1936); Sachar, Sufferance is the Badge, 510 ff.; Morison, History, 855.

17. AJHQ, 55:199 ff., 204, 207, 210; “Goldmark, Joseph,” UJE; Urofsky & Levy, Letters of Louis D. Brandeis, 2:xx, xxii; 223-24, 402, 611, 659, 3:xvii-xix: De Haas, Louis D. Brandeis, 51 ff., 163 ff.; Mason, Brandeis, 442 ff.; Boston Jewish Advocate, Dec. 9, 1910, p.1, cs.5-6, p.8, cs.2-3; AJA, 15:15; W.H. Taft, New Haven, to Gus Karger, Washington?, Jan. 31, 1916, Taft-Karger Papers, AJAr; Levy, “Gus Karger,” 6; Notes on conversations of Lee M. Friedman of Boston with JRM, Jan. 16, 1943 and Feb. 1954, Marcus Collections; “Brandeis, Louis Dembitz,” EOZAI.

18. NEQ, 41:78; “Warburg, Paul Moritz,” DAB; Meade, Judah P. Benjamin, 84-85; “Trieber, Jacob,” WWW, vol.1; AJYB, 33:264 ff.; “Public Office, Jews in,” UJE, 9:30.

19. “Burrell, David James,” WWW, vol.1: Mason, Brandeis, 465 ff., 483-86, 489; Todd, Louis D. Brandeis, 61; JSS, 28:56; Nomination of Louis D. Brandeis; AJHQ, 55:199 ff., 204, 209-10; AJA, 18:131; “Brandeis, Louis Dembitz,” DAB, Supplement 3; Dilliard, Mr. Justice Brandeis, 3-5; NEQ, 41:78 ff., 45:77 ff.; New York Times, Feb. 14, 1939, editorial page, July 2, 1966, copies in Marcus Collections; Jonathan Shapiro, Leadership of the American Zionist Organization (Urbana, 111., 1971), chap.3; Levy, “Gus Karger”; AHR, 70: 586-87; AJHQ, 55:199 ff.; Stuart Geller, “Why Louis Brandeis Became a Zionist” (HUC term paper, n.d.).

20. JSS, 25:89-91; “Rose, Ernestine Louise Siismondi Potowski,” DAB, NAW, EJ, WWW, 1607-1896; The Forward, June 19, 1927, copy in Marcus Collections; Suhl, Ernestine Rose, 157; Friedman, Pilgrims, 251 ff.; Jewish Digest, 12(no.6)33-37; Journal of Negro History, 34:344 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 324 ff., 655-56; “Krackowizer, Ernest,” UJE; Korn, Eventful Years, 7.

21. “Monopolies,” John J. Lalor (ed.), Cyclopaedia of Political Science, etc. (N.Y., 1893), 2:890 ff.; Myers, Great American Fortunes, 2:159 ff.; Simon Sterne, Constitutional History and Political Development of the United States (N.Y., 1882), preface; “Sterne, Simon,” UJE, DAB; Markens, Hebrews, 249 ff.; John Foord, The Life and Public Service of Simon Sterne (London, 1903); “Tweed, William Marcy,” DAB; Arnold G. Fink, “The Life and Work of Simon Sterne: Social Reformer” (HUC term paper, 1960); Seymour J. Mandelbaum, Boss Tweed’s New York (N.Y., 1965).

22. “Louisiana,” UJE; AI, Aug. 4, 1876, p.4, entire, p.5, c.1; AJA, 13:217 ff., 17:3-4; Schappes, JIUS, 110 ff.; Rischin, Promised City, 198; “New York,” JE, 9:282; Morais, Philadelphia, 393; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 148-50; Carter, Jews of Early Utah, 356-57; Watters, Utah, 170-71; Lewis, Chicago, 236; Kraus, Reminiscences, 115 ff.; World Over, Nov. 3, 1972, pp.6-7.

23. “Gompers, Samuel,” DAB; Schappes, JIUS, 111-12; Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor; Rischin, Promised City, 15, 219, 228-29, 236, 273-74; Markens, Hebrews, 341; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 201-6; “Sulzberger,” JE, 11:584; 26:286 ff.

24. Lewis, Chicago, 236; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Feb. 24, 1899, p.7, cs.3-4; Jewish Life, 9(no.8):22-23; “Filene, Edward A.,” WWW, vol.1; Michael T. Baum, Biography of Nathan Barnert (Paterson, N.J., 1914), 23 ff., 61-63; “Barnert, Nathan,” UJE; Schappes, JIUS, 148-49; “National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,” DAH; “Filene, Edward Albert,” “Seligman, Edwin Robert Anderson,” DAB, Supplement 2.

25. Open letter of Joseph Fels to a Dean of a Christian Theological School, entitled “The Religion of Joseph Fels,” AJAr; Herbert S. Bigelow, Jew and Also Christian: A Memorial Address on Joseph Fels, the Christian (Cincinnati, 1914), AJAr; Fels, Joseph Fels, 165-68; Arthur Power Dudden, Joseph Fels and the Single-Tax Movement (Phila., 1971); PMHB, 79:143 ff.; “Fels, Joseph,” DAB; New York History, 50:187 ff.

26. “Pujo Committee,” DAH (1942); “Untermyer, Samuel,” DAB, Supplement 2; Schappes, JIUS, 151-52.

27. “Moskowitz, Belle Lindner Israels,” DAB, NAW; New York History, 50:187 ff., 199, 203 ff.; Adler, Jacob H. Schiff, 1:313-14; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 136-37; Suwol, Oregon, 8.

28. “Wald, Lillian D.,” DAB, Supplement 2, NAW; R.L. Duffus, Lillian Wald: Neighbor and Crusader (N.Y., 1939); Lillian D. Wald, The House on Henry Street (N.Y., 1915); Lillian D. Wald, Windows on Henry Street (Boston, 1934); “Frankel, Lee Kaufer,” UJE.

29. Schappes, DHJUS, 539 ff., 725, n.2; Korn, Eventful Years, 18; Schappes, JIUS, 110; “Berger, Victor Louis,” UJE, DAB, Supplement 1; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 100-1, 217, 262; “Wisconsin,” UJE, 10:535; “Berger, Victor Luitpold,” Biographical Directory of the American Congress; Swichkow, Milwaukee, 426, n.50; Der Zeitgeist, 2:7-9.

30. Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 256 ff.; “Bund,” UJE; AJA, 12:34 ff: “Anarchism,” “Socialism,” JE.

31. Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 266 ff., 273; Rischin, Promised City, 233-35, 273; PAJHS, 50:202 ff.; “Goldfogle, Henry Mayer,” Biographical Directory of the American Congress; Zosa Szaskowski, Jews, Wars and Communbm (N.Y., 1972), 1:141, 153, 159-60; Schappes JIUS, 186-87; “London, Meyer,” UJE, DAB, WWW, Supplement 1, Biographical Directory of the American Congress; Harry Rogoff, An East Side Epic: The Life and Work of Meyer London (N.Y., 1930).

32. Wolf, Presidents I Have Known, 67 ff.; Fuchs, Political Behavior, 44-73. The Jewish congressmen listed in “Public Office, Jews in,” UJE, have been checked for affiliation in the Biographical Directory of the American Congress: AI, Nov. 10, 1904, p.4, cs.5-6; Rischin, Promised City, 273; Adler, Jacob H. Schiff, 1:44-45.

33. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 386-87; Bulletin, Missouri Historical Society, 7:34; Fuchs, Political Behavior, 45 ff.; “Alabama,” UJE, 1:154; PAJHS, 29:173-75; “Rosewater, Victor,” DAB, Supplement 2; M. Seeligson, Galveston, to I.L., Phila., June 19, 1853, Leeser Papers, Marcus Collections; PUAHC, 1:118, 121, 284.

34. AJA, 17:16; Fuchs, Political Behavior, 44 ff.; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 144 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 97 ff., 5649 A.M. (1888-89), 101 ff.; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 514; “Michigan,” UJE, 7:537, “Portland,” 8:605; “California,” JE, 3:512; Uchill, Pioneers, 144 ff.; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 17-18; AI, Oct. 7, 1887, p.4, cs.1-2; Rischin, Promised City, 230; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 390; Glanz, Milieu, 28-29; Deutsch-Amerikanisches Conversations-Lexicon, 5:794.

35. Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 20, 400, n.63; Wittke, We Who Built America, 330; Morais, Philadelphia, 392 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 112-13; Breck, Colorado, 83, 305, n.4; Uchill, Pioneers, 74; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 136; Occ., 23:237; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 390; “New York, JE, 9:276; PAJHS, 34:285-88.

36. American Jews’ Annual for 5649 A.M. (1888-89), 101-2; Fuchs, Political Behavior, 46; Walter Bean, Boss Ruef’s San Francisco: The Story of the Union Labor Party, Big Business, and the Graft Prosecution (Berkeley, Calif., 1952); Faulkner, Social Justice, 92 ff.; California Historical Quarterly, 51:3 ff.; American Heritage, 11(no.1):8 ff.; The two state histories whose indices were checked are John Walter Caughey, California (2nd ed., N.Y., 1953), and Robert Glass Cleland and Glenn S. Dumke, From Wilderness to Empire: A History of California (N.Y., 1959).

37. “Los Angeles,” UJE, 7:200-1, “Montana,” 7:627-28; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 179; “United States,” JE, 12:352-59, 364; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 388, 433; Harrison spoke on behalf of Russian Jewry in his third annual message: James D. Richardson (ed.), A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents (Washington, 1907), 9:188.

38. Uchill, Pioneers, 144-45; “Schurz, Carl,” DAB.

CHAPTER ELEVEN

THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF THE AMERICAN JEW, 1860–1920: PART I

  1. Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 101; Faulkner, Social Justice, 28; Schlesinger, New Viewpoints, 249; Morison, History, 761-62, 787-88; Irving S. Kull & Nell M. Kull, A Short Chronology of American History, 1492-1950 (New Brunswick, N.J., 1952), sub 1920.

  2. Fishberg, The Jews, 405.

  3. Biog. Ency. of Ohio, 73-74; Jewish People, 4:92; Pope, Cloth. Ind. in NYC, 139; Friedman, Pioneers, 339; PAJHS, 46:236-37; JSS, 8:219 ff.; Wish, Society and Thought, 2:32.

  4. “Atlanta,” JE; AJHQ, 62:250 ff., 261; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 101 ff.; for Baltimore, see all the ads in Blum, Baltimore; Auerbach, “Nebraska,” 111-12; “North Carolina,” UJE, 8:239; Elovitz, Birmingham, 29; “California,” JE, 3:512; Morais, Philadelphia, 266; PAJHS, 31:284-86; Markens, Hebrews, 248-49; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:349 ff.; Blum, Baltimore, 135 ff.; Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute, 10:110.

  5. PAJHS, 28:304; Friedman, Pilgrims, 353-64.

  6. P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 167A; Judith E. Endelman, The Jewish Community of Indianapolis (Bloomington, Ind., 1984), 40, et passim; PAJHS, 17:207-9, 28:257-58; Nodel, The Ties Between, 72-73; Biog. Ency. of Ohio. 269-70; Russell, Germanic Influence, 331-32; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” xxii, n.173; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:308; Feldman, Jew. Experience in Western Pa., 170; “Steinert, Morris,” DAB; Markens, Hebrews, 161 ff., 164; “Newark,” UJE, 8:206; Essex Story, 14; W. Lovelace, Jesse Shwayder and The Golden Rule: First Fifty Years of Shwayder Bros., Inc., 1910-1960 (Chicago, 1960); Melodia and Walter S. Rowe, The Story of Estate: Another Chapter of the Romance of Business in the Land of Opportunity (Hamilton, Ohio, 1937); E. & L., Richmond, 140; Morais, Philadelphia, 255-57, 263, 291-92; EIAJH, 281.

  7. Md. Hist. Mag., 18:357 ff., 19:54 ff.; Byars, B. & M. Gratz, 262 ff.; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 28, 67, 193; “Wolffe, Frederick,” UJE; Markens, Hebrews, 256 ff.; AI, Sept. 16, 1881, p.92, c.2; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 103, 107; Elovitz, Birmingham, 23 ff.; Watters, Utah, 163 ff.; Charleston Courier, Aug. 7, 1906, clipping in Elzas Collection, NYHS; PAJHS, 9:163; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 204; “Galveston,” JE, 4:505; “Kruttschnitt, Julius,” UJE, WWW, 1607-1896; Juden im Deutschen Kulturberich (2nd ed., Berlin, 1959), 972; The City of Detroit, Michigan, 1701-1921 (Detroit, 1922), 4:719, 724-25; Ohio Historical Society Echoes, Oct. 1974, p.1 for the Gramm-Bernstein Motor Truck Company, copy in Marcus Collections.

  8. Blum, Baltimore, 133; Ginsberg, Petersburg, 37; Elovitz, Birmingham, 27; Statement of David Joseph, Cincinnati, to JRM, Oct. 1968, re scrap business, AJAr; Charles H. Lipset and Mildred S. Horowitz, One Hundred Years of Recycling History: From Yankee Tincart Peddlers to Wall Street Scrap Giants (N.Y., 1964), 37 ff., 40 ff., 72, 149, 225 ff.; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 165; Fortune Magazine, 18(no.4):4148; Pollak 100 (Cin., 1968), 14; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 177.

  9. Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 175; Morais, Philadelphia, 287-88; Markens, Hebrews, 153-54, 157; RIJHN, 2:104 ff.; “Cutler, Harry,” UJE.

10. Marcus, CAJ, 1:236-37; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 108; The Industrial American, Sept. 30, 1868, copy in Marcus Collections; Markens, Hebrews, 154-56, 167; Philippsborn, Vicksburg, 7; Frederick Fried, Artists in Wood (N.Y., 1970), 32 ff.; Dr. E.L. Demuth, White Plains, N.Y., to JRM, Nov. 18, 1974, Marcus Collections; Russell, Germanic Influence, 329; Elovitz, Birmingham, 24-25; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 164; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 643; Reminiscences of Jacob R. Marcus who went to Wheeling High School, 1909-1911; Rogoff, “Formative Years,” 18-19.

11. Marcus, U.S. Jewry, vol. 1, chapter on “Economics”; Lemann, Lemann Family; Kempner, Recalled Recollections, 52, 54, 72 ff.; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 41-43; Israelites of Louisiana, 36; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 206; Godchaux, Godchaux Family; Sitterson, Sugar Country, 4 ff., 262, 286, 312, 347, 354; Shpall, Louisiana, 43.

12. Fort Worth WPA, HRS Manuscripts, Annals of the Fort Worth Public Library, 1:229-30, 2:546-58, 3:950-51, 4:1501-5, 5:1744-46, including data from the Fort Worth Gazette, Nov. 5, 1890 and the Austin Daily Statesman, Aug. 29, 1886 and Oct, 28, 1890, copies in Marcus Collections; PAJHS, 8:19; Feldman, Jew. Experience in Western Pa., 23, 25; Blum, Baltimore, 418; Markens, Hebrews, 156-57, 166; “Sulzberger,” JE, 11:584; Richard E. Heller, Heritage (Milwaukee, 1969); Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 16; Rudolph A. Clemens, The American Livestock and Meat Industry (N.Y., 1923), 158; “Morris, Nelson,” UJE, DAB.

13. Statistical History of the U.S., 411; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no. 124; Swarsensky, Madison, 21; Essex Story, 12, 15; “Newark,” UJE, 8:206; Markens, Hebrews, 148, 157, 162-63; “Gerstle, Lewis,” JE, DAB; Marcus, U.S. Jewry, vol. 2, index, sub “Gerstle”; Glanz, Alaska, 6 ff.; “California,” JE, 3:512; Gerstle Mack, Lewis and Hannah Gerstle (San Francisco, 1953), 33 ff.

14. “Fleischman, Charles Louis,” DAB; “Cincinnati,” UJE, 3:210, “Ohio,” 8:290; Blum, Baltimore, 207, 249, 388; Markens, Hebrews, 168; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 36, 75; Carter, Jews in Early Utah, 370-71; Gimbels: Unidentified page from a Vincennes local directory in Marcus Collections; Aleene Shneider, “Marcus Bernheimer” (typescript, St. Louis, 1968), AJAr.

15. Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 36; “Bush, Isidor,” UJE; Carter, Jews in Early Utah, 358; Dorothea Straus, Threshholds (Boston, 1971), chap.1; Markens, Hebrews, 146; Morais, Philadelphia, 295; Elovitz, Birmingham, 24; E. & L., Richmond, 70; Marcus, Memoirs, see Index under “Liquor Business”; AI, Feb. 27, 1913, p.4, cs.3-5; for Westheimer, see material in AJAr; Wiesen, “Economic Life of Cincinnati Jewry,” 5; Feldman, Jew. Experience in Western Pa., 92.

16. Markens, Hebrews, 165-67; “Newark,” UJE, 8:206; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 15-16, 164; Plaut, Jews in Minnesota, 47; Maurice Auerback biographical material in St. Paul Historical Society Library; Feldman, Jew. Experience in Western Pa., 91 ff.; May, “The May Hosiery Mills”; Blum, Baltimore, 406; Morais, Philadelphia, 277-78; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 35-86; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 7; EIAJH, 281; Milton S. Florsheim, “Building a Business to Last” (typescript, Chicago, 1934 or 1935), copy in Marcus Collections.

17. Statement about the clothing industry in Germany by Leo Baeck to JRM, Jan. 8, 1954, Marcus Collections; Memorandum of Kenneth Roseman to JRM, Sept. 25, 1969.

18. Elinor Grumet, “Jews in the Clothing Industry in New York City in 1866-67” (HUC term paper, 1974); AJA, 12:4, 14; Marcus, CAJ, 2:677; Pope, Cloth. Ind. in NYC, ix, 6-7, 10, 12-13; YA, 2-3:180-82; Friedman, Pioneers, 324 ff., 329 ff., 335, 404, 405, n.16, 406; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:289 ff.; PAJHS, 40:57 ff.; “United States,” JE, 12:375-76; Feldman, Jew. Experience in Western Pa., 91 ff.; Statistical History of U.S., 57; Ingber, “Jews in the Clothing Business in Cincinnati,” pp.2-3; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 36; Blum, Baltimore, 273; JSS, 4:99 ff.; T.R. Harlow, Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford, to JRM, Feb. 10, 1970, enclosing necrology of Tobias Kohn, unidentified New York newspaper, Feb. 1899, AJAr; EIAJH, 280; AJA, 12:5-12.

19. Blum, Baltimore, 165, 250, 273; Fein, Baltimore, 134.

20. Markens, Hebrews, 168-69; Friedman, Pioneers, chap.28, 406, n.20; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 12 ff., 109-10; PAJHS, 40:57 ff., 62; Russell, Germanic Influence, 329-31; Ingberg, “Jews in the Clothing Industry in Cincinnati”; Shulman, “Preliminary Studies,” 3 ff.; Feldman, Jew. Experience in Western Pa., 91 ff., 98; WSJHQ, 3:50; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 95 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 178; Ginsberg, Petersburg, 55; RIJHN, 1:72-74; AH, May 22, 1891, pp.50 ff.; Md. Hist. Mag., 64:35 ff.; Blum, Baltimore, 428.

21. Ginsberg, Petersburg, 59; Markens, Hebrews, 151-52, 157; Jewish People, 4:81; Pope, Cloth. Ind. in NYC, 45; Friedman, Pioneers, chap.28, 388, 406-7, n.26; “United States,” JE, 12:375; AJA, 12:3 ff.; Hart, Hart, Schaffner & Marx; Meites, Chicago, 434-35.

22. “Needle Trades,” UJE; YA, 2-3:183, 187, 192-93, 199, 7:229-54; Gutstein, Chicago, 66 ff.; “United States,” JE, 12:375-76; Pope, Cloth. Ind. in NYC, 27, 47, 50-52, esp. 52, n.11, 66, 138-39, 155-56, 176-79, 256 ff., 270-71, also chaps.3, 9; Rogoff, “Formative Years,” 49-50, 58-62; Clothing Workers of Chicago, 17 ff., 421 ff.; “United States,” JE, 12:375-76; Friedman, Pioneers, 324 ff.; Menorah Journal, 15:300 ff., 418, 423.

23. The Happiest Man: The Life of Louis Borgenicht, as told to Harold Friedman (N.Y., 1942); “Dix, Henry A.,” UJE; Friedman, Pilgrims, 309 ff.; Friedman, Pioneers, 317 ff., 339; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 406 ff.; YA, 23:186-89, 200 ff.; Fishberg, The Jews, 401; AI, Feb. 27, 1913, p.4, cs.3-5; Abraham Cahan, The Rise of David Levinsky (reprint, N.Y., 1966); “Baltimore,” JE, 2:481, “Memphis,” 8:464, “United States,” 12:375-76; Pope, Cloth. Ind. in NYC, 54, 139, 288 ff., 303, chap. 9, Appendix A; “Migrations,” UJE, 7:548; JSS, 8:223, 239; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 165-66; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 35-36; Morais, Philadelphia, 281-83; Blum, Baltimore, 169, 187; Fein, Baltimore, 134-35, 295-96; Herman J. Cahn, Baltimore, to JRM, n.d., copy in AJAr; Jacob Seasongood: Cincinnati Enquirer, Feb. 6, 1884, p.4, copy in Marcus Collections; Rochester: Philip Bernstein, Sermon on Rochester, Nov. 6, 1970, copy in AJAr; Carter, Jews in Early Utah, 371-72; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 111-13; EIAJH, 280-81; “Clothing and Furnishing Trade,” The Americana, vol. 4; May, “The May Hosiery Mills”; Chicago Sunday Tribune, Feb. 3, 1952, p.7, c.1, p.9, cs.1-3; Maurice Auerback biographical material in St. Paul Historical Society Library; AJA, 12:3 ff.; Shulman, “Preliminary Studies”; Friedman, Pioneers, 317 ff., 324 ff.; “Needle Trades,” UJE; Sherman, Jew Within American Society, 87.

24. Menorah Journal, 15:303-4, 416; Jew. Com. Reg., 707; Meites, Chicago, 453 ff.; AJYB, 53:6 ff.

25. Rogoff, “Formative Years,” 49 ff., 58 ff., 101; Jew. Com. Reg., 707 ff., 1277 ff.; H. Lang & Morris C. Feinstone, Gewerkschaften: Issued by the United Hebrew Trades, etc. (N.Y., 1938), 11 ff.; Meites, Chicago, 468; YA, 7:229, 237; Pope, Cloth. Ind. in NYC, 139, 211 ff.; Menorah Journal, 15:418 ff., 527; AJYB, 53:10-11, 17-18; “Bund,” UJE.

26. “Needle Trades,” UJE; Menorah Journal, 15:418-23; AJYB, 53:19-21.

27. “Needle Trades,” UJE; Meites, Chicago, 434-35, 459 ff.; Menorah Journal, 15:422 ff.; “Marks, Marcus M.,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):151.

28. Menorah Journal, 15:416, 424 ff.; AJYB, 53:21 ff.; “White, Henry,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):205-6; “Needle Trades,” UJE; “Hillman, Sidney,” UJE, WWW, vol.2, DAB; Fraser, “Sidney Hillman,” 136 ff.; George Soule, Sidney Hillman (N.Y., 1939), 12 ff.; Matthew Josephson, Sidney Hillman (Garden City, N.Y., 1952), 38 ff.; Charles E. Zaretz, The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, etc. (N.Y., 1934), 93 ff.; Jew. Com. Reg., 700 ff.; Menorah Journal, 15:416-17; Rogoff, “Formative Years,” 84 ff.; Philip S. Foner, The Fur and Leather Workers Union (Newark, 1950), 3-65; Charles H. Green, The Headwear Workers, etc. (N.Y., n.d.), 55, 96-97, 205, 222; Louis Levine, The Women’s Garment Workers, etc. (N.Y., 1924), chaps. 1-29; J.T. Budish and George Soule, The New Unionism in the Clothing Industry (N.Y., 1920); Clothing Workers of Chicago, 17 ff.; William M. Leiserson, Adjusting Immigrant to Industry (N.Y., 1924); Seidman, Needle Trades, 335 ff.; Tcherikower (ed.), Jewish Labor Movement in the U.S., 1:338-86, 2:346-417.

29. AJHQ, 52:79 ff., 92; Rogoff, “Formative Years,” 22 ff.; AJYB, 53:15-16, 26-29; “Trade Unions,” “Workman’s Circles,” UJE.

30. AJYB, 53:24 ff., 29-31; “Zukunft,” EJ; Jew. Com. Reg., 617; Rogoff, “Formative Years,” chaps.3 & 4; JQR, 45:540 ff., 556; JSS, 8:242-43; YA, 7:232, 285-37, 240-41; “Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union of America,” UJE, 1:220.

31. AJYB, 53:32 ff.; “International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union,” UJE, 5:579; YA, 7:233; AJHQ, 52:81; PAJHS, 41:297 ff., 340 ff., 46:221 ff.; Menorah Journal, 15:293 ff., 527 ff., 533 ff.

32. Markens, Hebrews, 145, 151, 169-70, 172-75; R. & E., Charleston, 178, 181; Morais, Philadelphia, 267-69, 281-82, 300; Blum, Baltimore, 116, 243-44, 252-56; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 14, 101; Obituaries of Jacob Seasongood in the Cincinnati Enquirer, Feb. 6, 1884, p.4, Cincinnati Daily Times Star, Feb. 6, 1884, p.8, copies in Marcus Collections; Biog. Ency. of Ohio, 408-9; N.Y. Jewish Times, Dec. 12, 1973, p.665, c.2; Menorah, 2:77 ff.; Frank, Nashville Jewry, 1861-1901, 85; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 108-9; Hart, Hart, Schaffner & Marx; typescript autobiography of Samuel Ach, Marcus Collections; Friedman, Pilgrims, 277 ff.; Blum, Baltimore, 244, 252, 254; Bulletin of the Business History Society, 21(no.2):39 ff.; George H. Jessop, “Sam’l of Posen; or, the Commercial Drummer,” in Davy Crockett & Other Plays, ed. by Isaac Goldberg and Hubert Heffner (Princeton, 1940).

33. Marcus, CAJ, 3: Index sub “Advertisements”; see ads of Loth, etc., in AI, May 6, 1864, p.359, cs.2-3; RIJHN, 1:119 ff.; New York Times, Jan. 30, 1940, p.19; Menorah Journal, 24:193 ff.; “Lasker, Albert Davis,” UJE, WWW, vol.3; Henrietta M. Larson, Guide to Business History (Cambridge, Mass., 1950), no.738; Marcus, CAJ, 2:815; “Lubin, David,” DAB; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 98; R. & E., Charleston, 180; Orange A. Smalley and Frederick D. Sturdivant, The Credit Merchants: A History of Spiegel, Inc. (Carbondale, Ill., 1973); “Epstein, Jacob,” UJE; Fein, Baltimore, 223-24; Mahoney, Great Merchants, chap. 15; David L. Cohn, The Good Old Days, etc. (N.Y., 1940); Boris Emmett and John E. Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters: A History of Sears, Roebuck, and Company (Chicago, 1950); “Rosenwald, Julius,” DAB ; AJYB, 34:141 ff.

34. W. & W., Philadelphia, 352; Morais, Philadelphia, 50-51; Markens, Hebrews, 159; Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 64:161 ff.; “Department Stores,” EJ; New York Historical Society Quarterly, 48:131 ff.; Mahoney, Great Merchants, et passim.

35. Statement of L.M. Friedman to JRM, n.d., Marcus Collections; “Filene, Edward Albert,” DAB, Supplement 2; Mahoney, Great Merchants, 14, 85, et passim; PAJHS, 29:185-86; Morais, Philadelphia, 300; “Lit,” EJ; Baltimore Sun, Mar. 1, 1905, copy in Marcus Collections; Blum, Baltimore, 268; Fein, Baltimore, 135.

36. E. & L., Richmond, 98, 145, 187, 265; “The History and Growth of Thalhimers, 1842-1972,” brochure, (n.p., n.d.), Marcus Collections; Danville Register, May 12, 1946, for the sixteenth celebration of L. Herman of Danville, Va., copy in Marcus Collections; Elovitz, Birmingham, 25 ff.; Henry G. Baker, Rich’s of Atlanta: The Story of A Store from 1867 (Atlanta, 1953); Sangers: see Marcus, U.S. Jewry, vol. 3; Stanley Marcus, Minding the Store (Boston, 1974); National Jewish Monthly, 86(no.4):33 ff.; Mahoney, Great Merchants, 9, 100 ff.; Fortune, 38(no.6):109 ff.; “Gimbel,” UJE, EJ; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 99-100, 109, 384, n.43; Tcherikower (ed.), Jewish Labor Movement in the U.S., 1:403-4; Meites, Chicago, 436-37; “Siegel, Henry,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):186-87; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 69; Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 64:163, 169; Auerbach, “Nebraska,” 33; Breck, Colorado, 121-22, 126-27, 134-35; Bulletin, Missouri Historical Society, 25:82-83; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 76; Zarchin, San Francisco, 67-69; “Portland,” “Meier, Julius L.,” UJE; New York Times, Apr. 17, 1965, p.26; “The History of the May Department Stores Company and Famous-Barr,” advertising brochure, copy in Marcus Collections.

37. “Stewart, Alexander Turney,” DAB; Markens, Hebrews, 158-60; Wall Street Journal, Sept. 24, 1974, p.1, c.1; New York Times, Sept. 7, 1972, p.39; Ginsberg, Petersburg, 39-40; Mahoney, Great Merchants, 15; “Department Store,” EJ; PAJHS, 38:20; Bloomingdale: Sabbath-desecrating incident reported by Sol Blank, a Bavarian immigrant, to JRM.

38. Hower, History of Macy’s, 218 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:301 ff., 316 ff.; Nathan Straus, NYC, to Oscar Straus, Constantinople, June 1, 1889, Straus Collection, LC, copy in Marcus Collections; Straus, Under Four Administrations, 313-16; Higham, Strangers in the Land, 127; “Straus,” UJE, 10:77-79.

39. Marcus, Memoirs, 2:287 ff., 301 ff.; “Straus, Isidor,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):197-98; AJYB, 33:135 ff.; “Straus, Isidor,” “Straus, Oscar,” DAB; “Straus, Nathan,” UJE, DAB; AH, May 23, 1930, p.55; Faulkner, Social Justice, 177-78; “Straus,” JE, UJE; Hower, History of Macy’s; PAJHS, 22:235-39, 31:271-73, 295-97; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 36-37, 71-73; Markens, Hebrews, 160-61; EIAJH, 269-70; Lina Gutherz Straus, Disease in Milk; the Remedy, Pasteurization; the Life Work of Nathan Straus (2nd ed., N.Y., 1917); Mahoney, Great Merchants, 149 ff.; Analyticus, Jews Are Like That, 211 ff.

40. AJA, 12:71 ff.; Blum, Baltimore, 116, 314, 428, and all the ads in this Jewish “mug” book; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 83; Greenebaum, “San Francisco,” 122-28; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 13; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 34-35; Wiesen, “Economic Life of Cincinnati Jewry”; Feldman, Jew. Experience in Western Pa., 91 ff.; Russell, Germanic Influence, 331; Breck, Colorado, 131; Uchill, Pioneers, 94; Newsletter of the Indiana Jewish Historical Society, July 1973, p.3; “Newark,” UJE, 8:206; GHQ, [Winter 1974?], pp. 511, 525, Burton A. Boxerman file, AJAr; Markens, Hebrews, 158 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 179-80; AI, Feb. 27, 1913, p.4, cs.3-5; WSJHQ, 3:60; Thomas C. Cochran, Basic History of American Business (Princeton, 1959), 71.

CHAPTER TWELVE

THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF THE AMERICAN JEW, 1860-1920: PART II

  1. John Graham Brooks, As Others See Us (N.Y., 1910), 41 ff.; AJHQ, 55:424 ff.; Eli N. Evans, The Provincials: A Personal History of Jews in the South (N.Y., 1972), 299 ff.; Edith Wyatt Moore, Clinton, Miss., to JRM, Oct. 19, 1947, see Marcus, U.S. Jewry, vol.1; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:269 ff., 299 ff.; Morison, History, 709; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 196-97, 274; Markens, Hebrews, 147-48.

  2. C. Vann Woodward, Origins of the New South, 1877-1913 (Baton Rouge, 1971); Faulkner, Social Justice, 9; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 12-13; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no.474; Harvey Winokur, “A Study of Jewish Businessmen as Reflected in the City Directories of New Orleans, La., 1861 to 1881” (HUC term paper, n.d.); Slosson, The Great Crusade, 262-63; Rothschild, Atlanta, 20; AI, May 29, 1868, p.2, c.4, Oct. 30, 1868, p.2, c.5; R. & E., Charleston, 169; The UAHC has lists of the dates of the founding of its member congregations; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 261-62.

  3. Markens, Hebrews, 147; Ginsberg, Jew? of Virginia, 82; Nodel, The Ties Between, 75; Suwol, Oregon, 3; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 38-39; George F. Seward, Chinese Immigration in its Social and Economic Aspects (N.Y., 1881, reprinted 1970), 131 ff.; Stern, FAJF, 172-73; “Einstein, Lewis,” WWW, vol.2; PAJHS, 19:193-96; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 99.

  4. “Cone,” EJ; Golden & Rywell, Jews in American History, 206 ff.; Herman Cone typescript biography, AJAr; Golden, Jewish Roots in the Carolinas, 40-41; The Textorian Publication for Cone Mills Employees, Jan. 29, 1970, copy in Marcus Collections; PAJHS, 26:276-77; North Carolina: Re-Building an Ancient Commonwealth (Chicago, 1928), 3:31 ff.; Ben F. Lemert, The Cotton Textile Industry of the Southern Appalachian Piedmont (Chapel Hill, 1933); Broadus Mitchell, The Rise of the Cotton Mills in the South (Baltimore, 1921).

  5. Glazer, Jews of Iowa, 233 ff.; Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 47:207-8; Trachtenberg, Easton, 234; “Peddling,” EJ, 13:207-9; Russell, Germanic Influence, 334; John Uri Lloyd, Felix Moses (Cincinnati, 1930); Cincinnati Enquirer, Mar. 30, 1886, p.4, c.2: Felix Moses; Uchill, Pioneers, 166-67; AI, May 23, 1873, p.2, c.5; YA, 6:133; Oregon Historical Quarterly, 1:222 ff.; Denver Rocky Mountain News, Sept. 23, 1963. p.51, cs.2-3, copy in Marcus Collections; Pennsylvania History, 24:322 ff.; Harry E. Christian, Denver, to JRM, Nov. 14, 1974, Marcus Collections; Report of interview with Rabbi Harvey B. Franklin, grandson of Louis Mayer. The interview was made by Dr. Norton B. Stern at Long Beach, Calif., Nov. 18, 1968, copy in Marcus Collections; Friedman, Pilgrims, 277 ff. for the drummers, the “Knights of the Roads.”

  6. Feldman, Jew. Experience in Western Pa., 8; Feldman, “Jew. Experience in Western Pa.,” original typescript, chap. 1, Marcus Collections; Biog. Ency. of Ohio, 439, 654; Cleland & Putman, Isaias W. Hellman, 9 ff.; “California,” JE, 3:512; PAJHS, 39:241; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 33; “Alabama,” UJE, 1:154, “San Diego,” 9:354; Blum, Baltimore, 378; “United States,” JE, 12:369; Markens, Hebrews, 157 ff., 164; Morais, Philadelphia, 305-7; AI, Feb. 27, 1913, p.4, cs.3-5; “Horowitz, Louis J.,” UJE, EJ, WWW, vol.3; Cohen, Jews in the Making of America, 129-30; Burton J. Hendrick, “The Jewish Invasion of America,” McClure’s, March 1913.

  7. “Horowitz, Louis J.,” “Speyer,” EJ; Katz, August Belmont, 1, 6-7, 19, 66, 82, 143 ff., 165, 188, 237-38, 264, 272; Richard J.H. Gottheil, The Belmont-Belmonte Family (privately printed, N.Y., 1917); “Belmont, August,” DAB; AI, Aug. 7, 1874, p.4, c.2, Sept. 4, 1874, p.4, c.1; “Speyer,” JE, 11:508; “Speyer, James,” “Speyer, Edgar,” UJE; Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute, 10:109, 12:231; New York Times, July 19, 1941, copy in Marcus Collections; “Seligman, Isaac Newton,” “Speyer, James Joseph,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):184-85, 193; PAJHS, 28:300-1, 31:187-91; AJHQ, 55:120-22, 62:261; New York World, April 27, 1880, copy in Marcus Collections; Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 349-40; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:343 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 103; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no.511; Blum, Baltimore, 239, 338; Markens, Hebrews, 139 ff.; Shulman, “Preliminary Studies,” 7.

  8. PAJHS, 31:187-91.

  9. Schappes, JIUS, 33; Business History Review, 31:143 ff.; “Ulmann, Albert,” WWW, vol.2; “Finance,” JE, 5:384; Markens, Hebrews, 149-51, 207-8; “Finance, Jews in,” UJE, 4:300 ff.; AJYB, 6(1904-1905):114-16, 183-84, 196.

10. Harold S. Sloan & Arnold J. Zurcher, A Dictionary of Economics (N.Y., 1949), 171; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 102; “North Carolina,” UJE, 8:240; Swarsensky, Madison, 15, 19; E. & L., Richmond, 196; R. & E., Charleston, 180; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 88; PAJHS, 25:173-75, 28:295 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 178, 191, 290-91; “Loeb, August B.,” “Newburger, Morris,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):144, 160.

11. American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 105, 107; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:265-70; EIAJH, 281-82; Markens, Hebrews, 169; Booth Mooney, 75 Years in Victoria (Victoria, Texas, 1959), 8-9; Kempner, Recalled Recollections, 35; “Kempner, Isaac Herbert,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):128; “Taussig, William,” and “Taussig, Frank William,” DAB, and DAB, Supplement 2; New York Times, Nov. 12, 1940, p.23; Bulletin, Missouri Historical Society, 25:85-86.

12. “Rosentreter, David,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):175; “Straus, Simon William,” DAB; Meites, Chicago, 74, 136, 199, 447; “Foreman, Henry G.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):94; Printed Circular, 1871, concerning the sale of housing bonds in Europe by the Greenebaums, Greenebaum Collection, Chicago Historical Society, copy in Marcus Collections; Markens, Hebrews, 166; Douglas Krantz, “Economic Life of Chicago Jewry, 1881-1882” (HUC term paper, 1974), 3.

13. WSJHQ, 1:47 ff., 2:27 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 145, 169; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 37 ff., 43, 76, 92, 121 ff.; Wechsburg, Merchant Bankers, 285-286; Growing and Building with the West: A Brief History of the Anglo California National Bank of San Francisco (n.p., n.d.), copy in Marcus Collections; “San Francisco,” JE, 11:36; Cleland & Putnam, Isaias W. Hellman, 9 ff.

14. Wall Street Journal, Feb. 5, 1968, p.1; Elovitz, Birmingham, 30 ff.; “Cincinnati,” UJE, 3:210; Biog. Ency. of Ohio, 408-9; Markens, Hebrews, 143-44, 256; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 10; Business History Review, 31:152; Wiesen, “Economic Life of Cincinnati Jewry,” 5.

15. Business History Review, 31:143 ff., 156, 172 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 143 ff.; “Hallgarten, Charles L.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):109; Wechsberg, Merchant Bankers, 284 ff.; Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 87-88, et passim, genealogical tree on back page.

16. “Lehman, Arthur,” UJE, DAB, Supplement 2; “Lehman,” EJ; “Lehman, Mayer,” UJE; Commentary, 35:403 ff.; Centennial: Lehman Bros., 1850-1950 (N.Y., 1950); Business History Review, 31:152, 173; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 435; Allan Nevins, Herbert H. Lehman and His Era (N.Y., 1963).

17. Cincinnati Historical Society to JRM, Sept. 18, 1974, AJAr, enclosure: necrology of Jacob Netter, In Memoriam, Cincinnati, 1881, containing proceedings of the Memorial Association, Eulogies at Music Hall, 1881, 224-26; Kuhn, Loeb & Company: A Century of Investment Banking (N.Y., 1967), 7 ff., 13, 28, 28 ff., 31; “Schiff, Jacob Henry,” DAB; “Cincinnati,” UJE, 3:210; “Schiff,” JE, 11:96-97, “United States,” 12:376; Occ., 2:616; Sullivan, Our Times, 2:360 ff.; Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 87, 301, 315-17; Business History Review, 31:152, 156; New York Times, Jan. 29, 1967, excerpted in Jewish Digest, 13(no.1):76 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 148-49; Schappes, JIUS, 146; Faulkner, Social Justice, 33-35, 46-47; AI, Feb. 27, 1913, p.4, cs.3-5; Adler, Jacob H. Schiff, 1:11; Myers, Great American Fortunes, 3:274; “Warburg, Felix M.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):204; “Schiff, Jacob Henry,” WWW, vol.1, AJYB, 6:(1904-1905):182.

18. “Finance, Jews in,” UJE, 4:301; Adler, Jacob H. Schiff, 2:147 ff.; Elzas Jews of S.C., 254-55.

19. “Lehman, Herbert Henry,” “Lehman, Irving,” UJE; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 89-90, 314; EIAJH, 288; Morais, Philadelphia, 411 ff.

20. AJYB, 2(1900-1901):624, 6(1904-1905):52 ff.; AI, Apr. 18, 1884, p.4, c.1; “Hungary,” UJE, 5:496; “Cohen, Josiah,” JE, UJE; Pope, Cloth. Ind. in NYC. 107; Fishberg, The Jews, 402; “Baltimore,” JE, 1:481; Markens, Hebrews, 196 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 89, 314; Meites, Chicago, 401 ff.; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 17-18; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 113; PAJHS, 47:38; “Cone, Claribel,” WWIAJ, 1926; Morais, Philadelphia, 429; Markens, Hebrews, 207-8, 215-16, 222-23, 258, 260-61; “Lazarus, Josephine,” JE.

21. “Seligman, Edwin Robert Anderson,” DAB; Markens, Hebrews, 196 ff., 232-33; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 138-40; “Baltimore,” JE, 1:481; “Gottlieb, Abraham,” JE; AJYB, 6(1904-1905):52 ff.; “Jacobson, Maurice,” “Zolotkoff, Leon,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):124, 212; PAJHS, 11:195-97; Blum, Baltimore, 235; Wischnitzer, American Synagogue Architecture, 168; Morais, Philadelphia, 415 ff., 429 ff.; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 109-10.

22. AH, May 5, 1905, pp.730-731; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 263-64; AI, Feb. 27, 1913, p.4, cs.3-5; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 110, 389, n.132; Markens, Hebrews, 132-34; AJYB, 6(1904-1905):52 ff.; “Dreeben, Sam,” UJE; Levinger, Jews in U.S., 343 ff.; Learsi, Jews in America, 251; PAJHS, 31:193 ff., 211 ff.; “Soldier, Jew as,” UJE, 9:625 ff.

23. “Davis, Abel,” UJE; Markens, Hebrews, 217 ff., 220-21, 224-25, 234-35; Morais, Philadelphia, 411 ff.; “Kalisch, Samuel,” “Levi, Leo N.,” UJE; Memorial Volume, Leo N. Levi, I. O.B.B., 1905 (Chicago, 1907), 12-15.

24. “Sulzberger, Mayer,” DAB, UJE; M. & M., History, 720; “Guggenheimer, Randolph,” JE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):108; Ginsberg, Jews of Virginia, 81-82; “Untermyer, Samuel,” UJE, DAB, Supplement 2, WWW, vol.1; Jerome C. Rosenthal, “The Early Public Life of Louis Marshall: 1900-1912: A Vital Period in American Jewish History” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1978); “Marshall, Louis,” UJE, DAB, WWW, vol. 1; AJYB, 32:21 ff.; Louis Marshall: A Biographical Sketch by Cyrus Adler and Memorial Addresses by Cyrus Adler, Irving Lehman, Horace Stern (N.Y., 1931); Analyticus, Jews Are Like That, 179 ff.; Morton Rosenstock, Louis Marshall: Defender of Jewish Rights (Detroit, 1965); Elzas, Jews of S.C., 199 ff., 274-75; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 109-110, 389, n.124; Markens, Hebrews, 189 ff.; PAJHS, 10:174-75, 29:188-93, 31:266 ff.; Blum, Baltimore, 161, 255.

25. Markens, Hebrews, 168 ff.; AJHQ, 56:331; Scott B. Saulson, “A Study of Jewish Businessmen as Reflected in the City Directories of Washington, D.C., 1861-1881” (HUC term paper, 1973); “Probable and Known Jewish Residents of Los Angeles, California, Listed in the United States Census of 1860,” compiled by Dr. Norton B. Stern, Dec. 9, 1968, copy in AJAr; Roseman, “Philadelphia,” 18; Adler, Kansas City, 18; Seth Bernstein, “Economic Life of the Jews of San Francisco, 1860-1870, as Reflected in the City Directories” (HUC term paper, 1973); AJA, 27:70 ff.; Breck, Colorado, 23, 32, 66, 121, 127-28, 131; Temple Emanu-El Records, copies in AJAr; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 86-88, xxiv-xxvii; PAJHS, 47:34 ff.; Stephen L. Sniderman, “The Economic Life of Milwaukee Jewry, 1875-1880” (HUC term paper, 1974); Jan M. Brahms, “An Analytical Study of the Economic Life of the Jews in St. Louis, 1879-1881” (HUC term paper, 1974); Martin Scharf, “A Study of the Economic Life of the Jews in Denver and Salt Lake City, 1861-1881” (HUC term paper, 1974).

26. American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 38; Swarsensky, Madison, 68-69; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 172; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 82 ff., 92, xxi, n.170; EIAJH, 279-83; Markens, Hebrews, 157; AH, May 22, 1891, pp.50-53; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 40-42 for that city in 1892; It is interesting to note that this relatively small town then sheltered eight secondhand goods shops and seven junk dealers. These men were probably East European newcomers struggling to gain a toehold in business. John S. Billings, Census Bulletin, no.19, Washington, D.C., December 30, 1890: Vital Statistics of Jews in the United States, 8; For the Billings Survey see also: Davis & Meyer, American Jewish History, 231 ff.; RA, Feb. 20, 1891, p. 12, cs.2-3; Jewish People, 4:78; Finkelstein, The Jews (1960), 2:1636, 1701; Jewish Review, 3(no.1):7; NAR, 152:70 ff.; Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 65-66; Glazer, American Judaism, 44; AJYB, 51:54.

27. Sophia M. Robison (ed.), Jewish Population Studies (N.Y., 1943), 114; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:268 ff.; The American Jewess, 1:67 ff.; Marcus, AJWD, 460 ff.; Jewish People, 1:397; “Occupations,” UJE, 8:271-72; “Trade and Commerce,” EJ, 1306; RIJHN, 1:72-74, 119-28, 240-43, 2:86 ff., 188-146, 238 ff., 3:48 ff., 132-34, 139-59; Pope, Cloth. Ind. in NYC. 107; AJHQ, 62:262 ff.; Cohen, Jews in the Making of America, 139 ff.; Fishberg, The Jews, 402; PAJHS, 46:218; Nodel, The Ties Between, 74; Morais, Philadelphia, 246, 262; Blum, Baltimore, 130-60, 308, 388, 418, et passim.

28. Marcus, Memoirs, 2:21 ff., 47 ff.; Godchaux, Godchaux Family: Israelites of Louisiana, 65-66.

29. Swarsensky, Madison, 20; Helen Kohn Hennig, August Kohn, etc. (Columbia, S.C., 1949), 167 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 201-3; Blum, Baltimore, 28.

30. Marcus, Memoirs, 2:57; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 107-8.

31. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 73 ff.; “United States,” JE, 12:376; Occ., 14:529-32; Sarah Agnes Wallace and Frances Elma Gillespie, The Journal of Benjamin Moran, 1857-1865 (Chicago, 1948), 1:285, 495-96, 516-18; Uchill, Pioneers, 135-36; Glanz, The German Jew in America, nos. 166, 267, 423; The Trial of Pasach N. Rubenstein for the Murder of Sarah Alexander, Town of New Lots, Dec. 12, 1875 (N.Y., 1876); Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 385, n.54; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 82-83; Fishberg, The Jews, chap. 19; Feldman, Jew. Experience in Western Pa., 106, 116 ff.

32. Moses Rischin (ed.), The American Gospel of Success: Individualism and Beyond (Chicago, 1965), Introduction; Jewish Review, 3:3, quoting the New York Sun of 1891; AI, July 20, 1899, p.3, cs.2-3; Rischin, Promised City, 53; Jewish Life, 9(no.2):19 ff.; Carter, Jews in Early Utah, 371-72; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:309 ff.; Wish, Society and Thought, 2:178-79; Morison, History, 668; “United States,” JE, 12:376; National Jewish Post and Opinion, Aug. 19, 1960, p. 10, quoting New York Daily Tribune, July 29, 1902; Jewish People, 4:87; Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 150; Uchill, Pioneers, 88.

33. Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 320; Wiernik, History, 248 ff.; PAJHS, 41:89-90; NAR, 126:301; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” xviii, n.127; JSS, 9:129 ff.; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 405; Stern, Temple Emanu-El, 24, 63.

34. Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 122-23; see the biographies in Blum, Baltimore, 153 ff.; Morison, History, 480; JSS, 23:158-59; New York History, 51:479 ff.; PAJHS, 46:60; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 122-23; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 42-43; RA, Feb. 20, 1891, p.12, cs.2-3; Jewish People, 4:79; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:280.

35. Business History Review, 31:143 ff.; AH, May 22, 1891, p.50; Fishberg, The Jews, 369; NAR, 126:305, 152:126-28; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 30, 366, n.153.

36. AJYB, 23:290; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 92; Pope, Cloth. Ind. in NYC. 106; Lipman, Soc. Hist. of Jews in England, 79-82; Faulkner, Social Justice, 51; Friedman, Pioneers, 339-40; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 68, 654; “Evansville,” UJE; “Mears, Otto,” DAB.

37. EIAJH, 37; PAJHS, 10:47, 38:19; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 92; Menorah Journal, 15:420; Pope, Cloth. Ind. in NYC, 293; Daniel J. Boorstin, The Americans: The Democratic Experience (N.Y., 1973), 100.

38. P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 21-22; “California,” JE, 3:512; William J. Parish, “The German Jew and the Commercial Revolution in Territorial New Mexico, 1850-1900” (University of New Mexico 6th Annual Research Lecture, pamphlet, May 1, 1959); William J. Parish, The Charles Ilfeld Company, etc. (Cambridge, Mass., 1961); Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 108; “Filene, Edward Albert,” UJE, DAB, Supplement 2; “Rice, Isaac Leopold,” DAB, WWW, vol.1; PAJHS, 25:175-76.

39. PAJHS, 36:266 ff.; Kahns: Youngstown Vindicator, Nov. 5, 1942, copy in Marcus Collections; American Society of Civil Engineers, no. 1407, copy in Marcus Collections; Detroit News Tribune, Sept. 20, 1938, copy in Marcus Collections; Cleveland Press, Aug. 6, 1938, copy in Marcus Collections; Sol King, Creative, Responsive, Pragmatic: 75 Years of Professional Practice: Albert Kahn and Associates, Architects, Engineers (Detroit, 1970); “Kahn, Albert,” UJE, WWW, vol.2; San Francisco Examiner, June 6, 1958, copy in Marcus Collections; Detroit Free Press, Sept. 2, 1945, copy in Marcus Collections; Detroit News, Jan. 16, 1939, copy in Marcus Collections; Weekly Bulletin, Michigan Society of Architects, 17(no.13). Albert Kahn Memorial Issue, copy in Marcus Collections; “Kahn, Albert,” “Julius, Moritz,” Leo M. Glassman (ed.), Biographical Encyclopaedia of American Jews, 1935 (N.Y., 1935); John Simons (ed.), Who’s Who in American Jewry, 1938-1939 (N.Y., 1938).

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

THE JEW IN THE GENERAL COMMUNITY, 1841–1920

  1. Swarsensky, Madison, 17; Curti et al., American History, 2:244; Wish, Society and Thought, 311 ff., 337; For Young Israel, cf. e.g. Libanon, 3(no.2).

  2. Wish, Society and Thought, 326; Trachtenberg, Easton, 114-15; “Kleeburg, Minna Cohen,” JE; Glanz, The German Jew in America, nos. 699, 777; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:145 ff., 3:23 ff.; Wise, Reminiscences, 139; Isaac M. Wise’s German love letters are in the AJAr.

  3. AI, July 19, 1861, p.23, cs.1-2; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 93-94; Occ., 18:92; Chicago Tribune, Oct. 15, 1866, last page; Proceedings of the NCJW 1896, 189; Jewish People, 4:113; Libanon, 3(no.2):20; Kahl Montgomery, 3 ff.; Constitution and By-Laws of Children of Israel, Memphis, Tenn., Sept. 28, 1869, copy in Marcus Collections; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no.1701; YA, 2-3:95-96; Grinstein, New York City, 207; Cleveland Temple, p.21; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:16; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 298; Glanz, Milieu, 45 ff.; Rosenberg, Alexandria, 12-13; English became the language of the minutes in Tifereth Israel, Cleveland, in 1858: Guttman, “Tifereth Israel,” 28; Rischin, Promised City, 96; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, 33 ff.; Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute, 10:94; Robert A. Rockaway, The Jews of Detroit: From the Beginning, 1762-1914 (Detroit, 1986), 46; Cahn, Baltimore, 12; Congregation Keneseth Israel, Phila., Minute Books, Apr. 26, 1887, AJAr; Business History Review, 31:159; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 200; Trachtenberg, Easton, 159, 160, 169-70.

  4. AI, May 17, 1878, p.4, cs.1-3; Goldmark, Pilgrims of ‘48, 203 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 301 ff.; Korn, Eventful Years, 27 ff.; Eitel Wolf Dobert, Deutsche Demokraten in Amerika: Die Achtundvierziger und Ihre Schriften (Goettingen, 1958); Wittke, Refugees of Revolution; Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute, 10:95-96, 125-26; PAJHS, 45:105; “Schiff, John Henry,” DAB; “Lewisohn, Adolph,” UJE.

  5. WSJHQ, 3:49; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 59, 111-15, 122-23; Fritz A. Leuchs, The Early German Theatre in New York, 1840-1874 (N.Y., 1928), 136-37, et passim; for Adolph Sonnenthal in the United States, see Coleman, Jew in English Drama, 80; PAJHS, 41:233; Ginsberg, Jews of Virginia, 40-41; Glanz, Milieu, sections 11, 15, 16, 18, 19; Glanz, The German Jew in America, nos. 524, 533, 670, 673, 700, 704, 716, 718-20, 726-27, 729, 735-36, 738-39, 742, 748; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:240 ff.; YA, 2-3:94 ff.

  6. Wise, Reminiscences, 82 ff.; Philippsborn, Vicksburg, 31; Wish, Society and Thought, 2:223; Rosenberg, Alexandria, 12-13; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no.2433; Glanz, Milieu, sections 22-23.

  7. John Thomas Scharf, History of Saint Louis City and County (Phila., 1883), 932-34; Richard Edwards, Edwards’ Great West (St. Louis, 1860), 558-59; Morais, Philadelphia, 338 ff.; “Moritz, Edward,” DAB; WSJHQ, 3:49; JSS, 21:256-57; Faust, German Element, 1:530-35, 2:369; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 271; Bulletin, Missouri Historical Society, 12:105 ff.; “Hauser, Carl Frankl,” “Landsberg, Leon,” AJYB, 6(1905-1905):112, 133; “Pulitzer, Joseph,” DAB; James L. Ford, Forty Odd Years in the Literary Shop (N.Y., 1941), 116-17; John Mullane, to JRM, Dec. 12, 1969, Marcus Collections; Whiteman (ed.), Kidnapped and Ransomed, 87 ff.; Swarsensky, Madison, 18-19; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 646; Carl Wittke, The German Language Press in America (Lexington, 1957), 228; Markens, Hebrews, 266; Wittke, We Who Built America, 229 ff.; Glanz, The German Jew in America, nos. 542, 1056; E. & L., Richmond, 198; “Press,” EJ, 13:1051-53; “National Jewish Monthly,” UJE, 8:123.

  8. Professor Louis Silberman of Vanderbilt said that his grandmother Augusta Asch Mueller of the city of Posen lived across the street from the Blutkopf family. Statement of Silberman to JRM, in Omaha, Jan. 27, 1947; “Damrosch, Leopold,” JE, UJE, DAB, WWW, 1607-1896; Rischin, Promised City, 17, 217-18; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no.424; “Damrosch, Frank,” “Damrosch, Walter Johannes,” UJE; “Damrosch, Frank Heins,” DAB, Supplement 2; Faulkner, Social Justice, 269-70; Walter Damrosch, My Musical Life (N.Y., 1923); Wish, Society and Thought, 2:221-22.

  9. Deborah, Aug. 31, 1855, p.9, c.3; Janowsky, American Jew, 33-34; “Berliner, Emile,” “B’nai B’rith,” UJE; PAJHS, 38:22 ff.; AJA, 24:70; Glanz, Milieu, 30-31, 48; Ellis, Am. Catholicism, 45, 79; Grinstein, New York City, 209.

10. AI, Apr. 4, 1862, p.316. cs.2-3; “Names,” “Names of the Jews,” JE, UJE, EJ; Ernest F. Henderson, A Short History of Germany (2 vols., N.Y., 1902), 292; “Polk, James Knox,” DAB; MGWJ, 4:257; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:214; “Franklin, Fabian,” DAB, Supplement 2; Morais, Philadelphia, Index sub “Allen, Arnold,” “Jones, Phillips”; Jack B. Goldman, “History of Pioneer Jews in California” (M.A. thesis, U. of California, Berkeley, 1941), 13; R. & E., Charleston, 95, 303, n.221; Carter, Jews in Early Utah, 346-47; Watters, Utah, 123 ff.; Mencken, American Language, 487, n.l, 497 ff., 500, 506.

11. Rischin, Promised City, 263-64; AJHQ, 62:286 ff.; Natkin, “Philadelphia”; AI, Feb. 28, 1889, p.4, c.5; Thomas Gamble, Savannah Duels and Duellists, 1733-1877 (Savannah, 1923), 192 ff., 213-14, 240-43, 260, 289-93; Charleston News and Courier, May 13, 1873, p.1, c.5; The Continental Magazine, 3(no.3), (Sept.-Oct., 1963), “Continentally Speaking,” copy in Marcus Collections; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 136; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 111 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 292.

12. Grinstein, New York City, 211, 341-42, 346-47, 350-51; Jewish Record, Jan. 10, 1879, p.4, cs.2-3, Mar. 29, 1879, p.4, cs.2-3; for Sabbath closing campaigns see Marcus, U.S. Jewry, vol. 2; Mann, Temple Israel, 45-83; Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 17; Goldberg, Major Noah, 293; Young Israel, 25(1933):5-8; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:17; Howard F. Sachs, “Tales from the First Synagogue in Kansas City,” typescript, 1968, copy in Marcus Collections; Adler, Kansas City, 161; AJA, 24:70-71; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 432; AI, Jan. 3, 1907, p.4; Isaac Newton Seligman, New Orleans, to E.P.A. Seligman, Dec. 23, 1877, Seligman Papers, Columbia; Minutes of Congregation Mickve Israel, Savannah, Feb. 15, 1850, AJAr.

13. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:11; Markens, Hebrews, 196 ff.; Pollak, Michael Heilprin, 172 ff.; Hirschler, Jews From Germany, 44; PAJHS, 39:257-58; “United States,” JE, 12:365-66; “Boas, Franz,” DAB, Supplement 3.

14. Russard Willard Ludlum, “Development of Compulsory Education in New York State during the Nineteenth Century” (M.A. thesis, Cornell, 1938), 49; John Higham, “A Report on the History of Social Discrimination against Jews in America,” typescript, (AJC, n.p., 1956), 19; Morais, Philadelphia, 431 ff.; Curti, American Thought, 582; Markens, Hebrews, 174 ff., 196 ff., 247 ff.; Nodel, The Ties Between, 77; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 259; AH, May 5, 1905, pp.730-31; “California,” JE, 3:512-13; “Eron, Joseph Eli,” “Mannheimer, Jennie,” “Rice, Joseph M.” “Sachs, Julius,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):88, 149, 168, 169; “Bamberger, Florence Eilau,” UJE.

15. JM, Nov. 12, 1858, p.101, c.2; PAJHS, 26:288-89, 29:119, 31:266; Morais, Philadelphia, 431 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 196 ff., 245-46; Ehrenfried, Boston, 630 ff., 736-37, 744 ff., 749 ff.; Menorah Journal, 2:260-63; Auerbach, “Nebraska,” 23; “Adler, Cyrus,” JE; “Shroder, Jacob,” “Sutro, Theodore,” UJE; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 259; American Jews Annual for 5649 A.M. (1888-1889), 48-50.

16. S. Willis Rudy, The College of the City of New York, 1847-1947 (N.Y., 1949), 173-74, 178-79, 293 ff., 397; Elbogen, Cent. of Jewish Life, 339-40; AH, May 5, 1905, pp.730-31; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 27; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 136-37; “San Francisco,” JE, 11:36; Fishberg, The Jews, 376 ff.; “Universities,” UJE, 10:371.

17. Occ., 1:263; Historia Judaica, 4:19; JTA-DNB, Dec. 17, 1953, p.6; PAJHS, 28:311-12, 29:119; “Epstein, Ephraim M.,” UJE.

18. “Erlanger, Joseph,” WWW, vol.4; Kagan, Contributions, 10-12, 19-21; Blum, Baltimore, 54 ff.; “Aub, Joseph,” UJE; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 138; “Erlanger, Joseph,” UJE; “Franklin, Fabian,” DAB, Supplement 2, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):95; “Sylvester, James Joseph,” DAB; N.Y. Hebrew Standard, Aug. 5, 1921, p.1, entire, p.2, c.1; Fein, Baltimore, 228; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 231.

19. Markens, Hebrews, 257; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 138; “Jastrow, Joseph,” DAB, Supplement 3, WWW, vol.2, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):125; “Bloomfield, Maurice,” “Gross, Charles,” “Hollander, Jacob Harry,” “Michelson, Albert Abraham,” DAB; PAJHS, 37:471 ff.; “Taussig, Frank William,” DAB, Supplement 2; “Wiener, Leo,” DAB, Supplement 2, UJE; “Rowe, Leo Stanton,” DAB, Supplement 4, WWW, vol. 2, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):178; “Stieglitz, Julius,” DAB, Supplement 2; “New York,” JE, 9:281, “United States,” 12:366; “Universities,” UJE, 10:374 ff.; “Cohen, Morris Raphael,” UJE, DAB, Supplement 4; “Kallen, Horace Mayer,” UJE; AJHQ, 65:121 ff.; AJYB, 75:55 ff.; Ehrenfried, Boston, 736-37; Cohen, Jews in the Making of America, 201.

20. Curti, American Thought, 344 ff.; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 435; PAJHS, 49:25-26; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 25; R. B. Hayes, Fremont, Ohio, to Walter A. Stroup, Buffalo, July 10, 1882, copy in AJAr.

21. Morais, Philadelphia, 350-52; PAJHS, 16:203-5; Blum, Baltimore, 177; Markens, Hebrews, 226-27, 242-43; Jew. Com. Reg., 653-54; “Leipziger, Henry Marcus,” DAB, WWW, vol.1, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):135; Curti, American Thought, 594 ff.; Ruth L. Frankel, Henry M. Leipziger: Educator and Idealist (N.Y., 1933), 44 ff., 82 ff.; “Flexner, Abraham,” UJE, WWW, vol.3; Abraham Flexner, I Remember (N.Y., 1940); “New York,” JE, 9:273.

22. Beard, Rise of Am. Civilization, 738; Morison, History, 481; R. & E., Charleston, 293-94, n.167; Elzas, Jews of S. C., 194; Levy, “Vindiciae Judaeorum”; Stern, FAJF, 169; Levine, Am. Jew. Bibliography, 11, no.117; “Leon, David Camden De,” “Leon, Edwin De,” JE; “De Leon, Thomas Cooper,” JE, DAB, UJE; Alabama Historical Quarterly, 24:40 ff.

23. Marcus, Memoirs, 2:231 ff.; “Abarbanell, Jacob Ralph,” “Friedman, Isaac Kahn,” “Gerson, Emily Goldsmith,” “Loveman, Robert,” “Lust, Adeline C.,” “Piexotto, Irma Maduro,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):54, 99, 101, 145, 146, 163; Albert Ullman in the LC Catalogue of Printed Books; “Jacobs, Joseph,” “Pollak, Gustav,” DAB; Morais, Philadelphia, 344-45; PAJHS, 16:195-97, 37:425-29; Cohen, Jews in the Making of America, 144 ff.; “Nathan, George Jean,” “Phillips, Barnet,” UJE; “Lewisohn, Ludwig,” UJE, WWW, vol.3; “Moses, Montrose Jonas,” DAB, Supplement 1, WWW, vol.1; “Cohen, Alfred J.,” JE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):74; Morais, Philadelphia, 340; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 203-4; Saturday Review, 27(no.1):8, 21.

24. “Spingarn, Joel Elias,” DAB, Supplement 2; L. Marshall Van Deusen, Jr., “J.E. Spingarn and the American Criticism” (Ph.D. diss., U. of Penn., 1953).

25. “Judah, Naphtali,” BDEAJ; “Gomez, Benjamin,” UJE, 5:50; AJHQ, 51:10-11, 56:334-35; Morais, Philadelphia, 53-58; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 191; “Hart, Abraham,” “Liveright, Horace Brisbin,” “Polock, Moses,” DAB; “Rosenbach, Abraham Simon Wolf,” UJE, EJ; Markens, Hebrews, 262; “Publishing,” EJ, 13:1371-73; Kisch, Czechoslovakia, 174; Cohen, Jews in the Making of America, 177 ff., 181; “Brentano,” “Haldeman-Julius, Emanuel,” “Knopf, Alfred,” UJE; Albert Mordel, Trailing E. Haldeman-Julius in Philadelphia and Other Places: The Early Years of an Author, Editor, and Publisher, Who Has Done Much to Spread Social Ideas on Controversial Subjects (Girard, Kansas, 1949).

26. Curti, American Thought, 593; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 176 ff.; “Noah, Mordecai Manuel,” DAB; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 25 ff.; Goldberg, Major Noah, 21, 132; “De Leon, Edwin,” JE; “Naar, David,” “Naar, Joseph L.,” “Phillips, Naphtali,” UJE.

27. Important Jewish newspapermen were located in the following cities. This list is by no means exhaustive: Mobile: American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 107, sub “Mayer, Charles E.” ; Columbia, S.C.: Hennig, August Kohn; Denver and Leadville, Colorado: Uchill, Pioneers, 93; Omaha: Wiernik, History, 388; Chicago: AJYB, 6(1904-1905):167; Indianapolis, Des Moines, Iowa, New York City: Wiernik, History, 388; PAJHS, 29:120; New Orleans: Markens, Hebrews, 268; Straus: PAJHS, 31:293-95; “Jacob A. Cantor,” “Frisch, William,” “Heilprin, Louis,” “Levi, Isidor,” “Phillips, Morris,” “Rice, Joseph M.,” “Strunsky, Simon,” “Traubel, Horace,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):72-73, 99, 113, 140, 165, 168, 200, 201; “Traubel, Horace,” DAB; Markens, Hebrews, 189-90, 244-45, 266-67; Biographical Directory of the American Congress, sub “Cantor, Jacob Aaron”; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 257-59; “Pollak, Gustav,” DAB, UJE; “Franklin, Fabian,” UJE, DAB, Supplement 2, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):165-66; Pollak, Michael Heilprin; “Strunsky, Simon,” UJE.

28. “Lippman, Walter,” “Marcosson, Isaac Frederick,” “Polachek, Victor Henry,” “Swope, Herbert Bayard,” UJE; “Alfred H. Messing,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):154; Meites, Chicago, 355 ff.; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 168; “Lawrence, David,” UJE, EJ; “Periodicals and Press,” UJE, 8:451 ff.; “Journalism,” “Krock, Arthur,” EJ; Krock, Memoirs; AJHQ, 51:9-11; Curti, American Thought, 593; “Weyl, Walter Edward,” WWW, vol. 1; Samuel Eliot Morison & Henry Steele Commager, The Growth of the American Republic (2 vols., 4th ed., N.Y., 1958), 290-91, 363; Feuer, “Harry Austryn Wolfson,” pp.27, 35.

29. Markens, Hebrews, 267-68; “Bloomingdale, Charles, Jr.,” “Cohen, Max,” “Rosewater,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):66, 76, 176-77; Morais, Philadelphia, 358-59; WSJHQ, 7:210 ff., 217; “De Young, Michel Harry,” “Silverman, Sime,” DAB; “Adler, Emanuel Phillip,” “Block, Paul,” “De Young,” UJE; “Stern, J. David,” WWIAJ, 1926.

30. Glanz, The German Jew in America, no.686; Markens, Hebrews, 267; “Pulitzer, Joseph David,” DAB, UJE, EJ; Biographical Directory of the American Congress, sub “Pulitzer, Joseph”; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 187 ff.; Lasky, American Democracy, 636; Faulkner, Social Justice, 253; Don Carlos Seitz, Joseph Pulitzer: His Life and Letters (Garden City, 1924); James W. Barrett, Joseph Pulitzer and His “World” (N.Y., 1941); Alleyne Ireland, Joseph Pulitzer (N.Y., 1914).

31. AI, July 31, 1885, p.4, cs.3-4. This letter may well show the influence of the famous letter of Major Raphael Moses which was widely read at that time. RIJHN, 1:238; “Ochs, Adolph Simon,” DAB; Jonah Wise, a brother of Effie M. Wise Ochs informed JRM that the family did not believe that Effie had married “well”. Ochs was just beginning to make his way in the early 1880’s. It would be years before he would be successful. New York Times Magazine, Mar. 9, 1958, pp.17, 76-77; Jewish Digest, 3(no.11):21 ff.; East Tennessee Historical Society Publications, no. 17, 1945, Knoxville, Tenn., pp.84 ff., copy in Marcus Collections; LX, March 12, 1918, Sixtieth Anniversary Pamphlet on the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Birth of Ochs, Marcus Collections; New York Herald Tribune Book Review, Sept. 23, 1951, p.5; Gay Talese, The Kingdom and the Power (N.Y., 1966); “Ochs, Adolph S.,” “Ochs, George Washington,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):161; Wish, Society and Thought, 2:360-61; Gerald W. Johnson, An Honorable Titan: A Biographical Study of Adolph S. Ochs (N.Y., 1946), 13 ff.; John V. Hinkel, The Contributions of Adolph S. Ochs to Journalism (N.Y., 1931); Krock, Memoirs.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN

JEWS IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES

  1. Morais, Philadelphia, 340-41, 434; “Judd, Max,” Lansberg, Emil M.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):126-27, 133; “Freidus, Abraham Solomon,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):96; “Rosenthal, Herman,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):173; PAJHS, 33:142; “Steinwitz, William,” DAB, UJE, WWW, vol. 1; Kisch, Czechoslovakia, 177; for John Jacob Loewenthal, the chess player, see ACOAB, 4:44.

  2. “Marix, Adolph,” JE, UJE; PAJHS, 28:291; Feuer, “Harry Austryn Wolfson,” 26 ff.; “Wiener, Leo,” UJE; for language instructors see “Cohn, Adolphe,” “Engelsman, Gabriel,” “Jastrow, Morris, Jr.,” “Levi, Moritz,” “Warner, Adolph,” “Winkler, Max,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):78, 87, 125, 136-37, 204-5, 206-7; “Walston, Sir Charles,” UJE.

  3. “Boas, Franz,” DAB, Supplement 2, UJE, AJYB, 6(19041905):68-69; Mindener Heimatblaetter, 1966, nos.3-4, copy in Marcus Collections; Meites, Chicago, 398.

  4. “Beer, George Louis,” DAB; PAJHS, 19:189-93, 28:258 ff.; Ehrenfried, Boston, 731-32; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 225; “Gross, Charles,” DAB, JE, WWW, vol. 1, AJYB, 6(19041905):106.

  5. “Rubinow, Isaac Max,” DAB, Supplement 2, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):178; “Stone, Nachum I.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):197; “Epstein, Abraham,” UJE; “Seligman, Edwin Robert Anderson,” DAB, Supplement 2, JE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905);184; Markens, Hebrews, 248; “Hollander, Jacob Henry,” DAB, Supplement 2, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):119-20; PAJHS, 37:471 ff.; “Sharfman, Isaiah Leo,” UJE, EJ; Morais, Philadelphia, 353, 438-39; “Rowe, Leo Stanton,” UJE, WWW, vol.2, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):144; “Loeb, Isidor,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):177-78.

  6. “Bloomfield, Maurice,” JE, UJE, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):65-66; “Muensterberg, Hugo,” JE, UJE, DAB, WWW, vol.1; “Waldstein, Charles Louis,” “Waldstein, Martin E.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):202-3; “Sidis, Boris,” UJE; “Brill, Abraham Arden,” UJE, WWW, vol. 1.

  7. “Woman,” UJE; Goldberg, Major Noah, 290-93; Young Israel, 25(no.6):5-8; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:86 ff.; Congress Weekly, Dec. 2, 1957, pp.21-22; WSJHQ, 7:281.

  8. Morais, Philadelphia, 361-62; “Cohen, Katherine M.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):76; “Levy, Florence Nightingale,” UJE, NAW, “Cone, Claribel,” “Cone, Etta,” NAW; “Fechheimer, Rose,” “Solomons, Aline Esther,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):89, 191.

  9. Morais, Philadelphia, 377, 379, 381-82; “Eytinge, Rose,” DAB, NAW; “Held, Anna,” JE, NAW, AJYB, 6(19041905):113; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 134; “Theatre,” UJE, 10:231, “Brice, Fannie,” UJE; “Lipman, Clara,” “Piexotto, Victoria Maud,” “Spachner, Bertha Kalisch,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):42, 164, 192; “Nazimova, Alla,” NAW.

10. “Mannes, David,” UJE; “Mannes, Clara Damrosch,” NAW; “Franko, Jeanne,” “Rosewald, Julie,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):95, 176; “Zeisler, Fannie Bloomfield,” DAB, NAW, WWW, vol.1, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):210-11; Hillel Cohn, “The Life and Career of Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler” (HUC term paper, 1960).

11. Marcus, AJW, 32, 72-73; Morais, Philadelphia, 420 ff.; Ehrenfried, Boston, 746-47; Meites, Chicago, 408; Blum, Baltimore, 54 ff.; “Cone, Claribel,” “Gantt, Love Rosa Hirschmann,” “Hyde, Ida Henrietta,” NAW; Marcus, AJWD, 404-19.

12. “Peixotto, Jessica Blanche,” NAW; “Guggenheimer, Aimee,” “Leipziger, Pauline,” “Schottenfels, Sara X.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):108, 135, 183; “Schurz, Margarethe Meyer,” NAW; “Bamberger, Florence Eilau,” UJE; “Richman, Julia,” NAW, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):169; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 416-17; AJA, 38:137 ff.; Julia Richman: Two Biographical Appreciations (n.p., 1916).

13. Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 203, 263; “Cohen, Jessica,” “Gerson, Emily Goldsmith,” “Hellman, Frances,” “Lust, Adeline C.,” “Ruskay, Esther J.,” “Sonneschein, Rosa,” “Wallach, Isabel R.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):75, 101, 114, 146, 178, 191, 203; Wiernik, History, 383-84; Markens, Hebrews, 208-9; “Hyneman,” JE; AI, Jan. 5, 1855, p.207, c.4; Morais, Philadelphia, 316-18, 329-31, 337; Morais, Eminent Israelites, 149 ff.

14. Octavia Harby Moses, A Mother’s Poems (n.p., 1915), 52-54; Markens, Hebrews, 207, 215-16, 222-23; “Harby, Lee C.,” “Peixotto, Irma Maduro,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):110, 163; Morais, Philadelphia, 319-20, 345-46; “Lazarus, Emma,” DAB, JE, UJE, NAW; “Stein, Gertrude,” NAW; Gertrude Stein, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (N.Y., 1933); “Cohen, Nina Morais,” “Lazarus, Josephine,” UJE.

15. “Antin, Mary,” UJE; Stanley Kunitz & Howard Haycraft, Twentieth Century Authors (N.Y., 1942), 33-34; “Ferber, Edna,” “Hurst, Fanny,” “Yezierska, Anzia,” UJE, NAW.

16. “Gratz, Rebecca,” DAB; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no.333; Uchill, Pioneers, 120 ff.; Felix Adler, Creed and Deed (N.Y., 1877), 104 ff.; “Einstein, Hannah Bachman,” “Goldmark, Josephine Clara,” “Stern, Frances,” NAW; Marcus, AJWD, 639 ff., 721 ff.; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 203; “Meyer, Annie Nathan,” UJE, NAW, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):155-56; Pool, Old Faith, 504; “Nathan, Maud,” NAW, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):159-60; Marcus, AJW and AJWD, Indexes, sub “Annie Nathan Mayer” and “Maud Nathan”; Maud Nathan, Once Upon A Time and Today (N.Y., 1933); Maud Nathan, The Story of an Epoch-Making Movement (N.Y., 1926); Neil Kominsky, “Jennie Franklin Purvin: A Study in Women Power” (HUC term paper, 1968); “Loeb, Sophie Irene Simon,” DAB, NAW; Sophie Irene Loeb, Epigrams of Eve (N.Y., 1913), 35; Leon Huehner, The Jewish Woman in America (N.Y., 1918), a reprint from the American Hebrew.

17. Morais, Philadelphia, 372 ff.; “Theatre,” UJE, 10:223 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 190-91; Korn, New Orleans, Index sub “Albert J. Marks”; Markens, Hebrews, 262 ff.; Levine, Am. Jew. Bibliography, p.11, no.117; see also Marcus, U.S. Jewry, vols. 1-2 for the theatre; Bulletin of the Cincinnati Historical Society, 25:165 ff.; Koerner, Das Deutsche Element, 216; Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (Norwalk, Ohio, 1896), 1:849; Biog. Ency. of Ohio, 654.

18. “Brice, Fannie,” UJE, NAW; “Cantor, Eddie,” “Jolson, Al,” UJE; “Theatre,” UJE, 10:223 ff., EJ, 15:1058 ff., 1063 ff.

19. Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 134; Meites, Chicago, 389 ff.; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 105-6; “Milwaukee,” UJE, 7:565; “Hammerstein, Oscar,” UJE, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):110; Jewish Criterion, Sept. 20, 1957, 193, 195; Rudoph Aronson, Theatrical and Musical Memoirs (N.Y., 1913), 66, 97, 110; “Aronson, Rudolph,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):58; Markens, Hebrews, 262-63; American Jews’ Annual for 5649 A.M. (1888-89), 91; “Theatre,” UJE, 10:223 ff.

20. “Belasco, David,” JE, UJE, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):60; “Theatre,” UJE, 10:223 ff.; Marcus, U.S. Jewry, vol. 1, sub “Shylock”; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 293-94; “Frohman, Daniel,” UJE; HUC Journal, 6(no.2):185-86; EAH, 625; Timberlake, Bishop of Broadway.

21. “Theatre,” UJE, 10:223 ff.; “Frohman, Daniel,” DAB, Supplement 2, JE, UJE; Daniel Frohman Presents: An Autobiography (N.Y., 1935); Daniel Frohman, Memories of a Manager: Reminiscences of the Old Lyceum and Some Players of the Last Quarter Century (N.Y., 1911); “Frohman, Charles,” JE, UJE, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):99; Daniel Frohman, NYC, to Grover Cleveland, Dec. 5, 1886, copy in Marcus Collections; Wish, Society and Thought, 2:283; Stealey, 130 Pen Pictures, 160 ff.; “Klaw, Marc,” DAB, Supplement 2, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):129; “Erlanger, Abraham Lincoln,” UJE, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):87; Missouri Historical Review, 67:407 ff.

22. New York Times, Dec. 25, 1963, p. 14; “Shubert, Lee,” UJE; “Shubert,” EJ; “Shubert, Jacob J.,” WWW, Supplement 4; Jerry Stagg, The Brothers Shubert (N.Y., 1968); Faulkner, Social Justice, 300-1; “Conried, Heinrich,” UJE, DAB; Montrose Jonas Moses, The Life of Heinrich Conried (N.Y., 1916); Wish, Society and Thought, 2:282 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 380 ff.

23. “Theatre,” UJE, 10:223 ff.; “Anspacher, Louis Kaufman,” “Rosenfeld, Sydney,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):57, 172; E. & L., Richmond, 224; “Klein, Charles,” DAB; Timberlake, Bishop of Broadway, 231.

24. “Bandmann, Daniel E.,” “Dawison, Bogumil,” “Sonnenthal, Adolph Ritter von,” JE; “Theatre,” UJE, 10:223 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 263; Daniel E. Bandmann, An Actor’s Tour or Seventy Thousand Miles with Shakespeare (Boston, 1885); “Herrmann, Leon,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):115; Morais, Philadelphia, 378; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 134; Bernard Postal, et al., Encyclopedia of Jews in Sports (N.Y., 1965), 150 ff.; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 296, 299; “Fields, Lewis Maurice,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):90; “Weber, Joseph Morris,” DAB, Supplement 3, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):204; “Bernard, Samuel,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):62; “Mann, Louis,” “Warfield, David,” UJE.

25. “Laemmle, Carl,” DAB, Supplement 2; Friedman, Pilgrims, 319 ff.; “Theatre,” UJE, 10:231-35; “Goldwyn, Samuel,” “Loew, Marcus,” DAB, UJE; “Mayer, Louis Burt,” “Warner,” “Zukor, Adolph,” UJE; Adolph Zukor and Dale Kramer, The Public is Never Wrong (N.Y., 1953); “Warner, Harry Morris,” DAB, Supplement 6; “Lasky, Jesse Louis,” UJE, DAB, Supplement 6; “Rothafel, Samuel Lionel,” DAB, Supplement 2; Bulletin of the Cincinnati Historical Society, 25:165 ff.

26. “Da Ponte, Lorenzo,” DAB; “Russell, Henry,” JE, UJE; EAH, 648; Percy A. Scholes, The Oxford Companion to Music (10th ed., London, 1970), sub “Russell”; TJHSE, 24:162-63.

27. B. & B., JOUS, 2:484 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 310-11; EAH, 648 ff.; Cole, Irrepressible Conflict, 230 ff.

28. RIJHN, 5:291; Asmonean, Feb. 22, 1850, p.140, cs.2-3; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no.424; Lerner, “Bernard Ullman,” 20, 38, 122-23, 143-44; Smucker, History, 328-29; “Musical Organizations and Jews,” UJE, 8:62-63; “Strakosch, Maurice,” ACOAB; “Strakosch, Moritz,” JE, UJE; American Heritage, 24:60 ff., 27:49 ff.; AH, May 5, 1905, pp.730-31; Grinstein, New York City, 190; New York History, 35:159 ff.; “Maretzek, Max,” JE, DAB; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:231 ff.; Kisch, Czechoslovakia, 167; “Grau, Maurice,” DAB, UJE; Markens, Hebrews, 264; Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 305 ff.; “Conried, Heinrich,” DAB, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):79; Golden & Rywell, Jews in American History, 275, 378-88; Vincent Sheean, Oscar Hammerstein I: The Life and Exploits of an Impresario (N.Y., 1956); Otto Kahn, Of Many Things: Being Reflections and Impressions on International Affairs, Domestic Topics and the Arts (N.Y., 1926); Irving Kolodin, Metropolitan Opera, 1883-1935 (N.Y., 1936); Mary Jane Matz, The Many Lives of Otto Kahn (N.Y., 1963).

29. Lerner, “Bernard Ullman,” 107; AJA, 15:117-19; AI, Mar. 28, 1862, p.311, c.4; “Gottschalk, Louis Moreau,” UJE, DAB; “Kreisler, Fritz,” UJE; Cohen, Jews in the Making of America, 182 ff.; Holde, Jews in Music, 190, 198.

30. “Rosenthal, Moriz,” UJE; Kenneth Aaron Kanter, The Jews of Tin Pan Alley (N.Y., 1982), 35; “Musical Organizations and the Jews,” UJE, 8:57-58; “Joseffy, Rafael,” “Spicker, Max,” “Van den Berg, Brahm,” UJE, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):142, 193, 202; Rischin, Promised City, 139; “United States,” JE, 12:366; Kisch, Czechoslovakia, 166 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 258-60; Cohen, Jews in the Making of America, 182 ff., 186-87; “Bodansky, Artur,” “Goldmark, Rubin,” “Lewisohn, Adolph,” DAB, Supplement 2, “Goldman, Edwin Franko,” Supplement 6; PAJHS, 37:425 ff.; “Blumenberg, Louis,” “Blumenberg, Marc A.,” “Brounoff, Platon G.,” “Goldmark, Rubin,” “Hertz, Alfred,” “Whitmark, Julius P.,” “Witt, Max S.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):67, 70, 103, 115, 207.

31. PAJHS, 12:173 ff.; “Woolf, Edward,” JE; “Woolf, Benjamin Edward,” DAB, WWW, 1607-1896; “Woolf, Albert Edward,” WWW, vol.1; “Woolf, Samuel Albert Edward,” WWW, vol.2, UJE.

32. Uchill, Pioneers, 297 ff.; PAJHS, 53:70 ff.; Bloch Memoirs, AJAr; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 58-59, 121-82; “Milwaukee,” UJE.

33. “Jacobson, Simon Eberhard,” WWW, vol.1; Meites, Chicago, 365 ff., 381, 389; “Musical Organizations and Jews,” UJE, 8:60; “Eckstein, Louis,” WWW, vol.1; Cohen, Jews in the Making of America, 182 ff.; “Wolfsohn, Carl,” DAB; Carl Wolfsohn, Phila., to Henry Greenebaum, et al., Chicago, Sept. 3, 1873, Chicago Historical Society, copy in Marcus Collections; “Gabrilowitsch, Ossip Salomonovitch,” “Henschel, Sir George,” UJE; Morais, Philadelphia, 346-49, 386 ff.; “Stern, Simon Adler,” WWW, vol. 1; Markens, Hebrews, 258-59; “Gericke, Wilhelm,” DAB.

34. “Johnson,” UJE; “Harris, Charles Kassell,” DAB, UJE; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 303; Charles K. Harris, After the Ball: Forty Years of Melody, etc. (N.Y., 1926), 50 ff., 75 ff.; “Kern, Jerome David,” UJE, WWW, vol.2; AJA, 2(no.2):15; “Romberg, Sigmund,” UJE; Holde, Jews in Music, 249 ff.; “Berlin, Irving,” UJE, Who’s Who in America, 1986-87.

35. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 811 ff.; AJA, 15:21 ff.; “Altmann, Aaron,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):56; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 140-41, 196, 256; Karl Schwarz, Die Juden in der Kunst (Berlin, 1928); JQR, 75:361 ff., 368; AJA, 15:24 ff., 54; Kayton: Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore to JRM, Apr. 16, 1975, and undated clippings in Marcus Collections, now missing; Schappes, DHJUS, 709, n.3; Grinstein, New York City, 222; PAJHS, 21:Frontispiece; Markens, Hebrews, 229-30; “Mayer, Constant,” DAB, JE, UJE; For Frederick E. Cohen see Arthur Hopkin Gibson, Artists of Early Michigan (Detroit, 1975); Detroit Jewish News, July 18, 1975, p.21.

36. Morais, Philadelphia, 272; W. & W., Philadelphia, 323; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 345; BDEAJ, sub “Levy, Aaron”; Schappes, DHJUS, 215-16, 624-25; “Ehrich, Louis R.,” “Woolf, Samuel Johnson,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):83, 210; “Berenson, Bernhard,” UJE, EJ, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):61; PAJHS, 35:256; Markens, Hebrews, 257-58; for Elmer Adler, the typographer and editor of The Colophon, see “Art, Jews in,” UJE, 1:495 ff.; “Adler, Elmer,” WWW, vol. 4; Fein, Baltimore, 223-24, 230; “Epstein, Jacob,” “Friedsam, Michael,” UJE; “Altman, Benjamin,” DAB; “Bache, Jules Semon,” DAB, Supplement 3; Golden & Rywell, Jews in American History, 275, 277.

37. Blum, Baltimore, 157; Markens, Hebrews, 225; Fein, Baltimore, 230; “Keyser, Ephraim,” “Konti, Isidore,” UJE; “Epstein, Jacob,” UJE, WWW, vol.3; Jacob Epstein, Let There Be Sculpture (N.Y., 1940).

38. PAJHS, 28:1 ff., 54; Markens, Hebrews, 212-13; Golden & Rywell, Jews in American History, 371-72; AJHQ, 62:286 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 119-20; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 311-13; “Ezekiel, Sir Moses Jacob,” DAB, JE, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):89; Joseph Guttman and Stanley F. Chyet, Moses Jacob Ezekiel: Memoirs from the Baths of Diocletian (Detroit, 1975); “Davidson, Jo,” UJE; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 553-54.

39. Numismatist, June 1954, pp.588 ff., Moritz Furst file, AJAr; Proceedings of the Engagement between Thomas Appleton, Esq., Consul for the United States at Leghorn, and Mr. Moritz Furst, Engraver on Steel (pamphlet, 1820’s, reprinted in American Journal of Numismatics, 43:45-50), copy in Marcus Collections; PAJHS, 11:159-60; Fein, Baltimore, 63-64; “Brenner, Victor David,” DAB, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):69; “Keyser, Ernest Wise,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):128.

40. “Carvalho,” UJE; “Carvalho, David Nunes,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):73; for the A.S. Solomons’ photograph gallery in Civil War Washington, see AJHQ, 56:334 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:349 ff.; “Goldensky, Elias,” “Mendelkern, Israel,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):102, 148; “Stieglitz, Alfred,” UJE, WWW, vol.2, DAB, Supplement 4.

41. “Marcus, Edwin,” “Weil, Abraham,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):150, 204; “Mayer, Henry,” WWW, vol.3, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):153; Peter C. Marzo, Rube Goldberg: His Life and Work (N.Y., 1973); “Goldberg, Reuben Lucius (Rube),” UJE; “Opper, Frederick Burr,” DAB, Supplement 2, JE, UJE; AJA, 15:54-55; “Blowitz, Henri George Stephan Adolphe De,” JE.

42. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 311-313; “Wolf, Henry,” DAB; “Fireman, Julius C., “Phillips, J. Campbell,” “Stein, Modest,” “Sterner, Albert Edward,” “Strauss, Malcom Atherton,” “Werner, Simon,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):90, 164, 195, 196-97, 199, 205; Morais, Philadelphia, 360 ff.; “Loeb, Louis,” JE, UJE, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):145; “Art, Jews in,” UJE, 1:500; Morais, Philadelphia, 367-68; “Rosenthal,” UJE, WWW, vol.1; “Bien, Julius,” UJE, DAB, JE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):63; Wittke, Refugees of Revolution, 323-24; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 23.

43. Morais, Philadelphia, 366-68; PAJHS, 28:27; AJA, 15:21 ff., 43, 51; “Meilziner, Leo,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):156; Markens, Hebrews, 218-19, 239-41; “Hyneman,” JE, 5:517; Morais, Philadelphia, 360 ff.; “Austrian, Ben,” “Barthold, Manuel,” “Bernstein, Saul,” “Dantzig, Meyer Michael,” “Josephi, Isaac A.,” “Karfunkle, David,” “Koopman, Augustus,” “Kronberg, Louis,” “Lichtenauer, J. Mortimer.” “Moshcowitz, Paul,” “Peixotto, George Da Maduro,” “Rosenthal, Max,” “Walkowitz, Abraham,” “Weill, Edmund,” “Weyl, Max,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):58, 59, 62, 79, 126, 127, 130, 132, 141, 158, 163, 174-75, 203, 204, 205.

44. Wiemik, History, 400; “Mosler,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):158; AJA, 15:30-31, 50; Markens, Hebrews, 234, 245; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:12, 2:145 ff.; “Rosenthal, Toby,” JE, UJE, DAB, WWW, vol.1, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):175; “Sterne, Maurice,” “Weber, Max,” UJE.

45. Wischnitzer, American Synagogue Architecture, 42 ff., 57 ff., 70 ff., 80-100; References to Jewish architects: “Eisendrath, Simeon B.,” “Fleischman, Adolph,” “Herts, Henry B.,” “Israels, Charles Henry,” (nephew of Joseph Israels). “Korn, Louis,” “Lazarus, Edgar M.,” “Lehman, Israel J.,” “Leopold, Leo Richard,” “Levi, Louis,” “Levy, William,” “Rosenheim, Alfred Faist,” “Stern, Leon,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):84-85, 92, 115, 123, 131, 184, 135, 136, 140, 173, 196; “Eidlitz, Leopold,” UJE, DAB; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 345; AJA, 15:56; Kisch, Czechoslovakia, 157-60; “Fembach, Henry,” UJE; “Brunner, Arnold W.,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):71-72.

46. AJA, 15:57; Wish, Society and Thought, 2:370 ff.; Morison, History, 776; “Adler, Dankmar,” UJE, EJ; Meites, Chicago, 392-93; Wischnitzer, American Synagogal Architecture, 90-91, 102, 105; EAH, 642-43.

47. “Levy, Max,” UJE, DAB; Morais, Philadelphia, 333-36, 365-66; “Levy, Louis Edward,” DAB, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):139-40; Joseph Nathan Kane, Famous First Facts (N.Y., 1950), 538; “Belais, David,” “Kitsee, Isador,” “Marks, Louis Benedict,” UJE; Kisch, Czechoslovakia, 160-61; “Hubert, Conrad,” UJE, WWW, vol. 4; “Zalinski, Edmund Louis Gray,” JE, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):210; PAJHS, 19:196-97, 35:255-56; “Berliner, Emile,” JE, DAB, WWW, vol. 1, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):61; “Eisenschmil, Otto,” WWW, vol. 4; Jewish Digest, 12(no.7):61 ff.; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 95, 302; Frederic William Wile, Emile Berliner: Maker of the Microphone (Indianapolis, 1926). In this book Wile, a Jew himself, does not even mention that Berliner was a fellow ethnic.

48. Israel Vindicated; Being a Refutation of the Calumnies Propagated respecting the Jewish Nation, etc. (N.Y., 1820), 17; “Hayes, Isaac Israel,” “Israel, Edward,” UJE; “Schlesinger, Frank,” UJE, WWW, vol.2; Morais, Philadelphia, 324-27; Markens, Hebrews, 217; Pollak, Michael Heilprin, 233 ff.; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no.966; Goldmark, Pilgrims of ‘48, 291 ff.; Korn, Eventful Years, 7-8.

49. “Cohen, Abraham,” “Epstein, Saul,” “Franklin, Fabian,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):74, 87, 95; Blum, Baltimore, 149; “Michelson, Albert Abraham,” DAB, UJE; Curti, American Thought, 547; “Nobel Prize Winners, Jewish,” UJE.

50. “Loeb, Morris,” JE, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):145; Markens, Hebrews, 252; “Dreyfus, Wolfram,” “Fireman, Peter,” “Levy, Max,” “Sabsovich, Hirsch Leib,” “Waldstein, M.E.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):82, 90, 140, 178-79, 203; “Stieglitz, Julius,” UJE, DAB, vol.2; “Chemistry, Jews in,” UJE; Meites, Chicago, 398; “Mendel, Lafayette Benedict,” WWW, vol. 1; Kagan, Contributions, 823 ff.; Runes, Hebrew Impact on Western Civilization, 194 ff.; “Funk, Casimir,” “Gomberg, Moses,” “Levene, Phoebus A.,” UJE; “Silverman, Alexander,” WWW, vol.4.

51. “California,” JE, 3:512; “Erlanger, Joseph,” WWW, vol.4; Kagan, Contributions, 323 ff.; “Meltzer, Samuel James,” DAB; “Levene, Phoebus Aaron,” UJE; “Flexner, Simon,” UJE, WWW, vol. 2; “Loeb, Jacques,” JE, UJE, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):144-45.

52. Kagan, Contributions, 15-16, 28, 428 ff., 435 ff.; “Physicians,” UJE, 8:526-27; Morais, Philadelphia, 420 ff.; Louis Gershenfeld, The Jew in Science (Phila., 1934), 167 ff.; Runes, Hebrew Impact on Western Civilization, 194 ff.; “Hays, Isaac,” DAB; “Cohen,” UJE, 3:235-36; Fein, Baltimore, 23-24; Markens, Hebrews, 96; Md. Hist. Mag., 19:58-59; Kisch, Czechoslovakia, 136 ff.; “Pollack, Simon,” UJE; “The Autobiography and Reminiscences of S. Pollak, M.D.,” St. Louis, Mo., 1814-1894, Missouri Historical Society, copy in AJAr; F.H. Stadler, Missouri Historical Society, to JRM, Aug. 9, 1966, Marcus Collections; United States Naval Medical Bulletin, 32:119 ff.; Hirsh & Doherty, Mount Sinai Hospital, 24, 34, 36, 43-44; “Asch, Morris Joseph,” “Horwitz, Jonathan Phineas,” “Moses, Israel,” UJE.

53. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 268-69; “Baruch, Simon,” DAB, JE, UJE; Kagan, Contributions, 17-18, 49-52, 557-58; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:269 ff.; “Solis-Cohen, Jacob de Silva,” UJE; “Cohen, Jacob de Silva Solis,” DAB, JE; Morais, Philadelphia, 158, 425-26, 477; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 242; “Gruening, Ernest,” Biographical Directory of the American Congress, WWW, vol.6; “Gruening, Emil,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):106; “Bernays, Augustus Charles,” DAB.

54. “Jacobi, Abraham,” DAB; Hirsh & Doherty, Mount Sinai Hospital, 38-40, et passim; AH, Sept. 26, 1919, pp.486, 504-5; Faulkner, Social Justice, 165; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 38-39; Rhoda Truax, The Doctors Jacobi (Boston, 1952); Markens, Hebrews, 209, 221; “Da Costa, Jacob Mendez,” DAB, WWW, vol.1; Golden & Rywell, Jews in American History, 398; Kagan, Contributions, 22-23, 140 ff., 147 ff.; “Dyer, Isadore,” DAB; “De Lee,” DAB, Supplement 3; Dr. Cecil Striker of Cincinnati heard this anecdote from Dr. De Lee himself; Dr. Striker told this to JRM, Feb. 4, 1975.

55. “Steindler, Arthur,” UJE, WWW, vol.3; “Berg, Albert Ashton,” UJE, WWW, vol 3; “Libman, Emanuel,” UJE; “Rosenau, Milton Joseph,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):170-71; Golden & Rywell, Jews in American History, 403; Runes, Hebrew Impact on Western Civilization, 194 ff.; “Price, George Moses,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):166; “Spivak, Charles David,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):194; AJYB, 30:817-18; Kisch, Czechoslovakia, 143-45; “Physicians,” UJE, 8:526; Kagan, Contributions, 74-77, 171-72, 221-22, 230-31, 387-89; “Koller, Carl,” WWW, vol.2; Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 32:309 ff.; for further outstanding physicians and surgeons see Markens, Hebrews, 186-89, 212-13, 257; “Jacobson, Nathan,” WWW, vol.3; PAJHS, 22:218 ff.; “Meyer, Alfred,” WWW, vol.3; “Mayer, Emil,” “Shamberger, Jay Frank,” “Weil, Richard,” DAB; “Cincinnati,” UJE, 3:210; “Dentistry, Jews in,” UJE; Morais, Philadelphia, 429-30.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN

JUDEOPHOBIA AND ANTIGENTILISM

  1. AI, July 7, 1876, p.5, cs.3-4, July 26, 1883, p.429, cs.3-5, Apr. 6, 1893, p.1, c.3; Natkin, “Philadelphia,” 7; Rudolf Glanz, The Jews in Early American Wit and Graphic Humor (N.Y., 1973), 223, 235-37; Curti, American Thought, 493; Abot 4:2; Occ., 2:606; AZJ, June 14, 1847, pp.381-82; Moses Aberbach, The Life and Letters of Doctor Jonas Friedenwald (Baltimore, n.d.), 195-96; Chicago Tribune, Oct. 15, 1866, last page; Letters of Benjamin Dias Fernandez on the Evidences of Christianity (Cincinnati, 1869).

  2. “Jacoby, Ludwig Sigmund,” DAB; A New Years’ Gift to the Maryland Ladies’ Society for Promoting Christianity Among the Jews, by the Right Reverend Rabbi, Hebrew Republican Soldier, p.1, copy in AJHSL; Lebeson, People People, 342; Arthur Hobson Quinn, The Literature of the American People (N.Y., 1951), 791-92, 813; Marcus, CAJ, 3:Index sub “Conversion to Christianity”; “Missions to the Jews,” UJE; Thompson, Jewish Missions, 229 ff., 239; JSS, 10:31 ff.; American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews, Report 23, (1846); Eichhorn, Evangelizing, 43-44, 134 ff., 165-66; Grinstein, New York City, 384; Jewish Digest, 10(no.8):72 ff.

  3. Feibelman, New Orleans, 79-80; Nodel, The Ties Between, 22-23; Straus, Under Four Administrations, 70 ff.; “Missions to the Jews,” UJE; Thompson, Jewish Missions, chaps.20-21; American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews, Report 23, (1846), 14-15; Sloan, Jews in America, 16, sub 1910; Eichhorn, “Christianizing America’s Jews,” 43 ff., 322 ff., et passim; “Loewenthal, Isidor,” DAB; “Schereschewsky, Samuel Isaac Joseph,” DAB; “Steiner, Edward Alfred,” WWW, vol.3; Max L. Rosevalley, A Short Sketch of the Life and Conversion of a Jew (N.Y., 1876); David Goldstein, Autobiography of a Campaignerfor Christ (Boston, 1936).

  4. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 189, 204, 206-7; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:197 ff., 236 ff., 357; Korn, Eventful Years, 123, n.36; “Austria,” JE, 2:324; “Hungary,” 6:503; Bleichroeder: PAJHS, 9:94-95; Asmonean, Nov. 10, 1854, p.31, cs.1-3; PAJHS, 28:12-13; Trachtenberg, Easton, 237; Sabato Morais, “A Sermon Delivered on Thanksgiving Day, Nov. 25, 1852 before the Congregation Mikve Israel,” 10-11, copy in Marcus Collections; Grinstein, New York City, 213 ff.

  5. Goldmark, Pilgrims of ‘48, 202; Wilansky, Sinai to Cincinnati, 256-57; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 431; AZJ, Jan. 5, 1846, pp. 18-20, Aug. 23, 1847, pp.528-30; Philipson, Max Lilienthal, 49-50; AI, July 2, 1858, p.412, c.4. p.413, c.1, May 19, 1865, p.372, c.2, June 12, 1868, p.2, c.1, Dec. 2, 1870, p.7, c.4, May 19, 1871; p.7, cs.1-2, May 17, 1878, p.4, cs.1-3; Apple, “Pennsylvania Jewry,” 35; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 39-40; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:15; Korn, Civil War, 99; Tarshish, “American Judiasm,” 388, n.893; Leeser, Discourses, 4:30 ff.; PAJHS, 21:221 ff.; Rockdale mourns Harrison: Vestry Minutes, Rockdale Temple, Apr. 11, 1841, cited in Levine, “B’nai Israel of Cin.” ; Chicago Tribune, Oct. 15, 1886, last page, c.4; E. & L., Richmond, 197; General Convention of the Constitutional Grand Lodge, Independent Order of B’nai B’rith, etc. (Washington, D.C., 1910); Sachar, Modern Jewish History, 522-23; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 388, n.119; AJA, 15:58-59; Gan, “Documentary Source Book,” 97; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:16.

  6. AJA, 11:176 ff.; Occ., 11:118; Oesterreichische Wochenschrift, Mar. 3, 1895, p.222; Raphall: Newspaper clipping, n.p., n.d., copy in Marcus Collections; AI, Jan. 14, 1870, p.8, cs.1-4; Korn, Eventful Years, 171; Wilansky, Sinai to Cincinnati, 133-34; William Wordsworth, The Prelude (London, 1850).

  7. Schappes, DHJUS, 459 ff., 557-58, 710, n.6; Korn, Civil War, 100-103; Jewish Digest, 14(no.3):61-62; AJHQ, 51:9-11; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 148, 216; Marcus, Communal Sick-Care, 207; Morais, Philadelphia, 116-18; Markens, Hebrews, 313, 327-28; Uchill, Pioneers, 120 ff.; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” chap. 12; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 440-41; Adler, Jacob H. Schiff, 1:293 ff., 336, 360 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 132 ff.; PAJHS, 26:286 ff.; “Goldman, Mayer C.,” DAB, Supplement 2; “Nathan, Maud,” NAW; Maud Nathan, Once Upon A Time (N.Y., 1933); Maud Nathan, Story of on Epoch-Making Movement (Garden City, N.Y., 1926).

  8. Marcus, U.S. Jewry, vol. 1, Index sub “Philanthropy, 1812”; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:233; Schappes, DHJUS, 245, 273 ff., 637, n.5; PAJHS, 27:118-20; R. & E., Charleston, 144; Leeser, Discourses, 5:18; AI, Mar. 22, 1855, p.269, c.4, p.270, c.1, July 13, 1877, p.5, cs.4-5; Suwol, Oregon, 6; Grinstein, New York City, 409-10; JM, Oct. 29, 1858, p.84, c.3, Nov. 12, 1858, p.101, cs.1-2; Fein, Baltimore, 53; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 63; RIJHN, 5:292; Adolph Huebsch: A Memorial, 255; Adler, Kansas City, 152; Meites, Chicago, 162-63; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 278 ff., lxxvii, n.603.

  9. Huhner, Judah Touro, 102 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” lxxvii, n.603; Schappes, DHJUS, 662, n.63; “Sutro, Adolph Heinrich Joseph,” DAB; “Blumenthal, George,” UJE, WWW, vol.1; “Altheimer, Benjamin,” “Altman, Benjamin,” “Foundations, American Jewish,” “Friedsam, Michael,” “Fuld, Felix,” “Lewisohn, Adolph,” “Pam, Max,” UJE; “Pulitzer, Joseph, DAB; “Philadelphia,” JE, 9:677; Morais, Philadelphia, 406; Will of Abraham Slimmer, Probate Court, Dubuque, Iowa, May 3, 1916; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 55, 175, 440-41, 520; Samuel Walker McCall, Patriotism of the American Jew (N.Y., 1924), 273-75; Kisch, Czechoslovakia, 120; E. & L., Richmond, 228; Meites, Chicago, 137-38, 182, 195; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 174; PAJHS, 22:228-30; “Guggenheim, Simon,” UJE, 5:121-22, DAB, Supplement 3; “Kahn, Otto Herman,” “Loeb, James,” DAB, Supplement 1; “Loeb, Morris,” DAB, UJE, WWW, vol.1; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 201, 228.

10. “Schiff, Jacob Henry,” DAB; Adler Jacob H. Schiff, 2:9 ff., 18 ff., 29, 34 ff.; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 232-33; Korn, Civil War, 215; AJYB, 34:141 ff., 153 ff.; Werner Julius Rosenwald, 145; Meites, Chicago, 227 ff.; Raymond B. Fosdick, Julius Rosenwald, In Memoriam, March 27, 1932 pamphlet, AJAr; RA, May 26, 1928, p.467-68; “Rosenwald, Julius,” DAB.

11. Joseph M. Proskauer, A Segment of My Times (N.Y., 1950), 10-17; Uchill, Pioneers, 128; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 81-84; Wisconsin Magazine of History, 46:243 ff.; Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 258; Korn, New Orleans, 301, n.54; Cincinnati Enquirer, July 19, 1909: “Millionaire Fought Fierce Battle,” copy in Marcus Collections; Lipman, Social Hist. of Jews in England, 83; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 202; Schappes, DHJUS, 349 ff.; “New York,” JE, 9:273; Diary of Rachel Rosalie Phillips, copy in Marcus Collections; Anne Hollingworth Wharton, Social Life in the Early Republic, (Phila., 1902), 286; “Brown, Benjamin Gratz,” DAB; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, see Index sub B. Gratz Brown; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:349 ff.; Occ., 4:604-5; Watters, Utah, 100-1.

12. Marcus, U.S. Jewry, vol. 2, Index sub “Howe, Julia Ward”; Coleman, Jew in English Drama.

13. Sol Liptzin, The Jew in American Literature (N.Y., 1966), 28-29, 82-84; Mersand, Traditions in American Literature, 154 ff., 157-58, 201 ff.; “American Literature on and by Jews,” UJE, 1:259 ff.; Harap, Image of the Jew, 368 ff., 377 ff., 394 ff., 455 ff.; RIJHN, 6:76 ff.; Fiedler Jew in the American Novel, 5 ff., 9 ff.; PAJHS, 30:344, 40:323 ff., 345, 45:20 ff.; Morris Lieberman, The Use of Fiction in Jewish Religious Education (Cincinnati, 1935).

14. Zebulon Baird Vance, The Scattered Nation (Raleigh, N.C., 1928), the introduction is by Rabbi Moses Jacobson; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 479; Harry L. Golden, Jewish Roots in the Carolinas: A Pattern of American Philo-Semitism (Charlotte, N.C., 1955), 43; “Vance, Zebulon Baird,” DAB, UJE; Journal of Southern History, 7:357 ff.; See Jer., 31:9 and Ezek., 39:25-29, for references to the Scattered Nation; Morison, History, 723. It is worth noting that Mark Twain’s article, “Concerning the Jew,” (Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, 99:527 ff.) follows the same pattern as Vance’s oration by listing in detail all the accusations made against the Jews, yet at the same time lavishly praising the Jews for their brains, good citizenship, industry, and leadership in the arts and sciences.

15. Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the U.S., 69; National Anti-Slavery Standard, Sept 23, 1841, p.63, cs.1-3; AHR, 68:78-79, n.11.

16. Jewish Laymen, 14(no.9):3; Mencken, American Language, 297 ff.; AI, June 25, 1903, p.4, c.6; Cyrus Adler & A. Margalith, American Intercession on Behalf of Jews in the Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, 1840-1938 (N.Y., 1943), xxiii; please note the use of Jews, Hebrews, and Israelites; Commentary, 15:499.

17. Schappes, DHJUS, 401 ff.; Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in the United States, 74-75; CCARYB, 59:297; Atlantic Magazine, 26:385 ff.; Harper’s Magazine, July 1877, pp.300 ff., in Wolf, America Jew, 506 ff.; AI, Nov. 16, 1855, p.155, c.3, Mar. 19, 1858, p.292, cs.1-3; July 22, 1881, p.27, c.3, Dec. 10, 1896, p.5, cs.1-3, Apr. 13, 1899, p.4, cs.2-3; Gan, “Documentary Source Book,” 17; Cowen, Memories of an American Jew, 130-31; Fein, Baltimore, 35; Schappes, DHJUS, 342 ff., 401 ff., 517 ff., 557-58; Walter Barrett, The Old Merchants of New York City (N.Y., 1863), first series, 256; “New York,” JE, 9:273, 281; San Francisco Hebrew, Feb. 24, 1871, p.4, cs.3-4; Iowa Daily Register, Sept. 21, 23, 1873, in Rosenthal, Des Moines, 52; Rothschild, Atlanta, 10-11; Coney Island and the Jews; N.Y. Hebrew Standard, Oct. 6, 1922, p.3; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 137-38; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 52-53; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 201-2; AH, Nov. 24, 1905, p.722; Martin F. Morris, The Origins of Civil Liberty or the World’s Indebtedness to Israel (Washington, 1892); Wolf, American Jew, 511-12.

18. PAJHS, 8:147, 19:1 ff., 95 ff., 20:166 ff., 22:182, 25:114, 26:xxv, 27:416, 33:211 ff., 48:134-35; Asmonean, Nov. 16, 1855, p.35, cs.2-3; Elovitz, Birmingham, 11, 12, 39-40, 71; AJHQ, 59:331 ff.; “Solomons, Adolphus Simeon,” DAB, JE, UJE; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:349 ff.; “Solomons, Adolphus S.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):190-91; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 364; Sarah E. Pickett, The American National Red Cross (N.Y., 1923).

19. Korn, Eventful Years, 98 ff.; J. Ezekiel, Richmond, to I.L., Phila., Feb. 27, 1850, copy in Marcus Collections; MGWJ, 2:312; E. & L., Richmond, 244; “American Judaism,” JE, 1:517; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” xcix, n.879; Swarsensky, Madison, 38-39; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 22; Uchill, Colorado, 80-81, 125; “Kansas City,” UJE, 6:307, “North Carolina,” 8:240; Wiernik, History, 419-20; Learsi, Jews in America, 257 ff.; “Louisville,” “Montana,” “Washington,” UJE; Markens, Hebrews, 802; all the above appointments and elections, unless otherwise documented, are listed in the AJYB, 11(1909-1910):224 ff.

20. PAJHS, 36:323 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 215 ff.; “Keiley Case,” UJE; Stokes, Church and State, 1:879 ff.

21. PAJHS, 11:10, 186-87; Morais, Philadelphia, 261; Mann, Temple Israel, 10-13; AH, Jan. 7, 1881, pp.89, 92, May 29, 1885, p.1; AI, Apr. 1, 1887, p.5, cs.2-3; Henry Ward Beecher, Brooklyn, to Grover Cleveland, Washington, July 12, 1887, Oscar Straus Papers, LC, copy in Marcus Collections; Eaton, An Hour With the American Hebrew, 52 ff., 61-62.

22. Congressional Record, 15(part 3), 48th Congress, First Session, pp.2073-83; Centennial Review, 15:283; Elbogen, Cent. of Jewish Life, 687, n.14; AH, Sept. 30, 1921, p.542; Wolf, Presidents I Have Known, 133-35; AI, Feb. 22, 1884, p.4; Markens, Hebrews, 169; there are copies of letters to Montefiore by Americans in the AJAr, “Charleston,” JE, 3:378; PAJHS, 1:ii, 188, 3:ii, 24:43, n.66, 31:219 ff.

23. David Philipson, The Jew in America (brochure published by UAHC, Popular Studies in Judaism, no.2); Jewish Digest, l(no.12):7 ff.; PAJHS, 9:161-62, 11:158-59, 14:16; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 43-44; H.M. Moos, Cincinnati, to Andrew Johnson, Sept. 16, 1864, AJAr; Andrew Johnson, Nashville, to Moos, Sept. 25, 1864, original in Philip Sang Papers, Oak Park, Illinois, AJAr; Wolf, Presidents I Have Known, 328 ff., 344, et passim; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 381; for a detailed bibliography of the relations of presidents to Jews, see Jacob R. Marcus (ed.), An Index to Scientific Articles on American Jewish History (N.Y., 1971), 183-85.

24. Nodel, The Ties Between, 71; WSJHQ, 3:49; “San Francisco,” JE, 11:35; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 278-79, 342-43; The New Yorker, Oct. 30, 1954, pp.54-55; “Chicago,” JE, 4:26-27; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 136; Elovitz, Birmingham, 23-24, 37-38; R. & E., Charleston, 156; Rothschild, Atlanta, 26; PAJHS, 13:147-49, 46:124; Collections of the South Carolina Historical Society (Charleston, 1858), vol.2; Solomon Cohen, Eulogy on the Life and Character of the Rt. Rev. Stephen Elliot, DD., Bishop of the Diocese of Georgia and President of the Georgia Historical Society (Savannah, 1867); GHQ, 4:132-34; Fein, Baltimore, 227; JM, Oct. 22, 1858, p.75, c.3; Markens, Hebrews, 174-75; Glanz, California, 170, n.20; AI, Oct. 8, 1869, p.6, c.1; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 71.

25. Philipson, Max Lilienthal, 64-65; Rischin, Promised City, 108-9: Eisenstein, Zikhronothai, sub Apr. 24, 1911; PAJHS, 31:282-83; AI, June 3, 1915, p.3, c.1.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN

INTERFAITH, ACCULTURATION, INTERMARRIAGE, ASSIMILATION

  1. Jews not infrequently said Kaddish for deceased Presidents: Leeser, Discourses, 4:30 ff.; Pool, Old Faith, 134; Vestry Minutes of Rockdale Temple, Apr. 11, 1841, cited in Levine “B’nai Israel of Cin.”

  2. Marcus, CAJ, 2:865; Marcus, AJD, 221 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 12; Glazer, Iowa, 181-82; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 25-26, 493; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:209, 2:135 ff.; Floersheim: Statement of the family to JRM, Oct. 2, 1974; Sidney M. Fish, Aaron Levy: Founder of Aaronsburg (N.Y., 1951), 24-25; Julius Kerman, “Story of Temple B’nai Israel, Natchez, Miss., Oct. 1955,” typescript in AJAr; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 378-79, nn.861, 863, 867; Benjamin, Three Years, 2:64; AI, July 9, 1869, p.6, c.3; Century with Wilkes-Barre, Congregation B’nai B’rith (Wilkes-Barre, 1945), copy in Marcus Collections; London Jewish Chronicle, Nov. 17, 1848, P.58, c.1; La Crosse County Historical Sketches, La Crosse, Wis., 1935, Series 2:78-82; Elovitz, Birmingham, 9.

  3. AI, June 3, 1874, p.5, cs.2-3; Rothschild, Atlanta, 10-11; Rosenthal, Des Moines. 64-65; Morais, Philadelphia, 116-18; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 172-74; Philippsborn, Vicksburg, 19 ff.

  4. M. Mayer, Charleston, to I.L., Phila., June 1, 1856, copy in Marcus Collections; R. & E., Charleston, 113; AI. May 16, 1856, p.366, cs.2-4, July 9, 1875, p.7, c.2; Archives Israélites, 22:347; Korn, Civil War 58-59; Markens, Hebrews, 119; Excerpt from George Jacobs’s diary in the Marcus Collections; Schappes, DHJUS, 519; Adler, Kansas City, 98; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” xcvii, n.861; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, chap. 11; PAJHS, 13:148-49; “New Haven,” UJE; Highlights of Temple Beth El, 1850-1924, broadside in Marcus Collections; Franklin, Beth El, 25-26; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 412, n.67; “American Judaism,” JE. 1:517.

  5. Philipson, Max Lilienthal, 96 ff.; AI, Mar. 3, 1882, p.284, cs.1-2, Nov. 9, 1911, p.4, cs.6-7; New York World, Nov. 28, 1879, copy in Marcus Collections; PAJHS, 31:219 ff.; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 74 ff., 190; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 408; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, 120, 141 ff.; Wolf, Presidents I Have Known, 156-57; Curti et al., American History, 2:265-67; “United States,” JE, 12:368; Michael Davitt, Within the Pale (Phila., 1903); Cyrus Adler (ed.), The Voice of America on Kishineff (Phila., 1904); Gan, “Documentary Source Book,” 142 ff.; Jew and Gentile: A Report of a Conference of Israelites and Christians Regarding Their Mutual Relations and Welfare (Cincinnati, 1890); Meites, Chicago, 175 ff.; Judaism at the World’s Parliament of Religions; PUAHC, 1:245, 4:3074, 3100 ff.; “American Judaism,” JE, 1:517; CCARYB, 19:88-89; Uchill, Pioneers, 79; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf.”

  6. “American Judaism,” JE. 1:517; AI, Feb. 7, 1879, p.7, c.2; “Buffalo,” UJE, 2:583-84; E. & L., Richmond, 266; Breck, Colorado, 87; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, 115; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 142-44; Charles J. Worden, “A Story of Tolerance and Good Will” (typescript, Ft. Wayne, n.d.), copy in Marcus Collections; excerpts from the minutes of a congregational meeting of the First Presbyterian Church, Oct. 12, 1885, copy in Marcus Collections; Elovitz, Birmingham, 15, 136.

  7. Elovitz, Birmingham, 18-20, 73, 79-83; Jewish Digest, 7(no.2):9 ff.; PAJHS. 37:51; AI, Apr. 18, 1879, p.2, c.5, Nov. 2, 1888, p.1, c.6; South Bend Times, May 27, 1882, copy in Marcus Collections; Harry A. Roth, “The Jewish Record” (HUC term Paper, 1957), p.24; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 182, 377-78; “Memphis,” UJE, Ochs, Memoir, 56.

  8. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:16-17; PAJHS, 42:116; Jewish Times, Aug. 4, 1871, p.361, c.2; D.A. Wilson, Mercersburg, to I.L., Phila., Nov. 29, 1848, copy in Marcus Collections; Grinstein, New York City, 252; Libanon (supplement to Young Israel, vol.7), 3:20, copy in Marcus Collections; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 377-79; Bloch Memoirs, AJAr; AI, May 19, 1865, p.372, c.2, Oct. 8, 1869, p.6, c.4.

  9. Shinedling, West Virginia Jewry, 3:1330; Eisenstein, Zikhronothai, sub Sept. 25, 1909; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 343, 370, 377-78; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Dec. 3, 1954, p.13, cs.2-3, p.18, cs.4-5; R. & E., Charleston, 169; Gan, “Documentary Source Book,” 13; Wolf, Presidents I Have Known, 105; American Jews’ Annual for 5649 A.M. (1888-89):36; Schoener, Portal to America. 53; Solomon, Ancestors and Immigrants, 185; E. & L., Richmond, 55-56; AI, Oct. 13, 1854, p.110, c.4, p.111, c.1, Jan. 17, 1873, p.6, cs.1-2: JM, Dec. 31, 1858, p.155, c.3, p.156, c.1, Jan. 21, 1859, p.21, cs.12; Harper’s Magazine, July 1877, p.300, cited in Wolf, American Jew, 507-8; Oliver Wendell Holmes, Over the Teacups (Boston, 1891), 193-99; Charles W. Eliot, Cambridge, Ma., to Jacob H. Schiff, Jan. 3, 1906, copy in Marcus Collections.

10. Sachar, Modern Jewish History, 158-59; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 201; CCARYB, 4:55 ff.; Lost Colony Life Insurance Magazine, Dec. 1978, p. 15, copy in Marcus Collections; Occ., 24:510-11; AI, Jan. 3, 1907, p.4, cs.3-4; The Reformer and Jewish Times, Feb. 14, 1879, P.5, cs.3-5; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:302; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 36-37, 201; “Frohman, Daniel,” DAB, Supplement 2; Isidor Bush biography, MS, pp. 12-13, copy in Marcus Collections; Grinstein, New York City, 14-15; R. & E., Charleston, 142, 148, 252 ff.; AJA, 2(no.1):27; Schoener, Portal to America, 53; CCARYB, 17:164; Nodel, The Ties Between, 46; Schappes, DHJUS, 392 ff., 677, n.2; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 41 ff., 44; PAJHS, 39:249, 45:124-25.

11. Glanz, Milieu, 31; Chyet, Lives and Voices, 190.

12. “Michelson, Albert Abraham,” UJE; “Blumenfeld, Ralph David,” WWW, vol.4, UJE; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 646; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 48, 373, n.95; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:15-16, 3:226 ff.

13. Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 18, citing a letter of Krauskopf, Kansas City, to Max Heller, Chicago, Apr. 20, 1886, Heller Collection, AJAr; “Jastrow, Morris, Jr.,” UJE; L. Naumberg, Allegheny City, to Henry Berkowitz, Kansas City, Dec. 9, 1886, copy in Marcus Collections; “Jastrow, Marcus (Mordecai),” “Jastrow, Morris, Jr.,” JE; PAJHS, 42:104; “Adler, Felix.” DAB, Supplement 1; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” xlviii, n.407a; Levy, Reform Judaism, 2-4; Schappes, DHJUS, 734, n.13; New York World, Oct. 4, 1878, Oct. 16, 1878, copies in Marcus Collections; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, 41 ff.; Rodwin, “Ethical Religion in America,” 4 ff., 10 ff., 27 ff.; Benny Kraut, From Reform Judaism to Ethical Culture: the Religious Evolution of Felix Adler (Cincinnati, 1979); “Ethical Culture, Society for,” JE, UJE; Kranz, “Am. Jew. Relig. Radicalism”; Analyticus, Jews Are Like That, 129 ff.; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 40; Glazer, American Judaism, 49-51; Rischin, Promised City, 2012; Olan, Felix Adler; “Ethical Culture Movement,” ESS; “Ethical Culture,” EJ.

14. Rischin, Promised City, 202; Howard B. Rodest, Toward Common Ground: The Story of the Ethical Culture Societies in the United States (N.Y.. 1969); Henry Neumann, Spokesman for Ethical Religion (Boston, 1951); Felix Adler, An Ethical Philosophy of Life (N.Y., 1925); P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 419.

15. New York World, Nov. 26, 1877, May 4, 1880, copies in Marcus Collections; Eisenstein, Zikhronothai, sub 1876; Olan, Felix Adler; PAJHS, 37:258; The Reformer and Jewish Times, Apr. 5, 1878, p.6, c.5, p.7, c.1; Adler, Kansas City, 84; St. Louis Jewish Tribune, June 1, 1883, p.101, cs.2-3, p.102, cs.1-2; AI, July 29, 1877, p.5, c.2.

16. Eisenstein, Zikhronothai, sub 1876; AI, July 13, 1888, p.5, cs.3-5; “Adler, Felix,” DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):55; Rodwin, “Ethical Religion in America,” 21 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” xlvii, n.407a; “Ethical Culture Movement,” ESS; Fiedler, Jew in the American Novel, 9; Commentary, 51:71 ff.

17. “Christian Science,” “Levy, Clifton Harby,” “Lichtenstein, Morris,” UJE; PAJHS, 58:306-7, 323-25; JSS, 31:100 ff. There are rabbinical theses in the HUC library on Christian Science and the Jews.

18. “Mixed Marriages,” UJE; Arthur Goldberg, The Jew in Norwich: A Century of Jewish Life (Norwich, Ct., 1956), 7-12; Grinstein, New York City, 64, 374-81; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 100-1; W. & W., Philadelphia, 377; Minutes of Rodeph Shalom, Oct. 29, 1827, Apr. 19, 1829, Oct. 12, 1836, AJAr; Morais, Philadelphia, 255 ff.; “Dropsie, Moses Aaron,” UJE; Henry Skirball, “The German Hebrew Congregation Rodeph Shalom, Philadelphia (1835-1847)” (HUC term paper, n.d.), 28 ff.; Stern, FAJF, 87-88; Uchill, Pioneers, 283; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no. 1368; AI, Mar. 14, 1879, p.4, cs.23; New York World, July 19, 1878, copy in Marcus Collections.

19. Fiedler, Jew in the American Novel, 9 ff.; Harap, Image of the Jew, 455 ff., et passim; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 179 ff.; PAJHS, 45:124-25; Adler, Kansas City, 88-89; Der Zeitgeist, Mar. 18, 1880, pp.88, cs.1-3; CCARYB, 19:170.

20. Morais, Philadelphia, 434; “Stokes, Rose Harriet Pastor,” NAW; R. & E., Charleston, 240; Autographs, Letters, Manuscripts, and Documents, no. 12; International Autographs, no.37: Jenny Lind, South Hampton, N.Y., Mar. 25, 1852; HUC-JIR Public Release of the American Jewish Archives: “Princess Grace Was Not the First,” May 26, 1966, copy in AJAr; Walter Hurt, Truth About the Jews, Told by a Gentile (Chicago, 1922), 71 ff.; Korn, New Orleans, 123.

21. EIAJH, 82 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 325; Fein, Baltimore, 56; “Mixed Marriages,” UJE, 7:598; Jewish People, 2:29; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 201, n.12; Arthur Ruppin, The Jewish Fate and Future (London, 1980). 108; CCARYB, 19:271 ff., 305-7.

22. Ellen Mordecai, Richmond, to George W. Mordecai, Raleigh, Oct. 21, 1844, copy in Marcus Collections; New York World, Oct. 25, 1880, copy in Marcus Collections; Fein, Baltimore. 57; AI, Jan. 12, 1855, p.214, c.3; Glazer, Iowa, 167 ff.; AJA, 11:128-29; Lewisohn, Up Stream, chaps. 2-4; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 322-24; Eichhorn, Evangelizing; Samuel Freuder, A Missionary’s Return to Judaism: The Truth about Christian Missions to the Jews (N.Y., 1915); Plaut, Reform Judaism, 294; PAJHS, 35:228; Golden, Jewish Roots in the Carolinas, 23; Norman S. Lipson, “An Inquiry into Hebrew Christianity” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1972).

23. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 431 ff.; New York World, Nov. 26, 1877, copy in Marcus Collections; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 47, 144.

24. Fish, Common Man, 237; Morison, History, 472.

25. AI, May 17, 1878, p.4, cs.1-3: Goldmark, Pilgrims of ‘48, 256.

26. Isador Kalisch, The Source of All Civilization and the Means of Preserving Our Civil and Religious Liberty (Indianapolis, 1864); Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 361-63; Occ., 9:467 ff.; N.Y. Jewish Tribune, Dec. 21, 1883, p.514, c.3, p.515, c.1.

27. “Marks, Marcus M.,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):151; “California,” JE, 3:512-13; Breck, Colorado, 119-20; “Fleisher,” EJ; Morais, Philadelphia. 263-66; “Fleisher, Alfred W.,” “Fleisher, Benjamin Wilfrid,” “Fleisher, Edwin Adler,” “Fleisher, Samuel Stuart,” “Lewith, Henry F.,” UJE; PAJHS, 28:306-8; Charleston News and Courier, Mar. 3, 1939, Apr. 28, 1941, copies in Marcus Collections.

28. Benjamin, Three Years, 1:232 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 312-442; Markens, Hebrews, 196 ff.; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 243; Schappes, JIUS, 171.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

THE SOCIORECREATIONAL LIFE OF THE AMERICAN JEW, 1860–1920

  1. Glanz, California, 130-33; Harmonie Club, 7 ff.; Uchill, Pioneers, 128 ff.; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 125, 203 ff.; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 160 ff.; Ginsberg, Jews of Virginia, 38-39.

  2. U.A.H.C. Statistics, 56, 58-59; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 88; “Saint Louis,” UJE, 9:314; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 316; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 160; E. & L., Richmond, 232-33; Detroit Jewish News, Mar. 26, 1971, p.56, c.1; Minutes of the “As You Like It Club,” AJAr.

  3. Wish, Society and Thought, 2:158-59; “Girls’ Clubs,” The Americana; “Women’s Organizations,” ESS; “Young Women’s Christian Associations,” DAH; Kraft, Cent. of JCC Movement, 10; PAJHS, 37:280 ff.; “Center, The Jewish,” UJE; Davis, “History of Jew. Center Movement,” 11.

  4. Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 141 ff., 319; Faulkner, Social Justice, 170-71; Uchill, Pioneers, 141-42; “Women’s Clubs,” The Americana; “Hadassah,” UJE.

  5. Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 208-9; “Fraternities, Jewish,” UJE; “Women’s Organizations,” ESS; Goodman, Documentary Story, 5 ff.; “Youth Movements,” UJE, ESS; “Young Judaea,” EOZAI; Stein, “Am. Jew. Youth Movement”; “Youth Movements,” DAH, ESS; “Universities,” UJE, 10:371 ff.

  6. Josiah Cohen Scrapbook, 16, AJAr; Greenebaum, “San Francisco,” 46-51, 60 ff.; Phila. Jewish Record, May 7, 1875, p.5, c.1; Natkin, “Philadelphia,” 3; Adler, Kansas City, 97, 99, 233, 261, et passim; Menorah Journal, 8:267-68; Fields, “Cincinnati”; Morais, Philadelphia, 192; “Menorah Association and Menorah Journal,” EJ.

  7. “Young Men’s Hebrew Association,” JE, 12:360; Goodman, Documentary Story, 5 ff.; Kraft, Cent. of JCC Movement. 1 ff.; Sachar, Modern Jewish History, 171; Stein, “Am. Jew. Youth Movement”; Davis, “History of Jew. Center Movement,” 7 ff.; PAJHS, 37:221 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 162 ff.; Curti, American History, 2:83; AI, Mar. 15, 1878, p.4, cs.1-3; Allan Nevins, The Emergence of Modern America, 1865-1878 (N.Y., 1927), 346; Faulkner, Social Justice, 222.

  8. PAJHS, 37:221 ff.; Goodman, Documentary Story, 5 ff., 16, 17, 19; “Saint Louis,” UJE, 9:314; Fischlowitz, Saint Louis YMHA, 6, 16, 22-23, 26; Brownstein, “Philadelphia,” 12; Uchill, Pioneers, 130 ff.; Kraft, Cent. of JCC Movement, 9; Morais, Philadelphia, 195; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 130; AJYB, 38:67-68; Stein, “Am. Jew. Youth Movement”.

  9. Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 212 ff., 227; Elovitz, Birmingham, 103 ff.; Kraft, Cent. of JCC Movement, 1 ff.; PAJHS, 37:224, 232 ff., 237 ff., 265 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5647 A.M. (1886-87), 67; Goodman, Documentary Story, 9, 21, 27, 29; Fischlowitz, Saint Louis YMHA, 8-9; Morais, Philadelphia, 162-67; Stein, “Am. Jew. Youth Movement”; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 86; “Young Men’s Hebrew Association,” JE; Constitution and By-Laws of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association of the City of Detroit, copy in Marcus Collections; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 22; Essex Story, 46; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 417-18; Ringler, “Boston,” 9-10; Joseph Gale (ed.), Eastern Union The Development of a Jewish Community (Elizabeth, N.J., 1958), 60 ff.

10. Jew. Com. Reg., 529; JWB Circle, Apr. 1967, pp.7-8; Davis, “History of Jew. Center Movement”, 15-18; “Young Men’s Hebrew Association,” JE; Curti et al., American History, 2:86; Horwich, My First Eighty Years, 272 ff.; Goodman, Documentary Story, 39; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 214-15; Jewish People, 4:159-60; “Center, The Jewish,” UJE; Morais, Philadelphia, 166; Fischlowitz, Saint Louis YMHA, chaps. 1 & 2; Kraft, Cent. of JCC Movement, 6 ff.

11. “Center, The Jewish,” “Jewish Welfare Board,” UJE; Davis, “History of Jew. Center Movement,” 9 ff., 22; AI, Nov. 24, 1865, p. 166, c.1, Apr. 23, 1869, p.6, c.1, Jan. 7, 1870, p. 10, c.4; Goodman, Documentary Story, 26, 35-36, 40 ff., 47; PUAHC, 2:1572-74; “Cohen, Alfred Morton,” UJE, EJ; Morais, Philadelphia, 142-43; Fischlowitz, Saint Louis YMHA, 21, 35; Kraft, Cent. of JCC Movement, 11-12; PAJHS, 37:226 ff., 274 ff., 297 ff.; “National Jewish Welfare Board,” EJ.

12. Grusd, B’nai B’rith, 37-38; PAJHS, 37:226 ff., 297 ff.; Kraft, Cent of JCC Movement, 4, 17-21; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 119; Fischlowitz, Saint Louis YMHA, 4 ff., 9, 27 ff., 35; Davis, “History of Jew. Center Movement,” 3-5, 20, 22-23; “Center, The Jewish,” “Jewish Welfare Board,” UJE; The Review of the Philadelphia YMHA, 12(no.7):ll; JWB Circle, Apr. 1967, 7-8, Mar. 1968, pp.6-7; “Savannah,” UJE, 9:384; Goodman, Documentary Story, 31, 44-49; Jewish Community Center Centennial Press Book, 1854-1954 (N.Y., 1954); “National Jewish Welfare Board,” EJ; Stein, “Am. Jew. Youth Movement”; Rosenberg, Rochester, 139-40.

13. Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 125-26; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 57, 67; Adler, Kansas City, 19; Saint Joseph Daily Gazette, Jan. 13, 1870, p.1, cs.4-6; Rosenberg, Alexandria, 7; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 317.

14. Glanz, California, 129; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 16; “Critic Book of the YMHA Literary Circle,” AJAr, 43; Rosenberg, Alexandria, 7, 14; Occident Index, sub “Maimonides Literary Society,” AJAr; E. & L., Richmond, 230 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 170-71; Fein, Baltimore, 131; Goodman, Documentary Story, 15; Ginsberg, Jews of Virginia, 38-39; Brownstein, “Philadelphia,” 21.

15. Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 64-65; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 289; U.A.H.C. Statistics, 56; Fein, Baltimore, 131; “Fraternal Orders,” UJE; Faulkner, Social Justice, 305; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 116, 199-20; Neben-Gesetze der Maccabae Loge, no.22, A.J.O.K.S.B. (N.Y., 1873), copy in Marcus Collections; PAJHS, 47:45 ff.; N.Y. Hebrew Standard, July 1, 1921, pp.1-2; Grusd, B’nai B’rith, 112-13; “Fraternal Societies,” EJ; Brown, “Day-to-Day Activities of a Jewish Fraternity,” 10-13; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 57,111 ff., 115, 117; Wax, Jews of Memphis, 15; Brownstein, “Philadelphia,” 14; Blank, “Programs of Local B’nai B’rith Societies,” 5-6.

16. New York World, Dec. 13, 1880, Feb. 27, 1880, copies in Marcus Collections; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 317; Brown, “Day-to-Day Activities of a Jewish Fraternity,” 13; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 145; San Francisco Hebrew, Mar. 25, 1964, p.4, Mar. 17, 1871, cited in Greenebaum, “San Francisco,” 70; Glanz, California, 136-37; PAJHS, 40:135 ff., 140, 148, 161, 165-66; London Jewish Chronicle, Apr. 21, 1865, p.7, c.3; Blum, Baltimore, 25, 27; Uchill, Pioneers, 130 ff.

17. The following bibliography is not intended in any degree to be complete: Constitution of Phoenix Club of Detroit; The Constitution of the Progress Club of Waco, Texas (n.d.); “Record of the Proceedings of the Columbus (Georgia) Concordia, organized April 12, 1870,” copy in Marcus Collections; Frank, Nashville Jewry, 1861-1901, 35, 42, 44, 62-64, 99; Bob, “San Francisco,” 3; The Constitution, Rules, Officers, and Members of the Concordia Club of Allegheny City, Pa. (Allegheny City, Pa., 1893); Breck, Colorado, 62-63, 70, 72; Uchill, Pioneers, 130 ff.; Rosenberg, Alexandria, 13; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 46; Plaut, Jews of Minnesota, 59-60; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 124-25; Ringler, “Boston,” 10; Auerbach, “Nebraska,” 93; M. Loewenthal, Savannah, to Joseph Rosenthal, Nashville, May 3, 1866, copy in Marcus Collections; Elovitz, Birmingham, 34 ff.; “Richmond,” JE; E. & L., Richmond, 231-33; Ginsberg, Jews of Virginia, 38 ff; Standard Club of Chicago, 7 ff.; Meites, Chicago, 116-17, 123, 163, 671-72; Miller, “Phoenix Club of Baltimore”; Constitution of Cincinnati Phoenix Club; Phoenix Club, holograph statement of its history by Secretary H.C. Davis, ca. 1941, Marcus Collections; American Hebrew Almanac, 5655 (1894-95), 18 ff.; Fields, “Cincinnati”; Besser, “Mercantile Club of Philadelphia”; Morais, Philadelphia, 170-71; Brownstein, “Philadelphia,” 12 ff.; for material on Jewish clubs in general see JSS, 31:82 ff.; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 16; Glanz, Milieu, 42-44, 55; “Clubs,” ESS; Marcus, Communal Sick-Care, 63 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 1:319; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 118; JSS, 31:92; “Boston,” UJE, 2:484; Morais, Philadelphia, 193 ff.; Frank, Nashville Jewry, 1861-1921, see Index sub “Clubs”; Fein, Baltimore, 132-33; Blum, Baltimore, 27; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 65-66.

18. Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 124-25, 127; Morais, Philadelphia, 170 ff., 193-95; AJYB, 1(1899-1900):159; “New York City,” EJ, 12:1079; Gartner, Cleveland, 94; Schappes, DHJUS, 701, n.6; Ginsberg, Jews of Virginia, 39.

19. AI, Dec. 1, 1865, p.173, c.2; “America,” JE, 1:505; Standard Club of Chicago, 27-28; Brownstein, “Philadelphia,” 12.

20. Standard Club of Chicago, 15, 24, 32-33, 60; Constitution of Phoenix Club of Detroit, 29; Ginsberg, Jews of Virginia, 42; Morais, Philadelphia, 193-95; Greenebaum, “San Francisco,” 61 ff.; “Chicago,” UJE, 3:138-39; Meites, Chicago, 671-72; Miller, “Phoenix Club of Baltimore.”

21. Standard Club of Chicago, 24; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 94; Besser, “Mercantile Club of Philadelphia,” 10; American Hebrew Almanac, 5655 (1894-95), 21; American Jews’ Annual for 5647 A.M. (1886-87), 67; AZJ, May 21, 1855, p.271; Constitution of Cincinnati Phoenix Club, 14; Blum, Baltimore, 25, 27; Harmonie Club, 40; “Record of the Proceedings of the Columbus [Georgia] Concordia, organized April 12, 1879,” copy in Marcus Collections; JSS, 31:92-98; Leo Loeb, “Our Jubilee: A Survey of Origins and Aims,” Charleston, W.Va., typescript address, 1923, copy in Marcus Collections; Frank Adler, Kansas City, to JRM, Jan. 12, 1970, Marcus Collections; Elovitz, Birmingham, 181-82; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 2034; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Mar. 25, 1955, p.14, cs.1-4, p.15, c.2; Webster’s Biographical Dictionary (Springfield, Mass., 1951), sub “Wynn, Ed”.

22. American Hebrew Almanac, 5655 (1894-95), 18 ff., 85; Blum, Baltimore, 26-27, 87; “Chicago,” JE; “Albany,” UJE, 1:158, “Kansas City,” 6:807; Elovitz, Birmingham, 181-82; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Sept. 13, 1957, p.37, cs.1-3; A Golden Anniversary: Losantiville Country Club, (Cincinnati, 1956); Harmonie Club, 33 ff.; Faulkner, Social Justice, 289-90.

23. JM, Feb. 11, 1881, p.8, c.1, Jan. 10, 1884, p.4, cs.24; Glanz, California, 143; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no. 1028; American Jews’ Annual for 5649 A.M. (1888-89), 54-57; WSJHQ, 3:57-58; YA, 9:207; “Chicago,” UJE, 3:136; Ginsberg, Jews of Virginia, 42; Glanz, California, 142; The Reconstructionist, 19(no.12):8-22; AJHQ, 62:270 ff.; Fein, Baltimore, 19; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 61-62.

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN

SOCIAL WELFARE, 1860–1920: THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH

  1. Morais, Philadelphia, 193-94; “Social Legislation,” UJE; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 52 ff., 86-92; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 263 ff.; Rosen, “Hebrew Beneficent Society, Cincinnati”; AJYB, 57:14 ff.; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 63; Melvin S. Harris, The Columbia Hebrew Benevolent Society, etc. (Columbia, S.C., 1947), 7 ff.; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:210 ff.; Louisiana Inventory, 84 ff.; The Constitution and By-Laws of the First Hebrew Benevolent Society of San Francisco, Cal. (San Francisco, 1867); Constitution and By-Laws of the Chebra Achim Rachmonim (San Francisco, 1872), 7-21; “Philanthropy,” EJ; Occ., 3:171-72.

  2. “New York,” JE, 9:278-79; CCAR Journal, 20(no.4):53 ff.; Wischnitzer, To Dwell in Safety, 48-49; Schappes, DHJUS, 538-39; PUAHC, 1:190; Morris & Freund, Trends, 10-11; “Heilprin, Michael,” JE, UJE, DAB; “United States,” JE, 12:368.

  3. “Agricultural Colonies in the United States,” JE; Wischnitzer, To Dwell in Safety, 45, 63; Fein, Baltimore, 150-51; Occ., 1:28 ff., 4:265 ff., 361 ff., 367, 10:600-12, 11:76-77, 477 ff., 541 ff., 12:90-93, 351 ff., 597-603, 13:513, 517 ff.; AJA, 17:114 ff.; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 125 ff.

  4. AJYB, 14(1912-1913):62 ff.; “Moscow,” JE, 9:41; Morris & Freund, Trends, 23 ff., 43 ff.; Joseph, Baron de Hirsch Fund, 1-22; Brandes & Douglas, Immigrants to Freedom, 37 ff.

  5. “National Farm School, The,” “Woodbine,” UJE; “United States,” JE, 12:362; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 30-31, 125 ff.; AJYB, 1(1899-1900):42 ff., 14(1912-1913):76; Joseph, Baron de Hirsch Fund, 8; Fifty Years of Social Service in N.Y.. 45 ff.; “Alliance Israélite Universelle,” JE; Louisiana Inventory, 106-7; “Agricultural Colonies in the United States,” JE, 1:256 ff.; Wischnitzer, To Dwell in Safety, 63-64; Brandes & Douglas, Immigrants to Freedom, 36 ff.

  6. Marcus, CAJ, Index sub “Agriculture”; PUAHC, 1:190, 249, 254; AJYB, 14(1912-1913):69 ff., 82 ff., 37:117 ff.; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 127 ff.; Jew. Com. Reg., 1250-55; “Jewish Agricultural Society, Inc., The,” UJE; Brandes & Douglas, Immigrants to Freedom, 96.

  7. “Agricultural Colonies in the United States,” JE; AJYB, 14(1912-1913):76 ff., 93 ff.; Plaut, Jews in Minnesota, 96-109; National Jewish Monthly, 48(no.8):274 ff.; Topeka Capital, April 12, 1931, p. 10, copy in Marcus Collections; “Fishman, Simon,” UJE; “Fishman, Simon,” Leo M. Glassman (ed.), Biographical Encyclopaedia of American Jews, 1935 (N.Y., 1935); Simon Fishman biography file, AJAr; William E. Connelley, A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans (Chicago, 1918), 4:2100.

  8. AJYB, 1(1899-1900):61, 14(1912-1913):104 ff., 109, 37:99-134; Richard E. Singer, “American Jew in Agriculture: Past History and Present Conditions” (HUC prize essay, 1941); Gabriel Davidson, Our Jewish Farmers and the Story of the Jewish Agricultural Society (N.Y., 1943); Wischnitzer, To Dwell in Safety, 63-64, 209; Fifty Years of Social Service in N.Y., 29-30; “Jewish Agricultural Society, Inc., The,” “Rosen, Joseph,” UJE; “Chicago,” JE, 4:26; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 30-31, 35, 126 ff.; “Woodbine,” JE, UJE; “Alliance, New Jersey,” “Colonies in the United States,” JE; “Colonies, Agricultural,” UJE, 3:294 ff.; Morris & Freund, Trends, 23 ff., 43 ff.; Uri D. Herscher, Jewish Agricultural Utopias in America: 1890-1910 (Detroit, 1981), 15 ff.; Shmarya Levin, Forward From Exile, Maurice Samuel, trans. (Phila., 1967); Schappes, DHJUS, 538-39; Brandes & Douglas, Immigrants to Freedom, 3 ff.

  9. Schappes, DHJUS, 196-97, 538-39, 547 ff.; Morris & Freund, Trends, 26, 39 ff.; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 111, 113-15, 122-23; “Territorialism,” EOZAI, UJE; “Bijur, Nathan,” UJE; AJYB, 57:24-25; Fein, Baltimore, 150; Arthur Meyerowitz, “The Galveston Plan of Immigration,” typescript, AJAr; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 64-65; “Galveston,” UJE, 4:505; Bernard Marinbach, Galveston: Ellis Island of the West (Albany, N.Y., 1983), 1 ff.; Wischnitzer, To Dwell in Safety, 125 ff.; Cowen, Memoirs of an American Jew, 400; PAJHS, 39:102, 108; Joseph, Baron de Hirsch Fund, 205 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 142-43; JSSQ, 7:15.

10. Fein, Baltimore, 235; JM, Feb. 2, 1888, p.5, c.6, p.6, c.1; Harry Bluestone, “A Historical Review of the Jewish Family Service of Delaware, (1899-1965)” (typescript, n.p., n.d., copy in Marcus Collections), 2, 11, et passim; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 98-99; Breck, Colorado, 108; Jew. Com. Reg., 8, 99, 865 ff., 961; AJYB, 21:310; “United States,” JE, 12:368; “United HIAS Service,” EJ; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 71-73, 102 ff.; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 197-99; Dana, Beth Israel Hospital, 5-13; Fifty Years of Jewish Philanthropy in Greater Boston, 1895-1945, 8; Rischin, Promised City, 106; YA, 9:179 ff.; JSSQ, 4:129 ff.; Papers of the Jewish Women’s Congress, 225-26; Louisiana Inventory, 110; Morris & Freund, Trends, 148 ff.; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 32, 38, 50, 53; “Boston,” JE, 3:331, “Chicago,” 4:26.

11. Morris & Freund, Trends, 90; Adler, Kansas City, 112; “Cincinnati,” JE, 4:91; American Jews’ Annual for 5647 A.M. (1886-87), 67, 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 40; Davis, “History of Jew. Center Movement,” 15; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 241 ff.; Standard Club of Chicago, 33; JSSQ, 4:129 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 156 ff.; “Chicago,” JE, 4:26, “New York,” 9:227, 279; Judaism at the World’s Parliament of Religions, 334-38; Jew. Com. Reg., 648 ff.; Jewish Charity, 4(1905):117 ff.; Fifty Years of Social Service in N.Y., 76, 85.

12. Stein, “Am. Jew. Youth Movement,” 4; American Jews’ Annual for 5647 A.M. (1886-87), 67, 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 40; “Young Men’s Hebrew Association,” JE; PAJHS, 37:239 ff.; AJYB, 14(1912-1913):72, 104 ff., 57:34 ff.; Louisiana Inventory, 110, no.93; Goodman, Documentary Story, 17, 28, 73-74; Fischlowitz, Saint Louis YMHA, 6-7, 16, 22, 24, 26; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 136 ff.; Rischin, Promised City, 196, 212; Morais, Philadelphia, 166; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 36, 73; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 227 ff., 245-46, 274, 282 ff.; “Americanization,” UJE; Davis, “History of Jew. Center Movement,” 15 ff.

13. Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 145 ff.; Horwich, My First Eighty Years, 272 ff.; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 213 ff., 230 ff.; “Charity,” JE, 3:672; Charles Mesnick, Developmental Trends: Jewish Community Centers in Los Angeles, 1887-1975 (L.A., 1975), copy in Marcus Collections; Jew. Com. Reg., 529; Papers of the Jewish Women’s Congress. 112, 158 ff., 178, 180; AI, May 18, 1961, p.6, cs.1-3; Davis, “History of Jew. Center Movement,” 15 ff.; AJYB, 57:34 ff.; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 277 ff.

14. “Kander, Lizzie Black,” NAW; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 119, 146, 227.

15. Morris & Freund, Trends, 52 ff.; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 59-60; “United States,” JE, 12:375; Fein, Baltimore, 291-93; Fishberg, The Jews, 367; YA, 9:184-85; Chyet, Lives and Voices, 159 ff.; Oliver Goldsmith, The Deserted Village (London, n.d.); Sigmund Saxe, Bradford, Pa., to Oscar Straus, N.Y., Nov. 11. 1906, Oscar Straus Papers, LC; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 184; Blum, Baltimore, 49, 133 ff.; Fein, Baltimore, 235: “Fuld, Felix,” UJE; Glanz, Milieu, 27-28; JM, July 13, 1883, p.5, c.6; AI, July 20, 1883, p.5, c.4; California Historical Quarterly, 42:27 ff.; Meites, Chicago, 137; May, Isaac M. Wise, 367-68; E. & L., Richmond, 228.

16. N.Y. Jewish Times, July 28, 1871, p.343, c.2; PAJHS, 24:39; “New York,” JE, 9:279-80; Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 188-89, 324 ff.; “Schiff, Jacob Henry,” DAB; Adler, Jacob H. Schiff, 2:365 ff.; Walter D. Lorber, Builders of America: 75 Years of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (N.Y., 1942); Jew. Com. Reg., 1018-19.

17. John Bartlett, Familiar Quotations (Boston, 1955), 300; Floyd L. Herman, “A Year in the Life of Felix M. Warburg, 1914-1915” (HUC term paper, 1962); Reiner, “Warburg, 1916”; Rievan Slavkin, “A Study in Depth, for One Year, of a Great American Jewish Leader and Philanthropist, Felix Warburg, 1917” (HUC term paper, 1960); Ronald M. Weiss, “A Year in the Life of Felix M. Warburg, 1918” (HUC term paper, 1962).

18. Richard A. Weiss, “The Jewish Interests of Julius Rosenwald as Reflected in His Papers” (HUC term paper, 1962); Slosson, The Great Crusade, 334-35; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 379; “Rosenwald, Julius,” DAB; Conversation with Rabbi C.E.H. Kauver in Denver, Feb. 6, 1955, Marcus Collections.

19. Wischnitzer, To Dwell in Safety, 29-35, 297, 299-300; W. & W., Philadelphia, 136-37, 264-65, 419, nn.99-104, 445, n.3: JM, Mar. 25, 1870, p.4, c.4, May 13, 1870, p.2, c.3; Freyer, “Jewish Messenger”; Schappes, DHJUS, 538-39; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 78-80, 87; San Francisco Hebrew, Apr. 17, 1868, cited in Bob, “San Francisco,” 2; Adler, Kansas City, 87; AJA, 17:114 ff.

20. Wiernik, History, 243-44; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 263 ff.; “Philanthropy,” EJ, 13:381 ff.; “New York,” JE, 9:284, “San Francisco,” 11:36; Mandel, “New York,” 13.

21. Detroit Jewish Chronicle, May 2, 1947, p.1, photograph; Grinstein, New York City, 131 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 265; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 77 ff.; Tobias, Hebrew Benevolent Society, 21 ff.; Zoob, “Hebrew Benevolent Society”; Blum, Baltimore, 49-50; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 171 ff.; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 54, 215-21; note the numerous societies listed in AJYB, 2(1900-1901):185 ff., and in AJYB, 21:330 ff.; “San Francisco,” JE, 11:86.

22. Dana, Beth Israel Hospital, 13; Marcus, Communal Sick-Care, 63 ff.; Papers of the Jewish Women’s Congress, 182-83; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 184-85, 274; Washington Record, 5:33 ff.; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 144; Freyer, “Jewish Messenger,” 22; Shinedling, “Occident Index,” 157; JM, Jan. 26, 1866, p.4, c.3, Feb. 2, 1866, p.5, c.1, May 2, 1866, p.4, c.1, Nov. 2, 1866, p.5, c.1; “Jews in America,” The Americana, sub “Charities”; “Baltimore,” JE, 2:480, “New York,” 9:284-86, “San Francisco,” 11:35-36, “St. Louis,” 10:640; “Philadelphia,” JE, 9:580, 677-78, UJE, 8:482; “Boston, JE; “Chicago,” JE, UJE, 3:142, 144; “Social Service, Jewish,” UJE; AJHQ, 60:138 ff.; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 2:722-23; Morais, Philadelphia, 114-15; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 89-91; Blum, Baltimore, 17, 19, 51, 129; Fein, Baltimore, 129; Jew. Com. Reg., 334-35; Meites, Chicago, 191, 596; Grinstein, New York City, see Index sub “Burial”; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 54; “Burial Society” JE, 3:438, UJE, 2:604; Spiro, “Jewish Religious Life on the Pacific Coast,” 5 ff.; Constitution and By-Laws of the Congregation Berith Sholom, Troy, N.Y., and By-Laws of the Chevra Cadisha, Connected with the Said Congregation (N.Y., 1871); Constitution and By-Laws of the Hebrew Benevolent Society of Charlotte, S.C. (Charlotte, 1872); Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 276 ff.

23. Charles S. Bernheimer, Half A Century in Community Service (N.Y., 1948), 112 ff.; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 200, 232; AI, July 25, 1873, p.4, cs.2-5, Jan. 21, 1897, p.6, c.2, Mar. 20, 1975, supplement; Morris & Freund, Trends, 89 ff.; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 75-76; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 270 ff.; E. Merton Coulter, Georgia (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1947), 70-72; “Baltimore,” JE, 2:480, “Charity,” 3:673-74, “New York,” 9:285; R. & E., Charleston, 228; “Ladies Society for the Support of Hebrew Widows and Orphans in the State of Michigan,” MS, copy in Marcus Collections; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 218; Morais, Philadelphia, 121 ff.; Jewish Hospital, 34; U.A.H.C. Statistics, 56-57; Markens, Hebrews, 309 ff., 329-31; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 57, 96 ff., 100; Fifty Years of Jewish Philanthropy in Greater Boston, 1895-1946, 7; “Philadelphia,” JE, 9:674, UJE, 8:478; Blum, Baltimore, 20, 51, 99; S.M. Fleischman, The History of the Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum of Philadelphia, 1855-1905 (Phila., 1905); Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 54; Korn, New Orleans, 192-93, 231-32, 334, n.28; Feibelman, New Orleans, 75 ff., 104, 113; “New Orleans,” UJE; Irma M. Isaacson, “A History of Jewish Philanthropy in New Orleans” (M.A. thesis, Tulane U., New Orleans, 1937), chaps.2-3; Greenberg, “Care of Jewish Orphans in New Orleans”; Louisiana Inventory, 92 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 160; To Commemorate Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Jewish Orphan Asylum, District nos.2, 6, and 7, IOBB at Cleveland, Ohio, July 15, 16, 17, 18, 1893; 1868-1918: Fiftieth Anniversary of the Jewish Orphan Asylum, Cleveland, Ohio, copy in Marcus Collections. By the 1940’s this Jewish orphan asylum, later called Bellefaire, had its own hospital, school, and vocational classes: stenography, typing, printing, and manual training. National Jewish Monthly, 83(no.1):16-19; Fein, Baltimore, 153-56; Constitution and By-Laws of the Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home Society in the City of San Francisco, as Adopted July 25, 1871 (San Francisco, 1871); “Atlanta,” UJE, 1:600, “San Francisco,” 9:357; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 196-97; Steven Hertzberg, Strangers Within the Gate City: The Jews of Atlanta (Phila., 1978), 120 ff.; Breck, Colorado, 113 ff. This orphan asylum was established primarily to take care of the children of the tuberculars in town. Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 177; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 40-41.

24. Spiro, “Jewish Religious Life on the Pacific Coast”; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 177; Posner, “Hebrew Orphanage of the City of New York”; Tobias, Hebrew Orphan Society, 16 ff., 23; R. & E., Charleston, 226-27; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 218; Detroit Jewish News, Dec. 13, 1968, p. 19; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 128-29.

25. Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 54; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Miriam Gratz Cohen, Savannah, Apr. 16, 1856, Univ. of North Carolina Library, copy in AJAr; Posner, “Hebrew Orphanage of the City of New York”; Greenberg, “Care of Jewish Orphans in New Orleans”; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 270 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 121 ff.; AI, July 25, 1873, p.4, c.3; Blum, Baltimore, 20, 51, 99.

26. Posner, “Hebrew Orphanage of the City of New York”; “New York,” JE, 9:276; “Child Care,” UJE, 3:161; Fein, Baltimore, 130; National Jewish Monthly, 83(no.1):16; Greenberg, “Care of Jewish Orphans in New Orleans”.

27. AJHQ, 61:223 ff.; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 70-71; AJYB, 57:43-44; Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 257; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 227, 229, 234; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 289 ff., 333 ff.; Fierman, “Religious Factors,” 39 ff.; Morris & Freund, Trends, 89 ff.; Jew. Com. Reg., 1136-42.

28. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 285 ff.; Tobias, Hebrew Orphan Society, 16 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 156; “Philadelphia,” JE, 9:674; Morais, Philadelphia, 121 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 272-73; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 76; Jacqueline Bernard, The Children . . . You Gave Us (N.Y., 1973), 69 ff.; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 160 ff.; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 180-81.

29. First Annual Report of the U.H.C. of Chicago, 1888-1889, 11-12; Occ., 5:59-60; NAR, 126:301 ff.; Leeser, Discourses, 10:159 ff.; Rosen, “Hebrew Beneficent Society, Cincinnati,” 35; Constitution and By-Laws of the Jewish Hospital Association of Philadelphia (Phila., 1866), Preamble, 24; Broadside, Oct. 13, 1878: To the Israelites of St. Louis, signed by S.H. Sonneschein, Augustus Binswanger, and Jacob Furth, copy in Marcus Collections; Dedication of the Jewish Hospital of Philadelphia; Jewish Hospital, 5 ff.; Blum, Baltimore, 125; Schappes, DHJUS, 557 ff., 734-35, n.4; Morais, Philadelphia, 116 ff.; Broadsides, Aug. 18, 1864, issued by a Provisional Hospital Committee in Philadelphia, A. Sulzberger, Secretary (in English and German), copies in Marcus Collections.

30. Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 56; Leeser, Discourses, 10:169-70; Marcus, Communal Sick-Care, 160 ff.; Levinson, “Baltimore Hebrew Hospital”; Harry A. Roth, “The Jewish Record, etc.” (HUC term paper, 1947), 27-28; Constitution of the Jewish Hospital Association of Philadelphia, 14; Feibelman, New Orleans, 76-77; Louisiana Inventory, 87 ff.; Irma Isaacson, “History of Jewish Philanthropy in New Orleans” (typescript, New Orleans, 1937), AJAr, 21 ff.; “Baltimore,” JE, 2:480; Blum, Baltimore, 49-50, 125; Broadside, Oct. 13, 1878: To the Israelites of St. Louis, signed by S.H. Sonneschein, Augustus Binswanger, and Jacob Furth, copy in Marcus Collections; “Philadelphia,” UJE, 8:478, 482; Morais, Philadelphia, 118; NAR, 126:301 ff.

31. PAJHS, 23:105 ff.; Jewish Hospital, 5-26; Cincinnati Times Star, Oct. 19, 1944, copy in Marcus Collections; N.Y. Jewish Forum, 38:14, 52; Occ., 23:300, 24:513 ff.; “Philadelphia,” JE, 9:673-74, UJE, 8:478, 482; Schappes, DHJUS, 557-59; New York World, Oct. 25, 1880, copy in Marcus Collections; Morais, Philadelphia, 116-20, 129-30; Markens, Hebrews, 327-28; Constitution of the Jewish Hospital Association of Philadelphia; Dedication of the Jewish Hospital of Philadelphia; Ruttenberg, “Philadelphia”; Leeser, Discourses, 10:159 ff.; “Chicago,” JE, 4:25; Meites, Chicago, 101 ff., 607 ff., 624 ff., 630 ff.; Die Neuzeit, Nov. 1, 1867, pp.515-16; Archives Israélites, 28:143; Levinson, “Baltimore Hebrew Hospital”; Blum, Baltimore, 19, 49-50, 125; “Baltimore,” JE, 2:480, UJE, 2:56; Fein, Baltimore, 154.

32. JM, Mar. 27, 1868, p.4, c.1; Freyer, “Jewish Messenger,” 15; Morais, Philadelphia, 116 ff.; Louisiana Inventory, 102; U.A.H.C. Statistics, 56; Markens, Hebrews, 245 ff., 313 ff.; Meites, Chicago, 101 ff., 607, 624, 630; First Annual Report of the U.H.C. of Chicago, 1888-1889; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 274 ff.; Hecht, Epitome of Post-Biblical History, 112; WSJHQ, 8:99 ff.; “Chicago,” JE, 4:25-26, “New York,” 9:285; Nathan S. Jonas, Through the Years, etc. (N.Y., 1940), 356; Jew. Com. Reg., 1014 ff.; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 172-73, 178; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 227-28.

33. Markens, Hebrews, 313-14, 327; Constitution of the Jewish Hospital Association of Philadelphia, 25; Morais, Philadelphia, 116 ff., 119; Schappes, DHJUS, 557-59; First Annual Report of the U.H.C. of Chicago, 1888-1889, 21; Dedication of the Jewish Hospital of Philadelphia, 19-20; Louisiana Inventory, 87-90; “Hospital,” JE, 6:480, “Philadelphia,” 9:673-74; Marcus, Communal Sick-Care, 207-8, 287-88; “Chaplains, Jewish,” UJE, 3:112; L.S. Hendricks, N.Y., to Sabato Morais, Phila., Apr. 17, 1881, copy in Marcus Collections; Blum, Baltimore, 19, 49-50, 125; Jewish Hospital, 12; New York World, Oct. 25, 1880, copy in Marcus Collections; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 223-24; AI, Oct. 1, 1959, Section 2, p.1; Saltzstein, Sinai Hospital, Detroit, 3-9; Jew. Com. Reg., 1014 ff.

34. Tina Levitan, Islands of Compassion (N.Y., 1964), 28-29; Lyons & De Sola, Jewish Calendar, 165-67; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 77; Grinstein, New York City, 151 ff., 162; Morais, Philadelphia, 129-30; AJYB, 57:33-34; Jew. Com. Reg., 1014 ff., 1089 ff.; Fierman, “Religious Factors,” 60 ff.; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 57-58; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 233.

35. Morais, Philadelphia, 118-19; Jew. Com. Reg., 1112 ff.; “Philadelphia,” UJE, 8:478; Meites, Chicago, 182-83, 194-95, 634-40.

36. Grusd, B’nai B’rith, 16, 92; New York World, Jan. 27, 1879, copy in Marcus Collections; Markens, Hebrews, 329; “Fraternities,” JE; “Fraternal Orders,” UJE; By-Laws of the Jeshurun Lodge, no. 59, IOBB (Phila., 1865); Burder, History of all Religions, 584; The Free Son, 4(no.1):3-4; Maline, “Day-to-Day Activities of a Jewish Fraternity”; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 229; Brown, “Day-to-Day Activities of a Jewish Fraternity”; Folb, “B’nai B’rith”; Goldman, “B’nai B’rith”; Blank, “Programs of Local B’nai B’rith Societies”; Bruce S. Warshal, “Goals, Functions, Ideals, and Accomplishments of the B’nai B’rith as Reflected in The Menorah, 1886-1890” (HUC term paper, 1968); Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 115-16; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 116 ff.; “New York,” JE, 9:288; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 33, 114; Breck, Colorado, 35, 128-29; Uchill, Pioneers, 133 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 139; “B’nai B’rith,” JE, UJE; “Fraternal Orders,” UJE, 4:421; Lucius L. Solomons, Historical Sketch of B’nai B’rith (n.p., n.d., ca. 1933); National Jewish Monthly, 72(no.3):22 ff., 78(no.2):9 ff., 83(no.1):14 ff.; Postal, This is B’nai B’rith; Bisgyer, This is B’nai B’rith; Grusd, B’nai B’rith, 55-168; American Jews’ Annual for 5645 A.M. (1884-85), 40-41, 83 ff., 5647 A.M. (1886-87), 67, 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 40; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 200-201; “Fraternal Societies in America,” “Jewish Fraternities,” The Americana; “United States,” JE, 12:361.

37. Historical Sketch of the National Jewish Hospital of Denver, Colorado; by Samuel Bowman, West Baden Springs, Ind., June 7, 1931; Breck, Colorado, 96 ff., 307, n.69; Uchill, Pioneers, see Index sub “National Jewish Hospital”; “National Jewish Hospital at Denver, The,” UJE; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 211-12; Grusd, B’nai B’rith, 114, 118, 122, 132; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 34; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 66-67; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 172-76.

38. Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 70; “New York,” JE, 9:280; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 211-12; JSSQ, 6:6; Fein, Baltimore, 154-55; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 148-57; AJYB, 57:28; Breck, Colorado, 114; Jew. Com. Reg., 1000-1001, 1017.

39. AJYB, 21:320; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 69-70; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 171-79; JSSQ, 6:12; Fifty Years of Social Service in N.Y., 76-84; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 218-19.

40. Rosenthal, Des Moines, 98; Chyet, Lives and Voices, 166; Lyons & De Sola, Jewish Calendar, 165 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 151 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 200.

41. Fein, Baltimore, 153; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 191-202; Papers of the Jewish Women’s Congress, 218 ff.; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 98; Wolk, “Philanthropic Activities,” 11; Elovitz, Birmingham, 45; “Chicago,” UJE, 3:140; AJYB, 2(1900-1901):251; Louisiana Inventory, 100-1; PAJHS, 47:44; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no. 1817; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 219; “New York,” JE, 9:277, “Philadelphia,” 9:676; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 82; E. & L., Richmond, 231 ff.; AJHQ, 60:139; The Pinkos (Jewish Chronicle) . . . Commemorating 75 Years of Jewish Activity in San Bernardino (San Bernardino, Cal., 1935), 58 ff.; “Ladies’ Society for the Support of Hebrew Widows and Orphans in the State of Michigan” (the so-called Mrs. E.S. Heineman Report), MS, copy in Marcus Collections; Detroit Jewish Chronicle, Dec. 6, 1946, p.11, cs.1-2, Dec. 13, 1946, p.11, cs.4-5, Dec. 20, 1946, p.19, cs.1-2; Kenneth Roseman, “Philanthropic Activities of American Jewesses” (HUC term paper, 1964); Soltz, “Norfolk”; JM, June 15, 1866, p.4, c.3, Oct. 28, 1868, p.7, c.1, June 21, 1870, p.3, c.5; Julia Miller, “Jews Connected With the History of Pittsburgh” (M.A. thesis, U. of Pittsburgh, 1930), 44 ff.

42. Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 64 ff.; “Einstein, Hannah Bachman,” NAW; Fifty Years of Jewish Philanthropy in Greater Boston, 1895-1945, 10-11; Brickner, “Jew. Com. in Cin.,” 209; Jew. Com. Reg., 1012 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 116; “America, Judaism in,” JE, 1:516, “New York,” 9:285; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, 178 ff.; “Buffalo,” JE, 3:424, UJE, 2:584; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 90; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 77-78, 96 ff.; Charles Richmond Henderson, et al., Modern Methods of Charity: An Account of the Systems of Relief, Public and Private, in the Principal Countries Having Modern Methods (N.Y., 1904), 676 ff.; “Sisterhoods of Personal Service,” JE; Louisiana Inventory, 115, no.100; Fifty Years of Social Service in N.Y., 50-51, 91 ff.; Fierman, “Religious Factors,” 8; Marcus, U.S. Jewry, vol. 3, Index sub “Women”; “National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods, The,” UJE; They Dared to Dream, 10-11, 29-41.

43. Faulkner, Social Justice, 170-71; Slosson, The Great Crusade, 159 ff.; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 70-71; “Women’s Clubs,” The Americana; Wish, Society and Thought, 2:125; Curti, American Thought, 382 ff.

44. Grinstein, New York City, 266-67; Sinai, 4:88; Einhorn Memorial Volume, 417-18; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:261 ff., 3:357 ff.; PUAHC, 1:188-89, 247, 251; AI, Aug. 4, 1854, p.29, cs.13, July 21, 1871, p.8, entire, p.9, c.1; Schappes, DHJUS, 733, n.11; CCARYB, 3:40, 52:334; May, Isaac M. Wise, 148-49, 363; Philipson & Grossman (eds.), Selected Writings of I.M. Wise 397 ff.; “Halizah,” “Agunah,” JE; Proceedings of the NCJW, 1896, 353 ff., 401; Solomon, Fabric of My Life, 112; Judaism at the World’s Parliament of Religions, 241 ff., 252-54; They Dared to Dream, 35; Wolk, “Philanthropic Activities”; Saltzstein, Sinai Hospital, Detroit, 4; Ruttenberg, “Philadelphia,” 2-3 contains a reference to a Hebrew Female Benevolent Society that would not join; Bisgyer, This is B’nai B’rith, 109 ff.; for women liberals and radicals of East European stock, see the following: “Moskowitz, Belle Lindner Israels,” “Stokes, Rose Harriet Pastor,” NAW; Schneiderman, Rose,” UJE; for Clara Lemlich, see Schappes, JIUS, 161.

45. Solomon, Fabric of My Life, 109-10, 115, 168, 200; “Solomon, Hannah Greenbaum,” NAW, UJE; Meites, Chicago, 83; Mrs. Philip Angel interview by Gerald Kane, Charleston, W. Va., granddaughter of Mrs. H.G. Solomon, Apr. 20, 1970, copy in AJAr.

46. Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 150; “National and International Councils of Women,” The Americana; “American, Sadie,” UJE, AJYB, 7(1905-1906):34-36; Meites, Chicago, 179; Mrs. Philip Angel interview by Gerald Kane, Charleston, W. Va., granddaughter of Mrs. H.G. Solomon, Apr. 20, 1970, copy in AJAr; Solomon, Fabric of My Life, 106-7; Papers of the Jewish Women’s Congress, 218 ff.; Proceedings of the NCJW, 1896, 386 ff.

47. Proceedings of the NCJW, 1896, 336-37, 370 ff.; First Fifty Years of the NCJW, 22 ff., 32 ff., 37-38; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 201 ff.; By Myself I’m A Book, 29; Kraft, Cent. of JCC Movement, 14; Cincinnati Times Star, Apr. 25, 1940, Centennial Edition, copy in Marcus Collections.

48. Proceedings of the NCJW, 1896, 39, 199 ff., 214 ff., 407; First Fifty Years of the NCJW, 9-55; “National Council of Jewish Women,” UJE; “Council of Jewish Women” JE; Papers of the Jewish Women’s Congress, 218 ff.; Kraft, Cent. of JCC Movement, 6; Louisiana Inventory, 110-11, no.93; AJYB, 1(1899-1900):54, 21:306, 46:55 ff.; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 201; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 119; AH, Sept. 30, 1921, p.533; “Jewish Women’s Council,” The Americana; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 55; Fein, Baltimore, 153; Washington Record, 5:33 ff.; Bernice Graziani, Where There’s a Woman: 75 Years of History as Lived by the National Council of Jewish Women (n.p., 1967), 17 ff.; Leiser, American Judaism, 185 ff.; Gershon, “History of Am. Ref. Jud.,” 168; Slovitz, Birmingham, 70, 109, 112; Fields, “Cincinnati”; Douglas Goldhammer, “History of the National Council of Jewish Women” (HUC term paper, 1971); Mrs. Robert Schwab, A Record of Service: History and Achievements of the Indianapolis Section, National Council of Jewish Women (Fort Wayne, Ind., 1974, Publication no.3 of the Indiana Jewish Historical Society).

CHAPTER NINETEEN

SOCIAL WELFARE, 1860-1920: THE NEW APPROACH

  1. First Annual Report of the U.H.C. of Chicago, 1888-1889, 12-13; Morais, Philadelphia, 114, 135-38; Everybody’s Business, 12; AJYB, 57:44-45; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Sept. 7, 1956, pp.21, 46; Levinson, “Baltimore Hebrew Hospital”; R. & E., Charleston, 226; Mandel, “New York”; JM, Mar. 3, 1882, p.2, cs.3-4, Feb. 2, 1883, p.5, c.6, p.6, c.1; Zoob, “Hebrew Benevolent Society”; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 8182; Chyet, Lives and Voices, 166 ff.; Dedication of the Jewish Hospital of Philadelphia; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 114.

  2. Morais, Philadelphia, 143; Fein, Baltimore, 73-74; Grinstein, New York City, 443; AJA, 2(no.1):26; Occ., 6:473, 529-30, 24:331, 33:131; Leeser, Discourses, 10:194-98; PAJHS, 27:157, 250; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 145.

  3. Schappes, DHJUS, 217-18; Morais, Philadelphia, 135 ff.; Phila. North American and United States Gazette, Feb. 10, 1854, p.1, cs.3-8; Occ., 5:59-60; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 66; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 26; Lipman, Soc. Hist. of Jews in England, 56-57; AI, Oct. 3, 1856, p.98, c.4, p.102, c.1.

  4. Occ., 15:500; Apple, “Pennsylvania Jewry,” 30-31; JM, Apr. 9, 1858, p.62, cs.2-3, p.63, cs.1-2, Apr. 8, 1859, p.106, cs.1-3; Grinstein, New York City, 154-55, 160-61; “New York,” JE, 9:272-73; AI, Jan. 7, 1859, p.210, cs.1-3; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 269-70: AJA, 2(no.1):25-26; Meites, Chicago, 58-59, 77 ff.; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 89.

  5. Burder, History of All Religions, 583-84; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 409-10; Sinai, 6:319-20; E. & L., Richmond, 247-48; Wax, Jews of Memphis, 15-16; Lawrence C. Meyers, “Evolution of the Jewish Service Agency in Memphis, Tennessee: 1847 to 1963” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1964), 67; Feibelman, New Orleans, 76; AJYB, 7(1905-1906):96; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 280; Morais, Philadelphia, 112-14, 307-8; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 76; JM, Sept. 3, 1869, p.2, c.5; Ruttenberg, “Philadelphia”.

  6. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 280; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 67-79; Schappes, JIUS, 108; Fifty Years of Jewish Philanthropy in Greater Boston, 1895-1945, 6 ff.; “Massachusetts,” UJE, 7:404; AJYB, 1(1899-1900):230, 17(19151916):159 ff.; JM, Apr. 24, 1868, p.4, c.1, May 15, 1868, p.4, c.2; Fifty Years of Social Service in N.Y., 14 ff.; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 69-70, 76; PAJHS, 13:145; “New York,” JE, 9:284.

  7. “Rochester,” UJE, 9:178; Rosenberg, Rochester, 66, 135-36; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 223-25, 501-2; Constitution and By-Laws of the United Hebrew Charities, Chicago, Illinois (Chicago, 1896); First Annual Report of the U.H.C. of Chicago, 1888-1889; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 207; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 228, 426, n.42; “Chicago,” UJE, 3:136, 140, 144, “Pittsburgh,” 8:546, “Sioux City,” 9:558; “Jewish Charities,” The Americana; Munsey’s Magazine, Oct. 1893, pp.60 ff., copy in Marcus Collections; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 280.

  8. YA, 9:186-90; The Jewish Community, 10(no.4):7 ff.; “Pauperism and Poverty,” DAH; “Social Work,” ESS, DAH; AJYB, 57:48; Faulkner, Social Justice, 111; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 350-51; “Charity Organization Movement,” DAH (1942); “Charity,” ESS ; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 83 ff., 89-91, 212, 224-25; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 36 ff., 62-63; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 129 ff., 132.

  9. Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 43 ff.; “Chicago,” UJE, 3:136, 144; Morris & Freund, Trends, 143 ff.; Proposed Federation of Contributors to Jewish Charities of NYC, Oct. 1915, Warburg Papers, AJAr; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 100 ff.; Fifty Years of Jewish Philanthropy in Greater Boston, 1895-1945, 8 ff.; Barbara Miller Solomon, Pioneers in Service: The History of the Associated Jewish Philanthropies of Boston (Boston, 1956), 32 ff.; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 38-39, 56-57, 407, n.5; Jewish Digest, 15(no.3):29 ff.; AI, Dec. 7, 1939, p.11, c.1, May 4, 1961, p.11, cs.1-5; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 208-11, 225 ff., 234 ff.; “The United Jewish Social Agencies (formerly the United Jewish Charities), 1928,” mimeo brochure in Marcus Collections; AJYB, 7(1905-1906):102; “Bogen, Boris,” “Federations,” “Lowenstein, Solomon,” “Senior, Max,” UJE; Cincinnati Enquirer, Oct. 1, 1896, copy in Marcus Collections; Fields, “Cincinnati”; “Cincinnati,” JE, 4:91.

10. Fifty Years of Social Service in N.Y., 86 ff.; By-Laws of the Federation for the Support of the Jewish Philanthropic Societies of New York City, tentative draft submitted to the Executive Committee, May 28, 1917, Warburg Papers, AJAr; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 78, 82, 84; Adler, Kansas City, 112-13; Everybody’s Business, 13; AJYB, 7(1905-1906):86-87; “Community Chest,” DAH (1942); Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 56; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 21-22; AJA, 3:51-53, 70-71.

11. Chyet, Lives and Voices, 166 ff.; Michigan Jewish History, 15:5 ff.; AJHQ, 60:139-40, 62:279-80; In Observance of our Sixtieth Anniversary: the United Jewish Charities of Detroit, 1899-1959, copy in Marcus Collections; Michigan History Magazine, 23(1939):77 ff.; Detroit Jewish News, Oct. 24, 1969, p.48, cs.1-2; Philadelphia,” JE, 9:677; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 81-82; Constitution of the Jewish Charitable and Educational Union of St. Louis (St. Louis, 1901). This federation also had a music school for its clients. Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 228 ff.; Auerbach, “Nebraska,” 86 ff.; Blum, Baltimore, 31, 53-54; “Baltimore,” UJE, 2:57, “Detroit,” 3:547; Nathan S. Jonas, Through the Years (n.p., 1940), 184-86; Jew. Com. Reg., 1312; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 179-80; Feibelman, New Orleans, 95 ff.; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 99, 117; Uchill, Pioneers, 138-39, 272 ff.; for data about the establishment of other federations, see AJYB, 74:597 ff.

12. Fein, Baltimore, 153, 214 ff., 233 ff.; The Jewish Community, 10(no.4):7 ff.; Meites, Chicago, 749 ff.; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 87 ff.; AJYB, 17(1915-1916):159 ff., 162, 165, 183-84; YA, 9:185 ff.; “Chicago,” JE, 4:26, “Cincinnati,” 4:91.

13. Rosenthal, Des Moines, 117; Carol Gendler, “The Jews of Omaha: First Sixty Years” (M.A. thesis, U. of Omaha, 1968), 111-12; Auerbach, “Nebraska,” 86-88; Uchill, Pioneers, 272 ff.; Rosenberg, Rochester, 210 ff., 224-25; AJYB, 17(1915-1916):167, 57:30, 48; The Jewish Community, 10(no.4):7 ff.; Blum, Baltimore, 31; “Baltimore,” UJE, 2:57; Fein, Baltimore, 233 ff.; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 49 ff.; Meites, Chicago, 231, 336.

14. “Social Work,” ESS; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 120; YA, 9:190 ff.; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 56-57, 410-12; AJYB, 17(1915-1916):167, 189, 57:48. The last quote is from James Russell Lowell, The Vision of Sir Launfal (Girard, Kan., n.d.); Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 47-48; Reiner, “Warburg, 1916.”

15. AJYB, 17(1915-1916):166, 175, 189, 57:48; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 84 ff., 95; Fifty Years of Social Service in N.Y., 88.

16. Everybody’s Business, 12-13; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 101-2; The Reconstructionist, 23(no.8):20 ff.; YA, 9:201-3; AJYB, 17(1915-1916):170 ff., 175, 189; Fifty Years of Social Service in N.Y., 88; JTA-DNB, Apr. 22, 1960, p.4; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 12-13, 56-57, 84, 408, n.9; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 504; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 234-39.

17. “Pauperism and Poverty,” DAH (1942); “Social Work,” ESS; AJYB, 17(1915-1916):170 ff., 180; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 264-66; Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 3, 6, 44, 77-85, 410-13, nn.21-31; YA, 9:200-3; “Philanthropy,” EJ, 13:383-86.

18. AJYB, 7(1905-1906):32-118, which contains biographies of more than 200 Jewish communal workers of the early 20th century, 57:23; “Goldmark, Josephine Clara,” NAW; “Jewish Charities,” The Americana; YA, 9:182-84; “Social Work,” ESS.

19. “Lewisohn, Irene,” “Stern, Francis,” NAW; AJYB, 7(1905-1906):50-51, 53-54, 56, 62-63, 65-66, 68, 106; “Blumenthal, Mark,” JE, UJE; Hirsh & Doherty, Mount Sinai Hospital, 34-38; Morais, Philadelphia, 273-76, et passim; “Heinsheimer, Alfred M.,” “Heinsheimer, Louis A.,” UJE; Nodel, The Ties Between, 50-51; Meites, Chicago, 220; JSSQ, 6(1904-1905):12-13.

20. AJYB, 7(1905-1906):32 ff., 57:52-54; “Bogen, Boris David,” UJE; “Social Work,” ESS, 14:184; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 91, 93, 199; Morris & Freund, Trends, xxiv-xxv; YA, 9:182-83, 199-200; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 335-36; Karpf, Jewish Community Organizations, 119-20; Jew. Com. Reg., 53, 1163-65; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 101 ff.; AI, May 18, 1961, p.6, cs.1-4; Fifty Years of Social Service in N.Y., 42, 50-51, 61; Goodman, Documentary Story, 47-48; “Philanthropy,” EJ, 13:381 ff.

21. AJYB, 57:44 ff., 52 ff., 84 ff., 90; JSSQ, 6(1904-1905):12; notable Eastern European social workers were Jacob Billikopf, Isaac Spectorsky, David Blaustein, Boris D. Bogen. AJHQ, 57:51-52; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 2:723.

22. Morris & Freund, Trends, xxiv-xxvi, 50; Janowsky, American Jew, 52; Fierman, “Religious Factors,” 9-10, 178 ff., 180-81; Bogen, Jewish Philanthropy, 14-15, 365-66; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 101 ff.; “Blaustein, David,” UJE, AJYB, 7(1905-1906):44; “Bonnheim, Benjamin Aaron,” AJYB, 7(1905-1906):46; “Bressler, David Maurice,” UJE, AJYB, 7(1905-1906):46; “Coffee, Rudolph Isaac,” AJYB, 7(1905-1906):48; “Feuerlicht, Jacob,” AJYB, 7(1905-1906):55; “Fleischman, Samuel M.,” AJYB, 7(1905-1906):56; “Schindler, Solomon,” JE, AJYB, 7(1905-1906):99-100; “Waldman, Morris D.,” AJYB, 7(1905-1906):112; “Wolfenstein, Samuel,” AJYB, 7(1905-1906):117; “Lowenstein, Solomon,” JE, UJE, AJYB, 7(1905-1906):84; Chyet, Lives and Voices, 154 ff., 164 ff.; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 332 ff.; “Wise, Louise Waterman,” NAW; “Adler, Felix,” “Friedman, William Sterne,” “Landsberg, Max,” “Wise, Stephen Samuel,” UJE.

23. “Pisko, Seraphine,” “Pisko, Seraphine Eppstein,” UJE, AJYB, 7(1905-1906):94; “Louis, Miriam,” AJYB, 7(1905-1906):83-84; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 199 ff.; “Bogen, Boris David,” UJE.

24. JSSQ, 6(1904-1905):2; Morais, Philadelphia, 353, 437; AJYB, 7(1905-1906):34, 46, 121 ff., 134; Kagan, Contributions, 385-86, 503; “Frankel, Lee Kaufer,” UJE; In Memoriam, Lee Kaufer Frankel, 1867-1831 (N.Y., 1931); “Billikopf, Jacob,” UJE, DAB, Supplement 4, AJYB, 7(19051906):44; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 210, 224-25; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 239.

25. “Charity Organization Movement, The,” DAH (1942); Tobias, Hebrew Benevolent Society, 25; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 101; Zoob, “Hebrew Benevolent Society”; American Jews’ Annual for 5647 A.M. (1886-87), 67.

26. Jew. Com. Reg., 1221, 1228-30, 1313; Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 260-70; AJYB, 57:55; Morris & Freund, Trends, xxiv, xxv, 62, 76-78, 89-90, 620-24; “Charity Organization Movement,” DAH (1942); “America,” JE, 1:502-8, “Cincinnati,” 4:91, “United States,” 12:361; United Jewish Social Agencies (formerly the United Jewish Charities) (Cincinnati, 1928); Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 36, 406, n.3; “National Association of Jewish Center Workers,” “National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare,” UJE; Karpf, Jewish Community Organizations, 117-19, 178; Proceedings of the First National Conference of Jewish Charities in the U.S., Held at Chicago, June 11th, 12th, and 13th, 1900 (Cincinnati, 1900).

27. Lurie, A Heritage Affirmed, 415-16, n.24, 353; Morris & Freund, Trends, xxv, 157; Jew. Com. Reg., 1160-62; “Bureau of Jewish Social Service, Inc.,” UJE; Ronald M. Weiss, “A Year in the Life of Felix Warburg” (HUC term paper, 1962); “Report of the Field Bureau of the National Conference of Jewish Social Service, Apr. 1–Sept. 30, 1919,” copy in Marcus Collections; Karpf, Jewish Community Organizations, 120.

28. Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 204-6; Fifty Years of Social Service in N.Y., 59-60; “Periodicals,” JE, 9:624, sub “Jewish Charity”; Morris & Freund, Trends, 627.

29. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 276; WSJHQ, 6:260 ff.; Maline, “Day-to-Day Activity for a Jewish Fraternity,” 7; R. & E., Charleston, 168, 202, 320, n.88; Bob, “San Francisco”; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 115; “Saint Louis,” JE, 10:640; Tobias, Hebrew Benevolent Society, 19-26; Soltz, “Norfolk”; Rothschild, Atlanta, 60; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 216-17, 229-30; Grusd, B’nai B’rith, 78, 103, 138; Postal, This is B’nai B’rith, 2-4.

30. JM, Feb. 11. 1881, p.2, c.5, p.3, c.1; Shinedling, “Occident Index,” 158 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 277-78; Louisiana Inventory, 94, n.74; Grinstein, New York City, 440 ff.; Postal, This is B’nai B’rith, 3-5.

31. Glanz, Milieu; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 54, 217; Morais, Philadelphia, 140-41; PAJHS, 29:87, 36:42 ff.; WSJHQ, 7:43; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 277-78; Postal, This is B’nai B’rith, 3 ff.; Learsi, Jews in America, 249; AJYB, 15(1913-14):194 ff.; Blank, “Programs of Local B’nai B’rith Societies”; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 115; Maline, “Day-to-Day Activity for a Jewish Fraternity,” 8.

32. Ruppin, Jewish Fate and Future, 28-29; Grusd, B’nai B’rith, 134-35; YA, 9:191, 199; Postal, This is B’nai B’rith, 3-4, 20-21; Blank, “Programs of Local B’nai B’rith Societies,” 3, 6-8; The Free Sons, 4:3 ff.; Morris & Freund, Trends, 599-600: Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 54; Everybody’s Business, 13-16; Bob, “San Francisco,” 2; Uchill, Pioneers, 134; AJYB, 41:141 ff., 145, 57:50; “Joint Distribution Committee, American Jewish,” UJE; Oscar Handlin, A Continuing Task (N.Y., 1964), 19 ff.; Joint Distribution Committee, Report on Activities and Expenditures, (1914-1925); Herbert Agar, The Saving Remnant (N.Y., 1960), 3 ff.

33. YA, 9:180; Morais, Philadelphia, 111; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 222; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 441, n.53; Morris & Freund, Trends, 595 ff.; AJYB, 57:25-26: “New York,” JE, 9:284, “United States,” 12:368, 376; Jew. Com. Reg., 1321; “Pauperism,” The Americana; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 91, 138.

34. AJYB, 21:330 ff., 57:18 ff.; Everybody’s Magazine, Oct. 1893, pp.60 ff., copy in Marcus Collections; AI, May 18, 1961, p.6, cs.1-3; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 200, 214, 225-26, 249; “Social Service, Jewish,” UJE.

CHAPTER TWENTY

ASPECTS OF JEWISH EDUCATION AND CULTURE, 1860–1920: PART I

  1. PAJHS, 37:232 ff.; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 94 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 328-29; Menorah, 15:186-87; “Jacobs, Joseph,” “Schechter, Solomon,” DAB; Jewish People, 2:156; Morais, Philadelphia, 170; Levine, “Am. Jew. Relig. Life in Cincinnati,” 8-9; Mimeograph epitome of a paper by Morris A. Gutstein before the AJHS (n.p., n.d.), copy in Marcus Collections; AH, Sept. 22, 1899, pp.611-12; Gutstein, Chicago, 132 ff.; “United States,” JE, 12:360; Minutes of the Literary Circle of the Cincinnati YMHA, AJAr; Abraham J. Feldman, Hartford, to JRM, Oct. 2, 1975, AJAr.

  2. Burder, History of All Religions, 584 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 162 ff., 168 ff.; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 120; Menorah, 1:293 ff., 8:37-38; Meites, Chicago, 151-52; Constitution and By-Laws of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Madison, 1869 (Madison, 1869); The American Jewess, 1(no.5):240-42; YA, 9:279; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 84; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Nov. 25, 1955, copy in Marcus Collections.

  3. Constitution and List of Members, Yale Hebraic Club, Oscar Straus Papers, LC; Leon Godchaux, New Haven, Conn., to O.S. Straus, Washington, D.C., Mar. 31, 1908, Oscar Straus Papers, LC; B.L. Liberman, Sec’y, New Haven, to O.S. Straus, Washington, D.C., Apr. 2, 1908, Oscar Straus Papers, LC; “Verband der Vereine fuer juedische Geschichte und Literatur in Deutschland,” JL; “Union of Jewish Literary Societies,” JE.

  4. “Germany,” JE, 5:634; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:962-63; Hiishler, Jews From Germany, 129 ff.; Adler, Kansas City, 93; Samuel Hirsch, Phila., to Samuel Adler, NYC, Mar. 24, 1872, copy in Marcus Collections; Glanz, The German Jew in America, nos. 1071, 1192, 1443, 1499, 1624, 1856, 1871; Felsenthal, Das Schulwesen, 30-32; Deborah, July 1, 1902, pp.211 ff.; PAJHS, 45:100 ff.; EIAJH, 147 ff.; Moses Mielziner, Werde Ein Segen (N.Y., 1867). This is a memorial address for Rapoport.

  5. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1204; Drachman, Neo-Hebraic Literature, 63 ff., 94 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 218-21; Judaism, 3:391 ff.; Friedman & Gordis, Jewish Life in America, 170 ff.; Isaac Mordecai Netter, Shelabim min ha-vam (Vienna, 1860), poetry section, 24-25; PAJHS, 47:146 ff.

  6. Samuel H. Isaacs, True Boundaries of the Holy Land (Chicago, 1917), “Biographical Sketch of the Author,” 11 ff.; “Illowy, Bernhard,” “Isaacs, Samuel Hillel,” JE, UJE; S.H. Isaacs, NYC, to daughter Jeannette, Nov. 18, 1893, copy in Marcus Collections; Judaism, 3:391 ff.; “Filipowski, (Phillip) Hirsch,” JE; Korn, Marcus Festschrift, 245 ff.; Drachman, Neo-Hebraic Literature, 64-65; Grinstein, New York City, 562, n.2; PAJHS, 34:286-88.

  7. Korn, Marcus Festschrift, 235 ff.; Mendel Silber, America in Hebraic Literature (New Orleans, 1928), 84-84; Wiernik, History, 380 ff.; Drachman, Neo-Hebraic Literature, 63-86; “Friedman, Aaron Zebi,” JE.

  8. “Eisenstein, Judah David,” UJE; “American Academy for Jewish Research,” JE, UJE; AJA, 14:26 ff.; Felsenthal, Das Schulwesen; W. & W., Philadelphia, 330; B. & B., JOUS, 429 ff.; Deborah, Nov. 2, 1855, pp.85-86; JQR, 45:274 ff.; “Nordheimer, Isaac,” DAB; Koerner, Das Deutsche Element, 117; EIAJH, 136 ff.

  9. Morais, Eminent Israelites, 252-55; R, no.457, n.675; “Newman, Selig,” JE; Roth, Bibliotheca, 370, nos.67-68; JM, Nov. 1, 1878, p.1, c.2; AZJ, Oct. 1, 1867, p.800; M. Mayer, Charleston, to I.L., Phila., May 12, 1853, June 1, 1856, copies in Marcus Collections.

10. “Einhorn, David,” “Hirsch, Emil Gustav,” “Hirsch, Samuel,” “Huebsch, Adolph,” JE, UJE; Hirsch, Emil G. Hirsch; MGWJ, 32:28 ff.; Samuel Adler, Kobez al yad: Sammlung Einiger in Zeitschriften Zerstreuter wissenschaftlicher Artikel (N.Y., 1886); “Adler, Samuel,” “Gottheil, Gustav,” JE, UJE, DAB; PAJHS, 45:125 ff.; Chyet, Lives and Voices, 3 ff.; Historia Judaica, 15:93-95; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil; Jew. Com. Reg., 294 ff

11. M. Steinschneider, Catalogus Librorum Hebraeorum in Bibliotheca Bodleiana (3 vols., Berlin, 1931), 2:1623; B. Felsenthal, Chicago, to Schorr, July 24, 1878, in EIAJH, 397; ZAW, 9:246 ff.; PAJHS, 45:123 ff.; “Bondi, Jonas,” JE, UJE; Grinstein, New York City, 498; R. & E., Charleston, 241; Heller, New Orleans, 42; Occ., 9:272; AI, Mar. 30, 1855, p.299, c.4; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 42-44, 370-71; “Kalisch, Isidor,” JE, UJE, DAB; Samuel Kalisch (ed.), Studies in Ancient and Modern Judaism, etc. (N.Y., 1928); Korn, Eventful Years, 19; Bulletin of Temple Beth El, Detroit, Michigan, Jan. 8, 1965: “Fluegel, Maurice,” UJE; “Fluegel”, “Schloessinger,” “Speatur,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):93, 182, 192; Blum, Baltimore, 23; Aaron Hahn, Sefer Okrey Harim: The Rabbinical Dialectics, etc. (Cincinnati, 1879).

12. “Cohen,” UJE, 3:234-35; Joshua I. Cohen, Baltimore, to I.L., Apr. 28, 1867; “Levi, Leo Napoleon,” JE, UJE; A History of the Jews of Louisville, Ky. (New Orleans, ca. 1902), 41.

13. Morais, Philadelphia, 163, 167, 419; “Steinbach, Lewis, W.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):195; PAJHS, 22:230-35, 29:188 ff.; Kagan, Contributions, 24-25; “Amram, David Werner,” UJE; M. & M., History, 720; “Sulzberger,” JE, 11:584-85; Marx, Essays in Jewish Biography, 223 ff.; “Sulzberger, Meyer,” DAB; JQR, 45:389-90.

14. AJA, 28:25 ff.; “Wolfson, Harry Austryn,” UJE, EJ; Commentary, 61(no.4):57 ff.; Congress Bi-Weekly, 29(no.18):3 ff.; AJYB, 76:99 ff.

15. “Husik, Isaac,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):121; Waxman, History, 4:927 ff., 1183 ff.; HUCA, 37:Introduction, (no pagination); Judaism, 3:405; “Neumark, David,” UJE, EJ; David Neumark, History of the Dogmas of Jewry (Hebrew, 2 vols., Odessa, 1912); David Neumark, History of Philosophy in Jewry (Hebrew, 2 vols., N.Y., 1921).

16. Kohler, Studies, 469 ff.; Marx, “Kaufmann Kohler”; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1179 ff.; Bulletin of Temple Beth El, Oct. 10, 1969; “Kohler, Kaufmann,” JE, UJE, EJ, DAB; Holy Scriptures, preface; HUCA, 2:419 ff.

17. “Friedlaender, Israel,” UJE, EJ, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):98; Marx, Studies in Jewish History, 400 ff.; Jew. Ed., 18:32 ff.; “Popper, William,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):166; “Casanowicz, Immanuel Moses,” DAB; PUAHC, 5:4026 ff.; Karff, HUC-JIR, 301-2; JQR, 45:399, 406; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 66; Meites, Chicago, 141, 162; “Broyde, Isaac,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):71; “Levias, Caspar,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):137; “Halper, Benzion,” UJE.

18. AJYB, 39:29 ff.; “Gottheil, Richard James Horatio,” JE, UJE, DAB, Supplement 2, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):104; Adler, I Have Considered the Days, 3 ff.; “Adler, Cyrus,” JE, UJE, EJ, DAB, Supplement 2, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):54-55; AJYB, 42:23 ff.; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 27-28; ZAW, 9:258.

19. “Heilprin, Michael,” JE, UJE, DAB; Pollak, Michael Heilprin, 79 ff., 227; ZAW, 9:292-93; Jewish People, 4:420; JQR, 45:383-86; “Ehrlich, Arnold Bogumil,” JE, UJE, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):83; AJA, 23:73 ff.; Smith & Jamison, American Religion, 145.

20. Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, 75 ff.; AJA, 10:145; Eli Ginzberg, Keeper of the Law: Louis Ginzberg (Phila., 1966), 59 ff.; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 228, 327-28; Charles E. Hatch, Charles A. Briggs Heresy Trial; Prologue to Twentieth-Century Liberal Protestantism (N.Y., 1969); William R. Hutchison, The Modernist Impulse in American Protestantism (Cambridge, 1976); Isaac M. Wise, Pronaos to Holy Writ (Cincinnati, 1891); Abrahams, Hebraic Bookland, 347 ff.; JQR, 45:381-82; Korn, Marcus Festschrift, 517 ff.; AI, Jan. 9, 1880, p.4, cs.5-6, p.5, c.1; “Hodge, Charles,” DAB.

21. “Buttenwieser, Moses,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):72; Karff, HUC-JIR, 62 ff., 295, 388 ff.; Jewish People, 4:419-20; “Morgenstern, Julian,” UJE; Holy Scriptures, vi; Waxman, Jew. Literature 4:1101; AJYB, 45:50-51; “Margolis, Max Leopold,” JE, UJE, EJ, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):150-51; JQR, 45:392-93, 600; Max Leopold Margolis, Scholar and Teacher (Phila., 1952); Marx, Studies in Jewish History, 418 ff.; Moses Buttenweiser, The Prophets of Israel (N.Y., 1914).

22. “Greenstone, Julius H.,” “Joffe, Joshua Abraham,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):106, 125; “Mendelsohn, Samuel,” JE; I.M. Wise, Cincinnati, to B. Felsenthal, Chicago, Mar. 21, 1879, copy in AJAr; Felsenthal, Bernhard Felsenthal, 43, 45; “Felsenthal, Bernhard,” JE, UJE, DAB; PAJHS, 17:218 ff., 45:124-26; Occ., 20:34-36; Detroit Jewish American, Dec. 27, 1901, p.2, cs.4-5; Philipson, Reform Movement, 349-50; Goldman, Giants of Faith, 85 ff.; Eliassof, German-American Jews, 65-66; EIAJH, 393 ff., 397.

23. “Briggs, Charles Augustus,” “Green, William Henry,” DAB; AJYB, 44:73 ff., 45:50; “Kohut, Alexander,” JE, UJE, DAB; Jewish People, 4:437; PAJHS, 4:225-26.

24. Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 32; “Jastrow, Marcus (Mordecai),” JE, UJE, DAB; PAJHS, 12:181-88, 29:170-73; ZAW, 9:270; JQR, 45:387-88; “Jastrow, Morris Jr.,” UJE, DAB.

25. Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1158 ff.; Jewish People, 3:144; PAJHS, 9:63 ff., 12:139 ff., 54:36-37; “Eisenstein, Judah David,” UJE, EJ; “Revel, Bernard,” UJE, DAB, Supplement 2; “Malter, Henry,” UJE, EJ, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):147-48; AJYB, 28:261 ff.

26. Mielziner, Moses Mielziner, 20 ff., 192-93; American Jews’ Annual for 5646 A.M. (1885-86):Slavery Among Hebrews; “Mielziner, Moses,” JE, UJE, DAB; Karff, HUC-JIR, 300, 318, 324; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1122-23; “Lauterbach, Jacob Zallel,” UJE; Jewish People, 4:426.

27. “Schechter, Solomon,” JE, UJE, EJ, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):181-82; Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 19 ff.; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1116 ff., 1152 ff., 1166, 1168-69; Marx, Studies in Jewish History, 379 ff.; AJYB, 41:35 ff.; “Davidson, Israel,” EJ, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):80; Jewish People, 3:143-44, 4:434; JQR, 45:597; Goodman, Essays on Jewish Booklore, 48-49; “Ginzberg, Louis,” JE, UJE, EJ, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):102.

28. Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1083 ff.; PAJHS, 31:266, 45:125-26; Felsenthal, Das Schulwesen, 33, 39-40, 44; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 211; M. Mayer, Charleston, S.C., to I.L., Phila., March 29, 1859, Leeser Papers, AJAr; “Adler, Felix,” UJE, DAB, Supplement 1; Markens, History, 219; Hirshler, Jews from Germany, 129 ff., 142; AJYB, 45:47 ff.; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, 196-97; American Jews’ Annual for 5647 A.M. (1886-87), 59-60; “Jastrow, Morris, Jr.,” “Popper, William,” “Rosenau, William,” UJE; “Hirsch, Emil Gustav,” JE, DAB; Fein, Baltimore, 229; “Universities,” UJE, 10:371 ff.

29. Meites, Chicago, 131; AI, May 17, 1878, p.4, c.5, Feb. 6, 1880, p.4, cs.4-6; The Rabbinical Literary Association Constitution, (n.d., ca. 1879); American Jews’ Annual for 5647 A.M. (1886-87), 64; “Rabbinical Associations,” UJE; Jew. Com. Reg., 294; Levine, “Am. Jew. Relig. Life in Cincinnati,” 21; JQR, 63:187 ff.; Parzen, Architects, 62; Detroit Jewish News, Feb. 2, 1873, p.2; AJYB, 45:64-65; “American Academy for Jewish Research, The,” UJE, EJ; “Akademie fuer die Wissenschaft des Judenthums in Berlin,” JL.

30. Felsenthal, Das Schulwesen, 29 ff.; Korn, German-Jewish Intellectual Influences; “Galveston,” JE.

CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE

ASPECTS OF JEWISH EDUCATION AND CULTURE, 1860-1920: PART II

  1. Felsenthal, Das Schulwesen, 34; ZAW, 9:294; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1090; Karff, HUC-JIR, 432 ff.; “Deutsch, Gotthard,” JE, UJE, DAB.

  2. Magnus, Outlines of Jewish History, 340 ff.; “Harris, Maurice Henry,” JE, UJE; Heinrich Graetz, Popular History of the Jews, (5 vols., N.Y., 1919).

  3. “Marx, Alexander,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):152; Waxman, Jew;. Literature, 4:1135 ff., 1148-50; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Jan. 22, 1954, p.42; Brooklyn Jewish Center Review, 35(no.25):8-9; Marx’s writings were published in two volumes: Studies in Jewish History and Booklore (N.Y., 1944), and Essays in Jewish Biography (N.Y., 1947); AJYB, 18(1916-1917):68-75; “Jacobs, Joseph,” JE, UJE, DAB, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):123-24; Marx, Studies in Jewish History, 396 ff.; PAJHS, 25:156 ff., 34:303-6; “Kohut, George Alexander,” JE, 7:538, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):130; “Foundations, American Jewish,” UJE ; Rebekah Kohut, His Father’s House: The Story of George Alexander Kohut (New Haven, 1938), 37-38, 42-43; G.A. Kohut, N.Y., to B. Felsenthal, Chicago, April 15, 1897, Felsenthal Papers, AJHS, copy in Marcus Collections.

  4. J.J. Lyons Collections, 5:251-52, AJHSL; “Daly, Charles Patrick,” ACOAB; “Fischel, A.,” JE; Pool, Old Faith, 178 ff., 190; R, no. 425, n.610; PAJHS, 8:135, 32:129 ff.; Smucker, History, 323; AI, Dec. 20, 1861, p.196, cs.3-4; AH, Sept. 22, 1899, pp.611-12; AJHQ, 60:325 ff., 334-35; London Jewish Chronicle, Apr. 5, 1861, p.2, c.1; Bulletin of the New York Public Library, 5(1901):199, sub “Lewin”; Judaism, 3:398; Markens, Hebrews, Preface, 295-96; Lyons Collections in PAJHS, vols.21, 27; Hecht, Epitome of Post-Biblical History, Preface.

  5. “Graetz, Heinrich (Hirsch),” “Historische Commission,” JE; Roth, Bibliotheca, 4, 24; “Historical Societies in the United States,” The Americana; Homer Carey Hockett, The Critical Method in Historical Research and Writing (N.Y., 1955), 230; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 201, 220-223; “Historical Societies,” DAH (1942); Curti, American Thought, 410; JSS, 23:3 ff.; Schappes, JIUS, 143; AH, May 26, 1893, pp.118-19; Kayserling, Christopher Columbus, 1 ff.; Hirshler, Jews from Germany, 141; PAJHS, 19:192, 26:1 ff., 45:102, 49:31; Felsenthal, Bernhard Felsenthal, vi, 70; Menorah, 5:122 ff., 7:192 ff., 252 ff.; PUAHC, 3:2470, 2480.

  6. Morais, Philadelphia, 181-82; PAJHS, 9:7, 14:1 ff.; JQR, 45:434 ff.; Jewish People, 4:446, 452-53; Philipson, Reform Movement, 329 ff.; Eisenstadt, Hakme Yisrael ba-Amerika, 9 ff.; CCARYB, 12:48; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1142-44; Korn, Marcus Festschrift, 225 ff.; Bernheimer, Russian Jew in the U.S., 10 ff.; for histories published before 1920, see PAJHS, 51:97 ff.; Chautauqua Syllabus, copy in Marcus Collections.

  7. “Wiemik, Peter (Peretz),” UJE; PAJHS, 9:8-9, 19:189-93, 29:171, 34:165 ff., 295 ff., 42:451 ff., 56:261 ff.; “Kohler, Max James,” UJE; AJHQ, 58:143 ff.; Papers Presented at the Fifth Annual Session of the Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Held at Atlantic City, N.J., July 7 to July 28, 1901 (Phila., 1902); Berkson, Theories of Americanization, 196-97, 201. Among other writers for the AJHS who were men of scientific calibre were Cyrus Adler and Herbert Friedenwald, once chief of the division of manuscripts of the LC. “Friedenwald,” UJE, 4:449; “Friedenwald, Albert Marx,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):97; Journal of Jewish Bibliography, 4:6 ff.; The American Jewish Historical Society and the American Jewish Community (n.p., n.d.); “American Jewish Historical Society, The,” JE, UJE, EJ; “Oppenheim, Samuel,” UJE.

  8. “Libraries,” DAH, JE; EAH, 611; Menorah, 1:148, 4:293, 394 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 318-19; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 177; Occ., 15:245; Greenebaum, “San Francisco,” 15; Robert L. Samuels, “The Life and Work of Judah David Eisenstein as Reflected Primarily in His Memoirs” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1960), 32; Der Zeitgeist, July 7, 1881, p.227; Eisenstein, Zikhronothai, 35; PAJHS, 56:326; Rischin, Promised City, 209; “America,” JE, 1:502, “New York,” 9:280, “United States,” 12:361, 377; “Book Collectors,” “Shapira, M.W.,” JE; Goodman, Essays on Jewish Bookplates, 78-93, 96-99; “Shapira Fragments,” EJ.

  9. Goodman, Essays on Jewish Bookplates, 96-99, 100 ff.; “New York,” JE, 9:280, “Sulzberger,” 11:585-86, “United States,” 12:361; “Libraries,” UJE, 7:40-42; Studies in Bibliography and Booklore, 9:137 ff.; “Deinard, Ephraim,” UJE, EJ, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):81; PAJHS, 29:163-65, 34:149 ff.

10. “Hamburger, Jacob,” JE, UJE, EJ, (German); JQR, 45:398; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1104, 1191; “Rosenberg, Abraham H.,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):171; Ephraim Deinard, Koheleth America (St. Louis, 1925), Part 2:11, no.31.

11. “Singer, Isidore,” JE, UJE, EJ, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):188-89; CCARYB, 7:ix; JSS, 27:79; Korn, German-Jewish Intellectual Influences, 9-10; “Encyclopedias,” EJ; AJYB, 45:54-55; Elbogen, Cent. of Jewish Life, 350-52; JE, Preface to vol.1.

12. Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 216 ff.; AI, Apr. 9, 1869, p.4, cs.1-2, May 14, 1869, p.2, c.4, Nov. 26, 1869, p.11, c.4, Dec. 3, 1869, p.11, c.2; AJYB, 43:784 ff.; “Jewish Publication Society, The,” JE, UJE, EJ.

13. Die Neuzeit, July 10, 1874, p.236; “Societies, Learned,” EJ; Morais, Philadelphia, 174 ff.; N.Y. Jewish Times, June 9, 1871, p.231, c.1, June 30, 1871, p.276, c.1, July 14, 1871, p.312, c.1, Oct. 20, 1871, p.537, c.2, Oct. 11, 1872, p.643, c.2, Dec. 13, 1872, p.840, cs.1-2; “American Jewish Publication Society,” JE; Wiemik, History, 295; Abrahams, Hebraic Bookland, 283 ff.; “Gutheim, James Koppel,” EJ.

14. PUAHC, 2:1602-4; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” chap. 4; “Cohen, Solomon Da Silva Solis,” JF.; Jewish Publication Society Bookmark, 10, no.4, p.4 ff.; S. Morais, Phila., to M.G. Winstock, Phila., May 7, 1888, copy in Marcus Collections; J.H. Schiff, Badgastein, Germany, to P.O. Cowen, NYC, Aug. 13, 1888, Cowen Collection, AJHSL; Statement of Clifton H. Levy to JRM at New London, CCAR Convention, June 21, 1951; AI, July 8, 1909, p.4, c.3; “Newberger, Morris,” UJE; Morais, Philadelphia, 290-91; Jacobs, “Two Generations of Jewish Literary Labor”; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Apr. 22, 1949, p. 17; “Jewish Publication Society of America, The,” JE, UJE; AJYB, 15(1913-1914):25-187, 26:420 ff. Jonathan Sarna has prepared a history of the Jewish Publication Society of America. I have read the manuscript; it is the definitive study.

15. Judaism at the World’s Parliament of Religions, 327 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 177 ff.; AJYB, 26:420-47; “Jewish Publication Society of America, The,” JE, UJE; EJ; Bloch, Of Making Many Books, 1 ff.; Burder, History of All Religions, 586; PUAHC, 1:40-41; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf”; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 208; Jacobs, “Two Generations of Jewish Literary Labor,” 11; Jewish Book Annual, 15:33 ff.; Korn, Marcus Festschrift, 226-27; Holy Scriptures, Preface.

16. Jewish Publication Society Bookmark, 15(no.1): 4 ff.; AJYB, 13(1911-1912):339; “Jewish Publication Society of America,” JE; Bloch, Of Making Many Books, 37-135; YA, 9:109 ff.

17. “Berkowitz, Henry,” JE, UJE; “Jewish Chautauqua Society,” UJE; Adler, Kansas City, 79 ff.; Berkowitz, The Beloved Rabbi, 130 ff.; PUAHC, 2:1602 ff.; Judaism at the World’s Parliament of Religions, 353 ff.; “Chautauqua Sangerman, “Jewish Chautauqua Society,” 15, 25.

18. Brief, “Jewish Chautauqua Society,” 13 ff.; “Goldberg, Jeanette Miriam,” “Louis, Miriam Dessan,” AJYB, 7(1905-1906):62, 83-84; Judaism at the World’s Parliament of Religions, 355; Sangerman, “Jewish Chautauqua Society,” 9, 11, 13, 16, 19; Berkowitz, The Beloved Rabbi, 175-76, 182-86; E.G. Hirsch, Chicago, to H. Berkowitz, Phila., Mar. 24, 1902, copy in Marcus Collections.

19. “Jewish Chautauqua,” The Americana; Sangerman, “Jewish Chautauqua Society,” 8, 20 ff.; “Chautauqua Society, The Jewish,” JE; Berkowitz, The Beloved Rabbi, 123 ff., 159 ff., 182 ff.; Allan Nevins, The Emergence of Modern America, 1865-1878 (N.Y., 1927), 239-40; Brief, “Jewish Chautauqua Society”; “Jewish Chautauqua Society,” UJE; PAJHS, 42:4; Stanley Peerless, “The Rise and Significance of the Jewish Chautauqua Society, 1893-1939” (HUC term paper, 1974); Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 172-73; JQR, o.s., 12:581 ff.; Judaism at the World’s Parliament of Religions, 353 ff.; Frank J. Adler, “The Jewish Chautauqua Society: A Tree Whose Seedling was First Planted in Kansas City” typescript, copy in Marcus Collections; AH, Nov. 9, 1888, p.2; Curti, American Thought, 595-98; Printed Prospectus for Membership: Department of Jewish Studies: Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle (Phila., 1895); Plaut, Reform Judaism, 317-18; Morais, Philadelphia, 171-72.

20. CCARYB, 39:402 ff.; “Lehrerseminare, Juedische,” JL; Berkowitz, The Beloved Rabbi, 166 ff.; Jewish People, 2:154; Proceedings of the First Conference of the Hebrew Sabbath School Union Held in Detroit, July 9 and 10, 1889 (Cincinnati, 1889); YA, 9:247 ff.

21. JQR, o.s., 12:588; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 80-81, 96-97; Jew. Com. Reg., 451-63; PAJHS, 48:230-31; Isidore David Passow & Samuel Tobias Lachs (eds.), Gratz College Anniversary Volume . . . 1895-1970 (Phila., 1971), 1 ff.; “Gratz College,” JE, UJE; Morais, Philadelphia, 271-73; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:392; Margolis, Jew. Teachers Training Schools, 6 ff.; Goldstein, Brandeis University, 2; PAJHS, 42:9, 16; “Education,” UJE, 3:639-40, “Teachers’ Training Schools,” 10:186; Adler, JTS Semi-Centennial Volume, 121 ff.

22. “Benderly, Samson,” UJE; Jew. Com. Reg., 451-53, 1153 ff.; “Teachers’ Training Schools,” UJE, 10:186; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 97-98; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 74 ff., 84-85; Janowsky, Ed. of Am. Jew. Teachers, 5; Margolis, Jew. Teacher Training Schools, 75, 135 ff., 194-97; Boston Jewish Advocate, Jam. 27, 1955, Section 1, p.2, cs.3-4.

23. Karff, HUC-JIR, 60; PUAHC, 4:3065 ff., 6:5564-65; Blum, Baltimore, 117; “Gamoran, Emanuel,” UJE; Olitzky, “Emanuel Gamoran,” 22 ff.

24. PUAHC, 1:120, 408, 716, 4:3202-3; Orkand, “New York Jewry,” p.17; Goldstein, Brandeis University, 31 ff.; EAH, 588-90; Gartner, Jew. Ed. in U.S., 112-17; Karff, HUCJIR, 61, 72; “Jewish Theological Seminary of America,” JE, UJE ; JSS, 27:77 ff.

25. JSS, 18:131 ff.; Abraham I. Katsh, The Mission of the Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning (Phila., 1967); “Dropsie, Moses Aaron,” UJE, EJ; JQR, 45:599 ff.; PAJHS, 16:193-95, 48:231; Korn, Eventful Years, 188-89; AZJ, Aug. 9, 1901, pp.380-82; Rubenstein, “Dropsie University”; “Gavin, Frank Stanley Bums,” WWW, vol. 1.

26. “Revel, Bernard,” “Yeshiva College,” UJE; AJYB, 43:415 ff.; JQR, 45:596; “Yeshiva University,” EJ; Jewish People, 4:416; PAJHS, 54:5 ff.; Rubenstein, “Dropsie University” 18; Jew. Com. Reg., 1201 ff.

27. “Art among the Ancient Hebrews,” “Art, Attitudes of Judaism Toward,” and the cross references cited, JE; “Auerbach-Levy, William,” “Epstein, Jacob,” “Grossman, Elias Mandel,” “Weber, Max,” UJE; Judaism, 3:444-45; Jewish People, 4:449 ff.

28. Idelsohn, Jewish Music, 321 ff.; Judaism, 3:427 ff.; “Music,” EJ, 12:660 ff.; “Music, Synagogal,” UJE, 8:54; PAJHS, 48:241; “Kaiser, Alois,” “Sparger, William,” UJE; Binder, Jewish Music, 5-6; AH, Dec. 9, 1892, pp. 197-99; Jewish People, 4:451.

29. R, no.494; American Jewish Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 41-42; Idelsohn, Jewish Music, 320, 324-33, 335-36; Jewish People, 3:344 ff.; “Goldfarb, Israel,” “Moses, Isaac S.,” “Stark, Edward,” UJE.

30. Binder, Jewish Music, 7-10; “Jassinowsky, Pinchos,” “Maragowsky, Joseph Samuel (Zeidel Rowner),” “Weisser, Samuel,” UJE; “Music,” EJ, 12:661-62; Idelsohn, Jewish Music, 334-35; “Rosenblatt, Josef,” UJE, WWIAJ, 1926; “Zunser, Eliakum,” DAB ; Jewish People, 3:348 ff., 353 ff., 360.

31. “Bloch, Ernest,” “Birnbaum, Eduard,” UJE; HUCA, 18:397 ff.; Idelsohn, Jewish Music, 474-75; CCARYB, 23:232 ff.; Jewish People, 4:451.

32. Idelsohn, Jewish Music, 316 ff.; “Stark, Edward,” UJE; “Music, Synagogal,” UJE, 8:54-55; “Music,” JE, 9:134-35.

CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO

ASPECTS OF JEWISH EDUCATION AND CULTURE, 1860-1920: PART III

  1. Curti, American Thought, 513 ff.; EAH, 619; Washington Record, 2:22 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 176; “Kleeburg, Minna Cohen,” JE, Birmingham, “Our Crowd”, 313; Hirschler, Jews From Germany, 133; Glanz, The German Jew in America, no. 1138.

  2. PAJHS, 48:240; Judaism, 3:391; “Cohen, Joshua Falk,” UJE; Chomsky, Hebrew, 257, 262-63; Judaism, 3:399 ff.; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 84; EIAJH, 380; Hebraica, supplement to the JM, March 1879, p.1; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 146-47; PUAHC, 3:246 ff.; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, 139; Menorah, 4:61-62; PAJHS, 37:79, no. 170; Korn, Marcus Festschrift, 219 ff.; “Literature, Hebrew,” UJE, 7:95; AI, Dec. 8, 1854, p.175, c.2; Drachman, Neo-Hebraic Literature, 68-69; AH, Jan. 9, 1880, p.90, Jan. 23, 1880, p.114, Feb. 6, 1880, pp.134-35; “Eliassof, Herman,” UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):85; Judaism, 3:399; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1048; PAJHS, 33:127 ff., 134; “Bernstein, Hirsch,” UJE.

  3. Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1048 ff.; HUC Journal, vol.1 and the following; HUCA, 1:177 ff., 225 ff.; Karff, HUC-JIR, 454 ff.

  4. “Eisenstadt, Benzion,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):85; Simon Rawidowicz (ed.), The Chicago Pinkas (Chicago, 1952), 35 ff., 79 ff.; Drachman, Neo-Hebraic Literature, 86 ff., 94 ff.; Korn, Marcus Festschrift, 219 ff. This description of the Union Prayer Book stems from the Orthodox Wheeling, W.V., merchant, Aaron Marcus, who nevertheless permitted his teenage son to enroll in the Hebrew Union College.

  5. Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1048 ff.; PAJHS, 33:127 ff.; Chomsky, Hebrew, 261 ff., 266; “Histadruth, Ivrith,” UJE; Judaism, 3:399 ff.; Jew. Com. Reg., 1214 ff.; JQR, 45:422; Jewish People, 4:308 ff.; Janowsky, American Jew, 125 ff.

  6. Jew. Com. Reg., 1214; PAJHS, 31:127 ff.; “Newspaper, Hebrew,” “North America,” “The Hebrew Press,” EJ; very exceptional is the case of the young American native Reuben Grossman of Chicago who was writing verse as a ten-year old (“Grossman, Reuben,” UJE); Finkelstein, The Jews (1960), 2:916 ff.; Jewish People, 4:308 ff.; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago”; “Eisenstein, Julius (Judah) David,” JE, UJE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):95; “Garsson, Morris,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):101; Shalom Spiegel, Hebrew Reborn (N.Y., 1930); Abraham Solomon Waldstein, The Evolution of Modern Hebrew Literature (N.Y., 1916); “Dolitzky, Menahem Mendel,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):82; Korn, Marcus Festschrift, 219 ff.; “Brainin, Reuben ben Mordecai,” “Histadruth, Ivrith,” “Silkiner, Benjamin Nahum,” UJE; “Hebrew Literature, Modern,” EJ; Drachman, Neo-Hebraic Literature, 69 ff., 86 ff.; AJYB, 22:344 ff.; Janowsky, Ed. of Am. Jew. Teachers, 3; YA, 9:82 ff.; Janowsky, American Jew, 122 ff.; Wiemik, History, 382-83; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1048 ff.; EIAJH, 379 ff.; “Literature, Hebrew,” UJE, 7:95 ff.; JQR, 45:413 ff.; Chomsky, Hebrew, 258 ff.; Judaism, 3:391 ff.

  7. Judaeans, 2:153 ff.; “Goldfaden, Abraham,” “Lippe, B. Hayyim,” JE, UJE, EJ; “Purim Plays,” JE; “Purim-Shpil,” EJ; Jewish People, 4:280-82, 293-94, 300-2; “Hurwitz (Horwitz-Hourwitz-Horowitz-Hourwitch), Moshehish ha-Levi,” “Latteiner, Joseph (Jozef),” LNYL; “Adler,” UJE, 1:85-86; “Horowitz, Moses Halevi,” UJE; Sieger, “Yiddish Theatre,” 171 ff., 196, 280 ff., 338 ff., 358 ff., 528 ff.; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:996 ff.; Hapgood, Spirit of the Ghetto, chap.5; B. Goren, Di Geshikhte fun Idishen Teater (2 vols., n.p., 1918-23), 2:5 ff.

  8. Wiemik, History, 256-59; New York Times, Aug. 1, 1976, p.40, cs.3-4; AJYB, 26:169; Judaism, 3:396 ff.; PAJHS, 33:127 ff.

  9. “Selikovitsch, Goetzel,” DAB; “Press,” EJ, 13:1053 ff.; Rischin, Inventory, 12 ff.; Janowsky, American Jew, 119-20; AJYB, 26:324 ff.

10. “Cahan, Abraham,” UJE; Hapgood, Spirit of the Ghetto, 230 ff.

11. “Zevin, Israel Joseph,” DAB; “Ehrlich, Arnold,” JE. Among the creative writers were B. Gorin, Leon Kobrin, Z. Libin, David Pinski, Israel Joseph Zevin, Abraham Liesen (Walt), Joseph Opatoshu, Solomon Bloomgarden, Z. Levin, C. Zhitlowsky, Isaac A. Hourwich, Gedaliah Bublick. Biographies of most of these writers may be found in the standard Jewish encyclopedias and biographical lexica. “Rosenfeld, Morris,” DAB; “Yehoash,” LNYL; Morris Rosenfeld, Songs from the Ghetto, etc. (Boston, 1898), vi. Other proletarian poets were David Edelstadt, Joseph Bovshover, and Morris Winchevsky, who published the first Jewish socialist periodical in 1884 in England. “Winchevsky, Morris,” DAB; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1004 ff.

12. Jewish People, 4:294 ff.; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1008 ff.; “Yiddish Literature,” EJ; YA, 9:76 ff.; Finkelstein, The Jews(1960), 2:1216 ff.

13. “Cahan, Abraham,” UJE; “Fromenson, Abraham H.,” “Pastor, Rose Harriet,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):99-100, 163; AJYB, 26:165 ff.; “Stokes, Rose Harriet Pastor,” DAB, NAW.

14. Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism, 1690-1940 (N.Y., 1941), 730; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 41; Jewish People, 4:296 ff.; “Yiddish Literature,” EJ; AJYB, 22:344 ff., 352-53; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1008 ff.; Jewish People, 3:204-6, 4:296 ff.; Elbogen, Cent. of Jewish Life, 447-49.

15. “Moisseiff, Leon Solomon,” UJE, WWW, Supplement 2; Judaeans, 2:153-59; Friedman & Gordis, Jewish Life in America, 214 ff.; Finkelstein, The Jews (1960), 2:1208 ff.; Janowsky, American Jew, 118-20; Jewish People, 3:190 ff., 4:269 ff.; “Yiddish Literature,” EJ, 16:822-23; “Literature, Yiddish,” UJE, 7:130 ff., “Periodicals and Press,” 8:453; Rischin, Inventory, 12 ff.; Leo Wiener, The History of Yiddish Literature in the Nineteenth Century (N.Y., 1899); YA, 9:72 ff.; “Soltes, Mordecai,” UJE; Elbogen, Cent. of Jewish Life, 447 ff.; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:964, 996-1047, 1279 ff.

16. “Potocki, Count Valentin,” UJE, EJ; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 40 ff.; Solomon Schindler, Messianic Expectations and Modern Judaism (Boston, 1886), Dissolving Views in the History of Judaism (Boston, 1890); Gutheim, Temple Pulpit, 3 ff.; Levine, Am. Jew. Bibliography, 1 ff.; “American, Judaism in,” JE, 1:517; AJYB, 6(1904-1905):309 ff., 25:204 ff.

17. Wolf, American Jew; [Charles Waldstein], The Jewish Question and the Mission of the Jews (N.Y., 1876), 50, 80-81, 95; “Walston, Sir Charles,” UJE; “Waldstein, Charles,” JE, AJYB, 6(1904-1905):202-3; A.J.G. Lesser, B’akharith Hayamim (In the Last Days) (Chicago, 1897); M. Schlesinger, The Historical Jesus of Nazareth (N.Y., 1876); Isaac M. Wise, A Defence of Judaism versus Proselytizing Christianity (Cincinnati, 1889), 5 ff.; EIAJH, 325 ff.; “Wise, Isaac Mayer,” JE; Krauskopf, Prejudice, 5 ff.; Isaac M. Wise, Judaism and Christianity: Their Agreements and Disagreements (Cincinnati, 1883).

18. Richards, Discourses of Keidansky, 16, 22; “American Judaism,” JE, 1:516-17; PAJHS, 5:207-9; Levine, Am. Jew. Bibliography, nos. 133, 203, 685-86; “Bien, Herman,” UJE; H.M. Bien, Easter Eve or the New Hagodah Shel Pesach (Cincinnati, 1886); H.M. Bien, Purim (Cincinnati, 1889); AJYB, 6(1904-1905):204 ff., 309 ff.

19. “Loveman, Robert,” JE, UJE; “Seixas, Grace (1),” BDEAJ; “Lieberman, Elias,” UJE; PAJHS, 37:203 ff.; Magnus, Outlines of Jewish History, 340 ff.; Allen Lesser, Weave A Wreath of Laurel, etc. (N.Y., 1938), 55 ff.; “Lazarus, Emma,” JE, UJE, EJ, DAB, NAW; “Lazarus, Josephine,” JE, UJE; Janowsky, American Jew, 112-13; Jewish People, 3:231; Morris U. Schappes (ed.), Emma Lazarus: Selections from her Poetry and Prose (N.Y., 1944); Schappes. JIUS, 135-36; Markens, Hebrews, 260-61; New York Times, June 19, 1975, p.33; The Poems of Emma Lazarus (2 vols., Boston, 1888); PAJHS, 37:17 ff., 39:821 ff., 42:83 ff., 45:248 ff.; Dan Vogel, Emma Lazarus (Boston, 1980).

20. Jewish People, 3:220 ff.; Moritz Loth, Our Prospects: A Tale of Real Life (Cincinnati, 1870), 189-90; Joseph Leiser, Canaway and the Lustigs (Cincinnati, 1909); American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 89 ff.; Louis Schnabel, Voegele’s Marriage and Other Tales (Phila., 1892); Martha Wolfenstein, A Renegade and Other Tales (Phila., 1905); “Wolfenstein, Martha,” JE; Bernard Drachman, From the Heart of Israel (N.Y., 1905).

21. Fiedler, Jew in the American Novel, 6; N.Y. Jewish Forum, 24:207 ff.; “Danziger,” “Farjeon,” “Goldsmith, “Lubin,” “Wolf,” AJYB, 8(1906-1907):133, 134, 138, 142; Hermann M. Moos, Mortara: or the Pope and His Inquisition (Cincinnati, 1860); Hermann M. Moos, Hannah (Cincinnati, 1880).

22. Abraham Cahan, The White Terror and the Reds (N.Y., 1901); “Goldsmith, Milton,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):103-4; “Bernstein, Herman,” “Brudno, Ezra S.,” “Cahan, Abraham,” Iliowizi, Henry,” “Moses, Adolph,” UJE; AJYB, 6(1904-1905):130 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 100-2, 321; Mersand, Traditions in American Literature, 83 ff.; “Glass, Montague (Marsden),” WWW, vol.1; Meites, Chicago, 356; “Lubin, David,” AJYB, 8(1906-1907):138; “Oppenheim, James,” UJE; Edna Ferber, Fanny Herself (N.Y., 1917); Fannie Hurst, Humoresque (N.Y., 1920); Kunitz & Haycraft, Twentieth Century Authors, sub “Hurst, Fannie”; Kunitz, Twentieth Century Authors, sub “Ferber, Edna,” “Hurst, Fannie”; “Ferber, Edna,” “Hurst, Fannie,” UJE.

23. Marcus, AJWD, 784 ff.; Marcus, AJW, 119; “Nyburg, Sidney Lauer,” “Yezierska, Anzia,” UJE.

24. Friedman & Gordis, Jewish Life in America, 197 ff.; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:956 ff., 965 ff.; “Altmann, Rebecca Annetta,” “Brudno, Ezra S.,” “Cahan, Abraham,” “Kohn, Annette,” “Wolf, Emma,” “Wolfenstein, Martha,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):56, 71, 72, 129, 208-9; Levine, Am. Jew. Bibliography, 1 ff.; Congress Weekly, Nov. 1, 1954, p.5 ff.; Jewish People, 3:220 ff., 230-31; AJYB, 6(1904-1905):309 ff., 8(1906-1907):130 ff., 25:204 ff., 43:499 ff.; AJA, 11:157 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 89 ff.; “Iliowizi, Henry,” “Wolfenstein, Martha,” JE; Midstream, 4(no.1):15 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 313 ff.; Morris Lieberman, The Use of Fiction in Jewish Religious Education (Cincinnati, 1935), 36 ff.; Rebecca Schneider, Bibliography of Jewish Life in the Fiction of America and England (Albany, 1916); Mersand, Traditions in American Life, 1 ff.; AH, May 4, 1906, p.727; “American Literature On and By Jews,” UJE, 1:262 ff.; “Brudno, Ezra,” “Lieberman, Elias,” “Youth Literature,” UJE; John Higham, Send These to Me: Jews and Other Immigrants in Urban America (N.Y., 1975), 78 ff.; Janowsky, American Jew, 96 ff.; Judaism, 3:408 ff.; Chicago Jewish Forum, 24:207 ff.; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:956 ff., 965 ff.; Deutsch-Amerikanisches Conversations’ Lexikon, sub “Jewish Literature”; Bruno S. Block, “Some Glimpses of American Jewish Life, 1890-1920, etc.” (HUC term paper, 1968), 1 ff.; Baltimore Jewish Comment, Dec. 16, 1908, p.6-7; Menorah, 40:269 ff.

25. Schappes, JIUS, 202; AJYB, 22:344 ff., 23:270 ff.; U.A.H.C. Statistics, 59; “America,” JE, 1:502, “United States,” 12:366, 377; Morais, Philadelphia, 174; “Periodicals and Press,” UJE, 8:452; “Periodicals,” JE; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 186; “Jewish Telegraphic Agency,” UJE, EJ; “Grossman, Meier,” UJE.

26. Detroit Jewish News, Sept. 7, 1973, p.45; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 90; “Periodicals and Press,” UJE, 8:452-53; “Periodicals,” JE, 9:604-8, 612, 615 ff., 624-25.

27. Cowen, Memories of an American Jew, 57 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 268 ff.; Orkand, “New York Jewry,” 1 ff.; Folb, “B’nai B’rith,” 1 ff.; “Periodicals and Press,” UJE, 8:451; AJYB, 22:344 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 291.

28. Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 183; “Sonneschein, Rosa,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):191; “Periodicals,” JE, sub “The Jewish Woman,” “The American Jewess,” “Die Deborah”; Morris A. Kipper, “A Review of the American Jewess” (HUC term paper, n.d.), 1 ff.; Martin P. Beifield, Jr., “A Study of the American Jewess” (HUC term paper, n.d.).

29. AZJ, Oct. 15, 1867, p.842; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 50; CCARYB, 39:405-6; YA, 15:57-58; The Sabbath Visitor, 17:189 ff.; Edward L. Cohn, “The Sabbath Visitor; A Child’s Paper, etc.” (HUC term paper, 1961).

30. Korn, German-Jewish Intellectual Influences, 8, 21, n.31, 22, n.34, 24, n.69; Jonathan Rosenbaum, “Jewish Learning and Scholarship in America in the Years 1843-1869 as Reflected in the Occident” (HUC term paper, 1971), 1 ff.; Wise, Reminiscences, 206-7; Orkand, “New York Jewry,” 2; Wise, World of My Books, 15-16; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 41-42; Markens, Hebrews, 268 ff.; Soifer, “Am. Jew. Ed. and Culture,” 16-17.

31. Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 123-126; Glanz, The German Jew in America, nos. 1839, 1865, 1897; Wallach, “Editorials from the Zeitgeist,” 1 ff.; “National Jewish Monthly, The,” UJE; Markens, Hebrews, 268 ff.; Menorah Journal, 1:Editorial Statement [no pagination]; The Menorah Journal: The One Oasis, AJAr Release, April 1965; Harry K. Danziger, “The Rise of Americanistic Jewish Culture as Reflected in the Menorah Journal, 1915-1919” (HUC term paper, 1962).

32. “Periodicals and Press,” UJE, 8:451-52; Hebrew Review, 2:7 ff.

33. Bruce Ehrmann (trans.), “The History of the Jewish Press in Massachusetts, 1882-1938 by S. Broches” (HUC term paper, 1943), 1 ff.; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 199-200; Rischin, Inventory, 9 ff.; “Press,” EJ, 13:1049 ff.; Orkand, “New York Jewry,” 1 ff.; RA, Oct. 7, 1916, pp.3 ff.; Schappes, JIUS, 84; Markens, Hebrews, 268 ff.; Oberman, “The Reform Advocate of Chicago,” 1 ff.

34. Lyons & De Sola, Jewish Calendar. The Pacific Jewish Annual began to appear in San Francisco in 1897 with Jacob Voorsanger as the editor. It was a dignified publication containing important historical data and some original fiction (RA, May 27, 1916, p.511); Deborah, July 20, 1899, p.5, c.2.

35. American Hebrew Almanac for 5655 (1894-95):19 ff., 2930, 81; Glanz, The German Jew in America, nos.964, 1044, 1878, 1880, 1903; American Jews’ Annual for 5649 A.M. (1889), sub August; Illustrated Hebrew Almanac for 5640 (1879-80) (N.Y., 1879):52, 5641 (1880-81) (N.Y., 1880):20; Levine, “Am. Jew. Relig. Life in Cincinnati,” 7; Oberman, “The Reform Advocate of Chicago,” 29-30; R, no. 135; Lyons & De Sola, Jewish Calendar; “Almanac,” JE; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 197 ff

36. EIAJH, 399; “Ellinger, Moritz,” “Morais, Henry Samuel,” UJE; Elaissof, German-American Jews, 23-24; PAJHS, 31:265-66; “American Hebrew, The,” “Bernstein, Herman,” “Cowen, Philip,” “Lipsky, Louis,” UJE; Louis Lipsky, Selected Works (3 vols., N.Y., 1927); “Lipsky, Louis,” AJYB, 6(1904-1905):143.

37. Note the brevity of the duration of the American periodicals listed in “Periodicals,” JE, 9:616 ff.

CHAPTER TWENTY-THREE

ASPECTS OF JEWISH EDUCATION AND CULTURE, 1860-1920: PART IV

  1. Jew. Ed., 26:40 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 253; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes of Trustees, 6:16, Oct. 31, 1849, AJAr; YA, 15:142; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 82 ff.; PAJHS, 54:33 ff.; JQR, 45:470 ff.; Judaeans.

  2. Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 85 ff., 91-92; “Kansas City,” “Zepin, George,” UJE; Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 2:896-97; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 80, 84 ff., 123-24; Soifer, “Am. Jew. Ed. and Culture,” 1 ff.; Fields, “Cincinnati,” 1 ff.; Rosenberg, Rochester, 110; Levine, “Am. Jew. Relig. Life in Cincinnati,” 1 ff.

  3. PUAHC, 6:5566-67; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 205; Allen, “Reform Judaism,” 9; “Hurwitz, Henry,” UJE; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 295-96; Elbogen, Cent,. of Jewish Life, 446; The Menorah Movement for the Study and Advancement of Jewish Culture and Ideals (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1914), 1 ff.; Jew. Com. Reg., 1211 ff.; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 85 ff.; “Education,” UJE, 3:689-40, “Youth Movements,” 10:616-17; Adler, Kansas City, 84 ff.; Levine, “Am. Jew. Relig. Life in Cincinnati,” 1 ff.; Soifer, “Am. Jew. Ed. and Culture,” 1 ff.; “Kansas City,” UJE; National Jewish Monthly, 83(no.1):14 ff.

  4. Occ., 21:189; for secondary education, see Fierman, “Some Higher Educational Efforts,” 1 ff.; Korn, Eventful Years, 151 ff.; PAJHS, 29:106 ff., 49:24; Felsenthal, Das Schulwesen, 13 ff.; Meites, Chicago, 134-35.

  5. Morais, Philadelphia, 96, 102; Rosenberg, Rochester, 74-75; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 31-32, 123-24; Jew. Ed., 25:37; Soifer, “Am. Jew. Ed. and Culture,” 3; PUAHC, 3:2491-96, 4:3068-69; JQR, o.s., 12:587; Hertz, Education of the Jewish Child, 65, 96 ff.; Hertz, “Reform Jewish Education in Chicago,” 12; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 262; Levine, “Am. Jew. Relig. Life in Cincinnati,” 19.

  6. Soifer, “Am. Jew. Ed. and Culture,” 3; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Mar. 12, 1976, Supplement: 75 Years of Continuity and Change, 11 ff.; PAJHS, 54:5 ff.; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 69, 113, 119, 123-24; Gutstein, Chicago, 240 ff.; Jew. Com. Reg., 371-72, 1153 ff., 1396 ff.; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 84 ff.; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 85-86, 352 ff.; “Young Judaea,” EOZAT, Jew. Ed., 26:46; Berkson, Theories of Americanization, 210-11.

  7. “Youth Literature,” UJE; Cubberley, Public Ed. in U.S., 255; PAJHS, 54:38; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 185.

  8. Jew. Com. Reg., 364; Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 126-27; Shinedling, “Occident Index,” 179-82; Finkelstein, The Jews (1960), 2:1261 ff., 1267 ff.; Friedman & Gordis, Jewish Life in America, 241.

  9. “New York,” JE, 9:286-87; PAJHS, 42:65-67; Jewish People, 2:162; Jew. Com. Reg., 399; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 39; Fierman, “Jewish Education,” 71; YA, 9:249 ff.; Golden & Rywell, Jews in American History, 330-31; “Kohut, George Alexander,” “Kohut, Rebekah,” UJE; JM, May 5, 1865, p.138, c.4.

10. YA, 9:274-75; JQR, n.s., 45:470 ff.; Jew. Com. Reg., 396-97; Gartner, Jewish Ed. in U.S., 104 ff., 118, 125, 135; “New York,” JE, 9:286-87.

11. Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 19-20; Rosenberg, Alexandria, 6; Congress Bi-Weekly, May 25, 1959, pp. 12, 17; U.A.H.C. Statistics, 35: German was taught in the Leavenworth Jewish religious schools. Schools in other towns also taught German; “Memphis,” UJE, 7:463; Tennessee Inventory, 17, no.5; Louisiana Inventory, 98 ff.; Heller, Temple Sinai, 40; “Richmond,” JE, 10:408; Washington Record, 2:22 ff.; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 164; Jewish People, 2:154; Michigan History, 52:222-25; Hertz, “Reform Jewish Education in Chicago”; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 129 ff.; “Baltimore,” JE, 2:480, UJE, 2:56; Fein, Baltimore, 122; JQR , 45:451 ff.; Louis Joseph Sherrill, Presbyterian Parochial Schools, 1846-1870 (New Haven, 1932); Tarshish, “American Judaism,” xxxviii, n.620; Fierman, “Jewish Education,” 73 ff., 78, 84, 88.

12. Jew. Ed., 25:36 ff.; Fierman, “Jewish Education,” 195-97; Congress Bi-Weekly, May 25, 1959, p.12; Felsenthal, Das Schulwesen, 14-15; Korn, Marcus Festschrift, 176-78; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 13 ff.

13. Jewish Year Book, 1915, 254; JM, Apr. 8, 1859, p.106, cs.1-3; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 37-38; YA, 9:253 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 293 ff.; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 449-84; Fierman, “Jewish Education,” 60 ff.; Josiah Cohen Scrapbook, 30-49, copy in AJAr.

14. JQR, 45:473; Jewish People, 2:158; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 75, 95; PAJHS, 54:7-8; Jew. Com. Reg., 394-95; Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 128 ff.; Janowsky, Ed. of Am. Jew. Teachers, 3; YA, 9:274; Gutstein, Chicago, 240 ff.; JQR, 45:471-72.

15. YA, 9:276 ff., 281, 305; Contemporary Jewish Record, 6:261 ff.; Jew. Com. Reg., 373; Schappes, JIUS, 167; Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 128 ff.; Jewish People, 2:144 ff., 4:302-4; Michigan Jewish History, 5(no.2):4 ff.; Jew. Ed., 8:35-41; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 104 ff., 107 ff.; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 113 ff.

16. Gartner, Jew. Ed. in U.S., 157 ff.; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 104 ff.; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 113 ff.; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 93 ff., 332 ff.; Jewish People, 4:302 ff.; Contemporary Jewish Record, 6:261 ff.; YA, 9:118.

17. “Education, Jewish,” EJ, 6:436 ff.; Greenebaum, “San Francisco,” 78; Grinstein, New York City, 231 ff.; PAJHS, 29:106-8, 129 ff.; Jew. Com. Reg., 354, 864, 888-89; U.A.H.C. Statistics, 57; Fifty Years’ Work of the Hebrew Education Society of Philadelphia, 1848-1898 (Phila., 1899), 90 ff.; “Hebrew Education Society of Philadelphia,” JE; EIAJH, 407 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 293 ff.; YA, 9:247 ff., 271 ff.; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 58, 129 ff.; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 137 ff.; Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 128 ff.

18. Fleishaker, “Illinois-Iowa Jewish Community,” 208; Finkelstein, The Jews (1960), 2:1267 ff.; Munsey’s Magazine, 10:60 ff.; Boston Jewish Advocate, Jan. 27, 1955, Magazine Supplement, p.22; YA, 9:253-54, 15:140-41; References for traditional Talmud Torahs or Afternoon Schools: PAJHS, 29:75 ff.; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 49, 51, 56 ff., 62, 179; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 59 ff., 119; “Education, Jewish,” EJ, 6:437-441; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 144, 158; Jew. Com. Reg., 373; Jewish People, 2:158, 160 ff.; Rothschild, Atlanta, 17-18; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 69-70; Spiro, “Jewish Religious Life on the Pacific Coast,” 13 ff.; Washington Record, 3:43 ff.; Michigan Jewish History, 1(no.2):15 ff., 5(no.2):4 ff.; Gartner, Jew. Ed. in U.S., 104 ff.; JM, Apr. 8, 1859, p.106, cs. 1-3; Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 128 ff.

19. References for the modern Talmud Torah before 1910: Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 81-82, 472-84; Fierman, “Religious Factors,” 71; PAJHS, 42:10 ff.; Janowsky, Ed. of Am. Jew. Teachers, 4 ff.; Michigan Jewish History, l(no.2):15 ff.; Jewish People, 2:159; Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 128; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 63 ff.; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 94 ff., 107 ff.

20. AJYB, 7(1905-1906):40; Stokes, Church and State, 2:679; JM, May 28, 1897, p.4, cited in Orkand, “New York Jewry,” 11, 13; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 99-128; Jewish People, 2:159-62; Jew. Ed., 21:44 ff.; PAJHS, 42:11-14, 36-37; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 67 ff.; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 59 ff.; Gartner, Jew. Ed. in U.S., 118 ff., 138-48; Friedman & Gordis, Jewish Life in America, 233-34; Gannes, Central Community Agencies, 192-93, 202 ff.; “Berkson, Isaac B.,” “Chipkin, Israel S.,” “Dushkin, Alexander,” “Gamoran, Emanuel,” “Honor, Leo Lazarus,” UJE; Olitzky, “Emanuel Gamoran,” 22 ff.; AJA, 21:118 ff.; Jew. Com. Reg., 371-72.

21. Fierman, “Religious Factors,” 114; PAJHS, 42:10 ff.; Korey, “Jew. Ed. in Chicago,” 108-10; YA, 15:142-43; Brickner, “Jew. Com. in Cin.,” 162 ff.; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 65 ff.; Jewish People, 2:162 ff.; Jew. Com. Reg., 45-73; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 90 ff.; Berkson, Theories of Americanization, 188-223; Norman M. Cohen, “The Early History of the Hebrew Institute of Pittsburgh” (HUC term paper, 1974), 1 ff.

CHAPTER TWENTY-FOUR

DENOMINATIONS WITHIN AMERICAN JUDAISM, 1897–1920

  1. Hertz, Authorized Daily Prayer Book, 248 ff.; Rothkoff, Bernard Revel, 3 ff.; “America, Judaism in,” JE; Minnesota History, Summer, 1973, 213 ff., copy in Marcus Collections; AJA, 7:197 ff.

  2. Jew. Com. Reg., 1328 ff.; Breck, Colorado, 90-92; Uchill, Colorado, 213-15; Meites, Chicago, 534; “New York,” JE, 9:288; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 193-95; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 154 ff.; Stiffman, “Baltimore,” 93 ff.

  3. Ginsberg, Petersburg, 65 ff.; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 164-65; R. & E., Charleston, 210, 213-14; Trachtenberg, Easton, 204 ff.; Rosenberg, Rochester, 163 ff.; Uchill, Colorado, 213-15; Gutstein, Chicago, 139 ff.; Breck, Colorado, 90-92; Wiernik, History, 283-84; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 192-93; AJHQ, 55:364 ff.

  4. PAJHS, 44:129 ff.; “Joseph, Jacob,” UJE; AJHQ, 44:129 ff., 55:364 ff.

  5. “Margolies, Moses Sebulon,” EJ, AJYB, 5(1903-1904):78-79; Eisenstadt, Hakme Yisrael be-Amerika, 73; Rothkoff, Bernard Revel, 15, 73 ff.; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:405; Wiernik, History, 277 ff.; Gutstein, Chicago, 130 ff.; Baron Festschrift, 420; PAJHS, 44:129 ff.; AJHQ, 55:364 ff.; Meites, Chicago, 534; “Pittsburgh,” JE; Wolfe, Iowa, 118-19; Menorah, 35:253-54.

  6. AJA, 25:7; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:405 ff.; AJHQ, 55:364 ff., 382-83; Waxman, Conservative Judaism, 8; JJOS, 9:234; AJYB, 40:41 ff.; “Mendez, Henry Pereira,” DAB, Supplement 2; “Mendez, Henry (Chaim) Pereira,” UJE.

  7. “Conferences, Rabbinical,” JE; “Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America,” UJE, EJ; Janowsky, American Jew, 212 ff.; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 314 ff.; Goldstein, Cent, of Jud. in NYC, 255; JJOS, 9:236-37; AJHQ, 55:364 ff.; AJYB, 56:142 ff.; Glazer, American Judaism, 78.

  8. Jew. Com. Reg., 330 ff., 1180 ff.; Martin, Judaism, 406-7; Rothkoff, Bernard Revel, 3 ff.; Janowsky, American Jew, 34 ff.; JJOS, 9:230-81; Blau, Judaism in America, 53-54; Korn, Marcus Festschrift, 235 ff.; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:409; “Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada,” EJ.

  9. Rosenthal, Des Moines, 73 ff.; Breck, Colorado, 87 ff.; Meites, Chicago, 486 ff., 489, 494 ff., 532 ff.; Finkelstein, The Jews(1949), 1:404 ff., 424-25; Learsi, Jews in America, 206 ff.; “Margolies, Moses Sebulon,” EJ; “Drachman, Bernard,” “Klein, Phillip,” “Levinthal, Bernard Louis,” “Revel, Bernard,” “Young Israel, National Council of,” UJE; AJHQ, 55:364 ff., 57:153 ff.; AJYB, 5(1903-1904):69; Jew. Com. Reg., 1180 ff.; Stiffman, “Baltimore,” 90 ff.

10. Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 161 ff.; Plaut, Jews in Minnesota, 202-3; “Ashinsky, Aaron Mordecai Halevi,” UJE, EJ; AJYB, 5(1903-1904):43; Wiernik, History, 282; Detroit Jewish News, Aug. 8, 1975, p.32, entire; Eisenstadt, Hakme Yisrael be-Amerika, 14; Samuel N. Gottlieb, Sefer Ohole-Schem, etc. (Pinsk, Russia, 1912), 293 ff.

11. Janowsky, American Jew. 34 ff.; Wiernik, History, 283; Goldman, Giants of Faith, 160 ff.; Rothkoff, Bernard Revel, 17; “Levinthal, Bernard Louis,” UJE; Levinthal, Message of Israel, 129 ff., 135, 145, 152-54, 161, 167-69, 172-73, 178-81.

12. Levinthal, Message of Israel, 152-53; CCARYB, 41:316 ff.; Rothkoff, Bernard Revel, 33 ff., 43 ff., 60; AJYB, 76:215.

13. Eisenstadt, Hakme Yisrael be-Amerika, 38 ff.; “Willowski, Jacob David ben Ze’ev,” EJ; Parzen, Architects, 63; Jew. Com. Reg., 1180 ff.; Levinthal, Message of Israel, 194; AJHQ, 55:364 ff.; Rothkoff, Bernard Revel, 11 ff., 16; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 72 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 214; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 265-67; Breck, Colorado, 90-92; PAJHS, 44:175; Trachtenberg, Easton, 198; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 210-11; Brooks, Jews in Utah & Idaho, 182-83; Rosenberg, Rochester, 183; Uchill, Colorado, 216-18; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 199.

14. Hudson, Am. Prot., 143, 147-49; Hudson, Religion in America, 327 ff.; Palmer, Modern World, 606; Laski, American Democracy, 286 ff., 301, 304, 310; Commager, The American Mind, 177-78, 194-95; Sullivan, Our Times, 1:38-39; Slosson, The Great Crusade, 430, 433; Faulkner, Social Justice, 210; Schneider, Religion, 140-41.

15. Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:412; Rosenberg, Rochester, 184.

16. Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:389 ff.; Proceedings, JTSA, 1900, 38; PAJHS, 10:175-76, 11:199-201; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 331-32; Deborah, new series, May 1, 1902, pp. 138-39; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 486; AJYB, 19(1917-1918):412-13; Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 2:1150; Weinberg, “Conservative Movement.”

17. Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 2:875 ff., 881-82; Orkand, “New York Jewry,” 17 ff.; “New York” JE, 9:281; Weinberg, “Conservative Movement”; Glazer, American Judaism, 75; AH, Apr. 4, 1902, pp.597 ff., Mar. 7, 1902, pp.484-85.

18. Glazer, American Judaism, 58-59; Davis, Conservative Movement, 321; Goldman, “Conservative Movement,” i-ii; PUAHC, 5:3865-72, 4302 ff.; “Jewish Theological Seminary of America,” JE; AH, May 25, 1900, pp.36-40, June 1, 1900, pp.69 ff.; Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 1:881-82; CCARYB, 8:81-90; Karff, HUC-JIR, 49 ff.; Orkand, “New York Jewry,” 17-18.

19. Proceedings, JTSA, 1900, pp.13-14, 37; Weinberg, “Conservative Judaism”; JSS, 25:249 ff., 274-75, 286; London Jewish Chronicle, Apr. 11, 1902, p.19, c.1; Kohler, HUC and Other Addresses, 323 ff.; AJHQ, 53:44 ff.; Boston Jewish Advocate, Oct. 14, 1965, p.3; PAJHS, 25:177; Parzen, Architects, 30; Orkand, “New York Jewry,” 17 ff.; AH, Nov. 11, 1904, p.684, Oct. 21, 1904, p.599; Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 167, 171, 184.

20. Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:389 ff.; “Jewish Theological Seminary of America,” JE, UJE; Jewish Theological Seminary Academic Bulletin, 1975-76, 23; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 323-26; AH, Apr. 4, 1902, pp.599-600; Jewish Theological Seminary of America Documents, Charters, and By-Laws (N.Y., 1903), 5 ff., 12 ff.; Adler, I Have Considered the Days, 66, et passim; Parzen, Architects, 79 ff.; Milton Berger et al., Roads to Jewish Survival, etc. (N.Y., 1967), 33 ff.; AJYB, 42:23 ff.

21. Blau, Modern Varieties of Judaism, 87; JSS, 27:94-95; Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 2:875-81; Parzen, Architects, 108; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 335-51; Rothkoff, Bernard Revel, 49.

22. Waxman, Conservative Judaism, 11; Feingold, Zion in America, 182; Jewish Theological Seminary Students Annual, 1916 (N.Y., 1916), 3:44 ff.; Elovitz, Birmingham, 91 ff.; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 213-14; Shore & Bernstein, Adath Jeshurun, Philadelphia, 25 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 99 ff.; Levinthal, Message of Israel, 206-17; “Levinthal, Israel Herbert,” UJE; Adler, Kansas City, 139; Silverman, Hartford Jews, 33, 206.

23. Stiffman, “Baltimore,” 87-90; Uchill, Pioneers, 209-10; Helen Kohn Hennig, The Tree of Life: Fifty Years of Congregational Life . . . Columbia, S.C. (Columbia, S.C., 1945), 15-33; Silverman, Hartford Jews, 16-17, 333; Morais, Philadelphia, 99 ff.; Shore & Bernstein, Adath Jeshurun, Philadelphia, 25 ff.; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 227, 260-74; Meites, Chicago, 485, 493; Trachtenberg, Easton, 207-8; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 99-100, 162 ff.; Plaut, Jews in Minnesota, 194 ff., 201; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 270, 272, 309; Grad, “Congregation Shaarey Zedek,” 42 ff.; Waxman, Conservative Judaism, 3 ff.; Rosenberg, Rochester, 169-72; Feingold, Zion in America, 183 ff.; Weizenbaum, “Pittsburgh,” 5 ff.; Blau, Modern Varieties of Judaism, 112-13; Blau, Judaism in America, 53-54; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 103 ff.; Idelsohn, Jewish Music, 335-36; Menkus, Meet the American Jew, 44 ff.; Mishkan Tefila, Newton, Mass., 15 ff., 71, 75, 98.

24. Facts About Fictions, no.28; Glazer, American Judaism, 58, 77; United Synagogue Report (1913), entire, (1915), pp.924; Karp, United Synagogue, 9-10, 16, 19-24, 28-29; JSS, 27:98-99; Waxman, Conservative Judaism, 8, 25; Parzen, Architects, 62, 71, 113 ff., 225, n.44; JSS, 27:98 ff.; Schappes, JIUS, 171; Learsi, Jews in America, 205-6.

25. Boston Jewish Advocate, Oct. 14, 1965, sec. 2, p.3, c.6; “United Synagogue of America, The,” UJE; Meites, Chicago, 547 ff.; “Judaism,” UJE, 6:243 ff.; Karp, United Synagogue, 33 ff.; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 237 ff.

26. “Rabbinical Assembly of America,” UJE; Parzen, Architects, 62, 200-1; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:430-31.

27. Joseph Hirsch, “Revelation in Solomon Schechter’s Thought: Schechter and the Historical Approach” (HUC term paper, n.d.); Alexander Marx, Essays in Jewish Biography (Phila., 1947), 229 ff.; Memorial Addresses Delivered on the Occasion of the Second Anniversary of the Death of Dr. Solomon Schechter, Nov. 26, 1917 at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America (N.Y., 1917); Glazer, American Judaism, 75 ff.; Schechter, Seminary Addresses, vii-viii, 13, 23; Blau, Modern Varieties of Judaism, 89 ff., 95 ff.; Conservative Judaism, 16(nos.2-3):51 ff.; Gaustad, Relig. Hist. of America, 224; Parzen, Architects, 26 ff., 34, 39, 45, 55, 57, 69 ff.; Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 374 ff.; “Judaism,” UJE, 6:243 ff.; JSS, 25:249 ff., 271, 27:75 ff.; Bamberger, Judaism, 353; Martin, Judaism, 404; Friedman, What is Conservative Judaism, 43 ff.; AJYB, 56:137 ff.; Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 281 ff.; Levinthal, Message of Israel, 198-99; Noveck, Great Jewish Personalities, 135 ff., 150 ff.; Robert Gordis, Jewish Tradition in the Modern World: Conservation and Renewal (Syracuse, 1965).

28. AH, Dec. 28, 1906, pp.191-94; Schechter, Seminary Addresses, 91 ff.; Adler, JTS Semi-Centennial Volume, 62 ff.; Parzen, Architects, 33, 52; JSS, 25:249 ff., 252; Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 51 ff., 315 ff., 325 ff., 331; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 268 ff.

29. JSS, 27:83-87, 94-95; Parzen, Architects, 50-51; Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 207, 211, 290-91, 302-3; AH, Sept. 30, 1904, p.516, Dec. 8, 1905, p.71; Weinberg, “Conservative Judaism”; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 433; Schechter, Seminary Addresses, 95-96; Levinthal, Message of Israel, 198-99.

30. Kohler, HUC and Other Addresses, 323 ff.; Bamberger, Judaism, 353; Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 43, 188, 191 ff., 201 ff., 336; CCARYB, 20:155; The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Biennial Report, 1902-1904 (N.Y., 1906): 60 ff.

31. Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 215; PAJHS, 25:177 ff.; Kohler, HUC and Other Addresses, 323 ff.; Berman, “Presidencies of Kohler and Schechter,” 79; Simon, Israel Zangwill, 67.

32. Minutes of Adas Israel of Cincinnati, 1910-1920, AJAr; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 103-5; Parzen, Architects, 128 ff.; Commentary, 62(no.5):44 ff.; Conservative Judaism, 19(no.4):38 ff.; PAJHS, 42:91 ff.

33. Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:430-31; Parzen, Architects, 202-5.

34. Martin, Judaism, 404-5; Janowsky, American Jew, 214 ff.; Blau, Judaism in America, 60 ff.; Blau, Modern Varieties of Judaism, 108, 112, 118; Boston Jewish Advocate, Oct. 14, 1965, sec. 2, p.3; Waxman, Conservative Judaism, 31 ff.; Minnesota History, 43(no.6):220; JQR, 45:334 ff.; Robert Gordis, Understanding Conservative Judaism (N.Y., 1978), 216 ff.; Parzen, Architects, 126-27; PAJHS, 42:91 ff.; AJYB, 56:128 ff.; Isidore Epstein, Judaism (London, 1968), 297; Bamberger, Judaism, 354; Menkus, Meet the American Jew, 47 ff.; Reform Judaism: Essays by HUC Alumni (Cincinnati, 1949), 110 ff.; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 811 ff.; Waxman, Jew. Literature, 4:1170-71; Edward A. Nudelman & Zalmen Slesinger, The Jew in America (2 vols., N.Y., 1954), 2:127-29; Commentary, 62:44-47; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:403; Judaism, 8:84 ff.; Goldman, “Conservative Movement,” 116 ff.; Friedman, What is Conservative Judaism, 35 ff.; Sklare, Conservative Judaism, 19 ff.; Conservative Judaism, 13(no.2):46 ff.

35. United Synagogue Report, (1913), entire, (1915), pp.32 ff.; Judaism, 8:84 ff.; Menkus, Meet the American Jew, 51 ff.; Meites, Chicago, 638 ff.; AJYB, 56:137 ff.; Janowsky, American Jew, 49 ff.; Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 192, 213; Waxman, Conservative Judaism, 14 ff.; Karp, United Synagogue, 37, 40; Facts About Fictions, no.28; “New York City,” UJE, 8:193; Parzen, Architects, 102 ff., 110 ff., 126-27.

36. “America, Judaism in,” JE, 1:515-16; AJYB, 5(1903-1904):50-51; Berman, “Presidencies of Kohler and Schechter,” i–ii, 66-67; United Synagogue Report (1913); Facts About Fictions, no.28; Hudson, Religion in America, 331 ff.; “Judaism,” UJE, 6:243 ff.; Waxman, Conservative Judaism, 8, 34-35; Karp, United Synagogue, 12; “Jewish Theological Seminary of America, The,” EJ; JJOS, 9:238; Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 199; PAJHS, 14:1-4, 42:106-7; Views on the Synod, 144; Shore & Bernstein, Adath Jeshurun, Philadelphia, 25 ff.; Neusner (ed.), Understanding American Judaism, 2:247 ff.; “America, Judaism in,” JE.

37. PUAHC, 5:4684.

38. “Zepin, George,” UJE; PUAHC, 5:3957, 3985 ff., 4268, 4302 ff., 4684 ff.; Shapiro, “Reform Judaism”; PUAHC, vols.5-7 treat in detail of the work of the Union, 1898-1911; The Thrilling Story of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (N.Y., 1954), broadside, Marcus Collections. This appears in Detroit Temple Beth-El Bulletin, Feb. 11, 1955; CCARYB, 15:247 ff.; “Reform Judaism from the Point of View of the Reform Jew “JE; Allen, “Reform Judaism,” 1 ff.; Cogdell, “American Reform Judaism,” 1 ff.

39. Rarff, HUC-JIR, 61, 75; CCARYB, 11:36, 23:25, 39-40, 198 ff.; Menorah, 38(no.1):51; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, xii ff., 1-7, 14-19; “Rabbinical Associations,” UJE; Organizational Statement of the Eastern Council of Reform Rabbis, April 22, 1912, copy in AJAr; “Conferences, Rabbinical,” JE; Shapiro, “Reform Judaism”.

40. Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 5-7, 46 ff.; Shapiro, “Reform Judaism”; Philipson, Reform Judaism, 367 ff.; Union Hymnal (Cincinnati, 1940), v; AJYB, 42:210-11; CCARYB, 15:247-48, 17:108 ff., 18:39, 19:255-56; Kohler, Studies, 549; Philipson, My Life, 202.

41. “Rosenau, William,” UJE; Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 350-51; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 212; Goldman, “Conservative Movement”; Silverman, “William Rosenau,” 1 ff.; Cahn, Baltimore, 37 ff., 47-50; PAJHS, 42:102.

42. Jew. Com. Reg., 72; “Magnes, Judah Leon,” EJ, EOZAI; Rischin, Promised City, 242-43; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:340, 400, 425; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 187, 228 ff.; Glazer, American Judaism, 46, 50; JSS, 23:261 ff.; PUAHC, 4:5246; Cohen, American Jewish Committee, 8 ff.

43. CCARYB, 22:229, 28:117 ff., 29:74 ff.; “Gries, Moses J.,” UJE; Daniel Jeremy Silver, Cleveland, to JRM, Oct. 26, 1976, copy in AJAr; Eisenberg, Eyewitnesses to American Jewish History, 3:71 ff.; New England Quarterly, 23:453 ff.; “Fleischer, Charles,” WWIAJ, 1926; Commentary, 17:557 ff.; Mann, Temple Israel, 45 ff.; Glazer, American Judaism, 49; Morris Ullman biography in Abe L. Nebel papers, copy in Marcus Collections.

44. RA, Mar. 27, 1891, p.90, cs.2-3, p.91, cs.1-2, Aug. 28, 1891, p.18, c.2, Apr. 20, 1895, p.135, c.3, p.136, c.1, Jan. 30, 1915, p.783, entire; “Chicago,” UJE, 3:140, 144; Markens, Hebrews, 281-82; AJA, 4:66 ff., 6:151 ff.; Martin, Judaism, 294, 299-300; Albert Plotkin, “Reform Judaism of Emil G. Hirsch as Reflected in the Reform Advocate” (HUC term paper, 1945); Kohler, Studies, 544 ff.; Kaul, Radical Judaism, 16 ff.; Levy, Reform Judaism, 65 ff.; Hirsch, Emil G. Hirsch, 3 ff., 30 ff.

45. Hirsch, Emil G. Hirsch, 32 ff.; Nodel, The Ties Between, 84-97; Conversation with Rabbi Clifton Harby Levy, at CCAR Conference, New London, Conn., June 21, 1951, Marcus Collections; Polier & Wise (eds.), Stephen Wise, 79-80; Wise, Challenging Years, 82 ff.; JSS, 27:84-85; Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 2:831 ff.; Louis Lipsky, A Gallery of Zionist Profiles (N.Y., 1956), 147 ff.; AH, Feb. 16, 1906, pp.402-3.

46. Wise, Challenging Years, 82 ff., 101 ff.; Rischin, Promised City, 241 ff.; Colton, “American Jewry, 1901-1910,” 26-27; The Words of Wise (n.p., n.d.); Fortieth Anniversary: Free Synagogue . . . in the City of New York, (1907-1947); Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:400; Voss, Stephen S. Wise and John Hayes Holmes, 34 ff., 40 ff., 53 ff.; Polier & Wise (eds.), Stephen Wise, 119 ff.; “Wise, Stephen Samuel,” DAB, Supplement 4.

47. Polier & Wise (eds.), Stephen Wise, 119 ff., 173 ff.; Carl Hermann Voss, Stephen S. Wise: Servant of the People (Phila., 1969), 91-92; Stephen S. Wise on the Freedom of the Jewish Pulpit, AJA release March 1964, copy in AJAr; “Wise, Stephen Samuel,” DAB, Supplement 4; Wise, Challenging Years, 99, 145; Analyticus, Jews Are Like That, 86 ff.

48.Eisenberg, Eyewitnesses to American Jewish History, 3:71 ff.; Isaac W. Bernheim, The Reform Church of American Israelites (N.Y., 1921); Free Synagogue Pulpit [S.S. Wise], 6, no. 10; CCARYB, 22:245, 28:141-44; AJYB, 47:756, 48:646; PAJHS, 28:39, 41-43; History of the Jews of Louisville, Kentucky (New Orleans, n.d.), 33-35; Stanley Feldstein, The Land That I Show You (N.Y., 1979), 243.

49. CCARYB, 30:16, 26; Changing Patterns, 125 ff., 130; Laski, American Democracy, 285-86; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 434; Commager, The American Mind, 165 ff.: Neusner (ed.), Understanding American Judaism, 2:12 ff.; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 151 ff.; Schneider, Religion, 123 ff., 154.

50. Anthony D. Holz, “The Views of David Philipson” (HUC term paper, 1966); “Doctor Landsberg Comes to Rochester: 100 Years of Reform at B’rith Kodesh,” sermon by Philip S. Bernstein, Rochester, Nov. 6, 1970, 1 ff., AJAr; Westman, “Hyman G. Enelow,” 1 ff.; “Enelow, Hyman Gerson,” DAB, Supplement 1; Mann, Temple Israel, 84 ff.

51. Joseph Krauskopf, The Saturday- and Sunday-Sabbath (Kansas City, 1888); Joseph Krauskopf, The Service Manual (2nd ed., Phila., 1892); Blood, Joseph Krauskopf, 13, 51, 107-8, 162, 209, 235-41; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 53-54, 65-81, 98, 116 ff., 118-30, 136-37, 151 ff.; Levinthal, Message of Israel, 145-46; Annes, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 38; HUCA, 20:617 ff.; AJYB, 26:420-47; Barry S. Kogan, “The Mind of Rabbi J. Leonard Levy” (HUC term paper, 1969); “Levy, Joseph Leonard,” DAB; Morais, Philadelphia, 97.

52. PAJHS, 40:39; Karff, HUC-JIR, 49-54.

53. Levy, Reform Judaism, 69-70; Plaut, Jews in Minnesota, 186 ff.; PAJHS, 49:249-50; HUCA, 20:632-34; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 151 ff.; Kohler, Studies, 325 ff., 444; Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 284; Matz, “Theological Developments in American Reform,” 97-98; Solomon B. Freehof, What is Reform Judaism (Popular Tracts in Judaism, N.Y., n.d.); Kohler Festschrift, 22-24; Martin Judaism, 2:399; Karff, HUC-JIR, 55-56; HUCA, 1:8 ff.

54. Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 286 ff.; Shapiro, “Reform Judaism”; “Conferences, Rabbinical,” JE, 4:216 ff.; Tribune of Rome (Ga.), May 3, 1900, Marcus Collections; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 199 ff.; Jewish People, 4:114 ff., 119-20; Podet, “Intellectual Outlook”, 83-85; Levy, Reform Judaism, 34, 63-66, 85-86; Minister’s Handbook (CCAR, N.Y., 1917), 22 ff., 32 ff.; H.G. Enelow, What Do Jews Believe? (Popular Tracts in Judaism, N.Y., n.d.); CCARYB, 7:64, 11:106 ff., 18:62 ff., 22:31-32.

CHAPTER TWENTY-FIVE

ASPECTS OF AMERICAN JEWISH RELIGIOUS LIFE, 1897–1920: PART I

  1. Blau, Modern Varieties of Judaism, 102-3; AH, Jan. 13, 1899, pp.368-74; CCARYB, 11:104 ff.

  2. CCARYB, 9:199-200, 12:37, 13:25-26, 91 ff., 185-308, 319-38, 15:94, 110-11, 126, 16:225-30; Levy, Reform Judaism, 6667, 109 ff.; Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 294 ff.; Eichhorn, “Creedal Formulations,” 52-53, 68 ff.; AJYB, 10(1908-1909):237-38; PUAHC, 5:4713-14, 6:4817, 5779-81; Forty-First Annual Report, UAHC, 1915 (Cincinnati, 1915), 7706 ff., 7718 ff.; Matz, “Theological Developments in American Reform Judaism”; Karol, “Reform, 1897-1910,” 7 ff.; Colton, “American Jewry, 1901-1910,” 17; Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 298; Views on the Synod; “Synod,” JE; there is material on the synod in CCARYB, vols. 10, 13-16; Blau, Modern Varieties of Judaism, 103; AH, Dec. 12, 1879, p.38, Mar. 2, 1894, p.517, Jan. 13, 1899, pp.370-74; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 200 ff.; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 22 ff., 216 ff.; Kohler Festschrift, 19-20; Shapiro, “Reform Judaism,” 20-21.

  3. Eichhorn, “Creedal Formulations,” 78; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 278 ff.; Kohut, Autobiography, 80; CCARYB, 24:235-38; Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 294 ff.; Cohen, American Jewish Committee, 3 ff.

  4. CCARYB, 9:11-12, 14:193-99, 24:203 ff.; AH, Jan. 13, 1899, pp.373-74.

  5. Stevens & Glazer (eds.), CCAR Resolutions, 48; CCARYB, 14:32, 120, 15:111, 18:52 ff., 22:101 ff., 23:121 ff., 152, 24:132 ff., 257-58, 25:120 ff.; Wucher, “Presidential Addresses,” 21; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 114-18; Adler, Kansas City, 99; Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 923 ff., 928 ff., 933-34; Where We Stand, 7, 9, 14; Philipson, My Life, 280 ff.; Annes, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 107; Rothschild, Atlanta, 68-69; Edwin Austin Avery (ed.), Laws Applicable to Immigration and Nationality (Washington, D.C., 1953), 325.

  6. AJHQ, 58:316 ff., 328-29; Annes, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 112 ff.; Beth Ahabah, Richmond, 39; CCARYB, 19:163; Charles F. Aked, N.Y., to Isidore Singer, N.Y., June 18, 1908, Oscar Straus Papers, LC.

  7. AJHQ, 58:314-15; Gottheil, Gustav Gottheil, 115 ff., 145; “America, Judaism in,” JE, 1:517; Rosenberg, Rochester, 192-93; Chyet, Lives and Voices, 192; E. & L., Richmond, 203 ff.; Philipson, My Life, 217-18.

  8. Young Israel, Dec. 20, 1907, pp.123-25; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 181-83; Hudson, Am. Prot., 129-30, 144-46; AJA, 7:201-2; Hirsch, Emil G. Hirsch, 29; Glazer, American Judaism, 53; Rosenberg, Rochester, 191-92; Gutstein, Chicago, 85-86; Elovitz, Birmingham, 72; Kahl Montgomery, 16-17; Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 2:838 ff.; “Cincinnati,” UJE, 3:207; Philipson, Max Lilienthal, 96; Three Score and Twenty: Biography of Edward Nathan Calisch (Richmond, Va., 1945), 15; AJHQ, 58:312-15; Rothschild, Atlanta, 59-61; Franklin, Beth El, 25, 40, sub 1902; EIAJH, 357-358; Freehof & Kavaler, J. Leonard Levy, 64 ff., 69 ff.; G. Deutsch, Cincinnati, to ed. London Jewish Chronicle, Oct. 13, 1920, copy in Marcus Collections; Hirsch, My Religion, 29 ff., 35, 163, 209; Blood, Joseph Krauskopf, 52; Annes, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 42; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 122 ff; CCARYB, 11:86; Harris Weinstock, Jesus the Jew, 35; Words of Wise; Philipson, My Life, 133, 158-59, 179-80, 201-4, 215, 217-18, 224.

  9. Kohler, Studies, 332, 544 ff.; Kohler Festschrift, 17-18; Glazer, American Judaism, 54; Annes, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 42-43; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 146; Weinstock, Jesus the Jew, 139 ff., 29:75-76; Shapiro, “Reform Judaism,” 18-19; Levy, Reform Judaism, 87; Rosenberg, Rochester, 191 ff.; Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 293.

10. Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 147, n.31; Philipson, Reform Movement, 370 ff.; Levy, Reform Judaism, 80 ff.; CCARYB, 2:33-36, 3:14 ff., 35 ff., 69-95; “Judaism in America,” UJE, 6:242; Emil G. Hirsch, Chicago, to E.N. Calisch, Richmond, Va., Dec. 17, 1896, copy in Marcus Collections.

11. Levinthal, Message of Israel, 189-90; Kahl Montgomery, 19; Freehof & Kavaler, J. Leonard Levy, xi, 136 ff.; Where We Stand, 6; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 222; CCARYB, 17:119, 170, 19:210-11, 20:299-313, 21:118, 22:125 ff., 27:106; Stevens & Glazer (eds.), CCAR Resolutions, 75; Shapiro, “Reform Judaism,” 13 ff., Rothschild, Atlanta, 67; AJA, 25:23-25.

12. “Frankel, Benjamin M.,” WWIAJ, 1926; AJA, 7:222-23; Changing Patterns, 129; AJHQ, 58:316 ff.; Hudson, Religion in America, 313 ff.; Schlesinger, Rise of the City, 421; Laski, American Democracy, 285; Commager, American Mind, 168 ff.; Schneider, Religion, 92-93; MVHR, 37:591 ff.; “Hillel Foundations,” UJE; Wish, Society and Thought, 2:164 ff.; Faulkner, Social Justice, 204 ff., 218 ff.; Paul A. Carter, The Decline and Revival of the Social Gospel: Social and Political Liberals in American Protestant Churches, 1920-1940 (Ithaca, 1954), 4 ff.

13. AJA, 7:171 ff., 197 ff.; Glazer, American Judaism, 50; AJHQ, 58:308 ff.; PAJHS, 31:252-53; Menorah, 15:241 ff.; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 137 ff.; Annes, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 68 ff., 106; Kahl Montgomery, 18; Mervis, “Social Justice,” 1 ff.

14. AJHQ, 58:325-26; PUAHC, 5:4010; AJA, 7:171 ff.; Where We Stand, 8, 11; Philipson, My Life, 213; CCARYB, 18:94, 19:101-2, 432 ff.

15. Philipson, My Life, 293; CCARYB, 21;102-3, 22:24, 152 ff., 23:104, 212-13, 24:27-28, 95-97, 103 ff., 180, 25:96 ff., 103, 26:153, 27:112 ff., 174-75, 28:101-3, 29:74, 386 ff., 30:87 ff.; Faulkner, Social Justice, 207; AJA, 7:171 ff., 196 ff., 210 ff.; Schappes, JIUS, 153; “Central Conference of American Rabbis,” UJE, 3:91; AJYB, 42:207-9; Rosenberg, Rochester, 193-5; Leiser, American Judaism, 141; Philipson, Reform Movement, 368-69; Stevens & Glazer, CCAR Resolutions, 1 ff.

16. AJA, 7:171 ff.; JQR, 45:359-60; Faulkner, Social Justice, 218 ff.; Ellis, Am. Catholicism, 141 ff.; AJA, 7:203 ff.; Where We Stand, vii–viii, sub “Labor,” “Poverty”; Max Landsberg, Rochester, to Board of Trustees, Congregation B’rith Kodesh, Rochester, May 9, 1901, copy in Marcus Collections; CCARYB, 19:164-66, 25:96 ff., 103; “Stern, Milford,” “Wise, Stephen Samuel,” UJE.

17. Annes, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 107; Isaiah Israel, Chicago, 26; Eichhorn, “Creedal Formulations,” 51-52; Weinberg, “Conservative Movement”; CCARYB, 15:198-200, 247 ff., 258-59, 264-65, 19:68, 24:27; Wucher, “Presidential Addresses,” 19-20, 24; Levinthal, Message of Israel, 186-93; Gabriel, American Democratic Thought, 325 ff., 339-55.

18. Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 306-8; Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 373; PAJHS, 42:381-82; Hertz, Authorized Daily Prayer Book, 210-11; Shore & Bernstein, Adath Jeshurun, Philadelphia, 2.

19. AJA, 4:66 ff.; Leiser, American Judaism, 283; PUAHC, 5:4301; Parzen, Architects, 40; “Mission of Israel,” UJE; Kohler, Jewish Theology, 328 ff., 352-53, 354-55; Karff, HUCJIR, 72; Cogdell, “American Reform Judaism,” 7; Neusner (ed.), Understanding American Judaism, 2:12, 16 ff.; Hirsch, Emil G. Hirsch, 86, 112; Marx, “Kaufmann Kohler,” 94 ff.; Annes, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 110; PUAHC, 6:5324; Allen, “Reform Judaism,” 11-13; “Conferences, Rabbinical,” JE, 4:215; Wucher, “Presidential Addresses,” 19-20, 24; HUC Journal, 4:53.

20. For Gershom Seixas as Zionist see HUCA, 40-41:409 ff.; “Zionism,” JE, 12:668; Goldberg, Major Noah, 61 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 453 ff., 460 ff.; Noah, Discourse, (1918), 19, 25 ff.; “United States of America, Zionism in,” EOZAI, 2:1163 ff.; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 268 ff.; Herzl Year Book, 6:255-56.

21. HUC Journal, 4 (1899-1900):48-55; Goldman, “Conservative Movement”; Meites, Chicago, 164 ff., 187 ff.; PAJHS, 40:361 ff.; JSS, 23:236-37; “Reform Judaism and Zionism,” EOZAI; B. & B., JOUS, 3:920 ff.; Occ., 22:5-15; Grinstein, New York City, 460 ff; “Zionism,” JE, 12:668; Levinthal, Message of Israel, 136; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 214-15, 271, 358 ff., 458-59, nn.88, 92; Adler, Kansas City, 139-42; JSS, 23:235 ff., 243.

22. Fein, Baltimore, 200; Levinthal, Message of Israel, 136; Goldman, “Conservative Movement”; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 214-15, 268, 358-59; JSS, 23:235 ff., 239, 243-44, 264, 37:291 ff.; Schechter, Seminary Addresses xi–xii, 93, 97, 249; Philipson, My Life, 260; Adler, Selected Letters, 1:73-75, 82-84; Parzen, Architects, 73, 97, 111, 120 ff.; Herzl Year Book, 6:312 ff.; Occ., 22:5 ff.; PAJHS, 40:386; Adler, Kansas City, 99; HUC Journal, 3(1898-1899):165 ff., 4:34-35; CCARYB, 9:179 ff.; RA, July 3, 1897, p.325, cs.1-3; “Zionism” JE, 12:667.

23. CCARYB, 8:xli, 12:27, 89, 13:370-72, 22:108-9, 24:159, 211-12, 27:201-2; PAJHS, 40:361 ff.; Rothschild, Atlanta, 64; Levy, Reform Judaism, 131 ff.; Herzl Year Book, 5:11-31; RA, July 3, 1897, p.325, cs.1-3; Eichhorn, “Creedal Formulations,” 79 ff.; HUC Journal, 4(1988-1900):45 ff.; AJYB, 42:97 ff., 126; Philipson, Reform Movement, 360 ff.; Allen, “Reform Judaism,” 11; Beiheld, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 115; Blood, Joseph Krauskopf,” 110; Davis, Conservative Judaism, 270 ff., 458-59, n.92; Karff, HUC-JIR, 63 ff., 69; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 23-24; Karol, “Reform, 1897-1910,” 11 ff.; JSS, 37:291 ff., 308 ff.; Adler, Kansas City 139; “Anti-Zionism,” EOZAI, 1:49.

24. PAJHS, 27:132, 40:392; Plaut, Mount Zion, 78-79; Eichhorn, “Creedal Formulations,” 82-83; Uchill, Pioneers, 81-82; JSS, 23:251 ff.; Isaiah Israel, Chicago, 30; Adler, Kansas City, 139; Karff, HUC-JIR, 77-78; AJA, 3(no.2): 3 ff., 29:287; AJYB, 26:445; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 113; Blood, Joseph Krauskopf, 167; Annes, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 109-10: “Ben-Yehuda, Eliezer,” EJ, 4:568.

25. Levy, Reform Judaism, 133-34; Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 2:722; Eichhorn, “Creedal Formulations,” 82-83; AJYB, 42:199-200; JSS, 23:242; Isaiah Israel, Chicago, 32; Unity for Palestine, 1(no.5):[no pagination]; Where We Stand, 14; PUAHC, 9:8520-21; AJA, 14:3 ff., 19; PAJHS, 40:361 ff., 382, 393-94; Philipson, Reform Movement, 363 ff.; CCARYB, 28:133-34, 47:98, 112-13.

26. HUC Journal, 4:45 ff., 66; CCARYB, 8:xli, 10:167 ff.; Freehof & Kavaler, J. Leonard Levy, 55 ff.; AJA, 3(no.2):3 ff., 4:80; Baron Festschrift, 416, 421; PUAHC, 6:5317; PAJHS, 40:361 ff.; Judaism, 3:349; Karff, HUC-JIR, 53, et passim; Kohler, Studies, 332, 441; Kohler Festschrift, 27; B. & B., JOUS, 3:912 ff.; Adler, Kansas City, 139; HUC Journal, 4:45-47, 49, 69; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 184; Plaut, Mt. Zion, 87; Menorah, 35:252-53.

27. AJA, 3(no.2):8 ff., 4:80; PAJHS, 40:361 ff.; Karff, HUC-JIR, 56, et passim; HUC Journal, 4:45 ff.; CCARYB, 8:xli.

28. Levy, Reform Judaism, 131 ff.; Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 289; JSS, 23:235 ff.

29. Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 291-93; Berman, “Presidencies of Kohler and Schechter,” 27; PUAHC, 5:4190; Matz, “Theological Developments in American Reform,” 97 ff.; Neusner (ed.), Understanding American Judaism, 2:9; Schneider, Religion, 141; “Conferences, Rabbinical,” JE, 4:215; Kohler Festschrift, 12-13, 15; CCARYB, 9:11-15, 11:26, 15:101, 19:154-55; Philipson, My Life, 207; Hirsch, Emil G. Hirsch, 62, 85-86; RA, Oct. 24, 1903, pp.203 ff., Jan. 30, 1915, p.783, entire; Hirsch, My Religion, 19; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949). 1:399; Levy, Reform Judaism, 69-70.

30. “Luncz, Abraham Moses,” EJ; CCARYB, 18:53-54, 19:68-69, 161-62, 21:104-5, 24:207, 25:63 ff., 26:185; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 222-24; AJHQ, 57:189; Philipson, My Life, 141, 180, 227; Adler, Kansas City, 122.

31. Jewish Theological Seminary of America Biennial Report, 1902-1904 (N.Y., 1906), pp.101-24; CCARYB, 12:32, 92-93; AJA, 26:153-54; PAJHS, 40:18 ff.; Berman, “Presidencies of Kohler and Schechter,” 24, 27, 40, 82; JSS, 27:95-96; HUC Monthly, 2(nos. 4-5):3-13 (reprint pagination).

32. CCARYB, 8:viii, 9:81-90, 12:29-32, 92-93, 22:228, 24:229-35; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 130-31; Reznikoff, Louis Marshall, 2:863; “Central Conference of American Rabbis,” UJE; Holy Scriptures (1917), Preface; Cahn, Baltimore, 49; Meites, Chicago, 548; Abridged Prayer Book for Jews in the Army and Navy of the United States (Phila., 1917), 8, 10, 20, 36.

33. PUAHC, 6:5318-19; Zimmerman, “Attitudes Toward Orthodox and Conservative Judaism,” 6 ff.; Stevens & Glazer, CCAR Resolutions, 10, 30; PUAHC, 5:4657; Adler, Kansas City, 113; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 240; Freehling, “Immigration Policy of the U.S.” ; CCARYB, 21:115, 117; Where We Stand, 8, 11; Greenberg, Baltimore Hebrew Congregation, 44.

34. Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 213, 270-74; Trachtenberg, Easton, 200, 203; Philippsborn, Vicksburg, 43-44; Adler, Kansas City, 142.

CHAPTER TWENTY-SIX

ASPECTS OF AMERICAN JEWISH RELIGIOUS LIFE, 1897–1920: PART II

  1. HUC Journal, 4:49; CCARYB, 18:145-46; Rothschild, Atlanta, 73; Philipson, My Life, 203; Midstream, 16(no.9):3 ff.; Glazer, American Judaism, 55.

  2. Shankman, Temple Israel of New Rochelle, 18-25; Centennial Volume: Congregation Gates of Prayer, Jan. 13-15, 1950, New Orleans, La. (New Orleans, 1950); Gutstein, Chicago, 172-73; Rothschild, Atlanta, 56-57, 62-63; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 207; Karff, HUC-JIR, 56-58; “Reform Judaism,” JE, 10:358-59; Levinger, Jews in U.S., 240-41; Franklin, Beth El, 38 ff.

  3.Beth Ahabah, Richmond, 50; PUAHC, 1:22; Chyet, Lives and Voices, 134; Constitution and By-Laws of Congregation Beth Israel, Meridian, Mississippi, 1898; Jewish Digest, 15(no.1):68 ff.; Samuel S. Mayerberg, Chronicle of an American Crusader (N.Y., 1944); CCARYB, 14:207 ff.

  4. “Chicago,” UJE, 3:144; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 212-13; Rothschild, Atlanta, 56-57; Kahl Montgomery, 10-11; CCARYB, 9:76 ff., 18:123 ff.; Keneseth Israel, Philadelphia, 31; PAJHS, 45:93 ff., 120; Franklin, Beth El, 27 ff., 38 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 109-10; Philipson, My Life, 135; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 201; Meites, Chicago, 540 ff

  5. Faulkner, Social Justice, 218; Wise, Challenging Years, 109 ff.; Rothschild, Atlanta, 60, 73; Meites, Chicago, 512 ff.; “Pittsburgh,” UJE, 8:545; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 276; Martin, Judaism, 415.

  6. Rothschild, Atlanta, 52-53; Somberg & Roffman, Omaha, 36; Adler, Kansas City, 114, 137-38; Franklin, Beth El, 27 ff.; CCARYB, 9:46-47, 23:84; Memphis, 1854-1954, 38; Temple Israel, Akron, 20.

  7. Stiffman, “Baltimore,” 82-83; Adler, Kansas City, 108; CCARYB, 18:123 ff., 127, 19:103; Rothschild, Atlanta, 76-77; Rountree, Strangers in the Land, 57, 63 ff.; Meites, Chicago, 540 ff.; Beth Ahabah, Richmond, 50; Adler, Kansas City, 107 ff.; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 159-60; Weizenbaum, “Pittsburgh,” 1 ff.; Franklin, Beth El, 38-45.

  8. The Book of Common Prayer (N.Y., 1879), 233; CCARYB, 17:205 ff., 222 ff., 18:123 ff., 22:94 ff., 23:132 ff., 166, 24:58; Heller, Temple Sinai, 122; Michigan Jewish History, 14(no.1):8 ff.; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 265-66; Glazer, American Judaism, 46; Temple Israel, Akron, 18-19; Portman, “Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, Atlanta,” 3; Beth Ahabah, Richmond, 46; Plaut, Mt. Zion, 83-84; Franklin, Beth El, 38-45; Adler, Kansas City, 128; Levy, Reform Judaism, 90-91; Minister’s Handbook, 13 ff., 152.

  9. Levinger, Jews in U.S., 240-41; “Reform Judaism,” JE, 10:358-59; CCARYB, 2:33 ff., 66 ff., 9:51, 20:156, 22:94; Plaut, Mt. Zion, 83-84; Adler, Kansas City, 137-38; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 207; Stevens & Glazer, CCAR Resolutions, 2 ff.

10. Emanu-El, 215-16; Stiffman, “Baltimore,” 82; Zarchin, San Francisco, 129-30; Franklin, Beth El, 45; Fields, “Cincinnati.”

11. Bulletin of Temple Beth El, 29(no.36), May 13, 1955, copy in Marcus Collections; Erie Temple, 37 ff.; The Story of True Spiritual Devotion: the Sisterhood of Temple Beth El: Highlights of the History of the Sisterhood of Temple Beth El, 1901-1955, broadside, Marcus Collections; Brener, Lancaster, 77 ff.; Rothschild, Atlanta, 54-55, 66-67; Meites, Chicago, 514-15; Rudolph, Syracuse, 194; Weizenbaum, “Pittsburgh,” 3 ff.; CCARYB, 18:123 ff.; Plaut, Mt. Zion, 70-73.

12. Adler, Kansas City, 115; Meites, Chicago, 507; Zarchin, San Francisco, 132-33; CCARYB, 3:40, 22:99, 23:120, 132-34; Blood, Joseph Krauskopf, 185; Levy, Reform Judaism, 90-91; “Reform Judaism,” JE, 10:359; Erie Temple, 20; Rothschild, Atlanta, 66; E. & L., Richmond, 267; Rosenthal, Des Moines, 185-86; Memphis, 1854-1954, 41.

13. CCARYB, 32:50-51, 156 ff.; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 333-34; Karff, HUC-JIR, 46; Stevens & Glaser, CCAR Resolutions, 76.

14. Rosenthal, Des Moines, 81-82; Judaism, 3:488 ff.; “New York City,” UJE, 8:193; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 189; Adler, Kansas City, 107; Wucher, “Presidential Addresses,” 26; Somberg & Roffman, Omaha, 31; Rothschild, Atlanta, 48 ff.

15. Constitution and By-Laws of Congregation Beth Israel, Meridian, Mississippi, 1898; Fein, Baltimore, 184-85; Greenberg, Baltimore Hebrew Congregation, 40 ff.; Minnesota History, Summer, 1973, pp.213 ff.; Beth Ahabah, Richmond, 9; Zarchin, San Francisco, 132-33; Rothschild, Atlanta, 44 ff., 64; Portman, “Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, Atlanta,” 3 ff.

16. Rothschild, Atlanta, 50; Portman, “Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, Atlanta,” 5; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 182, 417, n.16; Sajowitz, “San Antonio,” 51 ff., 63-65; Laski, American Democracy, 302 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 141; Beth Ahabah, Richmond, 47.

17. Rothschild, Atlanta, 50-54, 76-77; Keller, Chronology, 252; Plaut, Mt. Zion, 77; Philipson, My Life, 169, 256; Zarchin, San Francisco, 121-33; Franklin, Beth El, 38-45; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee, 413, n.74; Beth Ahabah, Richmond, 8-9; Keneseth Israel, Philadelphia, 25 ff.; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 274-75; Minnesota History, Summer, 1973, pp.213 ff.; Portman, “Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, Atlanta,” 3 ff.; Memphis, 1854-1954, 36.

18. PUAHC, 4:3656 ff., 6:5267, 5271 ff., 5479-80, 5566-67, 5660, 5735, 5744, 7:6138 ff.; CCAKYB, 6:85-87, 16:188-89, 18:78-79, 22:22-23, 66-68, 215 ff., 229-30, 23:133, 24:28, 139 ff., 142, 25:106 ff., 30:6-10; Levine, “Am. Jew. Relig. Life in Cincinnati,” 1 ff.; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 20 ff.; Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 284-85; The Union of American Hebrew Congregations (pamphlet, n.p., n.d.), copy in Marcus Collections; Lehman, “Reform Judaism,” 1 ff.

19. Isaiah Israel, Chicago, 24-25; Swichkow & Gartner, Milwaukee , 203; CCARYB, 21:113, 115-17, 193 ff.; Franklin, Beth El, 40; Adler, Kansas City, 111; Greenberg, Baltimore Hebrew Congregation, 45; Rudolph, Syracuse, 194; Michigan Jewish History, 14(no.1):11-12; Erie Temple, 20.

20. Adler, Kansas City, 110-11, 134-37; Rothschild, Atlanta, 63 ff., 79; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 160; Trachtenberg, Easton, 202-3; RA, Jan. 2, 1897, p.324, cs.2-3, p.325, entire.

21. Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 334-35; “America,” JE, 1:503; JM, Dec. 20, 1901, p.4, cs.3-4, p.5, cs.2-3; CCARYB, 15:247 ff., 22:215 ff.; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 243; Ahlstrom, Relig. Hist. of Am. People, 980; AH, Sept. 20, 1901, pp.457 ff.; Hudson, Religion in America, 334; Beard, Rise of Am. Civilization, 2:750; Janowsky, American Jew, 230; Jew. Com. Reg., 120-21; Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 390; Grayzel, Hist. of Contemporary Jews, 70; Nodel, The Ties Between, 111; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 101.

22. Uchill, Pioneers, 83; Neusner (ed.), Understanding American Judaism, 7; AJHQ, 62:256; Wucher, “Presidential Addresses,” 19; Michigan Jewish History, 14(no.1):14; AI, Jan. 3, 1907, p.4, c.4; Chyet, Lives and Voices, 178-79.

23. Hudson, Am. Prot., 142-43; Laski, American Democracy, 305, 311.

24. Rosenthal, Des Moines, 78; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 222; Rothschild, Atlanta, 63-65, 79; Grayzel, Hist. of Contemporary Jews, 70; Laski, American Democracy, 299-300; Hudson, Am. Prot., 142-43; Faulkner, Social Justice, 204-5.

25. AH, Jan. 30, 1903, p.348, Aug. 3, 1906, p.213; Wucher, “Presidential Addresses,” 13; Janowsky, Am. Jew. Reappraisal, 390; United Synagogue Report (1915); Waxman (ed.), Conservative Judaism, 8; Rothschild, Atlanta, 63-64; Janowsky, American Jew, 43-48; Grayzel, Hist. of Contemporary Jews, 68; Commager, American Mind, 188-89; Blau, Judaism in America, 45; Morton M. Berman, “Report of the Committee on Reform Practice” (mimeo, UAHC, 1950).

26. Olitzky, “Sunday-Sabbath Controversy,” chaps.2-7; AJYB, 3(1901-1902):153, 42:204-5; Philipson, Reform Movement, 65, 253, 374-77; PAJHS, 45:120; Joseph Krauskopf & J. Leonard Levy, Twelfth Series of Sunday Lectures (Phila., ca.1899); Blood, Joseph Krauskopf, 44; Annes, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 37-38; Beifield, “Joseph Krauskopf,” 83-84, 100-9; CCARYB, 12:103 ff., 120-21, 13:77-78, 14:25-27, 119, 16:116 ff., 22:95-97, 23:209, 24:85-91; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 64, 237, 269-76; Kohler, Jewish Theology, 459; “Sabbath and Sunday,” JE, 10:604-5; Korn, Retrospect and Prospect, 11; Rothschild, Atlanta, 59; Michigan Jewish History, 14(no.1):13; Shapiro, “Reform Judaism,” 26-27; Adler, Kansas City, 129, 134, note; Wucher, “Presidential Addresses,” 21; Heller, Temple Sinai, 123; Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 78; “Reform Judaism,” JE, 10:359.

27. Levy, Reform Judaism, 105 ff.; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:393-94; Leiser, American Judaism, 139; Plaut, Mt. Zion, 82-83; Adler, Kansas City, 129, 134.

28. AJYB, 3(1901-1902):157-59; PUAHC, 5:3997 ff., 4690, 4713-14, 4718, 4743, 6:4808, 5291-92, 5514, 5690-91, 5780; JSS, 23:250, 275; Simon, Israel Zangwill, 64; London Jewish Chronicle, Apr. 11, 1902, p. 19, c.1; Bentwich, Solomon Schechter, 194, 328; Philipson, My Life, 182-83, 253; Where We Stand, 7-9, 10; CCARYB, 22:23, 119-21, 24:147, 175, 25:143.

29. Philipson, Reform Movement, 388-90, 405 ff., 424-27; Plaut, Reform Judaism, 64 ff., 101 ff.; Morgenstern, As a Mighty Stream, 311; Philipson, My Life, 225-26; CCARYB, 20:176 ff., 184, 26:173; Elbogen, Cent. of Jewish Life, 420-21; “Richtlinienstreit,” “Vereinigung der liberalen Rabbiner Deutschlands,” “Vereinigung fuer das liberale Judentum,” JL.

30. Hudson, Religion in America, 266; Hudson, Am. Prot., 153; Chyet, Lives and Voices, 154, 158; “America, Judaism in,” JE, 1:517; Philipson, My Life, 160; Adler, Kansas City, 129; Rothschild, Atlanta, 59; American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887-88), 95; Blood, Joseph Krauskopf, 217; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 432; Elovitz, Birmingham, 73.

31. Brickner, “Jew. Com. of Cin.,” 99-100; Philipson, My Life, 226-27; “Baron, Bernhard,” UJE, EJ.

32. “New York City,” UJE, 8:193; H.S. Linfield, The Rabbis of the United States (N.Y., 1957), 13; Vorspan & Gartner, Los Angeles, 154; JSS, 9:127 ff., 149; Jew. Com. Reg., 117 ff., 123; Learsi, Jews in America, 206 ff.; Adler, Kansas City, 110; Curti et al., American History, 262-64; AJYB, 2(1900-1901):496 ff., 623, 3(1901-1902):153 ff., 21:603, 77:259; Union of American Hebrew Congregations (pamphlet, n.p., n.d.); Hudson, Religion in America, 261-62, 334; Wiernik, History, 285; Karp, United Synagogue, 9; “United States,” JE, 12:377; H.S. Linfield, Statistics of Jews and Jewish Organizations, Historical Review of Ten Censuses, 1850-1937 (N.Y., 1939), 21, 50; JSS, 9:127 ff., 141 ff.; Harry S. Linfield, The Communal Organizations of the Jews in U.S., 1927 (N.Y., 1930), 33, 47; Feingold, Zion in America, 188-89; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 259-60; Finkelstein, The Jews (1949), 1:400; Sylvan D. Schwarzman, The Story of Reform Judaism (N.Y., 1953), 161; Parzen, Architects, 65.

33. Michigan Jewish History, 14(no.1):8 ff.; Parzen, Architects, 65; AJYB, 42:213-14; “Judaism,” UJE, 6:242; Judaism, 3:347-49; CCARYB, 6:12-13, 9:11-16, 16:231, 22:99-100, 24:145-46; Philipson, My Life, 236, 263; Allen, “Reform Judaism,” 1 ff.; Laski, American Democracy, 295-97, 311; Gutstein, Chicago, 174; Wucher, “Presidential Addresses,” 10-11; Lehman, “Reform Judaism,” 1 ff.; Kaplan, Greater Judaism, 286 ff.; Adler & Connolly, Buffalo, 273.

34. Stokes, Church and State, 3:877, sub 1918; AJYB, 42:210 ff.; Benjamin Mazar & Moshe Davis (eds.), The Illustrated History of the Jews (Jerusalem, N.Y., 1963), 297.

35. Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 242; Martin, Judaism, 408-9, 414-15; Kohler, Studies, 442-44; Levinger, Jews in U.S., 238 ff., 440; AH, Jan. 13, 1899, pp.368 ff.; “America, Judaism in,” JE, 1:515-16; Cogdell, “American Reform Judaism.”

Additional Information

ISBN
9780814344729
Related ISBN
9780814344736
MARC Record
OCLC
1055143407
Pages
754-840
Launched on MUSE
2018-10-02
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC
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