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Copyright © 1993 by Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201.

All material in this work, except as identified below, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this license, visit

All material not licensed under a Creative Commons license is all rights reserved. Permission must be obtained from the copyright owner to use this material.

The publication of this volume in a freely accessible digital format has been made possible by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Mellon Foundation through their Humanities Open Book Program.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Marcus, Jacob Rader, 1896–

United States Jewry, 1776-1985.

Includes bibliographical references and indexes.

Contents: v. 3. The Germanic period.

1. Jews—United States—history.   2. Judaism—United States—History.   3. United States—Ethnic relations.   I. Title

E184.J5M237   1989                  973ʹ.04924                  89-5723

ISBN 978-0-8143-4473-6 (paperback); 978-0-8143-4472-9 (ebook)

Wayne State University Press gratefully acknowledges The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives (AJA) for their contributions to this volume, including the use and publication of a selection of photographs. To access these photographs and many other collections preserved at the AJA, please visit the AJA website at

The Press also wishes to thank the following organizations for their generous permission to reprint material in this book: Art Institute of Chicago/Art Resource NY, and The Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS).

“Elaine” by Toby Edward Rosenthal (1874) courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago/Art Resource, NY.

Portrait of Dr. Cyrus Adler courtesy of The Library of the Jewish Theological Seminary.

Exhaustive efforts were made to obtain permission for use of material in this text. Any missed permissions resulted from a lack of information about the material, copyright holder, or both. If you are a copyright holder of such material, please contact WSUP at

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