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Notes

Chapter 1

    1.    Report of Consul Selah Merrill, Jerusalem, to William F. Wharton, Assistant Secretary of State, Washington, D.C., 3 October 1891, quoted in Ruth Kark, “Annual Reports of United States Consuls in the Holy Land as a Source for the Study of 19th Century Eretz Israel,” in With Eyes Toward Zion, vol. 2, ed. Moshe Davis (New York: Praeger, 1986), 170. See also, Moshe Maoz, “America and the Holy Land During the Ottoman Period,” in With Eyes Toward Zion, [1], ed. Moshe Davis (New York: Arno, 1977), 78; Dov Ber Abramowitz et al., “Michtav el HaMa’arechet,” HaIvri, 9 January 1918; and other sources.

    2.    Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, “Eretz Yisrael o America?” [Hebrew], HaḤavatzelet, 5 October 1881, 203. On the generally negative approach of HaḤavatzelet towards emigration to America, see Frank E. Manuel, The Realities of American-Palestine Relations (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1949), 57. All translations unless otherwise noted are the author’s.

    3.    Arthur Ruppin, “The Survival of the Fittest,” in Three Decades in Palestine (Jerusalem: Schocken, 1936), 68, originally published in German in Der Jude [1919?].

    4.    Yosef Feinberg, “Kruzo shel Yosef Feinberg, Igeret mei’eit Adat HaMoshava HaIvrit HaRishona [Rishon LeZion]” [Hebrew], in Sefer HaTziyonut, vol. 2, Tkufat Ḥibat Tziyon, ed. Shmuel Yavnieli (Tel Aviv: Mosad Bialik al yedei Dvir, 1944). The manifesto was originally published in German in Der Israelit, 13 September 1882. See also, Ya’akov Kellner, Lema’an Tziyon: HaHitarvut HaKlal Yehudit BiMtzukat HaYishuv, 1869–1882 [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Yad Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, 1976), 162–63.

    5.    Rabbi Avraham Yitzḥak HaCohen Kook, Jaffa, letter to Rabbi Evtzinski, 29 Nisan 5672 [1912], in Igrot HaRa’aya [Hebrew], vol. 2 (Jerusalem: Mosad HaRav Kook, 1961–65), 74, letter 421; Ya’akov Zerubavel, Alei Ḥayim [Hebrew], vol. 1 (Tel Aviv: Y. L. Peretz, 1960), 372. On Zerubavel’s mission to America, see below, chapter 7.

    6.    One very useful example among many is Peter Grose, Israel in the Mind of America (New York: Knopf, 1983).

    7.    Dan Horowitz and Moshe Lissak, Origins of the Israeli Polity: Palestine under the Mandate, trans. Charles Hoffman (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), 46–48, 89.

    8.    See Shmuel Katz, Jabo—Biografia Shel Ze’ev Jabotinsky [Hebrew], vol. 2 (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1993), 658; Yaacov Shavit, Jabotinsky and the Revisionist Movement, 1925–1948 (London: Frank Cass, 1988), 45ff.

    9.    A very useful introduction to the topic can be found in the two volumes of With Eyes Toward Zion, mentioned above, and in vol. 3, ed. Moshe Davis and Yehoshua Ben-Arieh (New York: Praeger, 1991).

  10.    The most complete survey of United States consular activity in Palestine before World War I is Ruth Kark, American Consuls in the Holy Land, 1832–1914 (Jerusalem and Detroit: Magnes Press, Hebrew University, and Wayne State University Press, 1994). On Cresson, see, among other sources, Yaacov Shavit, “‘Land in the Deep Shadow of Wings’ and the Redemption of Israel—A Millenarian Document from Jerusalem, 1847” [Hebrew], Cathedra 50 (December 1988): 99–105.

  11.    Manuel, Realities, 6, 76, 90–91,102–04; Ron Bartur, “Episodes in the Relations of the American Consulate in Jerusalem with the Jewish Community in the 19th Century (1856–1906)” [Hebrew], Cathedra 5 (October 1977): 111ff; Mordechai Eliav, “Diplomatic Intervention Concerning Restrictions on Jewish Immigration and Purchase of Land at the End of the Nineteenth Century” [Hebrew], Cathedra 26 (December 1982): 121–27; Maoz, “Ottoman Period,” in Davis, With Eyes Toward Zion, vol. 1, 69.

  12.    Kark, American Consuls, 201–30.

  13.    Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, “Nineteenth Century Hebrew Periodicals as a Source for America-Holy Land Studies,” in Davis, With Eyes Toward Zion, vol. 2, 190–91.

  14.    Letter to Straus from the Jerusalem branch of B’nai B’rith, 1889, quoted in Mordecai Naor, “Oscar S. Straus, U.S. Minister to Turkey, Supporter of Aliya to Eretz Yisrael” [Hebrew], Cathedra 18 (January 1981): 147. Naor’s article offers a good account of Straus’s service in Constantinople. See also, Manuel, Realities, 59–63; Isaiah Friedman, Germany, Turkey, and Zionism, 1897–1918 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1977), 44, 49; Jacob M. Landau and Mim Kemâl Öke, “Ottoman Perspectives on American Interests in the Holy Land,” in Davis, With Eyes Toward Zion, vol. 2, 263; Rabbi Y. L. HaCohen Fishman [Maimon], “Rechusheinu BeEretz Yisrael” [Hebrew], HaIvri, 5 January 1917, 11–12. For a full account of Straus’s life, see Naomi W. Cohen, A Dual Heritage: The Public Career of Oscar S. Straus (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1969).

  15.    Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, vol. 2, ed. L[ouis] Loewe (Chicago: Belford-Clarke, 1890), 301.

  16.    Quoted in The American Hebrew, 15 July 1898.

  17.    Shmuel Ettinger and Israel Bartal, “The First Aliyah: Ideological Roots and Practical Accomplishments,” The Jerusalem Cathedra, 2 (1982): 208; Ben-Arieh, “Hebrew Periodicals,” 183; Shmuel Rafa’eli (Rafa’elovitz), “Pe’ulot HaNotzrim LeYishuv HaAretz” [Hebrew], Luaḥ Eretz Yisrael (5672 [1911–12]): 78–83. See also, V. D. Lipman, Americans and the Holy Land through British Eyes: 1820–1917 (London: self-published, 1989), 119–49.

  18.    Raḥel Yana’it Ben-Zvi, Coming Home, trans. David Harris and Julian Meltzer (New York: Herzl, 1964), 30. On Floyd, see Lipman, British Eyes, 145–50, 173.

  19.    Yana’it Ben-Zvi, Coming Home, 147. On the American Colony, see Bertha Spafford Vester’s autobiography, Our Jerusalem: An American Family in the Holy City, 1881–1949 (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1950).

  20.    Manuel, Realities, 44–46; Eliyahu Ze’ev Halevi Lewin-Epstein, Zichronotai [Hebrew], vol. 1 (Tel Aviv: HaAḥim Lewin-Epstein VeShutafam, 5692 [1932]), 280–85.

  21.    Margalit Shilo, “On the Way to the Moshav: Ha-Ikar Hatzair, the ‘American Group’ in the Second Aliyah” [Hebrew], Cathedra 25 (September 1982): 87. See also, Zerubavel, Alei Ḥayim, vol. 1, 405.

  22.    On Yoffe and the Young Farmer group, see Yitzḥak Michaeli, “Reishitah shel Histadrut ‘HeḤalutz’ BeAmerica” [Hebrew], Asufot 6 (December 1989): 107–10; Margalit Shilo, Nisyonot BeHityashvut: HaMisrad HaEretz Yisraeli, 1908–1914 [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Yad Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, 1988); Shilo, “On the Way,” 79–98.

  23.    Sarah Chizick, diary, Milḥamia, Adar, 1915, quoted in The Plough Woman: Memoirs of the Pioneer Women of Palestine, ed. Rachel Katznelson Shazar, trans. Maurice Samuel (New York: Herzl Press in conjunction with the Pioneer Women, 1975), 186. (The first English edition of the book appeared in 1932.)

  24.    On the Achooza movement, see Yossi Katz, “The Achuza Projects in Eretz-Israel, 1908–1917” [Hebrew], Cathedra 22 (January 1982): 119–44; Bernard Sandler, “The American-Zionist Concept ‘Achoozah’ and its [sic] Realization in Eretz Israel, 1908–1934” [Hebrew], Cathedra 17 (October 1980): 165–82; Sandler, “Efforts and Achievements,” 49–64; Shilo, Nisyonot BeHityashvut, 99–106, 172–76; Evyatar Friesel, HaTnua HaTziyonit BeArtzot HaBrit Be-Shanim, 1897–1914 [Hebrew] ([Tel Aviv]: Universitat Tel Aviv and HaKibbutz HaMeuchad, 5730 [1970]), 176; Louis Lipsky, “Early Days of American Zionism, 1897–1929,” Palestine Year Book 2 (1945–46): 453–54.
        On Merḥavya and the AZC, see below, chapter 7; on Herzliya and the AZC, see below, chapter 6.

  25.    Landau and Öke, “Ottoman Perspectives,” 282, 268; Maoz, “Ottoman Period,” 69.

  26.    Alexander Aaronsohn, With the Turks in Palestine (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1916), 3–4; Aaronsohn, “Saïfna Ahmar, Ya Sultan! (Our Swords Are Red, O Sultan),” Atlantic Monthly, July 1916, 1–12, and August 1916, 188–96.

  27.    Louis Marshall, New York, letter to Adolph Lewisohn, New York, 20 November 1909, in Louis Marshall, Champion of Liberty—Selected Papers and Addresses, vol 1., ed. Charles Reznikoff (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1957), 705; “Aaronsohn’s Experiment Station,” editorial, The Maccabaean, October, 1910; Carol Bosworth Kutscher, “The Early Years of Hadassah,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, Brandeis University, 1976, 73; Saul Katz, “Aharon Aharonson—The Beginnings of Agricultural Science and Research in Eretz Israel” [Hebrew], Cathedra 3 (February 1977): 3–29; Allon Gal, Brandeis of Boston (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980), 178.

  28.    Jacob Schiff, New York, letter to Julius Rosenwald, Chicago, 27 January 1913, in Jacob H. Schiff: His Life and Letters, ed. Cyrus Adler, vol. 2 (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1928), 176–77.

  29.    Shilo, “On the Way to the Moshav,” 84; Friesel, HaTnua HaTziyonit, 176.

  30.    Louis D. Brandeis, Washington, D.C., letter to his brother, Alfred Brandeis, n.p., 7 January 1912, in Letters of Louis D. Brandeis, vol. 2 (1907–12), ed. Melvin I. Urofsky and David W. Levy (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1972), 537.

  31.    See Ben Halpern, “Brandeis’ Way to Zionism,” Midstream 17 (October 1971): 13; and Gal, Brandeis of Boston, 178–80.

  32.    Dr. Shneur Zalman Abramov offered some very helpful comments on Aaronsohn’s significance for America-Palestine relations in a personal interview in Jerusalem, 28 December 1990.

  33.    Kellner, Lema’an Tziyon, 11–12.

  34.    Zvi Shilony, “Changes in the Jewish Leadership of Jerusalem During World War I,” [Hebrew], Cathedra 35 (April 1985): passim; Nathan Efrati, “The Relationship Between American Jewry and the Yishuv in the 1890s” [Hebrew], Cathedra 55 (March 1990): 64–65; Manuel, Realities, 34–35.

  35.    Kark, American Consuls, 226–30; Efrati, “American Jewry and the Yishuv,” 81–84; Manuel, Realities, 96.

  36.    Kellner, Lema’an Tziyon, 98–99; Ya’acov Kellner, HaAliyot HaRishonot—Mitos u-Metziut [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: HaUniversita HaIvrit Birushalayim, Beit HaSefer LaAvoda Sotzialit Al Shem Paul Baerwald, 1982), 46–49; Efrati, “American Jewry and the Yishuv,” 68–69, 76–79; Shilony, “Jewish Leadership of Jerusalem,” 62; and many other sources.

  37.    Quoted in Friedman, Germany, Turkey, and Zionism, 194.

  38.    Mrs. B. F. [Gertrude] Rosenblatt, Haifa, letter to Henrietta Szold, Jerusalem, 10 August 1934, with a copy of an entry from the author’s diary dated 3 December 1912, recording Mrs. Henry Morgentau’s gift (sic). The letter is in CZA, File A125/18.

  39.    Mordecai Ben-Hillel HaCohen, Milḥemet HaAmim (Yoman) [Hebrew], vol. 2 (Jerusalem and Tel Aviv: “Mizpeh,” 5689 [1929]), 69–70.

  40.    Abraham Elmaleh, Eretz Yisrael VeSuriya Bimei Milḥemet Olam [Hebrew], vol. 1 (Jerusalem: By the author, 5688 [1928]), 176. See also, 67–69; “Eretz Yisrael veAmerica” and “Hashanim,” both in Hebrew in Luaḥ Eretz Yisrael, (1914–15), 265–82, and (5675–76 [1915–16]), 252–53, respectively; and Manuel, Realities, 117.

  41.    Telegram, 27 August 1914, from Secretary of State Bryan to Jacob H. Schiff, in Schiff, Life and Letters, vol. 2, 277.

  42.    Maurice Wertheim, “Report of Maurice Wertheim on the Condition of the Jews of Palestine,” 21 October 1914, typescript, in CZA, File A125/289.

  43.    Elmaleh, Bimei Milḥemet Olam, vol. 2, 194–95.

  44.    HaCohen, Milḥemet HaAmim, vol. 1, (Jerusalem and Tel Aviv: “Mizpeh,” 5629 [1929]), diary entry for 12 Shvat [1915], 72.

  45.    Ibid., diary entry for 24 Nisan [1915], 94–95; Arthur Ruppin, journal entry, 15 February 1915, in Memoirs, Diaries, Letters, ed. Alex Bein, trans. Karen Gershon (London and Jerusalem: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971), 155; Aaronsohn, With the Turks, 47–48; Manuel, Realities, 124–47.

  46.    M[enahem] Sheinkin, Erets Yisroel in Milkhomo Tsayt [Yiddish] (New York: Federation of American Zionists, 1917), 46; Joseph Rappaport, “Zionism as a Factor in Allied-Central Power Controversy (1914–1918),” in Early History of American Zionism, ed. Isidore S. Meyer (New York: American Jewish Historical Society and Theodor Herzl Foundation, 1958), 308.

  47.    Alexander Aaronsohn, With the Turks, 63–64. See also, 85. Aaronsohn was referring specifically to the ship on which he fled from Beirut harbor. His comments, however, reflect the feelings of many other observers.

  48.    Aaronsohn, “Saïfna Ahmar,” 194.

  49.    Rabbi Y. L. HaCohen Fishman (Maimon), “MeiHatam LeHacha” [Hebrew], HaIvri, 7 January 1916; HaCohen, Milḥemet HaAmim, 3 (Jerusalem: Dfus “HaSefer,” 5690 [1930]), entry for 21 Teveth [1917], 28–29; Mordecai Naor, “HaRakevet HaYamit SheHitzila Et HaYishuv BeEretz Yisrael BeEit Milḥemet HaOlam HaRishona,” Ma’ariv, 14 April 1976.

  50.    Elmaleh, Bimei Milḥemet Olam, vol. 1, 176; “Eretz Yisrael VeAmerica,” Luaḥ Eretz Yisrael (1914–15). On Rosenwald’s pledge, see Alpheus T. Mason, Brandeis: A Free Man’s Life (New York: Viking, 1946), 447.

  51.    M[eir] Dizengoff, Im Tel Aviv BaGola (Tel Aviv: n.p., 5690 [1931]), 46.

  52.    Yoḥanan, “Shana Shel Mashbeir” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir, 23 July 1915, 6–7. Other articles praising American charitable endeavors and critical of specifics can be found in HaPo’el HaTza’ir for the entire period of the war and in HaAḥdut for the months before it was closed by the authorities in 1915.

  53.    Manuel, Realities, 134.

  54.    Vladimir Jabotinsky, London, letter to [Shimon Bernstein], Copenhagen, 4 May 1915, summarized in Igrot Ze’ev Jabotinsky, Reshima U-Mafteaḥ, vol. 1 (1901–24) [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Chaim Weizmann Center for the Research of Zionism of Tel Aviv University and the Jabotinsky Institute, 5732 [1972]), 39. See also, HaCohen, Milḥemet HaAmim, vol. 1, entries for 9, 29 Kislev [1914], 37, 52–53; Manuel, Realities, 120, 154; Naomi W. Cohen, Not Free to Desist (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1972), 86–87; Shmuel Katz, Jabo, vol. 1, 128.

  55.    Morgenthau quoted in Ruppin, Memoirs, Diaries, Letters, 151.

  56.    HaCohen, Milḥemet HaAmim, vol. 2, entry for 28 Elul [1916], 143–45; Joseph Adler, “The Morgenthau Mission of 1917,” Herzl Year Book 5 (1963): 249–82; Friedman, Germany, Turkey, and Zionism, 275; Manuel, Realities, 156–58.

  57.    Ruppin, Memoirs, Diaries, Letters, 158–59. See also, Gideon Biger, “The American Consulate of Jerusalem and the 1920–1921 Disturbances” [Hebrew], Cathedra 49 (September 1988): 134–35; Manuel, Realities, 238.

  58.    Alexander Aaronsohn, With the Turks, 47.

  59.    HaCohen, Milḥemet HaAmim, vol. 2, entry for 4 Iyyar [1916], 80–81; David Lior of Tel Aviv, quoted in Anshei HaAliya HaShniya [Hebrew], ed. Ya’akov Sharett and Naḥman Tamir, vol. 2 (N.p., 1970–71), 334; Biger, “American Consulate,” 134–35; Stuart E. Knee, The Concept of Zionist Dissent in the American Mind, 1917–1941 (New York: Robert Speller & Sons, 1979), 185–93.

  60.    HaCohen, Milḥemet HaAmim, vol. 1, entry for 10 Nisan [1915], 91–92; Ruppin, Memoirs, Diaries, Letters, 159; Naor, “HaRakevet haYamit.”

  61.    “Ba’al haMilon” [Hebrew], HaIvri, 12 May 1916; Louis D. Brandeis, Washington, D.C., letter to Julian William Mack, n.p., 11 January 1919, in Brandeis Letters, vol. 4, 375.

  62.    Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, Poale Zion BaAliyah HaShniya [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Mifleget Po’alei Eretz Yisrael VeIḥud Olami Poale Zion [Z. S.] Hitachduth, 1950), 180.

  63.    Geula Bat-Yehuda [Rafael], HaRav Maimon BeDorotav [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Mosad HaRav Kook, 1979), 223.

  64.    Aaron Aaronsohn, Yoman Aharon Aharonson [Hebrew], ed. Yoram Efrati (Tel Aviv: Sfarim Karni, 1970), entries for 17, 21 November and 11 May 1917, 357–58, 269.

  65.    Ben-Zvi, BaAliyah HaShniya, 184, 186.

  66.    Rabbi Y. L. HaCohen Fishman, “HaTziyonut HaAmerika’it” [Hebrew], HaIvri, 9 February 1917; Menaḥem Sheinkin, “Ḥadash veYashan” [Hebrew], in Kitvei Menaḥem Sheinkin, ed. A. Ḥermoni (Tel Aviv: Miriam Sheinkin, n.d.), 5.

  67.    Menaḥem Sheinkin, “Koḥot Yetzira” [Hebrew], HaIvri, 2 February 1917.

  68.    Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, ‘“HeḤalutz” VeHaHitnadvut LaGdud HaIvri BeArtzot HaBrit” [Hebrew], in Sefer HaAliyah HaShlishit, ed. Yehuda Erez (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1964), 205.

  69.    Rivka Aaronsohn, on board the California Limited, letter to Henrietta Szold, 1 September 1917, in CZA, File A125/325; Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, New York, letter to Raḥel Yana’it, n.p., 19 March 1918, in BZA, File 1/1/2/13.

Chapter 2

    1.    Louis Lipsky, A Gallery of Zionist Profiles (New York: Farrar Straus and Cudahy, 1956), 102.

    2.    Vladimir Jabotinsky, “HaEmet” [Hebrew], in Ktavim vol. 13 (Jerusalem: Eri Jabotinsky, 1954), 200; id., “Anaḥnu HaBurganim” [Hebrew], in HaRevisionism HaTziyoni BeHitpatḥuto, ed. Yosef Nedava (Tel Aviv: Jabotinsky Institute, 1985), 211, originally published in Russian, Rasswiet, 17 April 1927.

    3.    Irma Lindheim, Parallel Quest (New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1962), 377; Jabotinsky, “A Crucible” [Russian], Russkie vedemosti, 15 April 1916, translated for me by Prof. Richard Pope; id., Avtobiografia [Hebrew], vol. 1 of Ktavim (Jerusalem: Eri Jabotinsky, 5707 [1947]), 169.

    4.    Compare Michael Brown, “A Paradoxical Relationship—American Jews and Zionism,” in An American Historian, Essays to Honor Selig Adler, ed. Milton Plesur (Buffalo: State University of New York at Buffalo, 1980), 81–97.

    5.    Jabotinsky, “We Americans” [Hebrew], Haifa HaZafon, 4 June 1928, originally published in Yiddish (“Mir Amerikaner”) in the New York Morgn Zhurnal, 7 May 1926; “The Land of Strong Yearnings” [Hebrew], HaYarden, 22 March 1935, also published in Yiddish (“Dos Land fun Gigantisher Benkshaft”) in the New York Morgn Zhurnal, 22 March 1935; and Avtobiografia, 21.

    6.    “Benkshaft,” translated for me by Jack Chodoroff.

    7.    “Mir Amerikaner,” translated for me by Jacob Goldfein.

    8.    “Benkshaft”; Joseph B. Schechtman, Fighter and Prophet (New York and London: Thomas Yoseloff, 1961), 588–94.

    9.    “Mir Amerikaner.”

  10.    Jabotinsky, “HaEmet,” 203. Stowe’s work was one of the only novels in Ben Gurion’s library. Golda Meir (My Life [London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1975], 23) and others all mention being influenced by it in their youth.

  11.    Jabotinsky, “HaEmet,” 195–202.

  12.    Jabotinsky, “Homo homini lupus” [Hebrew], in Ktavim, vol. 9 (Jerusalem: Eri Jabotinsky, 5710 [1950]), 256, originally published in Russian in 1910.

  13.    Ibid., 255.

  14.    New York Times, 5 July 1910. See also 7 July 1910.

  15.    Jabotinsky, “lupus,” 258, 260. See also, Raphaella Bilski Ben-Ḥur, Kol Yaḥid Hu Melech: HaMaḥshava HaḤevratit Shel Ze’ev Jabotinsky [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1988), 29.

  16.    “Virginia,” in Ktavim, vol. 6 (Jerusalem: Eri Jabotinsky, 5709 [1949]), 65–81.

  17.    Schechtman, Fighter, 107. For a similar evaluation of Poe by a socialist Zionist contemporary, see M. A., “Unhealthy Literature” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir, 18 July 1913.

  18.    Jabotinsky, “Crucible”; “HaEmet,” 195; “lupus,” 257.

  19.    Jabotinsky, “Crucible.” In Kol Yaḥid, Ben-Hur claims that “the key to . . . Jabotinsky’s thought is the assumption that the individual is the supreme value, followed by the nation” (27).

  20.    Compare Joseph B. Schechtman, Rebel and Statesman (New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1956), 231–60; Melvin I. Urofsky, American Zionism from Herzl to the Holocaust (New York: Anchor, Doubleday, 1976), 183–230; Yosef Gorny, “Zionist Voluntarism in the Political Struggle: 1939–1948,” Jewish Political Studies Review 2 (Spring 1990): 67–104.
        Urofsky writes about the role of America with regard to the Balfour Declaration, but not the Legion. Schechtman essentially ignores this aspect of the Legion. Gorny notes that Jabotinsky “fathered the policy of Zionist pressure” but dates the tactic to a later period. (Schechtman’s two books must be read as the works of a disciple.)

  21.    Isaiah Friedman, Germany, Turkey, and Zionism, 1897–1918 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1977), 18; Frank E. Manuel, The Realities of American-Palestine Relations (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1949), 20, 139–40, 164; Joseph Rappaport, “Zionism as a Factor in Allied-Central Power Controversy (1914–1918),” in Early History of American Zionism, ed. Isidore S. Meyer (New York: American Jewish Historical Society and Theodor Herzl Foundation, 1958), 304–05.

  22.    Jabotinsky, London, letter to Mr. [C. P.] Scott [London], 7 December 1915, in MJ, File 5/2alef.

  23.    Jabotinsky, London, letter to Viscount Cecil, London, 22 December 1915, PRO, File F.O. 371/2835.

  24.    Jabotinsky, London, letter to Rt. Hon. C. F. G. Masterman, London, 26 January 1916, PRO, File F.O. 371/2835. See also, his letter to Lord Newton, London, 15 August 1916, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, Reshima U-Mafteaḥ [Hebrew], vol. 1, 1901–1924 (Tel Aviv: Chaim Weizmann Center for the Research of Zionism of Tel Aviv University and the Jabotinsky Institute, 5732 [1972]), vol. 2 in manuscript in MJ; Shmuel [Samuel] Katz, Jabo—Biografia shel Ze’ev Jabotinsky [Hebrew], vol. 1 (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1993), 136–41, 208–09. Katz’s book is an informative, but highly partisan, account that must be used judiciously.

  25.    See, for example, The Maccabean, November-December 1914, May 1915; David Ben-Gurion, Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, and Naḥum Slousch, New York, letter to Vladimir Jabotinsky, [London], 23 November 1918, WAR, File 1918; Menaḥem Sheinkin, “The Jewish Legion” [Hebrew], originally published in Yiddish as a propaganda pamphlet of the Zionist Organization of America in 1918, in Kitvei Menaḥem Sheinkin, ed. A. Ḥermoni (Tel Aviv: Miriam Sheinkin, n.d.); Schechtman, Rebel, 211–12; Friedman, Germany, 244. On Szold, see below, Ch. 5, 219–20, 225–27.

  26.    Quoted in Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 751.

  27.    Jabotinsky, London, draft letter to [Herbert Samuel], London, 28 June 1916, MJ, File 6/2/1alef; Schechtman, Rebel, 231. Wise altered his stance when war was declared.

  28.    Jabotinsky, London, letter to Rt. Hon. David Lloyd George, P. M., London, 3 April 1917, PRO, File W.O. 32/1539.

  29.    Jabotinsky, London, letter to Hon. Sir George Perley, K. C., M. C., [London], 1 November 1917, MJ, File 7/2taf.

  30.    Manuel, Realities, 139–40, 164.

  31.    See, for example, letter by Joseph Trumpeldor, London, on behalf of W. Jabotinsky, to Rt. Hon. P. M. David Lloyd George, 3 November 1917, PRO, File W.O. 32/1539, printed in Hebrew translation in Jabotinsky, Ktavim, vol. 18 (Jerusalem: Eri Jabotinsky, 5718 [1958]), 203–04; Jabotinsky, London, letter to Rt. Hon. D. Lloyd George, M. P., London, 29 April 1917, PRO, File W.O. 32/1539; and letters from London, 25 October 1917, to Sir Mark Sykes, Lord Robert Cecil, Leopold Amery, William Ormsby-Gore, Sir Ronald Graham, Philip Kerr, Henry Wickham-Steed, Major D. Dorsett, PRO, File W.O. 39/152; id., The Story of the Jewish Legion, trans. Samuel Katz (New York: Bernard Ackerman, 1945), 65–66; Katz, Jabo, vol. 1, 114–15.

  32.    Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, Poale Zion BaAliyah HaShniyyah [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Mifleget Po’alei Eretz Yisrael veIḥud Olami Poale Zion (Z. S.) Hitachduth, 1950), 195; Jabotinsky, Legion, 21, 151, 164; Zachariah Kay, Canada and Palestine (Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press, 1978), 47.

  33.    See Jabotinsky, letters, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, to Naḥum Sokolow, 15 January 1919 (33/40), to Akiva Ettinger, 1 April 1919 (38/1056) and 19 April 1919 (38/1057), to Zionist Commission, 12 March 1919 (43), and to Harry Friedenwald, 18 May 1919 (38/1059). See also, Jabotinsky, “Kol Korei,” [Hebrew] Adar I, 5679 [1919]; and letter, Ludd, to Dr. [David] Eder, 7 July 1919, CZA, File L4/158.

  34.    G[ershon] A[gronsky, later, Agron, the mayor of Jerusalem], Beirut, letter to Robert Szold, Zionist Commission, Jerusalem, 7 July 1919, in CZA. File A209/12; D. Yaffe, “Demobilization of the Volunteers” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir 13 (27 October 1919); Yaffe, “With the Legions” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir 13 (5 December 1919); Y.A.y, “From the Legion” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir 13 (20 August 1920); Bernard T. Sandler, “The Jews of America and the Resettlement of Palestine, 1908–1934: Efforts and Achievements,” Ph.D. dissertation, Bar Ilan University, April 1978, 171–75; “Legion Volunteers From the United States Who Chose Demobilization in Palestine,” Bulletin of the Veterans of the Jewish Legion 1 (May 1976); Ben-Zvi, Poale Zion, 196–97; Shimon Rubinstein, “Efforts to Settle Demobilized Soldiers of the Jewish Legion on Government Lands (1919–1923)” [Hebrew], HaUmah 43 (Iyyar, 5735 [1975]).
        There is some evidence that the Zionist Commission and even Jabotinsky himself felt the demobilized soldiers should return to America and allow the few job opportunities in Palestine to be taken by Polish and Russian Jews fleeing their countries. (Yaffe, “Demobilization”; and Anshei HaAliyah HaShniyah, vol. 2, ed. Ya’acov Sharett and Naḥman Tamir [Hebrew] [n.p., 1972], 335.) In A Peace to End All Peace (New York: Avon, 1990), 386, David Fromkin points out that British troops were rapidly demobilized everywhere, because of the virtual bankruptcy of the government and the eagerness of the men to return to civilian life.

  35.    N.[aḥum] T.[wersky], “The Question of Our Existence” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir 12 (29 August 1919).

  36.    Ibid.

  37.    Yaffe, “Legion”; Y.L. n, “Americanism” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir 12 (27 Tammuz 1919); Ze’ev Tzaḥor, “David Ben-Gurion’s Attitude Toward the Diaspora,” Judaism 32 (Winter 1983): 13.

  38.    Jabotinsky, [Ludd], letter to [Robert] Szold, [Jerusalem], 27 June 1919, MJ, File 38/1064. See also, Schechtman, Rebel, 275–79.

  39.    Ibid; Jabotinsky, “On the Mutinies in the Jewish Legion” [Hebrew], speech before the seventh meeting of the Zionist Commission, Jaffa, 15–16 Elul 5679 [September 1919], in Ktavim, vol. 4 (Jerusalem: Eri Jabotinsky, 5707 [1947]), 128. See also, Jabotinsky, letters to B.[ezalel] Yaffe, Tel Aviv, 5 July 1919, MJ, File number missing, and to Dr. [David] Eder, [Jerusalem], 17 August 1919, CZA, File L3; id., Avtobiografia, 291, 195–96; Schechtman, Rebel, 277.

  40.    Jabotinsky, Legion, 21, 164–65; id., Avtobiografia, 287–89; id., “Megilat HaGdud” [Hebrew], Do’ar HaYom, 17 February 1929. Compare also, Anita Shapira, Berl, vol. 1 [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Sifriyat Ofakim—Am Oved, 1980), 136; Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, “‘HeḤalutz’ VeHaHitnadvut LaGdud HaIvri BeArtzot Ha-Brit” [Hebrew], in Sefer HaAliyah HaShlishit, ed. Yehuda Erez (Tel Aviv: n.p., 1964), 207.

  41.    Who’s Who in Canadian Jewry, ed. Eli Gottesman (Montreal: Central Rabbinical Seminary of Canada, 1965), 44; Sharett and Tamir, Aliyah, vol. 2, 335; Jabotinsky, New York, letter to Israel Trivus, 9 February 1922, in Ktavim, vol. 18, 167–70; Michael Brown, “A Case of Limited Vision: Jabotinsky on Canada and the United States,” Canadian Jewish Studies 1 (1993): 1–25.

  42.    Jabotinsky, draft cable, to Judge [Louis] Brandeis, Washington, [1917], MJ, File 7/2/1alef; id., letters, Tel Aviv, to Mr. Edlin, n.p., 2 March 1919, MJ, File 38/1054; [Ludd], to [Robert] Szold, [Jerusalem], 16 June 1919 and 27 May 1919, CZA, File L3; draft letter, [Jerusalem], to ??, 1919, MJ, File 9/2/1 lalef; untitled flyer [Hebrew], Acco, [5 May 1920], CZA, File A 13/17.

  43.    Manuel, Realities, 209; Schechtman, Rebel, 298; George L. Berlin, “The Brandeis-Weizmann Dispute,” American Jewish Historical Quarterly 60 (September 1970): 47; Katz, Jobo, vol. 1, 283, 332–33. Katz claims that Brandeis was sufficiently influenced by Jabotinsky’s arguments to raise the issue of antisemitism in the ranks with Balfour, when he met him in Paris on the way home (vol. 1, 334).

  44.    Deborah Lipstadt, “The Zionist Career of Louis Lipsky, 1900–1921,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, May 1976, 281–82; Katz, Jabo, vol. 1, 406–07, vol. 2, 669.
        In “The American Consulate of Jerusalem and the 1920–1921 Disturbances” [Hebrew], Cathedra 49 (September 1988): 136–41, Gideon Biger asserts convincingly that pro-Arab, anti-Jewish officials in the State Department delayed communications between the Zionist Commission and the ZOA and cast doubts on the veracity of reports from the yishuv.

  45.    Z. Jabotinsky, “The Ideal and the Real” [Hebrew], HaAretz, 14 December 1919. For an opposing view, see Dr. A. Boehm, “The Ideal in Practice” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir 13 (2 January 1920). On the AZMU, see below, Ch. 4, 105; Ch. 5,140,145–47, 154–55.

  46.    A. T. [Jabotinsky], “The Refusal of the American Senate” [Hebrew], Ḥadshot HaAretz, 30 November 1919.

  47.    Jabotinsky, “On the Mutinies,” 135–36; id., “Yearnings;” Schechtman, Rebel, 320–21,363.

  48.    “The Refusal of the American Senate.”

  49.    Jabotinsky, New York, letter to Israel Trivus, 9 February 1922, in Ktavim, vol. 18, 167–70; Schechtman, Rebel, 370.

  50.    Jabotinsky, aboard the RMS Acquitainia, letter to mother, Eva Jabotinsky, Jerusalem, 11 November 1921, MJ, File 2/37/2/1gimel. Unless otherwise noted, Jabotinsky’s letters in Russian cited herein were translated for me by Yehuda Ben-Ari.

  51.    Jabotinsky, Kansas City, Mo., confidential letter to Directors, Keren Hayesod Bureau, London, 15 January 1922, WAR, File 1922.

  52.    Press release of the Keren HaYesod, New York, 18 November [1921], in CZA, File A209/46.

  53.    HaDo’ar, 24 November 1921, 13, 14 January 1922, 28 March 1922. The pages of the then daily HaDo’ar from November 1921 to May 1922 give a rather full account of Jabotinsky’s itinerary.

  54.    Jabotinsky, letters to his mother, Eva, Jerusalem, from New York, 18 December 1921, MJ, File 2/37/2/1gimel; and from New Orleans, 21 January 1922, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 31/61; Berl Katznelson, “Yoman America,” entry for 24 November [1921], in Igrot B. Katznelson, vol. 5 (5682–5691 [1922–1931]) (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1973), 110; “HaMalachut HaTziyonit BeChicago” [Hebrew], New York HaDo’ar, 15 December 1921; minutes of meeting of Temporary Executive Committee, American Keren HaYesod, 3 August [1921].
        See also, Jabotinsky’s letters to Yona [Machover], London, from New York, 18 December 1921, and [Richard] Lichtheim, London, from Minneapolis, 6 January 1922, both summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 22/1; W. Gunther Plaut, The Jews in Minnesota (New York: American Jewish Historical Society, 1959), 296; editorial, The New Palestine, 16 June 1922, quoted in Schechtman, Rebel, 394.

  55.    Jabotinsky, Pittsburgh, letter to [Mina Berlin, Geneva], 13 March 1922, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 141/26. See also, Yitzḥak Kalugai, Pittsburgh, letter to Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi and Aharon Reuveni, Jerusalem, 15 November 1921, BZA, File 1/5/4/26, which talks of the failure of Weizmann and Jabotinsky to raise significant amounts for the Foundation Fund.

  56.    Jabotinsky, Minneapolis, letter to his mother, Eva, Jerusalem, 6 January 1922, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 31/59.

  57.    On the Weizmann-Brandeis controversy, see Urofsky, American Zionism, 209, 231–79, and many other sources.

  58.    On the disagreement with Brandeis, see, among other sources, Katz, Jabo, vol. 1, 454–55. On Jabotinsky’s belief that a Jewish state would only be created through political action, see Gorny, “Zionist Voluntarism,” 69; Dan Horowitz and Moshe Lissak, Origins of the Israeli Polity: Palestine under the Mandate, trans. Charles Hoffman (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), 126.

  59.    Julian W. Mack, n.p., letter to Jabotinsky, New York, 29 March 1922, American Jewish Historical Society, Waltham, Stephen S. Wise Collection, Box 113; “Sokolow and Jabotinsky Want to Make Peace with Brandeis” [Hebrew], New York Di Tsayt, 9 November 1921; Katz, Jabo, vol. 1, 353, 502.

  60.    Numerous articles in Di Tsayt, November and December 1921 and early January 1922. See also, “HaMassa-u-Mattan bein Jabotinsky u-Fetliura” and “Huchḥash HaDin-Ve-Ḥeshbon Shel Slavinski al Rezolutzia BaCongress HaTziyoni” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 8 and 11 December 1921 respectively; minutes of meetings of the Committee of Three, American Keren HaYesod, 1, 2 December 1921; Schechtman, Rebel, 399–410; Katz, Jabo, vol. 1, 480–88.

  61.    Jabotinsky, [London], memorandum to Directorium of the Keren Hayesod, [London], 20 November 1920, CZA, File KH 1/172. See also, minutes of meeting of the American Keren HaYesod Committee of Three, 28 November 1921.

  62.    Jabotinsky, London, letters to Mr. Lipton, 28 December 1920, CZA, File KH 1/172; and to [Arthur] Hantke et al., summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 20/32, 96–97.

  63.    Jabotinsky, Kansas City, Mo., confidential letter to Directors, Keren Hayesod Bureau, London, 15 January 1922, WAR, File 1922; minutes of meeting of the Administrative Committee, American Keren HaYesod, New York, 20 July 1922; “Tafkidei HaMitnadvim Bimei HaHachraza” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 9 April 1922.

  64.    “Ze’ev Jabotinsky Ḥazar LeNew York” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 6 February 1922; minutes of a meeting of the Temporary Executive Committee, American Keren HaYesod, 20 June [1922].

  65.    Jabotinsky, New York, letter to the Zionist Executive, England, 13 February 1922, CZA, File A18-47-2. Similar complaints were voiced in letters sent all during his trip, to Richard Lichtheim, London, from New York, 1 March 1922, CZA, File Z4/4026; to Weizmann, from New York, 15 February 1922, WAR, File 1922; to Yona Machover from New York, 9 March 1922, MJ, File 12/2/1gimel; to his wife, Johanna, from New York, 5 May 1922, MJ, File 3/36/2/1gimel.

  66.    Compare Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, Minneapolis, letter to David Ben-Gurion, n.p., 23 January 1926, BZA, File 1/4/16; Arthur Ruppin, Pirkei Ḥayyai [Hebrew], vol. 3, ed. Alex Bein, trans. A. D. Shafir (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1968), diary entry, New York, 26 March 1923; and many other sources.

  67.    Jabotinsky, New York, letter to Chaim Weizmann, n.p., 25 February 1922, WAR, File 1922.

  68.    “Alafim u-Revavot Mekablim et Pnei HaMalachut HaTziyonit” and “Agudat Elef HaDollar” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 13 November 1921 and 5 February 1922 respectively; Jabotinsky, New York, letter to [Richard] Lichtheim, [London], 21 March 1922, CZA, File Z4/4026.

  69.    Minutes of meetings of the Administrative Committee, Temporary Executive Committee, and Office Committee of the American Keren HaYesod, New York, 12, 26, 31 May and 20 June 1922.

  70.    Jabotinsky, New York, letter to Chaim Weizmann, n.p., 25 February 1922, WAR, File 1922; id., New York, cable to Zionist Executive, London, 7 March 1922, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 456/117; Chaim Weizmann, London, letter to N.[aḥum] Sokolow and Jabotinsky, New York, 28 February 1922, WAR, File 1918/47/3; Weizmann, London, draft cable to Sokolow, New York, copied to Jabotinsky and Louis Lipsky, 4 March 1922, MJ, File 10/3/1alef; Weizmann, London, cable to Jabotinsky and Sokolow, New York, 4 May 1922, MJ, 10/3/1alef; Jabotinsky, New York, letter to wife, Johanna, [Bad Kissingen, Germany], 5 May 1922, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 27/109; Emanuel Neumann, In the Arena (New York: Herzl, 1976), 72.

  71.    Jabotinsky, letters from Cairo, to [wife, Johanna, London], 3 March 1918, and from [Jerusalem], to [Meir Grossman, London], 20 February 1920, both summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 12/27 and 38/1076taf respectively; Dr. S. M. Melamed, Chicago, letter to Jabotinsky, New York, 8 May 1922, MJ, File 3/10/1alef; L. E. Miller, New York, letters to Jabotinsky, Berlin, 26 March and 12 March 1923, MJ, File 11/3/1alef; “From a Letter of Jabotinsky,” The Zionist, 5 November 1926; Schechtman, Rebel, 346.

  72.    “MiPe’ulot Keren HaYesod” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 2 March 1922; A. Gutman, “Michtav MiMilwaukee, Wis.” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 26 December 1921; ad for Ball of the Jabotinsky Legionnaires, Di Tsayt, 16 December 1921; “LeChol HaGduda’im ve-HaḤayalim HaIvriyim BeAmerica Kol Korei,” Hebrew manifesto signed by Jabotinsky and eight other members of the Temporary National Actions Committee [of Legion Veterans], HaDo’ar, 12 February 1922.

  73.    Jabotinsky, letters, Milwaukee, to Mina and Bella [Berlin, Geneva], 7 December 1921, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 140/26; from New York, to [mother, Eva, Jerusalem], 18 December 1921, MJ, File 2/37/2/1alef; from Minneapolis to [mother, Jerusalem], 6 January 1922, and to [sister, Tamar Kopp, Jerusalem], 10 January 1922, both in MJ, File 2/37/2/1alef; from New York, to Israel Trivus, 9 February 1922, in Ktavim, vol. 18, 167–70; from Pittsburgh, to [Mina Berlin, Geneva], 13 March 1922, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 141/26; Schechtman, Fighter, 256; Schechtman, Rebel, 394.

  74.    Jabotinsky, New York, letter to [Richard] Lichtheim, [London], 21 March 1922, CZA, File Z4/4026; id., “Benkshaft;” Schechtman, Rebel, 346, 389.

  75.    Jabotinsky, Berlin, letter to [Frederick H.] Kisch, n.p., 9 December 1923, CZA, File S28/5280.

  76.    Jabotinsky, “Anaḥnu HaBurganim,” 215–16. See also, Yaacov Shavit, “Ze’ev Jabotinsky and the Revisionist Movement,” Studies in Zionism 4 (Autumn 1981): 219–36.
        In Jabo, vol. 2, 641, Katz claims that Jabotinsky had never toyed with socialist ideas. That assertion, however, makes no sense in light of an exchange between Jabotinsky and Raḥel Yana’it and Yosef Sprinzak, which he records just a few pages later (vol. 2, 646). The labor leaders, according to Katz, upbraided Jabotinsky for not having assumed the leadership of the labor movement, which, they said, could have been his for the asking.

  77.    Yaacov Shavit, Jabotinsky and the Revisionist Movement, 1925–1948 (London: Frank Cass, 1988), 285ff.

  78.    Jabotinsky, “What Does America Have to Say?” [Yiddish], New York Morgn Zhurnal, 18 June 1926, translated for me by Jacob Goldfein.

  79.    “Dei’otav HaḤevratiyot Shel Hoover” [Hebrew], editorial, Do’ar HaYom, 20 March 1929. Although the editorial is unsigned, Jabotinsky was editor of the paper and the only person on the staff likely to have had the knowledge to write the editorial. Wall Street Journal, 26 January 1987.

  80.    Jabotinsky, “Od Al America,” [Hebrew], in Ktavim, vol. 7 (Jerusalem: Eri Jabotinsky, 5708 [1948]), 195–97.

  81.    Jabotinsky quoted in “Ze’ev Jabotinsky Ḥazar leNew York” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 6 February 1922.

  82.    Among other sources, see his essays, “Prospect for Plutocratic Rule” and “De Profundis,” both originally published in Rasswiet in Russian; Jabotinsky, “HaPerspectiva Shel Shilton HaGvirim,” HaAretz, 13 July 1923; “Jabotinsky on Zionist Policy,” The New Palestine, 5 February 1926, 141; “The Zionists-Revisionists Programme” [sic], Palestine Post, 4 August 1926; M. Ungerfeld, “Massa Jabotinsky BeEiropa” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 14 January 1927, 164–65; “Jabotinsky Attacks Jewish Agency,” The New Palestine, 9 September 1927; “Yoman” [Hebrew], editorial, Do’ar HaYom, 3, 17, 24 December 1928 and 17 January 1929; HaSufah [Vladimir Jabotinsky], “Yoman” [Hebrew], Do’ar HaYom, 19 April 1929; Shavit, Jabotinsky, 1925–1948, 358; Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 589.

  83.    Altalena [Jabotinsky], “Utilizing Niagara,” The Zionist, 15 October 1926; Jabotinsky, Paris, letter to Betar Monthly, New York, 30 February 1932, MJ, File 1/22/2/1alef. See also, id., “American Zionism,” The Zionist, 25 June 1926; and “The Secret of Successful Colonization,” The New Palestine, 12 October 1928, 233–34.

  84.    Jabotinsky, “Secret of Successful Colonization;” Shavit, Jabotinsky, 1925–1948. See also Jabotinsky, “BiShnei Maklot” [Hebrew], Do’ar haYom, 22 March 1929.

  85.    Jabotinsky, “What Does America Have to Say?”

  86.    “We Americans”; “American Zionism.”

  87.    “We Americans.”

  88.    Jabotinsky, Paris, letter to [Dr. Samuel Perlman, Boston], 17 December 1927, MJ, 33/188taf.

  89.    Id., “American Zionism.”

  90.    Id., “What Does America Have to Say?”

  91.    Ibid; Id., “We Americans.”

  92.    Id., “De Profundis,” in HaDerech El HaRevisionism HaTziyoni [Hebrew], ed. Joseph Nedava (Tel Aviv: Jabotinsky Institute, 1984), 41. The essay was originally published in Russian in Rasswiet, 8 July 1923.

  93.    Jabotinsky, Paris, letter to [Joseph] Brainin, New York, 19 August 1924, MJ, File 14/2/1alef. See also, id., Paris, letter to Elias [Ginsburg], New York, 18 April 1925, MJ, File 15/2/1alef.

  94.    Id., letters from Paris, to Elias Ginsburg, [New York], 6 June and 16 September 1925, MJ, File 15/2/1alef; and to [Arthur] Adams, Denver, 9 July 1925, MJ, 12/2/1alef. In Fighter (46), Schechtman incorrectly states that Jabotinsky and his group were in touch with only one American during this period, Israel Posnansky of New York.

  95.    Jabotinsky, Vienna, letter to [wife, Johanna, Paris], MJ, File 5/36/2/1alef; id., [Paris], draft cable to Hurok Universal Artists, New York [17 October 1925], MJ, File 15/2/1alef.

  96.    Robert Silverman, Boston, letter to Dr. Anna Mintz, secretary, Avukah (the student Zionist society), Boston, 21 April 1926, in CZA, File F25/56; “LeVe’idat Bnei Zion,” editorial [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 18 June 1926.

  97.    Jabotinsky, postcard to wife, Johanna, Paris, from Buffalo, 14 February 1926; letter from New York, to wife, [Paris], 17 May 1926, both in MJ, File 6/36/2/1. See also, various letters from February to June 1926 in MJ, Files 1/28/3/1alef and 2/28/3/1alef.

  98.    Judge Bernard Rosenblatt, New York, letter to Jabotinsky, New York, 2 May 1926, MJ, File 14/3/1; Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, New York, letter to Raḥel Yana’it, [Palestine], 5 February 1926, BZA, File 1/4/10/34, which mentions Ben-Zvi’s having spoken to Jabotinsky about the “well-known phonographs . . . [and] records,” undoubtedly euphemisms for weapons and ammunition.

  99.    Vladimir Jabotinsky, “Bialik’s Poetic Range,” The New Palestine, 5 February 1926; “Large Crowd for the Debate on Zionism and Culture” [Yiddish], New York Morgn Zhurnal, 24 May 1926; “Tziyonut VeTarbut” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 4 June 1926; Shmaryahu Levin, New York, letter to Dr. [Chaim] Weizmann, London, 18 May 1926, in Igrot Shmaryahu Levin—Mivḥar [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1966), 413. See also, Ch. 3 below.

100.    Jabotinsky, “We Americans”; letters, New York, to Rabbi [A. H.] Silver, [Cleveland], 23 March 1926, Temple Library, Cleveland, Abba Hillel Silver Archives, File 6, Drawer 4; to [Julius] Berger, [New York], 14 April 1926, both summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 37/711taf, 28/79, 28/86; to wife, Johanna, [Paris], 12 March 1926 and 17 April 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef; Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, n.p., letter to Jabotinsky, New York, 24 March 1926, MJ, File 14/3/1alef; The New Palestine, 26 March 1926.
        The atlas was eventually published in Europe. See Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 592–95.

101.    Jabotinsky, New York, letter to wife, Johanna, [Paris], 5 May 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef.

102.    Meyer Weisgal, New York, letter to Jabotinsky, [New York], 15 February 1926, MJ, File 14/3/1alef; Jabotinsky, New York and n.p., letters to his wife, [Johanna, Paris], 3 February 1926, 15 June 1926, and 16 November 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef; id., “Summer Camps and the Holy Tongue” [Yiddish], New York Morgn Zhurnal, 26 July 1926; Schechtman, Fighter, 85.

103.    Jabotinsky, letters to Eva Jabotinsky and Tamar Kopp, Jerusalem, from New York, 3 February 1926, from Chicago, 21 February 1926, from New York, 22 February 1926, MJ, File 4/37/2/1alef. Compare also, Jabotinsky, New York, letter to [wife, Johanna, Paris], 3 February 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef.

104.    Jabotinsky, letters to Johanna, [Paris], 13 February 1926 and 21 February 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef; and to Rabbi [A. H.] Silver, [Cleveland], 23 March 1926, Temple Library, Cleveland, Abba Hillel Silver Archives, File 6 Drawer 4; Toronto Globe, 12 February 1926. In Jabo (vol. 2, 650), Katz claims the halls were full. The evidence, however, does not seem to support his contention.

105.    Jabotinsky, New York, cable to [Johanna] Jabotinsky, Paris, 22 March 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef.

106.    Robert Silverman, Boston, letter to Dr. Anna Mintz, secretary, Avukah, Boston, 21 April 1926, in CZA, File F25/56.

107.    Jabotinsky, letters to his wife, Johanna, Paris, from Buffalo, 13 February 1926, and from New York, 12 March 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef; “Mr. Jabotinsky’s Campaign,” London Jewish Chronicle, 23 July 1926.

108.    Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 649.

109.    Jabotinsky, letters to his wife, Johanna, Paris, from n.p., 9 March 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef; to Shlomo [Jacobi], n.p., 22 March 1927, MJ, File 17/2/1alef. See also, Schechtman, Fighter, 53–57.

110.    Jabotinsky, “About Cassandra,” The Zionist, 17 September 1926; “Zionism in America—The Revisionist Movement—Mr. Jabotinsky’s Campaign,” London Jewish Chronicle, 23 July 1926.
        See also, ad in Dos Iddishe Folk, 29 January 1926, for Jabotinsky’s speech in the Manhattan Opera House two days later, and Dr. Sh[imon] Bernstein’s editorial in the same journal, “Jabotinsky’s Programmatic Points,” 12 February 1926; The New Palestine, 26 March 1926; and Marc Lee Raphael, Abba Hillel Silver: A Profile in American Judaism (New York and London: Holmes & Meier, 1989), 73.

111.    Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 650–51.

112.    Jabotinsky, letters to his wife, Johanna, [Paris], n.p., 19 March 1926, Chicago, 21 February 1926, Buffalo, 13 February 1926, MJ, File 6/35/2/1alef; CZA, Files F38/692, F38/755; Louis D. Brandeis, letters, Chatham, Massachusetts, 20 July 1930, and Washington, D.C., 20 October 1929, to J[ulian] W[illiam] M[ack], n.p., in Letters of Louis D. Brandeis, vol. 5, ed. Melvin I. Urofsky and David W. Levy (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1978), 437, 408; Naomi W. Cohen, The Year after the Riots (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1988), 80, 88, 187.

113.    Jabotinsky, letter to his wife, Johanna, [Paris], New York 12 March 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef; Y. P. [Jabotinsky], “HaRevisionism BeArtzot HaBrit,” translated by Dr. Naḥum Kroll, in Nedava, BeHitgabshuto, 243–44, originally published in Russian, Rasswiet, 18 July 1926; Schechtman, Fighter, 48–49.

114.    Jabotinsky, New York, letters to [Jacob Cohen, Warsaw] 22 April 1926, MJ, File 16/2/1alef; to wife Johanna, [Paris], 14 May 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef.

115.    Jabotinsky, New York, 22 June 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef.

116.    Jabotinsky, farewell speech to supporters, in “Farewell to Jabotinsky,” The Zionist, 16 July 1926; “The Two Conventions,” The Zionist, 16 July 1926; “Order Sons of Zion Adopts Revisionism,” The Zionist, 25 June 1926; “Mr. Lipsky’s Letter to the Order Sons of Zion,” editorial [Yiddish], Dos Iddishe Folk, 11 June 1926; “Order Sons of Zion,” The New Palestine, 9 July 1926; Palestine Post, 29 July 1926; “Zionism in America—The Revisionist Movement—Mr. Jabotinsky’s Campaign;” Schechtman, Fighter, 51–57.

117.    Jabotinsky, New York, letters, to Avraham Recanati, Salonika, 17 May 1926, MJ, file number missing; to wife, Johanna, [Paris], 14 May 1926, MJ, File 6/36/2/1alef; to wife, [Paris], 28 May 1926, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 28/81; The Jewish Daily Bulletin Index, 1925 (New York: Jewish Daily Bulletin, 1925), 158; Jabotinsky, “Utilizing Niagara.”

118.    Jabotinsky, letters, St. Sauveur [?], to Shlomo [Jacobi, Melbourne], 12 August 1928, and Jerusalem, to Board of Directors, Judea Industrial Corporation, New York, 25 October 1928, both in MJ, File 2/18/2/1alef; Chaim Weizmann, Merano, letter to Frederick H. Kisch, Jerusalem, 23 September 1928, in The Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann, Series A, vol. 13, ed. Pinḥas Ofer, trans. Michael Kisch (New Brunswick, N.J. and Jerusalem: Transaction Books, Rutgers University Press, Israel Universities Press, 1977–78), 485–86; minutes of meetings of the Administrative Committee of the ZOA, 16 May and 8 June 1927; minutes of meeting of the Governing Council of the ZOA, 22 November [1928]. A series of articles in The Vanguard during 1929 catalogues the company’s difficulties thoroughly.

119.    Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 693.

120.    I[tamar] B[en Avi], “Hitpalalnu LeVoacha, Ish Akko” [Hebrew], Do’ar HaYom, 7 October 1928; “Avukah Luncheon, July 2nd,” The New Palestine, 29 June 1928.

121.    In February and March 1929, the paper serialized “The Gold Bug” and “Murders in the Rue Morgue” by Poe, and in April 1929, a story of O. Henry. Although the name of the translator was not given, it was undoubtedly the editor himself. In praise of American free enterprise, there appeared, among other pieces, an unsigned editorial, “Dei’otav HaḤevratiyot Shel Hoover,” 20 March 1929, and Abba Aḥimeir’s “HaYozma HaPratit veErkah,” 29 March 1929. On the pioneering spirit, see, for example, Jabotinsky’s article, “Megilat HaGdud,” 17 February 1929.

122.    On American Zionists, non-Zionists, and anti-Zionists, see, for example, “BeMa’arechet HaOppozitzia BeAmerica,” unsigned editorial, 9 December 1928; Herman Sweet, “Siḥa im Stephen Wise Lifnei Nas’o MiBerlin,” 3 January 1929; Capanella [Jabotinsky?], “H[aAdon] Rosenwald Mitkarev LaTziyonut,” 16 April 1919; Meir Grossman, “Madua Anu Mitnagdim?” 19, 21–24, 28 April 1929.

123.    See, for example, “Jabotinsky BeArtzeinu” [Hebrew], 7 October 1928; “Likrat HaTa’arucha” [Hebrew], 14 January 1929; “Erev HaTa’arucha” [Hebrew], 7 April 1929.

124.    On Jabotinsky’s activities as an insurance executive in Palestine, see among other sources, Jacob S. Strahl, Paris, letter to Vladimir Jabotinsky [Paris], 9 July 1928, MJ, File 1/16/3/1alef; Vladimir Jabotinsky, letters, from Paris to Oscar [Grusenberg, Riga], 28 September 1928, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 34/252; with Marek Schwartz from Jerusalem, to Board of Directors, Judea Industrial Corporation, New York, 25 October 1928, MJ, File 2/18/2/1alef; Schechtman, Fighter, 86ff.

125.    Vladimir Jabotinsky, New York, open letter in Haifa HaZafon [Hebrew], 28 May 1926.

126.    Jabotinsky, “HaRevisionism BeArtzot HaBrit,” 149; “Farewell to Jabotinsky.”

127.    Jabotinsky, speech quoted in “Farewell to Jabotinsky”; id., Lwow, Poland, letter to wife, [Johanna, Paris], 12 March 1927, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 28/117.

128.    Jabotinsky, London, letter to [Marek Schwartz, Jerusalem], 12 September 1929, MJ, File 2/19/2 1alef.

129.    A term of derision used by Jewish social critics of American-Jewish mores to denote what H. L. Mencken called “the booboisie.”

130.    Jabotinsky, “American Zionism;” id., letters, from New York, to Aaron M. Wilner, Boston, 28 June 1926, MJ, File 16/2/1alef; n.p., to Elias Ginsburg, New York, 19 August 1927, MJ, File 17/2/1alef; from Paris, to Mr. [Mordecai] Danzis, New York, 30 November 1927, MJ, File 17/2/1alef.
        In Jabo (vol. 2, 653) Shmuel Katz lays all the blame for lack of follow-up on the disorganized American Revisionists. That judgment, however, must be discounted as apologetics.

131.    Jabotinsky, Paris, letters to [Jacob] Ish Kishor, New York, 21 November 1927, MJ, File 17/2/1alef; to Meir Grossman, London, 22 November 1927, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 37/749; to Mr. Danzis, New York, 30 November 1927, MJ, File 17/2/1alef.

132.    Id., letters, from Paris, to Mr. [Mordecai] Danzis, New York, 30 November 1927, MJ, File 17/2/1alef; from Jerusalem, to [Joseph] Bader, New York, 24 October 1928, MJ, File 2/18/2/1alef.

133.    Elias Ginsburg, New York, letter to Shilton, Brith Trumpeldor, Paris, 8 May 1935, in MJ, File 2/23/3/1alef.

134.    Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 1124.

135.    Jabotinsky, Paris, letter to [Elias] Ginsburg, [Brooklyn], 3 May 1932, in MJ, File 1/22/2/1alef; Abraham Tulin, [New York], letter to Jabotinsky, Paris, 25 March 1931, in MJ, File 19/3/1alef. See also, Jabotinsky, Paris, letter to Meir [Grossman, London], 29 January 1931, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 2, 35/424taf.

136.    “The Land of Gigantic Longings” [Yiddish] New York Morgn Zhurnal, 17 March 1935, and Warsaw Der Moment, 22 March 1935, translated for me by Jack Chodoroff; Hebrew, Jerusalem HaYarden, 22 March 1935; “Od al America,” 203–04.

137.    “Tziyonut Ktanah, Mah Hi?” Ktavim, vol. 11, 233, originally published in Yiddish in the New York Morgn Zhurnal, 3 August 1930; “Echoes” [Russian], Rasswiet, 5 June 1932, translated for me by Professor Richard Pope; “The Evacuation that Was Carried Out,” originally published in Yiddish in Warsaw’s Der Moment, 30 June 1939, quoted in Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 117; “Lefi Beḥirat HaSafran” [Hebrew], Tel Aviv HaMashkif, 12, 22 April 1940.
        In the last essay, although critical of American prejudice, Jabotinsky praises the country as “an admixture of the best blood of white humanity.”

138.    Jabotinsky, “Lefi Beḥirat HaSafran” [Hebrew], HaMashkif, 12 April 1940.

139.    Id., “Lefi Beḥirat HaSafran,” HaMashkif, 22 April 1940.

140.    Id., “Gigantic Longings;” “Michtav MeiAmerica” [Hebrew], Jerusalem HaYarden, 1 March 1935. See also, Benjamin Akzin, Mei Riga Lirushalayim, Pirke Zichronot (Jerusalem: Hassifriya Haziyonit al-yad HaHistradrut HaTziyonit HaOlamit, 1989), 247.

141.    Jabotinsky, “Der Bandwagen” [Yiddish], New York Morgn Zhurnal, 18 March 1935, and other places. See also, “Michtav MeiAmerica.”

142.    Id., The War and the Jew (New York: Altalena, 1987), 137, originally published in June 1940 as The Jewish War Front. See also, 28, 136. For a discussion of the intentions of the American and other governments at Evian, see Irving Abella and Harold Troper, None Is Too Many: Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1933–1948 (Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1982), 16–37 and notes.

143.    Schechtman, Fighter, 268; Jabotinsky, Paris, letter to Mr. [Mordecai] Danzis, New York, 30 November 1927, in MJ, File 17/2/1alef.

144.    Rassviet [Russian], 15 April 1934, translation in MJ, File 37/886taf.

145.    James Waterman Wise, New York, letter to Jabotinsky, [Paris], 16 November 1933, in MJ, File 21/3/1alef; Stephen Wise, n.p., letter to Jabotinsky, Paris, in MJ, File 22/3/1alef; Ben-Gurion, [Tel Aviv], letter to Dr. Stephen S. Wise, Paris, 4 August 1931, in LAT, File IV-104–29-17bet; Melvin I. Urofsky, A Voice that Spoke for Justice (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1982), 252–53, 278; Michael A. Meyer, Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion: A Centennial History, 1875–1975, rev. ed. (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1992), 150.

146.    Stephen Wise, n.p., letter to Jabotinsky, Paris, 20 October 1934, in MJ, File 22/3/1alef. In Fighter (266–70), Schechtman describes the break but offers no explanation for it. In Jabo (vol. 2, 936), Katz claims that Wise aspired to the presidency of the WZO and sought to secure Labor support by breaking with Jabotinsky. He offers no support, however, for this thesis.

147.    “Stephen Wise Cracks Down on Jabotinsky,” Jewish Frontier, April 1935, 6–7; Urofsky, Voice, 406; and other sources.

148.    Jabotinsky, “Der Bandwagen.” The reply was first delivered as a speech in Boston (Akzin, Riga, 247).

149.    Brandeis, Washington, D.C., letter to S[tephen] S. W[ise], in Brandeis Letters, vol. 5, 551; I[srael] Mereminsky (later, Merom), [HEC, Tel Aviv], letter to Dr. [David] Rabelsky, n.p., 14 March 1935, in LAT, File IV-208-1-706; Jabotinsky, Paris, letter to Elias [Ginsburg, Brooklyn], 29 January 1933, in MJ, File 1/23/2/1alef.

150.    On the Brandeisists, see J. Lackow, New York, letter to Jabotinsky, [Paris], 16 September 1932, in MJ, File 20/3/1alef; Schechtman, Fighter, 258, 261; Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 943. In HaSochnut HaYehudit—Shanim Rishonot, 1919–1931 [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Hassifriya Haziyonit, 1990), 255, Yigal Elam suggests that Brandeis’s reluctance to enter an anti-Weizmann alliance with Jabotinsky stemmed from the judge’s wish to focus on American Zionist affairs, as opposed to Jabotinsky’s global aspirations. The reality, however, seems to be more complex.
        On the Labor Zionists, see Israel Mereminsky, diary, New York, 27 October 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-338bet; id., New York, letter to HEC, Tel Aviv, 27 December 1932, and diary, New York, 5 January 1933, both in LAT, File IV-208-1-407alef; the correspondence between Eliezer Galili, Yosef Sprinzak, and Baruch Zuckerman in New York, and the HEC, Tel Aviv, January-December, 1934, in LAT, File IV-208-1-407bet.

151.    Jabotinsky, Pittsburgh, memorandum to the Comité Executif, Paris, 4 March 1935, in MJ, File 1/25/2/1alef; id., letter to Jacob De Haas, 15 June 1935, quoted in Schechtman, Fighter, 278; David Ben-Gurion, diary, in BGA, entry for 27 May 1935.

152.    Jabotinsky, letters to Shlomo [Jacobi], from St. Louis, 23 March 1935, and Toronto, 28 February 1935, both summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 2; id., Pittsburgh, memorandum to Revisionist Executive Committee, Paris, 4 March 1935, in MJ, File 1/25/2/1alef; id., quoted in Jerusalem HaYarden, 28 April 1935.

153.    Id., Paris, letter to Executive Committee, Union of Zionist Revisionists, London, 22 April 1932, in MJ, File 1/22/2/1alef.

154.    Id., quoted in Jerusalem HaYarden, 28 April 1935.

155.    Schechtman, Fighter, 256.

156.    Abraham Tulin, [New York], letter to Jabotinsky, Paris, 25 March 1931, in MJ, File 19/3/1alef. Compare also, the similar assessment of Alon Gal, in David Ben-Gurion—Likrat Medina Yehudit [Hebrew] ([Sede Boqer]: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus, 1985), 147.

157.    “Jabotinsky’s International Army,” editorial, Jewish Frontier, October 1935, 4.

158.    Jabotinsky, letters, New York City, to [Akiva] Brun, [Tel Aviv], 19 March 1935, in MJ, File 1/25/2/1alef; Paris, to E[lias] Ginsburg, New York, 29 May 1935, summarized in Igrot Jabotinsky, 2, 36/564taf; and Paris, to Elias [Ginsburg, New York], 29 July 1935, in MJ, File 2/25/2/1alef.

159.    A[braham] Tulin, [New York], letter to Jabotinsky, New York, 26 February 1935, in MJ, File 1/23/3/1alef; Jabotinsky, New York, letters to his wife, Johanna, [London], 19 March 1940, and 25 April 1940, both in MJ, File 12/36/2/1alef, translated for me by Raḥel Halperin.

160.    Jabotinsky, Paris, letter to S. S. Wise, New York, 23 July 1930, in Stephen S. Wise Collection, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts. See also, Schechtman, Fighter, 302–04; and Elam, HaSochnut, 254.

161.    Jabotinsky, [New York], letter to [Executive Council, New Zionist Organization, London], 20 March 1940, in MJ, File 1/30/2/1alef.

162.    B[enjamin] Akzin, London, letter to Jabotinsky, n.p., 31 March 1938, in MJ, File 1/26/3/1alef; id., Riga, 180; id., “Mediniyut HaḤutz shel Jabotinsky” [Hebrew], in his Sugiyot BeMishpat u-vi-Medina’ut (Jerusalem: Hotza’at Sfarim al Shem J. L. Magnes, HaUniversita HaIvrit, 5726 [1966]), 90, 93; Jabotinsky, London, letter to Akzin, [Washington], 2 January 1939, in MJ, File 1/29/2/1alef; and other sources.

163.    Feis, quoted by B[enjamin] Akzin in a letter from Washington, 10 May 1940, to Jabotinsky, New York, in MJ, File 2/28/3/1alef. For Jabotinsky’s views, see among other sources, his letters in MJ from New York, to [Shmuel] Katz, [London], 31 May 1940, File 1/30/2/1alef; to Josef [sic] Mirelman, Buenos Aires, 28 June 1940, File 2/30/2/1alef; and to James MacDonald, New York, 16 July 1940, File 40/166. See also, his aide-mémoire to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Provisional Government of the Czechoslovak Republic, New York, 1 August 1940, copy in MJ, 2/30/2/1alef.

164.    Jabotinsky, conversation with Dr. Baruch Weinstein in Paris, 1 or 2 September 1939, quoted in Schechtman, Fighter, 368. Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 1134, has taken his information from Schechtman.

165.    Jabotinsky, Vals-les-Bains, France, letter to Nesiut [Executive, New Zionist Organization], London, 22 July 1939, in MJ, File 2/29/2/1alef.

166.    Id., Paris, letter to Elias [Ginsburg, Brooklyn], 27 September 1939, in MJ, File 3/24/2/1alef.

167.    Jabotinsky, London, letter to Daniel Syrkis, Haifa, 21 September 1939, in MJ, File 39/181.

168.    Id., New York, letters to wife, Johanna, London, 8 April and 8 May 1940, in MJ, File 18/36/2/1alef, both translated for me by Raḥel Halperin; id., New York, letter to his sister, Tamar [Kopp, Haifa], 28 July 1940, in MJ, File 11/37/2/1alef.

169.    Id., New York, letters to [Administrative Council, New Zionist Organization, London], 16 March 1940, in MJ, File 1/30/2/1alef, and to wife, Johanna, [London], 17 March 1940, in MJ, File 12/36/2/1alef.

170.    Id., New York, letter to wife, Johanna, [London], 23 March 1940, in MJ, File 12/36/2/1alef, translated for me by Raḥel Halperin.

171.    Id., New York, letters to Jacob Daum, [Buenos Aires], 16 April 1940, to [Michael Haskel, Johannesburg], 18 April 1940, and to Dr. [José] Mirelman, Buenos Aires, 16 April 1940, all in MJ, File 1/30/2/1alef.

172.    Id., New York, letter to wife, Johanna, [London], 24 June 1940, in MJ, File 12/36/2/1alef, translated for me by Raḥel Halperin.

173.    Akzin, Riga, 316.

174.    On the Irgun-Revisionist split in America and elsewhere, see Eri Jabotinsky, Avi, Ze’ev Jabotinsky [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Steimatzky’s Agency, 1980), 157; Akzin, Riga, 315; Shavit, Jabotinsky, 1925–1948, 100; David Shpiro, “The Role of the Emergency Committee for Zionist Affairs as the Political Arm of American Zionism, 1938–1944,” Ph.D. dissertation, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1979, vol. 2, 449; Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 1147; and Peter Grose, Israel in the Mind of America (New York: Knopf, 1983), 162.

175.    Jabotinsky, New York, letter to [his wife, Johanna, London], 19 March 1940. See also, id., [New York], letter to [Executive Council, New Zionist Organization, London], 20 March 1940. Both are in MJ, File 1/30/2/1alef.

176.    Id., New York, letters, to Colonel [J. H. Patterson, New York], 11 June 1940, in MJ, File 2/30/2/1alef, and to Dr. Alex Raphaeli, representative of the National Military Organization, New York, 12 June 1940, copy in MJ, File 40/126.

177.    “America Seething with Jewish Army Plan,” Johannesburg Jewish Herald, 21 June 1940; Jabotinsky and Patterson, New York, cable to Winston Churchill, Prime Minister, London, [n.d.], copy in MJ, File 2/30/2/1alef.

178.    Jabotinsky, New York, letters to [Administrative Council, New Zionist Organization, London], 16 March 1940, in MJ, File 1/30/2/1alef, and to wife, [Johanna, London], 19 March 1940, in MJ, File 1/30/2/1alef, and 3 June 1940, in MJ, File 12/36/2/1alef; id., letters, all in MJ, London, 2 September 1939, to Anatole de Monzie, Minister of Public Works, Paris, File 2/29/2/1alef; New York, 17 May 1940, to Sir Archibald [Sinclair, Air Secretary, London], File 1/30/2/1alef; [New York], 20 and 21 May 1940, to Prime Minister, Dominion of Canada, Ottawa, File 1/30/2/1alef; [New York], 18 June 1940, to Secretary of State, Washington, D.C., File 40/130; aide-mémoire, to Minister for Foreign Affairs, Provisional Government of the Czechoslovak Republic, New York, 1 August 1940, in MJ, File 2/30/2/1alef.

179.    Id., aide-mémoire to Minister of Foreign Affairs, Provisional Government of the Czechoslovak Republic, New York, 1 August 1940, in MJ, File, 2/30/2/1alef; id., War and the Jew, 105–06; Gal, Likrat Medina, 77.

180.    Extracts from Jabotinsky’s address, Manhattan Center, 19 June 1940, PRO, File FO 321/24566; Jabotinsky, New York, letter to wife, [Johanna, London], 11 June 1940, in MJ, File 12/36/2/1alef; Schechtman, Fighter, 388–89; Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 1139, 1150; Akzin, Riga, 314.

181.    Shpiro, “Emergency Committee,” vol. 2,451; Akzin, Riga, 314; id., “Mediniyut haḤutz,” 105; Urofsky, Voice, 312; Katz, Jabo, vol. 2, 1141–42.

182.    Eri Jabotinsky, Avi, 88.

183.    Max Raisin, Groyse Yidn Vos Ich Hob Gekent [Yiddish] (Paterson, N.J.: New Jersey Branch of the Central Yiddish Culture Organization (“CYCO”), 1950), 130.

184.    Akzin, Riga, 317.

185.    Abraham Revusky, “Vladimir Jabotinsky,” Jewish Frontier, September 1940; Abe Cahan, New York, letter to Jabotinsky, New York, 17 April 1940, in MJ, File 1/28/3/1alef. See also, Jeanne [Johanna] Jabotinsky, New York, letter to Abraham Cahan, New York, 7 July 1942, in YIVO, Record Group 1139, Folder 170.

186.    Jabotinsky, “We Americans.”

187.    Jabotinsky quoted in Anita Shapira, Berl: The Biography of a Socialist Zionist, trans. Ḥaya Galai (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1984), 284; and in Gal, Likrat Medina, 78.

Chapter 3

    1.    “Bialik, Greatest of Living Hebrew Poets, Speaks Here,” The Washington Post, 18 April 1926.

    2.    Compare Michael Keren, The Pen and the Sword (Boulder, San Francisco, and London: Westview, 1989), 26; and Gershon Shaked, “The Great Transition,” in The Great Transition: The Recovery of the Lost Centers of Modern Hebrew Literature, ed. Glenda Abramson and Tudor Parfitt (Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Allenheld, 1985), 117–25.

    3.    David Ben Gurion, Zichronot, vol. 1 [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1971), 47; Weizmann, letter, Tel Aviv, 1 October 1924, to his wife, Vera Weizmann, London, in The Life and Letters of Chaim Weizmann, Series A, vol. 12, ed. Joshua Freundlich (Jerusalem: Rutgers University, and Israel Universities Press, 1977), 242–43.

    4.    [Paḥaz], “Bialik Nassa,” HaAretz, 20 January 1926.

    5.    Compare Berl Katznelson, “Evel Yaḥid,” Davar, 13 July 1934; and “Bli Bialik,” Davar, 7 July 1934, both in Hebrew. On Bialik’s influence on his generation, see David Aberbach, Bialik (London: Peter Halban, 1988), 15, and the sources cited there.

    6.    [H. N. Bialik], “DvirHotza’at Sfarim Leumit Tziburit (Berlin: Dfus “Ever,” 5682 [1922]), 6. This prospectus was signed by Dr. M. Glickson and Dr. Shmaryahu Levin, as well as Bialik. It may be assumed, however, that his colleagues left the task of writing to the poet.
        See also, Shalom Spiegel, “Saul Tchernichovsky,” The New Palestine, 7 December 1928, 463–64, 471; Ya’akov Fichman, “Im Bialik (Zichronot U-Reshimot MiPinkasi)” [Hebrew], Knesset—Divrei Sofrim Le-Zecher H. N. Bialik, vol. 2, ed. Ya’akov Cohen and F.[ishel] Laḥover (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 5697 [1937]), 93ff; Aberbach, Bialik, 37–55.

    7.    Baruch Benedikt Kurzweil, “The Image of the Western Jew in Modern Hebrew Literature,” Leo Baeck Institute Year Book 6 (1961): 181.

    8.    See Joel S. Geffen, “Whither: To Palestine or to America in the Pages of the Russian Hebrew Press, Ha-Melitz and Ha-Yom (1880–1890), Annotated Documentary,” American Jewish Historical Quarterly 59 (December 1969): passim; and Harvey Richman, “The Image of America in the European Hebrew Periodicals of the Nineteenth Century (Until 1880),” unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1971; and other sources.
        Compare also, Hillel Bavli, “Al HaTarbut HaIvrit BeAmerica” [Hebrew], Moznayim 1 (20 August 1926). Bavli, an American Hebraist who was visiting in Palestine, told his audience of Palestinian Hebrew writers, that their “notions about America” were conceived in ignorance and “far from the truth.” On the date of Bavli’s talk, Bialik was still making his way home from America. To an extent, however, Bavli was talking about him, if not to him.

    9.    As quoted by his son-in-law, Y. D. Berkowitz, in HaRishonim Kivnei Adam [Hebrew], vol. 1 (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1938), 177. On the ambivalent attitude of Sholem Aleichem towards America, see Khone Shmeruk, “Sholem Aleichem and America,” YIVO Annual 20 (1991): 212ff.

  10.    Ḥaim Naḥman Bialik, “Al America,” speech at Bet HaAm, Tel Aviv, [Hebrew], Tishrei, 5687 [1926], in his Dvarim SheBe’Al Peh, vol. 2. (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 5695 [1935]), 93–94.

  11.    K.[alman] Whiteman, “HaRa’ayon HaIvri,” HaToren 3 (9 February 1917): 3. See also, Michael Brown, “All, All, Alone: The Hebrew Press in America from 1914 to 1924,” American Jewish Historical Quarterly 59 (December 1969): 138–77.

  12.    Dvir,” 4.

  13.    Berkowitz, HaRishonim, vol. 2, 262; and Bialik, letter, Odessa, 19 Teveth 1905, to Sholem Aleichem, n.p., in Igrot Chaim Nachman Bialik, 5 vols., ed. F.[ishel] Laḥover (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1938 [vols. 1–4], 1939 [vol. 5]), vol. 2, 9. Compare also, the letter of Mendele Mocher Seforim, Geneva, 8 January 1907, to Yehoshua Ravnitzki and Bialik in Odessa, in Correspondence Between S. J. Abramovitsch, Ch. N. Bialik and Y. Ch. Rawnitzki, 1905–1908, ed. Chone Shmeruk (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Science and Humanities, 1976), 89–90; and Bialik’s letters from Odessa on 14 Kislev 1905 and 11 Shvat 1906 to S. Ben Zion, n.p., in Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 3–4, 10–12.
        Noah H. Rosenbloom, in “America BeEinei Bialik,” in his Iyunei Sifrut VeHagut [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Rubin Mass, 1989), 281–313, claims that Bialik’s statement about Russia and Odessa is to be taken at face value and was motivated by his extreme animus towards America. It stretches credulity, however, to believe that Bialik would have sincerely praised Russia as the fairest of countries, when only a few weeks earlier five hundred Jews had been killed and more than three thousand injured in a violent pogrom in Odessa. In fact, the same day he wrote to Sholem Aleichem, Bialik wrote to Y. D. Berkowitz recalling the Odessa pogrom which threatened to put an end to Jewish spiritual and cultural life in the city. About a month later, Bialik wrote to S. Ben Zion: “How fortunate you are . . . to be dwelling in peace . . . in the Alps under the skies of Switzerland, a place without bombs or fear of death or pogroms; we, on the other hand, . . . are like the dead” (letters, Odessa, 19 Teveth and 11 Shvat 1905, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 7–8, 10–11).
        On Odessa, see Ezra Spicehandler, “Odessa as a Literary Center of Hebrew Literature,” in Abramson and Parfitt, The Great Transition, pp. 75–90.

  14.    H. N. Bialik, “Od Al Kinnus HaRuaḥ” [Hebrew], speech at a gathering of the New York Histadruth Ivrith, 1926, in Dvarim, vol. 1, 70. See also, Natan Rotenstreich, “Haguto Shel Bialik BeInyenei Tarbut” [Hebrew], Knesset (New Series) 1 (5720 [1960]): 208; Aberbach, Bialik, 6–7, and the sources cited there.

  15.    See Keren, Sword, 23–25.

  16.    Sh.[imon] Halkin, “HaIton Eretz-HaYisraeli VeHaGola,” Moznayim 1 (22 March 1929): 9.

  17.    Quoted in Aberbach, Bialik, 4. See also, 58–59. The implications of Bialik’s being a small-towner were suggested to me by Shulamith Nardi in a discussion in Jerusalem, 26 March 1991.

  18.    Bialik, letter, [Berlin], 6 February 1922, to Daniel Persky, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 249. See also, Z.[alman] Shneur, Ch. N. Bialik u-Vnei Doro [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 5713 [1953]), 94.

  19.    “Bialik Al Reshamav BeLondon,” and “Chaim Naḥman Bialik BeDarko LeAmerica,” both in London HaOlam [Hebrew], 29 January 1926; Bialik, letters, London, 26 December 1930, to [Dvir, Tel Aviv], [London], 17 February, 1931, to editorial board of Moznayim, Tel Aviv, and [London], 12 February 1931, to Y. H. Ravnitzki, Tel Aviv, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 127, 142, 141; Aḥad HaAm quoted in Steven J. Zipperstein, Elusive Prophet: Aḥad Ha’Am and the Origins of Zionism (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993), 277. See also, Mordecai Ovadyahu, MiPi Bialik [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Masada, 5705 [1945]), 28; and Shlomo Shva, Ḥozeh Braḥ! [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1990), 301–03.

  20.    “Al America,” in Dvarim, vol. 1, 93; Shmaryahu Levin, letter, n.p., 15 November 1925, to Chaim Weizmann, [London], in Igrot Shmaryahu Levin—Mivḥar [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1966), 411; Bialik, letter, on board ship off Marseilles, [January, 1926], to [Yehoshua] Ravnitzki, [Tel Aviv], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 95; Leah Naor, HaMeshorer—Sipuro Shel Bialik [Hebrew] (Jerusalem and Tel Aviv: Yad Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi and Am Oved, 1991), 200–207. See also, Bialik, letter, Tel Aviv, 15 January 1926, to [S.] Ben Zion, n.p., in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 92–93; and “Neshef HaPreida LeVialik U-LeDr. S. Levin” [Hebrew], Davar, 17 January 1926.
        In “Al America” and elsewhere, Bialik speaks of his “aimah beheimit” regarding America. Rosenbloom in “America” (289–90) translates the term as “animal fear” and insists that it be understood to refer to a pathological condition. The puckish Bialik, however, may just have liked the rhyme (aimah shel behaimah). The phrase could be rendered “blind fear,” which would be much less freighted. And, as shown, Bialik feared big cities, in general, not just American cities.

  21.    See Bialik’s letter, Tel Aviv, 21 October 1925, to his nephew, Shneur Zalman Bialik, Har[t]ford, [Connecticut], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 71–72.

  22.    Bialik, letter, [The Hague], 23 August 1907, to his wife, Manya, [Odessa], in H. N. Bialik, Igrot El Ra’ayato, Manya [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Hotza’at Mosad Bialik and Dvir, 1955), 21; Judah L. Magnes, “Some Poems of H. N. Bialik,” Hebrew Union College Annual, 1 (1904).

  23.    Bialik, letter, Odessa, 8 December 1906, to Sholem Aleichem, New York, in Shmeruk, Correspondence, 145. See also, Bialik, letter, [Odessa, November, 1906], to Sholem Aleichem, [New York], Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 27–28; Berkowitz, HaRishonim, vol. 2 (1938), 351ff; and Nina Warnke, “Of Plays and Politics: Sholem Aleichem’s First Visit to America,” YIVO Annual 20 (1991): 239–76.

  24.    Bialik, letter, Odessa, 25 December 1906, to Shmaryahu Levin, [New York], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 36.

  25.    See the exchange of letters in 1906–07 among Bialik and Yehoshua Ravnitzki in Odessa, Mendele in Switzerland, and Sholem Aleichem in New York, in Shmeruk, Correspondence, 84–87, 95–96, 120–21, 137–53, 157–60. See also, the Bialik letter cited in n. 23.

  26.    Bialik, “BiVe’idat HaSofrim,” opening address at the Hebrew Writers’ Conference, Tel Aviv, Nisan, 1927, [Hebrew], in Devarim, vol. 1, 126. On Bialik’s relationship with Berkowitz, see Avraham Holtz, Isaac Dov Berkowitz (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1973).

  27.    On HaToren, its editors, and contributors, see Alan Mintz, “A Sanctuary in the Wilderness: The Beginnings of the Hebrew Movement in America in Hatoren,” in Hebrew in America, ed. Alan Mintz (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1993), 29–67.

  28.    See Z. Fishman, “Ḥaim Naḥman Bialik (Biografia U-Vivliografia),” Ein HaKorei 1 (Nisan-Elul 5683 [1923]); Mintz, “Sanctuary,” 49–50; Bibliography of Modern Hebrew Literature in English Translation, comp. Yoḥai Goell (Jerusalem: Executive of the World Zionist Organization, Youth and Hechalutz Department, and Israel Universities Press, 1968); and Bibliography of Modern Hebrew Literature in Translation, comp. Yoḥai Goell (Tel Aviv: Institute for the Translation of Hebrew Literature, 1975).

  29.    See HaToren, 28 April 1916; 12, 19, 26 May 1916; 21 July 1916; 1,8,15 September 1916; Berkowitz, HaRishonim, vol. 5 (1943), 1028–29; and Brown, “Alone,” 152–57.

  30.    Simon Ginzburg, “BiChe’eiv Demama Daka” [Hebrew], in Sefer Zikaron LeB. N. Silkiner, ed. Menaḥem Ribalow (New York: Ogen al yad HaHistradruth HaIvrith BeAmerica, 5694 [1934]), 26; H. N. Bialik, letter, photocopy, Odessa, n.d., to Simon Ginzburg, New York, in ABTA, File 51–48038a; Literature in Translation, 83; and other sources. On Ginzburg (either Simon, Shimon, or Simeon Ginzburg or Ginsberg) see Mintz, Hebrew.

  31.    See Ginzburg, “Bi-Che’eiv,” 27; L. Eliav, “Kav Ve-Naki” [Hebrew], in Silkiner, 60; Israel Efros, Binyamin Silkiner, Yehuda Even-Shmuel Kaufman, Milon Angli-Ivri (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1929 [reprinted twenty-five times by 1963]). On “Mul Ohel Timura,” see [Yosef Ḥaver] Yosef Ḥaim Brenner, “BaItonut U-VaSifrut” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir, 9 December 1910; and Ezra Spicehandler, “Ameriqaiyut in American Hebrew Literature,” in Mintz, Hebrew, 75–76. Bialik would certainly have read an article by Brenner, one of the most important Hebrew writers of the day, in one of Palestine’s few Hebrew journals, as well as the poem, which was published in Palestine.

  32.    See Bialik, letters, Tel Aviv, 4 Tishrei [1924], to S. P. Mendelssohn, n.p., in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 17–18; and Tel Aviv, 4 June 1925, to Ze’ev Rosenblum, editor of the student monthly of the Jewish Theological Seminary, [New York], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 35–36.

  33.    Neumark published two lengthy reviews and a major article on “the new philosophy” in vol. 13 of HaShiloaḥ (January-June 1904), a shorter review in vol. 15 (January-June 1905), and a lengthy review of David Philipson’s The Reform Movement in Judaism in vol. 19 (1908). His scholarly work in Hebrew, Toldot HaIkarim BeYisrael, was published by Moriah, the first volume in 1912, and the second in 1919. On Neumark at the Hebrew Union College, see Michael A. Meyer, Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion: A Centennial History, 1875–1975, rev. ed. (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1992), 68–69, 98, 110, 113, 130.

  34.    See his “HaPilosofia HaAravit VeHashpa’ata Al HaYahadut,” HaShiloah 15 (1905): 99–115, a continuation of an article that had appeared in vol. 6 (1899): 38–52; and “HaDeot BeMahut HaNefesh Lefi Rabi Sa’adia Gaon,” HaShiloaḥ 26 (1912): 128–37.

  35.    “Hoveret Le-Dugma,” 14: 381–86. It should be noted that foreign authors from many countries, including Charles Dickens and Gilbert and Sullivan, complained bitterly about American copyright laws, which legalized the piracy.

  36.    “Kitvei Iteinu,” on the American-Jewish press, vol. 14 (1904); “Min HaSifrut HaYehudit BaLashon HaAnglit (Bikoret),” on books by Bernard G. Richards, Rabbi H. Pereira Mendes, and Mary Antin, vol. 15 (1905): 80–86; “Otzar Yisrael (Bikoret),” on the new encyclopedia by J. D. Eisenstein, vol. 19 (1908): 59–70; “Ḥakirot BeYahadut,” on Solomon Schechter’s Studies in Judaism, Second Series, vol. 21 (1909): 533–34; “HaTziyonut BeAmerica,” on American Zionism, vol. 17 (1906): 56–64.

  37.    A.[braham] S. Waldstein, “Mei-America,” HaShiloaḥ 13 (1904): 465–72; Bialik, quoted in The New Palestine, April 1916, as cited by Gertrude Hirschler in “Bialik’s Tour of the United States,” Midstream 30 (August-September 1984): 31.

  38.    David Auerbach, “HaAmerikani—(Sipur [a story]),” 23 (1910): 298–309; [HaDod Mordecai], “Anashim U-Ma’asim,” 25 (1911): 78–86; Menahem Ribalow, “HaNoded,” a poem, 27 (1912): 545; Simon Ginzburg, “Haḥinuch HaIvri BeArtzot HaBrit (Michtav MeiAmerica),” 27 (1912): 270–78; Gedalia Bublick, “Yehudim Ba’alei Ḥomer (Michtav MeiAmerica),” 28 (1913): 81–83; Dr. A. Levinson, “HaStudentim HaIvriyim BeAmerica,” 28 (1913): 365–72.

  39.    Mordecai [Max] Z. Raisin, “Mordecai Emanuel Noah” [Hebrew], 13 (1904): 519. See also, 213–22, 313–19, 411–25, 505–19; [Z-S], “Yitronoteihen Shel Artzot HaBrit,” 14, 333–43. On Raisin’s Yisrael BeAmerica, see Bialik letter, Tel Aviv, 19 June 1928 to M. Z. Raisin, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 135.

  40.    See H. N. Bialik, circular letter in Hebrew, 28 April 5676 [1916], to Young Judaea, New York, in ABTA, File 51–2098.

  41.    See Aberbach, Bialik, 60–96, and 114ff; and many other sources.

  42.    “Al Kinus HaRuaḥ,” speech at a mass meeting of Hebraists in London, Shvat, 1926, in Devarim, vol. 1, 66.

  43.    “Ne’umo Shel H. N. Bialik” [Hebrew], speech at the Council for Hebrew Culture in Carlsbad, HaToren, October 1921, 49–50.

  44.    See among other sources, “MiSiḥotav Shel Bialik” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 21 November 1921; “Dvir”, 3; Bialik, “Al Matzav HaYahadut VeHaSifrut HaIvrit BaGola,” conversation, Adar Sheni, 5684 [1924], in Devarim, vol. 1, 47; Bialik, “Al Ḥurban HaYahadut BaGola U-Vinyan Eretz Yisrael,” speech at a reception held in London for Bialik by the British Zionist Federation, Shvat, 5686 [1926], in Devarim, vol. 1, 59; H. N. Bialik, “Dvir” U-“Moriah” [Hebrew] (New York: n.p., 5686 [1926]); Emanuel Neumann, In the Arena (New York: Herzl, 1976), 73.

  45.    Speech to the Twelfth Zionist Congress in Carlsbad, Elul, 5681 [1921], in Devarim, vol. 1, 30. For another view of the radical effects of World War I on European-Jewish life, see Judah L. Magnes’s “Opening Address of the Academic Year of the Hebrew University,” 29 October 1939, in Dissenter in Zion, ed. Arthur A. Goren (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982), 358–59. Magnes quotes there the introduction of Bialik and Ravnitzki to their edition of the poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol.

  46.    “Al Ḥurban HaYahadut BaGola,” 60.

  47.    Chaim Weizmann, letters, London, 22 October 1921, to Bella Berligne, Geneva, and 16 October 1921, to Naḥum Sokolow, Berlin, in Life and Letters, Series A, vol. 10, ed. Bernard Wasserstein (Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press, 1977), 263, 258; Levin, letter [Hebrew], Berlin, 16 October 1921, to Chaim Weizmann, [London], in Igrot Levin, 388; minutes of meeting of the Temporary Executive Committee of the American Keren Hayesod, 3 August [1921], in CZA, File KH7-197. See also, M. Ungerfeld, “Bein Bialik LeWeizmann” [Hebrew], Moznayim 9 (July 1959): 151.

  48.    Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Berlin, Hoshana Rabba, [1921], to Y. H. Ravnitzki, [Tel Aviv], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 220; and as quoted in “Bialik Al Dvar HaSifrut VeHaSofrim HaIvriyim” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 2 December 1921. See also, Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Berlin, evening after Yom Kippur, 1921, to [Alter] Druyanov, n.p., in Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 217–18; B. Z. Goldberg, “Bialik, Hebrew Poet and Pioneer,” Der Tog, English section, 14 February 1926; Aberbach, Bialik, 107.

  49.    Minutes of a meeting of the Committee of Three [Temporary Executive Committee, American Keren Hayesod], 25 November 1921, in CZA, File KH7-189. See also, minutes of meeting, 29 November 1921, File KH7-197; minutes of meetings of Administrative Committee, American Keren Hayesod, 6 July and 11 August 1922, in CZA, File KH7-174; Rabbi Samuel Schulman, copy of letter, New York, 1 November 1921, to Samuel Untermyer, chairman, Reception Committee, New York City, in Papers of Gershon Agron(sky), CZA, File A209-12; “Conference Today About the Reception for the Sokolow Delegation” [Yiddish], New York Di Tsayt, 2 November 1921; Shmaryahu Levin, letter, 16 October 1921, [Hebrew], Berlin, to Chaim Weizmann, [London], in Igrot Levin, 388; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], [Berlin], 21 December 1921, to [Yehoshua] Ravnitzki, [Tel Aviv], Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 245.

  50.    See Fishman, “Biografia,” 4; Goell, English Translation, 10–18; Abba Aḥimexir, “Bialik Shel Mi?” [Hebrew], HaToren, Iyyar, 5683 [1923].

  51.    Ovadyahu, MiPi, 89; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], [Berlin], 6 February 1922, to Daniel Persky, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 248. See also, HaDo’ar, 27 February 1922, 9, 16 March 1923, and 22 October 1926.

  52.    Bialik, [Berlin], letter, [Hebrew], 6 February 1922, to Daniel Persky, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 248; and his letter in HaDo’ar [Hebrew], 31 March 1922. See also, Brown, “Alone,” 157–65; and Rosenbloom, “America,” 286–87.

  53.    Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 26 May 1924, to Editorial Board of Eden, [New York], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 5; id., letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 17 August 1925, to Editorial Board of Eden, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 59; Daniel Persky, letter, [Hebrew], New York, 24 April 1924, to H. N. Bialik, [Tel Aviv], in ABTA, File 21/68623/1; A. R. Malachi, “Yetzirat Bialik” [Hebrew], in Sefer Bialik, ed. Ya’acov Fichman (Tel Aviv: Shvat, 5684 [1924]), 161. See also, Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Berlin, 22 July 1924, to his wife, Manya, in Ra’ayato Manya, 64–66; id., letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, to Editorial Board, Eden, New York, 15 September 1924 and 18 March 1925, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 15–16, 26; id., letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 24 June 1925, to Batsheva Grabelsky, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 46–47; advertisement for Eden in HaDo’ar, 26 December 1924, which highlights Bialik’s “regular participation” in the journal; and Rosenbloom, “America,” 287.
        When the journal ceased publication in 1928, Persky returned to Bialik a number of his unpublished manuscripts. (Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 28 September 1928, to Daniel Persky, [New York], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 165–67.)

  54.    See HaDo’ar, 16, 17 November 1921; Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Berlin, Hoshana Rabba, [1921], to Y. H. Ravnitzki, [Tel Aviv], 6 February 1922, to Daniel Persky, New York, 20 February and 30 March 1922, to Yehoshua Ravnitzki, [Tel Aviv], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 218–38, 248–54, 257–62, 264–73.

  55.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Berlin, [9 Adar Sheni 5684 (1924)?], Tel Aviv, 15 May 1925, and Tel Aviv, 29 December 1925, to Simon Ginzburg, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 3–4, 30–32, 87. An original fragment of the second letter can be found in ABTA, File 51-86380a.

  56.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], [Bad Homburg], 20 June 1922, to [Yehoshua] Ravnitzki, [Berlin], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 2, 281–84, and Tel Aviv, 14 June 1925, to Y. D. Berkowitz, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 41–42.

  57.    Postcard, [Hebrew], Berlin, 14 January 1923, not signed by Bialik, to S. Maximon, [New York], in ABTA, Letters to Maximon File. Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 19 September 1928 and 19 February 1929 to S. B. Maximon, New York, and 19 September 1928 to [Y. L.] Riklis, [New York], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 160, 218–19, 161, Tel Aviv, 27 April 1925, to S. B. Maximon, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 27; Asher Ginzberg [Aḥad HaAm], letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 25 October 1926, to S. B. Maximon, New York, in Igrot Aḥad HaAm, vol. 6 (1916–1926), ed. Aryeh Simon (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1960), 270–71; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 7 July 1933, to Dr. Joseph Marcus, New York, in Igrot Bialik BeNogea LeHotza’at Shirei Rabi Shlomo Ibn Gvirol VeRabi Moshe Ibn Ezra BeHosafat Ketaim MiPiyutei Rashbag, ed. Joseph Marcus (New York: self-published, 1935); Meyer, Hebrew Union College, 111, 122.

  58.    Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 1 June 1925, to Prof. Israel Davidson, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 32. See also, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 26 July, 7 August, 2 October, and [15 December] 1925, to Prof. Israel Davidson, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 53–55, 69, 82–83.

  59.    Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 10 June 1925, to I. J. Schwartz, n.p., in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 40; Dov Sadan, introduction to I. J. Schwartz, Shirat Kentucky [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik, 1962), 7–8. My thanks to Mrs. Shulamith Nardi, the niece of Schwartz, for calling “Kentucky” to my attention.

  60.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 27 Kislev 5686 [1925], to the Zionist Executive, Jerusalem, in Archives of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency, CZA, File S25/527, and 11 November 1925, also to the Zionist Executive, Jerusalem, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 74–75.

  61.    Bialik, as quoted in A. S. Orlans, “Siḥa Im Ḥ. N. Bialik,” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 1 January 1922; Bialik, letter, “Igeret Ḥ. N. Bialik Al Dvar Malachut ‘Tarbuth’ BeAmerica,” [Hebrew], London HaOlam, 10 October 1924; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 11 Teveth 5685 [1925], to [Shmaryahu Levin, Chicago], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 20–21.

  62.    Compare, for example, Rosenbloom, “America,” and Hirschler, “Tour.”

  63.    Weizmann, London, telegram, 12 November 1925, to Shmaryahu Levin, Tel Aviv, in Life and Letters, Series A, vol. 12, 439; Bialik, Tel Aviv, letter [Hebrew], 8 Kislev 5686 [1925], to Chaim Weizmann, London, in M. Ungerfeld, “Bein Bialik LeWeizmann” [Hebrew], Moznayim 9 (July 1959): 152; Philip Guedalla, British Zionist leader, quoted in “Bialik in London,” London Jewish Chronicle, 29 January 1926; Bialik quoted in “Neshef HaPreida LeVialik U-LeDr. S. Levin” [Hebrew], Davar, 17 January 1926. See also, Levin, letter, n.p., 15 November 1925, to Chaim Weizmann, [London], in Igrot Levin, 410–11; Max Raisin, “Ḥaim Nahman Bialik,” [Yiddish], in his Groyse Yidn Vos Ich Hob Gekent (Paterson, N.J.: New Jersey Branch of the Central Yiddish Culture Organization [“CYCO”], 1950), 66–69; Hirschler, “Tour,” 30.

  64.    Neumann, Arena, 72–73. See also, Neumann, cable, New York, 7 January 1926, to Col. [F. H.] Kisch, Jerusalem, in CZA, File S25-527.
        The original goal of the Joint had been $15 million but the campaign went so well that they raised it to $25 million (“Jews Raise Quota to $25,000,000,” New York Times, 11 May 1926).

  65.    Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 24 June 1925, to Batsheva Grabelsky, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 46–47, also quoted in Rosenbloom, “America,” 288; Bialik, “Al HaBikur BeAmerica” [Hebrew], a talk with reporters on the boat sailing to America, Shvat, 5686 [1926], in Devarim, vol. 1, 75. See also, S. P., “Nesiat Bialik LeAmerica,” [Hebrew], London HaOlam, 29 January 1926.

  66.    Levin and Bialik quoted in “Neshef Preida LeḤ. N. Bialik U-LeDr. S. Levin,” [Hebrew], HaAretz, 18 January 1926. A slightly different and no doubt edited version of Bialik’s remarks appears in Devarim, vol. 1, 62–63. See also, S. P., “Nesiat;” “Bialik, Greatest of Living Hebrew Poets, Speaks Here,” Washington Post, 18 April 1926; Reuven Grossman, “Bialik BeAmerica,” [Hebrew], HaTziyoni HaKlali, 6 January 1933.

  67.    Bialik quoted in “Ḥ. N. Bialik Al Kaf HaMoznayim” [Hebrew], a report of his first speech in the United States at the Mecca Temple in New York, in HaDo’ar, 19 February 1926; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 8 Kislev 5686 [1926], to [Chaim] Weizmann, London, in Ungerfeld, “Bein Bialik,” 152. See also, n. 20 above and the sources cited there, as well as other sources.

  68.    Exchange of cables and letters among Col. F. H. Kisch, member, Palestine Zionist Executive, M. Friedenberg, treasurer, Palestine Zionist Executive, Emanuel Neumann, and Shmaryahu Levin, 11–19 January 1926, in CZA, File S25/527; Israel Malkin, auditor, [ZOA, New York], letter, copy, 4 June 1926, to Schmarya Levin, New York, in ZOA Files, CZA, File F38/437; Minutes of Meeting, Administrative Committee, American Keren Hayesod, 21 June 1926, in CZA, File KH7/178.
        The word “sordid” is actually quoted from G.[ershon] A.[gronsky, later, Agron], the former American and future mayor of Jerusalem, then the director of the Press Office of the Palestine Zionist Executive, in a letter from Jerusalem, 10 March 1926, to Neumann in New York, CZA, File S25/527. Since Agronsky is replying to Neumann and defending Bialik, the word conveys more Neumann’s sense of the affair than Agronsky’s. Neumann’s “private” letter to which Agronsky is responding is not in the files.
        Hirschler (“Tour,” 30) and Rosenbloom (“America,” 289) claim that Bialik made the trip unwillingly. They may have been unaware of his own reasons for going.

  69.    “Applause Delays Bialik,” New York Times, 11 February 1926; Shva, Ḥozeh, 243. It should be noted that Bialik often received “a royal welcome” when he visited a Jewish community. See, for example, Shmaryahu Levin’s description of Bialik’s arrival in Warsaw in 1931, in letter, [Hebrew], London, 28 September 1931, to Maurice Samuel, New York, in Igrot Levin, 445.

  70.    The comparison with the press treatment of the arrival in the United States some nine months later of Chaim Weizmann on a similar mission is striking. See, for example, HaDo’ar, New Palestine, and other publications for November 1926.

  71.    HaDo’ar, 29 January 1926; A. R. Malachi, Chaim Naḥman Bialik [Hebrew] (New York: Histadruth Ivrith, 5686 [1926]); Meyer W. Weisgal, editor’s note, in Chaim Nachman Bialik, Selected Poems, trans. Maurice Samuel (New York: The New Palestine, 1926), 5; Hirschler, “Tour,” 30; The New Palestine, 5 February 1926; “Sabbath Sermons About Bialik in Synagogues and Temples” [Yiddish], New York Morgn Zhurnal, 5 February 1926; Bialik Program, February 1926, a bilingual brochure with program suggestions for Bialik Week and Bialik Month; [Sfog] S. Tchernowitz, “MiYam Eidim” [Hebrew], HaAretz, 9 March 1926; Max Raisin, “Haim Nahman Bialik” [Yiddish], Tzukunft 10 (October 1944): 633; Fichman, “Im Bialik,” 79; Eliezer L. Sherman, Der Mensh Bialik, Zikhroynes Un Eyndrukn [Yiddish] (Philadelphia: Ber-Kay Press, [1936]), 32; interview by the author with Mrs. Shulamith Nardi, Jerusalem, 26 March 1991; “Bialik Received by President Coolidge,” The New Palestine, 14 May 1926; London Jewish Chronicle, 16 April 1926; Raisin, Groyse Yidn, 67. See also, A. M. Klein, “Chaim Nachman Bialik, 1873–1934,” Canadian Zionist, July 1937.

  72.    Exchange of letters between Meyer Weisgal, secretary of the ZOA, New York, and Max Rhoade, Washington, D.C., 31 January to 2 February 1926, in CZA, File F38-527; “Bialik, Hebrew Poet, Welcomed to America,” New York Times, 10 February 1926; Raisin, Groyse Yidn, 67–68; “From the Heights,” The New Palestine, 12 February 1926; “Neshef Kabalat HaPanim” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 12 February 1926; “Applause Delays Bialik,” New York Times, 11 February 1926; New York Forverts [Yiddish], 31 January-11 February 1926; New York Morgn Zhurnal [Yiddish], 8–14 February 1926; Hirschler, “Tour,” 31; Rosenbloom, “America,” 291.

  73.    See “$75,000 for Jewish Fund,” New York Times, 15 February 1926; The New Palestine, 12 February and 16 April 1926; HaDo’ar, 5 March 1926; “$105,000 for Palestine,” New York Times, 4 March 1926; “Chaim Nahman Bialik in Williamsburgh” [Yiddish], New York Der Tog, 18 April 1926; unsigned letter, copy, 23 April 1926, to Shmaryahu Levin, New York, in CZA, File F38/437; and other sources.

  74.    “Royal Reception to Mark Arrival of Bialik, Hebrew Poet, in Cleveland,” Jewish Review and Observer, 30 April 1926. Among other sources, see New York Der Tog, 1–15, 30 April, 9 May 1926; The New Palestine, 12 February, 23, 30 April, 18 June 1926; HaDo’ar, 25 February 1926; A.[vraham] Harzfeld, New York, letter to HEC, Tel Aviv, 16 April 1926, in LAT, File IV-208-66b.

  75.    Louis Lipsky, A Gallery of Zionist Profiles (New York: Farrar Straus and Cudahy, 1956), 109. See also, 106, 110. Lipsky mistakenly dates Bialik’s visit in 1923. In addition to their official contacts, the Lipskys entertained the Bialiks and Levin at home (unsigned letter, copy, 28 April 1926, to Shmaryahu Levin, New York, inviting him to spend the next Sabbath eve with the Lipskys and the Bialiks, CZA, File F38-437).

  76.    Minutes of the meetings of the ZOA National Executive Committee, 22 February 1926, in CZA, Section F32; A. Gimel, “Our Future—As Bialik Sees It” [Yiddish], Dos Iddishe Folk, 26 February 1926; “President Receives Jewish Poet,” New York Times, 11 May 1926; “Bialik Received by President Coolidge,” The New Palestine, 14 May 1926; Der Tog [Yiddish], 11 May 1926; “Hirschler, “Tour,” 33; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 30 November 1926, to L. Shapiro, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 148–49. Shapiro was an official of the Jewish National Fund in America.

  77.    “12 Become Rabbis at Seminary Here,” New York Times, 7 June 1926; “Ve’idat Yehuda HaTza’ir” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 4 June 1926; “Young Judaea and Eretz Yisrael,” London Jewish Chronicle, 2 July 1926; “Avukah Convention,” The New Palestine, 9 July 1926; Der Tog, 22 February 1926; The New Palestine, 18 June 1926; “Tomorrow Evening the Debate Among Bialik, Greenberg, Dr. Levin, and Jabotinsky” [Yiddish], New York Morgn Zhurnal, 21 May 1926; Chaim Nachman Bialik, New York, letter to Dr. Cyrus Adler, New York, 10 Nisan 5686 [1926], in JTSA, Record Group 1, Series A, Box 3, Bialik Folder; Meyer, Hebrew Union College, 160.

  78.    “Ḥ. N. Bailik BeVeit HaSefer HaLe’umi” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 28 May 1926; Jacob L. Weinstein, Solomon Goldman: A Rabbi’s Rabbi (New York: Ktav, 1973), 8–9; “Bialik Al HaShira HaIvrit HaTze’ira” [Hebrew], HaAretz, 11 April 1926; “Neshef Ḥ. N. Bialik” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 19 March 1926; advertisements in HaDo’ar, 12 February 1926; “All Preparations Made for National Education and Culture Conference” [Yiddish], New York Morgn Zhurnal, 10 May 1926; “American Zionists Found a National Cultural Corporation” [Yiddish], Der Tog, 17 May 1926; Dr. S[amuel] M. Melamed, “At the Cultural Conference” [Yiddish], Dos lddishe Folk, 28 May 1926.

  79.    Raisin, “Bialik,” 633; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], on board ship, 8 February [1926], to Y. H. Ravnitzki, Tel Aviv, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 98, and in BeNogea, a.

  80.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 15 December 1925 and 3 Marheshvan [1926], to Alexander Marx, New York, and on board ship, [January, 1926], to [Yehoshua] Ravnitzki, Tel Aviv, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 81–82, 122–24, 96; unsigned memo, probably from Alexander Marx, to Cyrus Adler, 14 March 1926, in JTSA, Record Group 1, Series A, Box 3, Bialik Folder. On Marcus, see the exchange of letters between Bialik and him in BeNogea.

  81.    Large advertisement in Dos Iddishe Folk, 26 February 1926. The ad was repeated in subsequent weeks but without mention of Bialik. Presumably he had successfully protested the effrontery.

  82.    New York Forverts, 31 January to 11 February 1926. (The paper never greeted him in an editorial.) B. Shelvin, “This Is the Way Yiddishists ‘Honor’ Bialik” [Yiddish], in Dos Iddishe Folk, 19 March 1926; A. S. Orlans, “Proletarion Ruḥani” [Hebrew], speech at the same writers’ gathering, HaDo’ar, 26 March 1926. Compare also, Shva, Ḥozeh, 244.

  83.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 25 November 1925, to Dr. Chaim Weizmann, London, in “Igrot [Bialik],” Knesset 5 (1940): 22–23; letters, on board ship off Marseilles [January 1926] to [Yehoshua] Ravnitzki [Tel Aviv], and London, 29 July 1926, to Our Comrades in Dvir, Tel Aviv, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 96, 118.

  84.    Chaim Nachman Bialik, ‘“Dvir” and “Moriah,”’ The New Palestine, 7 May 1926. The same essay appeared in Hebrew, in Hado’ar, 30 April 1926, and printed separately as a pamphlet (New York, 1926), both under the same title, ‘“Dvir” U-“Moriah.”’

  85.    Advertisements in HaDo’ar, 14 May, 18, 25 June 1926, for various booksellers offering Dvir books; Shmaryahu Levin, letters, [Hebrew], New York, 29 April and 20 June 1926, to Eiga Shapiro, [Tel Aviv], New York, 9 May 1926, to Aḥad HaAm, Tel Aviv, and [Tel Aviv], 29 December 1926, to Chaim Weizmann, New York, in Igrot Levin, 411–16; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], London, 29 July 1926, to Our Comrades in Dvir, Tel Aviv, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 112–20. See also, Shva, Ḥozeh, 246–47.

  86.    “Revival Around Bialik” [Yiddish], Dos Iddishe Folk, 19 February 1926; “Birkat HaDerech LeVialik” [Hebrew], editorial, HaDo’ar, 9 July 1926; Shmaryahu Levin, n.p., letter, to [Chaim] Weizmann, London, 18 May 1926, in Igrot Levin [Hebrew], 413; Neumann, Arena, 73; “American Zionists’ Activities,” London Jewish Chronicle, 25 June 1926; Sherman, Mensh, 28; Wise quoted in Melvin I. Urofsky, A Voice That Spoke for Justice (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1982), 215. Wise was referring to Felix Warburg, the New York banker and Jewish communal magnate, who was a non-Zionist. For a negative assessment by a prominent writer of the yishuv, see Sh.[lomo] Tz.[emaḥ], “Birkat HaShalom LeVialik” [Hebrew], in Mo’adim, Hoveret LeTarbut, Sifrut VeOmanut, 22 September 1926.

  87.    Nardi interview; Maurice Samuel, “Chaim Nachman Bialik,” The New Palestine, 15 July 1934. Compare also, Bialik, “Eretz Yisrael” [Hebrew], excerpts from a lecture in Kaunas, Lithuania, Elul, 1930, in Devarim, vol. 1, 153–58.

  88.    Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], en route from New York to London, 27 Tammuz [1926], to [Aḥad HaAm, Tel Aviv], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 105. The letter is quoted at length in Hirschler, “Tour,” and Rosenbloom, “America,” and in full in “As Bialik Saw America in 1926,” in Modern Jewish Life in Literature, bk. 2, ed. Azriel Eisenberg, trans. Maurice Shudofsky. (New York: United Synagogue Commission on Jewish Education, 1968).

  89.    “Yenasser Lo Kilevavo,” HaDo’ar, 23 July 1926. The poem was also published in HaShiloaḥ (Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], New York, 21 June 1926, to [Jacob] Fichman, n.p., in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 102–03).
        In “America,” Rosenbloom interprets the poem as a cathartic exercise on the part of Bialik, after which he was cleansed of his anti-Americanism. Such a claim requires Rosenbloom to downplay the development of Bialik’s relationship to the New World prior to 1926. It also requires a straightforward, rather one-dimensional reading of the poem, which may not be justified.
        In “Bialik in America: The Transformation of an Inner Experience” (in Identity and Ethos: A Festschrift for Sol Liptzin on the Occasion of His 85th Birthday, ed. Mark H. Gelber [New York, Berne, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1986], 267), Efraim Shmueli also claims that as a result of his American visit, Bialik ceased to be “a vehement critic of the American way of life” and became “a most enthusiastic admirer.” Shmueli, too, seems unaware of Bialik’s earlier connections with the New World.

  90.    “Bialik BeLondon—Reshamav MiNesi’ato LeAmerica” [Hebrew], London HaOlam, 23 July 1926.

  91.    B.[ernard] G. R.[ichards], “Bialik in America,” The New Palestine, 15 August 1926; Eli Ginzberg, Keeper of the Law: Louis Ginzberg (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1966), 206; Bialik, “‘Oraḥ Ḥayim’ Tziyoni” [Hebrew], speech at a Hebrew cultural gathering in America, Adar, 1926, in Devarim, vol. 1, 86; “Mishteh ‘Shvilei HaḤinuch’” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 16 April 1926; “Ḥ. N. Bialik Al HaShavua HaIvri” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 7 May 1926; Bialik, “Tarbut Yisrael BaGola” [Hebrew], a conversation with the correspondent of Ketuvim, Elul, 5686 [1926], in Devarim, vol. 1, 90. See also, Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 1 Rosh Ḥodesh Kislev [1926], to Head of the Histadruth Ivrith in America, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 129–32.

  92.    Bialik, “‘Oraḥ Ḥayim’ Tziyoni,” 85. Bialik’s comments on the philanthropic nature of American Zionism can be found in “Divrei Preidah LeYahadut America,” 87; “Bialik Leaves the United States,” London Jewish Chronicle, 16 July 1926; “Zionists in London Plan Syrian Work,” New York Times, 25 July 1926; and other sources.

  93.    B. Karpi, “Neshef Preida LiChvod Ḥ. N. Bialik” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 16 July 1926; Shmaryahu Levin, letter, [Hebrew], New York, 9 May 1926, to Aḥad HaAm, Tel Aviv, in Igrot Levin, 412–13; Bialik, letter to Aḥad HaAm cited above, n. 86.

  94.    Bialik, address to the 29th annual convention of the ZOA in Buffalo, 29 June 1926, in The New Palestine, 9 July 1926, and in Yiddish, as “Towards a New Epoch,” Dos Iddishe Folk, 25 June 1926; id., quoted by Sherman, Mensh, 33; id., “If Not Now—When? Concerning Jewish Education,” The New Palestine, 16 April 1926, and also in the Philadelphia Jewish Exponent, 23 July 1926. See also the letter to Aḥad HaAm quoted above, n. 88.

  95.    “Chaim Nahman Bialik’s Declaration on the Education and Cultural Movement” [Yiddish], Der Tog, 12 April 1926; Bialik quoted in “American United Palestine Appeal—First Report,” London Jewish Chronicle, 6 August 1926; Bialik, “‘Eis La’asos’ A Word to American Jews” [Yiddish], Dos Iddishe Folk, 16 April 1926; id., “Likrat Tekufa Hadasha” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 9 July 1926; Bialik quoted by Solomon [S. Zalman] Abramov, “Problems of Cultural Work,” Avukah Bulletin, February, 1932. See also, Hirschler, “Tour,” and Rosenbloom, “America.”

  96.    “Zionist Convention Opens in Buffalo,” New York Times, 28 June 1926; Bialik, “Likrat Tekufah Ḥadasha.” Bialik spoke of American Jewry as compensation for the lost worlds of prewar Europe on other occasions. See, for example, “Divrei Preidah LeYahadut America,” 88; “American United Palestine Appeal—First Annual Report;” letter to Aḥad HaAm, 27 Tammuz [1926], Igrot Bialik, vol.3, 110.

  97.    Klein, “Bialik”; “Bialik BeLondon—Reshamav MiNesi’otav BeAmerica” [Hebrew], London HaOlam, 23 July 1926; “Zionists in London Plan Syrian Work,” New York Times, 25 July 1926.

  98.    HaAretz (“Ḥ. N. Bialik BeVeit HaAm,” 7 October 1926) reported that the crowd numbered over six thousand, Davar (“Ḥ. N. Bialik Al Reshamav BeAmerica,” 7 October 1926), “several thousands.” Both papers offered very full summaries of the poet’s hour-and-a-half-long talk. Do’ar HaYom and the Palestine Bulletin, which leaned towards Revisionism, were preoccupied with Jabotinsky’s visit to the yishuv and ignored Bialik, who had close ties to the labor sector. See also, Sherman, Mensh, 37; Hirschler, “Tour,” 32–33; and Shva, Ḥozeh, 248–49.

  99.    The full speech appears in Devarim, vol. 1, 92–105. All references here are to that text.

100.    “Al America” [Hebrew], in Devarim, vol. 1, 94, 97–100, 96, 97, 100, 94, 101, 102, 99.

101.    Ibid., 102, 104, 103.

102.    See, for example, the less than enthusiastic article, “Birkat HaShalom LeVialik,” by Sh.[lomo] Tz.[emaḥ], in Mo’adim, 1 (22 September 1926), a journal published by the Hebrew Writers’ Association. The article was written before Bialik made his speech in Tel Aviv. Although Bialik had helped to found the journal, Ketuvim, of which Mo’adim was a special issue, he eventually broke with Ketuvim and in 1927 with the Writers’ Association (Shva, Ḥozeh, 272–74).

103.    Morris Rothenberg, quoted in “Bialik Service Is Set For Tomorrow Here,” New York Times, 15 July 1934.

104.    Goell, English Translation (1968), 8–18, 64, 85–86, 94. See also, Ḥ. N. Bialik, “America HaYehudit” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 9 March 1928; H. N. Bialik, “Der Koiach Fun HeChalutz” [Yiddish], Farn Folk, 30 March 1928; Chaim Nahman Bialik, “Making the Crooked Straight,” The Menorah Journal, November-December 1930; John Tepper, “Palestinian Personalities” [about Bialik], Avukah Annual (1930), 120–21; HaDo’ar, 24 February 1933, whole issue devoted to the poet; Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 21 February 1933, and Ramat Gan, 1 Ḥol HaMoed Sukkot [1933], to Israel Osman, Los Angeles, California, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 204–05, 321; H. N. Bialik, “Die Legende fun Drei un Fir,” trans. Israel Osman, in Iddisher Kemfer, 18 May 1934; A Harvest of Hebrew Verse, ed. and trans. Harry Herzl Fein (Boston: Bruce Humphries, 1934); Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 7 July 1933, to Leib Glantz, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 247; and many other sources.

105.    “The Turning of the Tide,” The New Palestine, 11 November 1927; minutes, meeting of the National Executive Committee of the ZOA, 16 October 1927, CZA, File F38/22; Chaim Weizmann, report to the Zionist Executive, London, 7 November 1927, in The Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann, Series B, vol. 1, ed. Barnett Litvinoff (Jerusalem and New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1983), 521–24.

106.    See, among other sources, Louis [Fischer], letter, Berlin, 30 September 1925, to Gershon [Agronsky, Jerusalem], in CZA, File A209/14; Sh. Dicker, “Reuben Brainin’s Impressions of Palestine” [Yiddish], Dos Iddishe Folk, 23 April 1926; minutes of the meetings of the ZOA Administrative Committee, 17 August 1926, 27 January 1927, CZA, File F32/90; [Yitzḥak], Lamdan, “MiSaviv La ‘Braininiada’” [Hebrew], Ketuvim, 15 October 1926; minutes of the meetings of the ZOA National Executive Committee, 19 December 1926, CZA, File F32/21; Reuben Brainin, “Anashim Gedolim SheHayu LeKetanim” [Hebrew], Jerusalem Do’ar HaYom, 8 February 1928, earlier published in the New York Der Tog; Ungerfeld, “Bein Bialik;” Shva, Ḥozeh, 288–90.

107.    See, among other sources, ‘Ha“Emet” Shel Reuven Brainin Al Russia,’ “Gilui Da’at Al Matzav HaYehudim BeRussia,” “Meḥa’at Reuven Brainin,” all in Hebrew, in Tel Aviv HaAretz, 14, 24 May, 25 June 1929; Reuven Brainin, “I Accuse My Judges” [Yiddish], New York Der Tog, 17 August 1929; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Berlin, 27 September 1929, to Reuben Brainin, Berlin, and the reply, 29 September 1929, in Moznayim, 14 (April-May 1962); D. Nissenberg, “Mishpat Brainin” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 8 November 1929. See also, Israel Cohen, for [World] Zionist Organization, London, cable, 29 January 1929, and follow-up letter, 30 January 1929, to Louis Lipsky, New York, in CZA, File F38/426; and Louis Marshall, letter, copy, New York, 1 March 1929, to Mr. Alexander, [South Africa], in CZA, File S25/1887. The animosity between Bialik and Brainin was so strong that, of their thirty-five-year correspondence, only three letters of Bialik and five of Brainin are extant. The others were apparently destroyed. (Ungerfeld, “Bein Bialik,” 454.)

108.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 5 May 1930, to Dr. Sh.[imon] Rawidowicz, Berlin, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 70–71; 27 March 1928, to Dr. Joseph Marcus, New York, in BeNogea, 25; 17 February 1927, to Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 17 November 1926, and 16 January 1927, to A. Z. Idelsohn, Cincinnati, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 189, 139–40, 172; 16 June 1931, and Bad Gastein, 14 September 1933, to Zvi Diesendruck, Cincinnati, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 161–62, 294–95. On Diesendruck at the Hebrew Union College, see Meyer, Hebrew Union College, 110–11, 130.

109.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 10 November 1926, to Ḥaim Tchernowitz, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 132–33; 19 June 1928, to Dr. M.[ax] Z. Raisin, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 135; 2 April 1933, to H[yman] G. Enelow, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 212.

110.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 17 July 1928, to Dr. Joseph Marcus, New York, in BeNogea, 28; 22 February 1929, to Prof. Rabbi Levi Ginzberg, Jerusalem, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 221; 9 March 1930, to Beit Midrash LeḤochmat Yisrael, New York, 10 March 1930, to Dr. Joseph Marcus, New York, 28 May 1933, to Mr. Stuchinski, Zurich, all in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 45, 47–48, 232–33; Ginzberg, Keeper, 206. See also, Rosenbloom, “America,” 303–04.

111.    Bialik, letters to Marcus in BeNogea; Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, to Isaac Rivkind, New York, 14 February 1928, 10 July 1928, 5 June 1929, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 89–90, 139–40, 270–71; 4 May 1930, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 68–69.

112.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, to David Sasson, London, 27 February 1929, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 223; to Joseph Marcus, New York, 11 February 1927, and 24 April 1928, in BeNogea, 14, 25–26, and 10 April 1929, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 249–50; to Israel Davidson, London, 19 December 1926, and New York, 24 January 1927, 10 May 1927, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 156–57, 174–75, 228; 22 February 1928, 12 July 1928, 12 September 1928, 30 May 1928, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 83, 151–52, 127; 17 February 1930, 2 April 1930, 27 March 1931, 8 March 1933, 11 May 1933, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 30–32, 56–58, 146, 208, 227–28.
        See also, Rosenbloom, “America,” 301–03. Rosenbloom asserts that the strain in the relationship came in 1930. In fact, however, the correspondence reveals strains at least two years earlier.

113.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 14 July 1933, to Rabbi Yekutiel Greenwald, Columbus, Ohio, and 20 October 1930, to Dr. H. L. Gordon, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 216, 105–06. See also, his letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 18 March 1930, to Dr. Moshe W. Lewinsohn, Brooklyn, N.Y., in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 51.

114.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 2 March 1927, to Shmuel Faigin, Pittsburgh, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 192; 15 May 1928, 17 July 1928, 4 December 1928, to Israel Eitan, Pittsburgh, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 223, 246, 286; to Neḥemiah S. Libowitz, Brooklyn, 15 May 1928, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 121, 18 March 1930, 5 June 1931, 10 May 1933, 20 June 1933, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 51, 157–58, 225–26, 236–37. The letter of 10 May 1933 appears also in Fichman, Sefer Bialik, 51. See also, Sh.[imon] Bernstein, Neḥemiah S. Libowitz (LeYovel HaShiv’im Shelo) [Hebrew] (New York: Hotza’a Meyuḥedet MeiHaDo’ar, 8 Ḥeshvan 5692), 12.

115.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 20 November 1928, 8 January 1929, 17 February 1919, 19 February 1929, 7 March 1929, and 22 March 1929, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 182–83, 196, 213–15, 219–20, 231–32, 237–38.

116.    Rabbi Moshe Ḥaim Luzzato, Migdal Oz [Hebrew], ed. Shimon Ginzburg (Tel Aviv, 5687 [1927]); id., Sefer HaMaḥazot [Hebrew], ed. Shimon Ginzburg (Tel Aviv, 5687 [1927]); id., LaYsharim Tehillah [Hebrew], ed. Shimon Ginzburg (Tel Aviv, 5688 [1928]); Shimon Ginzburg, HaDvir HaLavan—Osher—Sippurim [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv, [5687–1927]); id., Shirim U-Fo’emot [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv, 5691 [1931]). After Bialik’s death Dvir/Mossad Bialik published an additional two editions of Luzzato’s work, by Ginzburg, Rabbi Moshe Ḥaim Luzzato U-Vnai Doro, ed. Shimon Ginzburg [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv, 5697 [1937]), and Sefer HaShirim [Hebrew], ed. Shimon Ginzburg (Jerusalem, 5705 [1945]), and a long poem of Ginzburg’s, Hoshea—Poema [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv, 5696 [1936]). See also, the many letters of Bialik to Ginzburg, Silkiner, Sho’er, Lissitzky, and others, relating to the Ḥaverim series, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4.

117.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, to Shimon Ginzburg, New York, 16 December 1926, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 151–52, 2 November 1927, 30 March 1928, 17 July 1928, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 20–21, 104–06, 145, among others. For Bavli’s implied criticism of Bialik, see above, n. 8.
        Ginzburg was more successful with Bialik than he had been in Odessa. When Bialik was literary editor of HaShiloaḥ, he rejected several of Ginzburg’s poems, offering a detailed critique. (Shmuel Avneri, “Kavim LeDarko Shel Bialik BeArichat HaShiloaḥ,” in Hallel LeVialik: Iyunim u-Meḥkarim Bitzirat Ch. N. Bialik, ed. Hillel Weiss and Yedidyah Itzḥaki [Ramat Gan: Universitat Bar-Ilan, 1989], 286–87).

118.    Sh.[imon] Bernstein, “Ata HaIsh!” HaToren, Teveth, 5686 [1926]. See also, Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 17 July 1928, to Shimon Ginzburg, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 145; and F.[ishel] Laḥover, “Polania VeAmerica,” in Ketuvim, 28 July 1927. The latter article, in a journal with which Bialik was closely associated, compares America most favorably to Poland with regard to Hebrew culture.

119.    “Prass Sifruti Shel HaDo’ar” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 28 January 1927; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 5 February 1929, to [Menaḥem] Ribalow, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 210–11; id., letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 24 December 1929, to Av.[raham] Goldberg, [editor of the New York Der Tog], in ABTA, File 51-45756a. See also, letters to various Hebrew and Yiddish authors in the United States in Igrot Bialik, vols. 4–5.

120.    Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 2 November 1927, to Shimon Ginzburg, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 20; id., Carlsbad, 14 Elul [1931], to [Yehoshua] Ravnitzki, Tel Aviv, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 178–79; id., [Tel Aviv], 22 November 1927, to Y.[itzḥak] Naiditch, Paris, in Fichman, Sefer Bialik, 70; id., Tel Aviv, 24 March 1929, to Anna Margolin, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 242; and id., Tel Aviv, 15 May 1929, to Naftali Gross, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 260. See also various letters of Bialik to Ginzburg, Silkiner, and others, in Igrot Bialik, vols. 4–5; and Rosenbloom, “America,” 304.

121.    Raisin, Groyse Yidn, 72. See also, Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 28 September 1928, to Daniel Persky, [New York], thanking him for work he had done for a book on Y. L. Peretz to be published by Dvir, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 166.

122.    Shmaryahu Levin, letters, [Hebrew], n.p., 8 November 1927 and 16 January 1928, to Y. D. Berkowitz, New York; at sea, 12 August 1927, to H. N. Bialik and Y. H. Ravnitzki, Tel Aviv; in Igrot Levin, 424–27; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 25 January 1928, to Dr. A. Ginzburg, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 60–61; audit of Dvir, 2 May 1929, in CZA, File S25/10271; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 19 February 1930, to Shmaryahu Levin, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 36.

123.    Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 25 January 1929, to R.[obert] Marwill, Jerusalem, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 206; id., “Ptiḥa LeVe’idat HaSofrim” [Hebrew], Moznayim, 3 Tammuz 1931, and in Devarim, vol. 1, 168–69; id., “Al America,” 98. See also, Sh.[lomo] Tzemaḥ, “HaAdam Im Aḥerim” [Hebrew], Knesset 4 (1939): 64; Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 25 May 1927, to L. Shapira, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 231–32, and 20 June 1929, to Chaim Weizmann, London, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 271–72.

124.    Ginzberg, Keeper, 195; The New Palestine, 26 February 1926.

125.    Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 24 March 1927, to Herman Bernstein, Naples, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 206. See also, his letters from Tel Aviv in Hebrew to Nathan Straus, New York, 2 May 1927, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 217–18, and 28 October 1927, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 9–11; to Henrietta Szold, Jerusalem, 3 February 1928, and to Po’alei Tel Aviv VeYaffo, 29 May 1929, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4,: 70–73, 263; and Shva, Ḥozeh, 277.

126.    American Jewish Year Book 27 (5686 [1925]): 148; Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 30 April 1925, to the Foundation for the Support of Hebrew Authors, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 27–28. See also, id., letters, [Hebrew], to Israel Matz Foundation, New York, 1925–33, in Igrot Bialik, vols. 3, 4, and 5; Shva, Ḥozeh, 277.

127.    Bialik, “Al Te’udat Ohel Shem” [Hebrew], Devarim, vol. 2, 163–64; S.[amuel] S.[imon] Bloom, letter, copy, Tel Aviv, to Executive Council of Zionist Organisation, London, 3 April 1927, in CZA, File S25/525. See also, Bialik, “Al ‘Ohel Shem’ Ve ‘Oneg Shabbat’” [Hebrew], in Devarim, vol. 2, 160–62; id., letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 5 June 1929, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 267–68; Sefer Halshim—Lexicon Eretzyisra’eli [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 5697 [1937]), 80–81; Lipsky, Gallery, 109–10; Shva, Ḥozeh, 260.

128.    Bialik, letters, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 27 January 1928, to Prof. [P.] Schneurson, New York, and 4 April 1929, to Moshe Carasso and the representative of “Ophir,” Mr. Molcho, [Tel Aviv], in Igrot Bialik, vol. 4, 70, 245; id., “LeShe’eilat HaTarbut HaIvrit” [Hebrew], lecture at a Mapai seminar, Tammuz, 5692 [1932], in Devarim, vol. 1, 192; id., letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 16 January 1927, to L. Shapiro, New York, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 173; id., “HaSifrut VeHaSofer Ha’Ivri” [Hebrew], opening address to the convention of the Association of Hebrew Writers, Tel Aviv, Sivan, 5691 [1931], in Devarim, vol. 1, 166–67, also in Moznayim, 18 May 1931; id., letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 14 February 1928, to M.[ax] Lipson, New York, in ABTA, File 51-43694a. For the reaction of Sholem Aleichem to Dolitzky’s plight, see Shmeruk, “Sholem Aleichem and America,” 217, and the sources cited there.

129.    Ch.[aim] N.[achman] Bialik, “On the Tenth Anniversary of the Hechalutz,” taken from a speech in Tel Aviv, in Hechalutz, ed. Chaim Arlosoroff, Sh.[lomo] Grodzensky, Rebecca Schmuckler (New York: Zionist Labor Party “Hitachduth” of America with the cooperation of Avukah, America Student Zionist Federation, 1929), 15, 19.

130.    Chaim Nachman Bialik, “LeShe’eilat HaTarbut Ha’Ivrit,” 177, and “The Chalutz,” The New Palestine, 4 May 1928. See also, his “Lisod ‘Agudat Shoḥarei HaUniversita HaIvrit’” [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 6 Nisan 5693 [1933], in Devarim, vol. 2, 79–80.

131.    Compare Bialik’s statement to the editorial board of Judisk Tidskrift, Stockholm, 17 January 1934, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 5, 307–08, in which he makes no distinction between Europe and America.

132.    Bialik, letter, [Hebrew], Tel Aviv, 24 March 1927, to Herman Bernstein, Naples, in Igrot Bialik, vol. 3, 205.

Chapter 4

    1.    Anita Shapira, Berl: The Biography of a Socialist Zionist, trans. Ḥaya Galai (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1984), 357.

    2.    Katznelson, “Our Historical Heritage,” in Revolutionary Constructivism: Essays on the Jewish Labor Movement in Palestine, trans, and abr. Benny Applebaum and Shlomo Grodzensky (New York: Young Poale Zion Alliance, 1937), 16.

    3.    Compare, for example, his letters, to David Remez, [December 1919], n.p., and [Tevet, 1920, Palestine], in Igrot B. Katznelson, (hereafter, BKL), 6 vols., [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv, 1961–84), vol. 4, 72, 81. All quotations from BKL are translated from the Hebrew version there, regardless of their original language.

    4.    Katznelson, “HaEḥad BaMa’aracha,” introduction to the works of Naḥman Syrkin, in Kitvei B. Katznelson, (hereafter, KBK), [Hebrew], 11 vols. (Tel Aviv: Mifleget Po’alei Eretz Yisrael, 5706–13 [1946–53]), vol. 10, 7; and “Bein Adam LaḤavero,” introduction to the works of Avraham Liessin, in KBK, vol. 10, 115. All translations from KBK are translated from the Hebrew version there, regardless of their original language.

    5.    Katznelson, Bobruisk, letter to brother, Israel, [United States], 30 November 1908, in BKL, vol. 1, 84.

    6.    Id., Vilna, letter to brother, Israel, [United States], 25 January 1908, in BKL, vol. 1, 58. See also, Anita Shapira, Berl (Biografia), [Hebrew], 2 vols. (Tel Aviv: Sifriyat Ofakim—Am Oved, 1980), vol. 1, 39–40.

    7.    Katznelson, Ben Shemen, letter to Hannah Katznelson, [Bobruisk], 26 Shvat [1912], in BKL, vol. 1, 327–29.

    8.    Yosef Ḥaim Brenner, MiKan U-MiKan [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: HaKibbutz HaMe’uḥad, Sifriat HaPo’alim, 5738 [1978]), 1299, originally published in 1911; [id.], Yosef Ḥaver, “BeḤayeinu U-VeItonuteinu” [Hebrew], HaAḥdut, Kislev, 5672 [1911], 12.

    9.    See Katznelson, letters, [Bobruisk, 17 Tammuz 1907 and 11 Tishrei 1907], to Israel [Katznelson, United States], in BKL, vol. 1, 50, 54.

  10.    Katznelson, Bobruisk, letters to brother, Israel, [United States], 11 February [1908], n.d. [winter, 1908], [2 January 1908], in BKL, vol. 1, 60, 83, 56; Shapira, Biography, 40.

  11.    Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 41.

  12.    Katznelson, quoted in Baruch Zuckerman, Zikhroynes, vol. 2 [Yiddish] (New York: Farlag “Iddisher Kemfer” and Farband Bikher Farlag, 1963), 280–81; and id., “HaEḥad BaMa’aracha,” 80.

  13.    Id., Kinneret, letter to Israel Katznelson, [New York], Rosh Ḥodesh Sivan [1911], in BKL, vol. 1, 222. See also, his letter of Erev Lag BaOmer [1911] from Kinneret, to brothers Ḥaim and Israel, [United States], in BKL, vol. 1, 218.

  14.    Id., Ben Shemen, letters to his brother, Israel, [United States], 22 Ḥeshvan 1911, and to his sister-in-law, Batya Katznelson, [United States], 22 Iyar [1912], in BKL, vol. 1, 294, 358–59.

  15.    Id., Ben Shemen, letters, to brothers, Ḥaim and Israel, [United States], 10 Ḥeshvan [1911] and 15 Tevet 1912, in BKL, vol. 1, 279, 305.

  16.    Id., “MiBifnim” [Hebrew], in KBK, vol. 1, 14, originally published in HaPo’el HaTza’ir, 16 August 1912.

  17.    See id., letter, [Bobruisk, 14 Nisan 1908], to Israel [Katznelson, United States], in BKL, vol. 1, 63; and letter, Jaffa, Rosh Ḥodesh Eve, 5679 [sic], to Ḥaim [Katznelson, United States], in BKL, vol. 3, 269–70.

  18.    See, for example, Naḥman Syrkin, “LaShe’eila HaTerritorialit,” HaAḥdut, 3 (7 Ḥeshvan 5673 [1913]), and “Ḥasal Sidur Galveston,” HaAḥdut, 5 (1 Av 5674 [1914]).

  19.    Katznelson, letters, Ben Shemen, Rosh Ḥodesh Tammuz 1913, to brother, Ḥaim, [United States], and Kinneret, Rosh Ḥodesh Sivan [1911], to brother, Israel, [United States], in BKL, vol. 1, 526, 223; id., “BeḤavlei Adam. Al Eliezer Yoffe BeShloshim LeMoto,” in KBK, vol. 5, 317–18; “LeTnu’at Heḥalutz,” in KBK, vol. 1, 52. The second to last is a letter to Jewish youth outside Palestine originally written in Tishrei, 1917, while the last was originally published in Tlamim, 32 (Kislev-Tevet 5703 [1943]). See also, Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 98–100, 131, 275–80; and Margalit Shilo, “On the Way to the Moshav: HaIkar Hatza’ir, the ‘American Group’ in the Second Aliyah” [Hebrew], Cathedra 25 (September 1982): 79–98.
        Other Americans with whom he came in contact in these years included A. S. Waldstein and Zvi Hirshfeld, both of whom he liked. (Katznelson, letters, Ein Ganim, 14 Adar 1914, to HaVa’ad HaMerkazi shel Mifleget “Poalei Zion,” n.p., in BKL, vol. 1, 584, and Jerusalem, 8 Ḥeshvan 5678 [1917], to Sarah Schmuckler, n.p., in BKL, vol. 2, 393.)

  20.    Katznelson, letter, Kinneret, 5 Ḥeshvan [1911], to brother, Israel, [United States], in BKL, vol. 1, 182.

  21.    Id., lecture at the Young Mapai Seminar, May-June 1944, in KBK, vol. 11, 198. See also, id., [Ḥilmiyyeh, Egypt], letters, 7 Av [1918], to Hannah and Rachel Katznelson, Sarah Schmuckler, and Leah Miron, [Palestine], and 6 Elul [1918], to Rachel Katznelson, [Palestine], in BKL, vol. 3, 5–6, 32

  22.    Id., [Tel el-Kabri, Sinai], letter, Sukkot, [1918], to Hannah Katznelson, [Jerusalem], in BKL, vol. 3, 64; id., “Aḥdut HaAvoda,” talk given at first general conference of Aḥdut HaAvoda, Petaḥ Tikva, 21 Adar I 5679 [1919], in KBK, vol. 1, 113.

  23.    Id., “Avodateinu BeEretz Yisrael U-Lema’ana,” in KBK, vol. 1, 317, originally a letter in Yiddish sent to New York’s Di Tsayt in the late summer of 1920; Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 143. See also, Berl Katznelson, “Beirurim,” in KBK, vol. 1, 157, first published in Kuntres 9 (Tammuz 5679 [1919]).

  24.    Id., Jaffa, letter, Rosh Ḥodesh, 5679 [1919, no month given], to brother, Ḥaim, [United States], in BKL, vol. 3, 266.

  25.    Id., “Erev HaCongress HaḤamisha-Asar” [Hebrew], in KBK, vol. 3, 151, originally published in Kuntres 310 (Tammuz, 5687 [1927]); id., “HaMatzav BaAretz U-Va-Tziyonut,” in KBK, vol. 3, 128, originally published in Davar, 14 July 1927; id., letter, [Jaffa?, Nisan-Iyyar, 1921], to [World Association, Poale Zion, Vienna], c/o Shlomo Kaplansky, in BKL, vol. 4, 231; id., “Ve’idat London,” in KBK, vol. 1, 239, originally published in HaAdamah, 10–11 (Tammuz-Av 5680 [1920]). See also, id., “Avoda! LaShana HaMitkarevet,” in KBK, vol. 1, 150–53, originally published in Kuntres 5 (Sivan 5679 [1919]).

  26.    Id., “LaḤarada Tziyonit,” in KBK, vol. 5, 106, originally a speech given in Jerusalem, 23 September 1942; id., Tel Aviv, letter to D[avid Ben-Gurion, Tel Aviv], 4 August 1942, in KABB, Ben-Gurion File.

  27.    Id., Ismailiya, letter to sister, Hannah Katznelson, [Jerusalem], 4 Ḥeshvan [1918], in BKL, vol. 3, 71; id., unpublished notebook in Beit Berl, entry for 4 September [1919]; id., “Bimei Yerushalayim,” in KBK, vol. 1, 215–16, originally published in Kuntres 35 (Iyar 5680 [1920]), signed pseudonymously, “A.” Compare also, id., “Likrat HaYamim HaBa’im,” in KBK, vol. 1, 83–84, originally a talk given at the Seventh Agricultural Conference, Poriya, Palestine, 1918.

  28.    Id., Vienna, letter to the Executive Committee of Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 2 August [1920], in BKL, vol. 4, 124.

  29.    Id., letters, Zirlin near Vienna, to Baruch Zuckerman, United States, 27 August [1920]; and Jaffa, to Office of the International Association of Poale Zion, Vienna, 18 Adar Sheni [1921], in BKL, vol. 4, 150, 225. See also, id., “MiLifnei HaYetzia,” KBK, vol. 1, 302–03, originally published in Kuntres 51 (Elul 5680 [1920]); and Shapira, Biography, 108ff, 132. On the “Tool Campaign” see BKL, vol. 4, 221, n. 10.

  30.    Katznelson, “Avodateinu Be-Eretz Yisrael U-Lema’ana,” in KBK, vol. 1, 313–18, originally a letter to Di Tsayt, n.d. [late summer 1920].

  31.    Id., letters, Jaffa, 21 November 1920 and 8 Ḥeshvan 5681 [1920], to Ben-Gurion, [London]; 28 March 1921, to [Baruch] Zuckerman, New York; 12 January 1921, to Comrades [Zalman] Rubashov, [Yitzḥak] Zaar, and [Berl] Locker, [Vienna]; and 8 February 1921, to Poale Zion in America, all in BKL, vol. 4, 170, 159–61, 226–27, 209, 188–91, 170, 209. See also, M. Kramer, Alexandria, Egypt, letter, 21 April 1920, to Katznelson, n.p., in KABB, File Kuf.
        Sometimes, particularly in the first days of the paper, honoraria were paid. See letter of Ḥaim [Hirsch] Ehrenreich, cashier of Di Tsayt, New York, to Katznelson, Tel Aviv, 1 January 1921, in KABB, Mosdot File.

  32.    “Negi’ot,” in KBK, vol. 1, 188, originally published in HaAdamah 1 (Shvat 5680 [1920]).

  33.    “Ve’idat London,” in KBK, vol. 1, 245–46, originally published in HaAdamah, 10–11 (21 Tammuz 5680 [1920]). See also, letter of Henrietta Szold, quoted in Alpheus T. Mason, Brandeis: A Free Man’s Life (New York: Viking, 1946), 460.

  34.    “Ve’idat London,” 235–36; Katznelson, letters, London, [early July, 1920], to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine], and Prague, 19 July [1921], to ?, in BKL, vol. 4, 110, 265.
        See also, id., “LaAsefa HaLe’umit,” in KBK, vol. 1, 205–09, originally published in Kuntres 31 (Nisan 5680 [1920]); id., [London], letter to Executive Committee of Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 28 Tammuz [1920], in BKL, vol. 4, 118–19; id., “BaCongress HaShneim-Asar,” in KBK, vol. 1, 282–84, originally a speech to the twelfth Zionist Congress, Carlsbad, Czechoslovakia, 1 September 1924. Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 173–74, and Biography, 74; Israel Kolatt-Kopelovich, “Ideology and the Impact of Realities Upon the Jewish Labour Movement in Palestine, 1905–1919,” Ph.D. dissertation, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 19 June 1964, 316–17; and Frank E. Manuel, The Realities of American-Palestine Relations (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1949), 3.

  35.    Katznelson, “Baltonut,” in KBK, vol. 1, 143, originally published in Kuntres 5 (Sivan 5679 [1919]); Alef. [id.], Jaffa, letter, Rosh Hodesh, 5679 [sic], to Ḥaim [Katznelson, United States], in BKL, vol. 3, 266. Among other sources see also, id., “Likrat HaYamim HaBa’im,” in KBK, vol. 1, 60–86, originally a speech at the Seventh Conference of Agricultural Workers in Palestine, Purim, 1918; id., “Amar Ha‘Kuntres,’” in KBK, vol. 1, 148–50, originally published unsigned as “LiShe’eilat HaSafot,” Kuntres 5 (Sivan 5679 [1919]; id., “Beirurim,” in KBK, vol. 1, 157–68, originally published in Kuntres 9 (Tammuz 5679 [1919]).

  36.    Katznelson, letters, [Mikve Yisrael, end of Iyyar 1919], to Ben-Gurion, n.p., in BKL, vol. 3: 318; and [Jaffa?, Nisan-Iyyar, 1921], to [World Association, Poale Zion], c/o Sh. Kaplansky, [Vienna], BKL, vol. 4, 231.

  37.    Id., Zirlin near Vienna, letter, 27 August [1920], to Baruch Zuckerman, United States, in BKL, vol. 4, 150.

  38.    Id., “Avodah BeKvish Tverya-Tzemaḥ (Mikhtav MeiEretz Yisrael),” in KBK, vol. 1, 318, originally written as a letter to Di Tsayt of New York, 21 Ḥeshvan [5681 (1920)]; id., Jaffa, letter, 8 February 1921, to Poale Zion in America, [New York], in BKL, vol. 4, 208–09; Ben-Gurion, Vienna, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 11 April 1921, in LAT, File IV-104–29-2alef.

  39.    Katznelson, unpublished notebook in KABB, entry for 5678-Iyyar; and letter, London, to the Executive Committee of Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 14 September 1919, in BKL, vol. 4, 28. See also, id., letter, [Palestine, 2 June 1920], to Zvi Schwartz-Shamir, London, in BKL, vol. 4, 97; Shapira, Biography, 111; Ya’akov Goldstein, HaHistadrut U-Fo’alei Artzot HaBrit [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: AmOved, 1984), 10–11.

  40.    Katznelson, letters, [Tel Aviv], 27 Shvat [1920], to Zvi Schwartz-Shamir, n.p.; Zirlin near Vienna, letter to Baruch Zuckerman, United States, 27 August [1920], in BKL, vol. 4, 82–83, 150.

  41.    Id., quoted in HVHP”, 13 October 1927.

  42.    Id., “El HaPo’alim HaYehudiyim BeAmerica—Michtav LaḤaverim,” in KBK, vol. 1, 285, originally published in HaDo’ar and Di Tsayt, 1 January 1922.

  43.    Id., Jaffa, letter to Ben-Gurion, [London], 25 Tevet [1921], in BKL, vol. 4, 182.

  44.    Id., n.p., letter to Executive Committee of the Poale Zion in America, [New York], 4 Shvat [1921], in BKL, vol. 4, 194.

  45.    Id., “BaItonut,” in KBK, vol. 1, 191, originally published in Kuntres 26 (Shvat, 5680–1920). Compare also, id., “Ve’idat London,” in KBK, vol. 1, 227–61, originally published in HaAdamah 10–11 (Tammuz-Av 5680 [1920]).

  46.    Ben-Gurion, Vienna, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 11 April 1921, in LAT, File IV-104–29-2alef; Katznelson, Jaffa, letter, 21 March 1921, to Baruch Zuckerman, [New York], in BKL, vol. 4, 222. See also, id., Jaffa, letter, 10 Adar II [1921], to B[en]-G[urion, London], in BKL, vol. 6, 1–2.

  47.    Id., letters to Yekutiel Baḥrav, n.p., from [Rafiaḥ, 2 Av 5679 (1919)], [Mikve Yisrael, 23 Tammuz 5679 (1919)], and n.p., [20 October 19?], in BKL, vol. 3, 507–08, 475–76; and BKL, vol. 4, 59–60; and id., London, letter to Office of the World Union, Poale Zion, [Vienna], 7 Ḥeshvan [1919], in BKL, vol. 4, 64–66.

  48.    Id., Jerusalem, letter, 14 November 1920, to Dr. N.[aḥman] Syrkin, [Alexander] Livshitz, and Y.[a’akov] Prozhanski-Aḥva, [United States], in BKL, vol. 4,165–66. See also, ibid., 166, n. 2.

  49.    Katznelson, “BaItonut.” See also, id., letters, London, 29 June [1921], to [Executive Committee, Aḥdut HaAvoda, Tel Aviv], and Jaffa, 8 Ḥeshvan 5681 [1920], to Ben-Gurion, [London], in BKL, vol. 4, 246, 161.

  50.    Id., letters, London, 2 July [1921], to David Bloch (Blumenfeld), n.p., and Berlin, 22 July [1921], to Manya [Shoḥat, Paris], in BKL, vol. 4, 255, 270; id., quoted in HVHP”, 14 June 1921.

  51.    Compare Katznelson, as quoted in “Poale Zion Party Council Adopts Workers’ Bank and Tithe for the Keren Hayesod” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 28 November 1921.

  52.    Goldstein, HaHistadrut, 15, 40; Katznelson, “Bank HaPo’alim BeEretz Yisrael,” in KBK, vol. 1, 350, originally published in Di Tsayt [?], January 1921.

  53.    Shapira, Biography, 115.

  54.    Katznelson, Jaffa, letter to London office, World Union of Poale Zion, 24 January 1921, in BKL, vol. 4, 200; Ze’ev Tzaḥor, “HaHistadrut—Tekufat HaItzuv,” Ph.D. dissertation, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, July 1979.

  55.    Katznelson, quoted in HVHP”, 14 June 1921; id., New York, letter to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine, 2 December 1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 29. See also, Goldstein, HaHistadrut, 21–22; Tzaḥor, “Tekufat Haltzuv,” 137.

  56.    Katznelson, Cherbourg, letter written just before sailing to New York, to Hannah Katznelson-Nesher, [21 or 22 October 1921], in BKL, vol. 4, 328.

  57.    Id., “Yoman America,” entries for 12, 20, and 30 November, 7, 11–16, 18, and 27 December [1921], 4, 6, 18, and 28 January, 2 and 8 February, and 17 March [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 101, 107, 112, 114, 117–18, 120–21, 123–24, 127, 129, 132, 138; id., Paris, letter to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine], 26 June 1921, in BKL, vol. 4, 244; Hado’ar, 19 December 1921; Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 212–13. See also, J. M. Diamondstone, Montreal, letter to Katznelson, Tel Aviv, 21 March 1933, in KABB, File Dalet.
        Both in Berl (vol. 1, 214–15) and Biography (261, 354), Shapira overstates somewhat the case for Katznelson’s abstemiousness. She has overlooked his frequent visits to the Yiddish theater, surely one of the “sights” of America and for him a leisure activity.

  58.    Katznelson, letters, New York, [2 and 17 December 1921], to wife, Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine], and Winnipeg, 29 March [1922], to sister, Hannah Katznelson-Nesher, in BKL, vol. 5, 28–29, 39, 80–81; id., letter, Winnipeg, 31 March [1922], to Leah Miron-Katznelson, Kinneret, in BKL, vol. 6, 6; id., “Yoman America,” entries for 4 February and 17 March [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 130, 138; and id., unpublished notebooks for 5680–81 [1920–21], in Beit Berl. See also, various other letters and diary entries from the period of his visit.

  59.    Id., Cherbourg, letter to [Moshe] Beilinson, Trieste, 22 October [1921], in BKL, vol. 4, 334; Nahman Syrkin, “HaMalachut Shel Po’alei Eretz Yisrael BeAmerica” [Hebrew], in HaDo’ar, 15 November 1921.

  60.    Louis Diamant, chairman, New York Council, the Shiloh League, [November, 1921], to Katznelson, [New York], in KABB, Mosdot File; Katznelson, “Yoman America,” entry for 7 January [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 121–22; id., New York, letter to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 10 January [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 42.

  61.    Id., “Yoman America,” entries for 12, 26, and 27 November [1921] and 17 March [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 101, 111, 138; “Bnei Eretz Yisrael Im Tze’irei Histadrut HaOvdim” and “Aseifat Eretz HaYisra’elim” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 24 and 29 November 1921; Katznelson, letters, New York, 12 January 1922, to HEC, [Tel Aviv], in LAT, File IV-104–71, and [17 January 1922], to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine], in BKL, vol. 5, 39; and Cleveland, 22 February [1922], to [David Zakkai, Palestine], in KABB, Correspondence File.
        On the eve of his departure Katznelson also committed himself to working in America for a merger of the Poale Zion with the smaller, non-Marxist, labor-Zionist party, Zeirei-Zion. Apparently in this case, too, he satisfied himself with selling bank shares to the Zeirei-Zion. (Katznelson, Cherbourg, letter to [Israel] Mereminsky [Marom, Warsaw], 22 October 1921, in BKL, vol. 4, 330; “Palestine Workers’ Delegation at the Zeirei-Zion” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 30 November 1921.) The merger took place some years later without Katznelson’s intervention.

  62.    “Neshef Eivel LeZeicher M. Y. Berdichevsky” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 18 December 1921; Katznelson, “Yoman America,” entry for 11 December [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 115.

  63.    See id., “Tzedek LaUmim,” in KBK, vol. 1, 221, originally printed as Hoveret, which appeared instead of Kuntres 36 (Iyyar, 5680 [1920]); and Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 213, and Biography, 122.

  64.    Katznelson, “Yoman America,” entry for 18 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 105.

  65.    Id., letters, Detroit, to Leah Miron-Katznelson, Kinneret, 3 February 1922, in BKL, vol. 6, 5; and Cleveland, to [David Zakkai, Palestine], 22 February [1922], in KABB, Correspondence File. See also, Yosef Sprinzak, quoted in HVHP”, 27 June 1921; and Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 203, 212.

  66.    Katznelson, letters, London, 9 Av [1921], to [Baruch] Zuckerman, [New York], in BKL, vol. 4, 288; and New York, 7 December 1921, to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Palestine], in BKL, vol. 5, 32.

  67.    Id., “Yoman America,” entry for 19 January [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 125. On 10 February 1922 an op ed piece by Syrkin, “The Workers’ Bank in Palestine” [Yiddish], appeared in Di Tsayt.

  68.    “New York Jewish Workers Give Enthusiastic Reception to the Palestine Workers’ Delegation” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 11 November 1921.

  69.    Compare Yosef Baratz, as quoted in HVHP”, 5 June 1922.

  70.    See, among other sources, Katznelson, “Yoman America,” 7, 25, 29 November and 7 December [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 93, 110, 112, 114; id., New York, letter to David Zakkai, [Palestine], 28 November 1921, in BKL, vol. 5, 24. See also, Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 209–10; Goldstein, HaHistadrut, 28; and id., “Heroine or Traitor? The Controversy over Manya Vilbushevich-Shoḥat and Her Links with Zubatov,” Studies in Contemporary Jewry 6 (1990): 287.

  71.    “‘Farband’ Will Aid Palestine Workers’ Delegation” and “The Zeirei Zion and the Palestine Workers’ Bank,” both in Di Tsayt [Yiddish], 12 December 1921; “Tzeirei Zion VeYahasam LeVank HaPo’alim BeEretz Yisrael” [Hebrew], Hado’ar, 12 December 1921.

  72.    Katznelson, “Yoman America,” 16 November and 21–25 December [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 104, 118–19; id., letters, New York, 28 November [1921], to David [Ben-Gurion], n.p., and New York, 15 April [1922], to David (Blumenfeld) Bloch, [Tel Aviv], in LAT, File IV-104–71-3. See also, Yosef Baratz, quoted in HVHP”, 5 June 1922.

  73.    “Enthusiastic Beginning of the Campaign for the Palestine Workers’ Bank” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 3 January 1922; the New York Times, 2 January 1922; Katznelson, “Yoman America,” 1 January 1922, in BKL, vol. 5, 120. See also, Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 210.

  74.    “Max Rottenstein off on a Tour for the Workers’ Bank” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 5 January 1922; “Non-Partisan Committees for the Workers’ Bank Already Founded in Many Cities” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 8 January 1922; Katznelson, Buffalo, letter to Issachar Bonchik, [New York], 13 January 1922, in BKL, vol. 5, 44–45; and many other sources, especially subsequent letters of Katznelson himself.

  75.    Id., “Yoman America” and letters in BKL, vol. 5, passim, as well as his datebook for 1922, in Beit Berl; reports in Di Tsayt and HaDo’ar for the period.

  76.    Katznelson, Buffalo, letter, to David (Blumenfeld) Bloch, [Palestine], 14 February [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 59; id., “Yoman America,” 26 January and 17 March [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 126–27, 143; “Energetic Work Brings Good Results for the Palestine Workers’ Bank” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 17 March 1922; Yitzḥak Spector, “Malachut HaPo’alim BeChicago” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 3 February 1922. See also, Shapira, Biography, 121.

  77.    See Katznelson, “The First Activities for the Workers’ Bank” and “Why Do Workers Need Their Own Bank?” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 15 and 26 January 1922; id., Di Arbayter Bank in Erets Yisroel [Yiddish], (New York: American Workers Committee for the Workers’ Bank in Palestine, [1922]).

  78.    Katznelson, New York, letter to David (Blumenfeld) Bloch, [Tel Aviv], 15 April [1922], in LAT, File IV-104–71-3. See also, [id.], Philadelphia, letter fragment, to David [Ben-Gurion], 7 May [1922], in KABB, Ben-Gurion File.

  79.    Id., [Philadelphia], letter to Leah [Miron-Katznelson, Kinneret, 4 May 1922], in BKL, vol. 6, 7.

  80.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in HVHP”, 5 June 1922; Katznelson, Medling, letter to Naḥum Ben-Avi [Brodsky], n.p., in BKL, vol. 5, 149–52. See also, id., New York, letter to David Zakkai, [Palestine], 28 November 1921, in BKL, vol. 5, 23–25. Ben-Gurion’s later, more positive assessment, was offered in a letter to Baruch Zuckerman, New York, 26 July 1923, and is quoted in Goldstein, HaHistadrut, 33.

  81.    Katznelson, New York, letter to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 7 December 1921, in BKL, vol. 5, 33. See also, id., letters, New York, to David Zakkai, [Palestine], 28 November 1921, and n.p., n.d. [mid-February 1922], to David Kallai, n.p., both in BKL, vol. 5, 23, 56.

  82.    Katznelson, New York, letter to David [Ben-Gurion], n.p., 28 November [1921], in LAT, File IV-104–71-3; Zuckerman, Zikhroynes, 2: 283. See also, Hyman J. Fliegel, The Life and Times of Max Pine (New York: By the author, 1959), 13.

  83.    Katznelson, “Yoman America,” 5 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 96.

  84.    Id., “Yoman America,” 17 March [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 137.

  85.    Yosef Baratz, quoted in HVHP”, 5 June 1922; I.[saac] Hamlin, “The Work for Labor Palestine in America,” Labor Palestine 1 (June 1933): 20–21; Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 217; id., Biography, 124.

  86.    Katznelson, “Yoman America,” 3 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 93; id., Chicago and Buffalo, letter to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 30 January and 12 February [1922], in LAT, File IV-104–71-3. See also, Shapira, Biography, 120–21.

  87.    Katznelson, Winnipeg, letter to Leah Miron-Katznelson, n.p., n.d. [late March 1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 82; Manya Shoḥat (“We were not the appropriate people for the delegation”), quoted in HVHP”, 24 July 1922; Yosef Baratz (“I arrived there green and foreign”), quoted in HVHP”, 5 June 1922.

  88.    Katznelson, letter, n.p., to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine, 14 March 1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 73. See also, id., letter, New York, to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 10 [January] 1922, in LAT, File IV-104–71-3; and Yosef Baratz, quoted in HVHP”, 5 June 1922.

  89.    Katznelson, speech to Poale Zion Party Council, New York, recorded in “Yoman America,” 25 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 110. A slightly milder version appeared in HaDo’ar (“Mo’etzet HaMiflaga Shel ‘Poale Zion’”), 5 December 1921.

  90.    Katznelson, letters, New York, to David Raḥum, n.p., 1 July [1922], in KABB, Miscellaneous File; Boston, to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine], 4 June [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 92.

  91.    “El HaPo’alim HaYehudiyim BeAmerica—Michtav LaḤaverim,” in KBK, vol. 1, 285, originally published in HaDo’ar and Di Tsayt, 1 January 1922.

  92.    Katznelson, letter, [Philadelphia], to Leah Miron-Katznelson, Kinneret, [4 May 1922], in BKL, vol. 6, 8. See also, Shapira, Biography, 122.

  93.    Katznelson, New York, letter to David Zakkai, [Palestine], 28 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 24.

  94.    Id., letters, Buffalo, 13 January 1922, to Issachar Bonchik, [New York], in BKL, vol. 5, 44–45; and Detroit, 3 February 1922, to Leah Miron-Katznelson, Kinneret, in BKL, vol. 6, 4; id., “Yoman America,” entries for 4–6, 7, 23 January and 17 March [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 121, 126, 142. See also, id., letters, Cleveland, 5 March [1922], to Leah Miron-Katznelson, n.p., and 6 March [1922], to Yosef Baratz, n.p.; and Minneapolis, 16 March [1922], to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], all in BKL, vol. 5, 62–63, 76–78.

  95.    See Yosef Baratz, quoted in HVHP”, 5 June 1922; and chapter 2 in this book on Jabotinsky, who participated in the WZO mission.

  96.    See, among other sources, Katznelson, “Yoman America,” 4 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 95; HaDo’ar, 10, 11, 13 November 1921, and 21 March 1922; A. Kretschmar-Yisraeli, “The Workers’ Delegation” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 26 November 1921.
        On the recession in America and its effects on the Workers’ Bank Campaign, see Katznelson, Minneapolis, letter to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 16 March [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 76–78; Manya [Shoḥat], Boston, letter to Katznelson, n.p., n.d., in LAT, File IV-104–71-7.

  97.    Katznelson, Vienna, letter to the HEC, [Tel Aviv], Erev Sukkot, 5682 [1921], in BKL, vol. 4, 312–13; id., “Yoman America,” 8 and 9 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 94; and id., letters, Vienna, to David Zakkai, [Palestine], Day after Fast of Gedaliah [6 October 1921], in BKL, vol. 4, 306–10; New York, to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 14 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 17–18; and New York, to David Blumenfeld (Bloch), n.p., 15 April 1922, in BKL, vol. 5, 87–88. See also, Yosef Baratz, in HVHP”, 5 June 1922.

  98.    Ben-Gurion, Jaffa, memorandum to HaMerkaz HaḤakla’i, [Jaffa], 5 Tevet 5682 [1922], in LAT, File IV-104–29-3; Katznelson, letters, New York, to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 10 and 14 January 1922, in LAT, File IV-104–71-3.

  99.    Katznelson, quoted in HVHP”, 15 October 1923.

100.    Id., New York, letter to David (Blumenfeld) Bloch, n.p., 15 April 1922, in BKL, vol. 5, 87.

101.    Id., New York, letter to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 14 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 18. Also, see chapter 7 in this book on Ben-Gurion.

102.    Id., Boston, letter to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine], 4 June [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 92; id., “Yoman America,” entry for 3 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 94; id., n.p., letter to David Kallai, n.p., n.d. [mid-February, 1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 56; Yosef Baratz, quoted in HVHP”, 5 June 1922. See also, Shapira, Biography, 119.

103.    Katznelson, Boston, letter to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine], 4 June [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 92.
        On Ehrenreich, see also, Katznelson, “Yoman America,” 7 and 14 November [1921] and 11–16 January [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 93, 102, 122–23; id., [Chicago], letter to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine], 28 January 1922, in BKL, vol. 5, 47.

104.    Id., Buffalo, letter to David (Blumenfeld) Bloch, [Palestine], 14 February [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 58.

105.    Id., letters, Minneapolis, [16 March 1922], and Buffalo, 13 January 1922, both to Issachar Bonchik, n.p., in BKL, vol. 5, 75, 44. See also, id., New York, letter to David (Blumenfeld) Bloch, [Palestine], 15 April 1922, in BKL, vol. 5, 87; id., “Yoman America,” entries for 21–25, 27 December [1921], 30, 31 January, 11, 12, 13 February, 17 March 1922, in BKL, vol. 5, 118–20, 128, 135, 138–39, 142.

106.    Yosef Baratz, quoted in HVHP”, 5 June 1922; Berl Katznelson, Boston, letter to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine], 4 June [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 52.
        Baruch Zuckerman, a stalwart of the American Poale Zion Party, claimed that, in fact, the Americans successfully handled the sale of shares in the bank while the delegation was in the United States and afterwards (Zikhroynes, vol. 2, 282).

107.    Katznelson, “Ta’anot Kineged Eretz-Yisrael,” in KBK, vol. 1, 324, originally published in Di Tsayt, 18 December 1921.

108.    Vladimir Medem, “Some Remarks About the Zionist Workers’ Delegation” [Yiddish], Forverts, 14 December 1921.

109.    Katznelson, “Yoman America,” entry for 14 December [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 115; id., letters, New York, 15 December 1921 to [Aḥdut HaAvoda, Tel Aviv], and Buffalo, 14 February [1922], to David (Blumenfeld) Bloch, [Palestine], both in BKL, vol. 5, 36, 59.

110.    In “Heroine” (288), Ya’akov Goldstein implicitly criticizes Baratz and Katznelson for not defending their colleague more forthrightly. Shoḥat considered Katznelson’s attacks on Bundists who had cooperated with counter-revolutionary Ukrainian nationalists partly responsible for exposing her vulnerability. (Manya [Sḥohat, Boston?], letter to Katznelson, n.d., in LAT, File IV-104–71-7.)

111.    For examples of support, see “A Statement from Isaac Hourwich on the Accusation of Mrs. Shoḥat (Manya Vilbushevitz) Against Mr. Vladimir Medem,” and “A Statement from the Central Committee of the Poale Zion About Medem’s Accusation Against Manya Shoḥat,” both in Di Tsayt [Yiddish], 6 and 25 February 1922. From April 19 to 24 Di Tsayt published Shoḥat’s own version of the affair, “My Connections with Zubatov” [Yiddish].
        On Katznelson’s first fears regarding the damage, see his letter from New York, [17 December 1921], to Leah Miron-Katznelson [Palestine], in BKL, vol. 5, 38. On the lingering effects of the affair, see his letter from New York, 15 April [1922], to [David] (Blumenfeld) [Bloch], [Tel Aviv], in LAT, File IV-104–71-3.
        On the affair, in general, see Ya’akov Goldstein, “Heroine” and HaHistadrut, and Shapira, Biography, 120.

112.    Katznelson, New York, letter to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 7 December 1921, in BKL, vol. 5, 31–33.

113.    Katznelson, New York, letters to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 14 November [1921], and to David Zakkai, [Palestine], 28 November 1921, in BKL, vol. 5, 17–18, 23; id., “Yoman America,” 19, 21–22 November, and 10, 12 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 106–08, 114–15; “Po’alim U-‘Fo’alim’” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 15 December 1921; Sh.[imon] G.[insburg?], “Kabalat Panim LeMalachut HaPo’alim BeEretz Yisrael” [Hebrew], HaDo’ar, 4 January 1922; I. Bonchik, “A Quick Glance at the Condition of the Palestine Workers’ Bank Campaign” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 3 April 1922; Shapira, Biography, 119; and many other sources.

114.    Katznelson, “Yoman America,” entry for 26–27 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 110. See also, id., New York, letter to David Zakkai, [Palestine], 28 November 1921, in BKL, vol. 5, 25; Yosef Baratz, quoted in HVHP”, 5 June 1922.

115.    Katznelson, “Yoman America,” entries for 15 November, 13 December [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 102, 115; id., New York, letter to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 14 November [1921], in BKL, vol. 5, 17–18; idem, “Ta’anot Kineged Eretz Yisrael,” 325; Ḥaim Zhitlovsky, “Dr. Magnes’s Letter to the Forverts” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 10 December 1921; id., “On the ‘Job-Faust’ Tragedy of the Jewish People” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 1 January 1922.

116.    Katznelson, letters, n.p., to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine, 14 March 1922], and Minneapolis, to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 16 March [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 73, 76–78; id., “How People Falsify Information About Palestine” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 25 December 1921; id., “Mi Rodef et Mi?” in KBK, vol. 1, 337–45, originally published in Di Tsayt, 1 January 1922; A[braham] Revusky, New York, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 18 May 1933, in KABB, File Resh. See also, Katznelson, letters, New York, 15 December 1921, to [Aḥdut Ha-Avoda, Tel Aviv], and n.p., to Poale Zion Central Committee, New York, n.d. [March, 1922], both in BKL, vol. 5, 37, 84; id., “Yoman America,” 29 November and 3 December [1921], 17 March [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 112–13, 140; Shapira, Biography, 120.

117.    Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], letter to Avraham Sharon [Schwadron], [Jerusalem], 19 January 1936, in BKL, vol. 6, 213–15. See also, id., [Tel Aviv], letter to Avraham Sharon [Schwadron, Jerusalem, 6 January 1936], in BKL, vol. 7, 210.
        In 1928, unlike many others in the yishuv, Katznelson urged the Hebrew University to accept the donation of a chair of Yiddish (“Katedra HaMeriva,” in KBK, vol. 3, 351–56, originally published in Davar, 11 January 1928). Magnes and the university governors finally refused the gift as too contentious.

118.    Katznelson, “Shva Mei’ot VeArba’im Halutzim MeiUkraina,” in KBK, vol. 1, 344, originally published in Di Tsayt [?], December 1921. Compare also, id., “Yoman America,” 21–25, 26 December [1921], and 17 March [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 118–19, 138; id., letters, Buffalo, 13 January 1922, to Issachar Bonchik, [New York], in BKL, vol. 5, 44, and Winnipeg, 31 March [1922], to Leah Miron-Katznelson, Kinneret, in BKL, vol. 6, 6; Manuel, Realities, 300; Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 206.

119.    Katznelson, letters, Buffalo, to David (Blumenfeld) Bloch, n.p., 14 February [1922], and New York, to Aḥdut HaAvoda, [Tel Aviv], 14 November [1921], both in BKL, vol. 5, 58, 17. See also, id., letters, Buffalo, 12 February [1922], to [Aḥdut HaAvoda, Tel Aviv], and New York, 15 April 1922, to David (Blumenfeld) Bloch, n.p., both in BKL, vol. 5, 53–54, 87–88; “Poale Zion Members Will Create a 50 Thousand Dollar Fund for the ‘Tsayt’ by January First” [Yiddish], Di Tsayt, 19 November 1921.

120.    Katznelson, Philadelphia, letter to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine], 8 May [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 90.

121.    Id., “Yoman America,” 23 January [1922], in BKL, vol. 5, 126; Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 216.

122.    “Keitzad Mesalfim Yedi’ot MeiEretz Yisrael,” in KBK, vol. 1, 332–37, originally published in Di Tsayt, 25 December 1921.

123.    Compare, for example, copy of letter from Histadrut Delegation, New York, to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 17 May 1926, in LAT, File IV-208–66gimel; Dov Hoz, [New York], letter to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 23 March [1928], in LAT, File IV-208-121bet; and report of David (Blumenfeld) Bloch on the Histadrut Delegation to America in HVHP”, 19 August 1929.

124.    Katznelson, “Aḥarei Esrim Shana,” in KBK, vol. 4, 15, originally a speech to Aḥdut HaAvoda, 7 Shvat 5689 [1929]; id., “Hachrazato Shel Ormsby-Gore,” in KBK, vol. 2, 152, originally published in Davar, 18 June 1925; and id., “Tshuva LaVikuaḥ,” in KBK, vol. 3, 52, originally published in Davar, 5 November 1926.

125.    Id., “VaAvadetem BaGoyim,” in KBK, vol. 3, 309–10, originally published in Davar, 22 July 1928; id., “Delegatim,” in KBK, vol. 3, 321, originally published in Davar, 3 September 1928; id., “Aḥarei Ve’idah Aḥat,” Davar, 31 July 1928; id., “LeZecher Mocher-Sefarim [Max Shapiro] Yekar HaMetzi’ut,” in KBK, vol. 3, 307–09, originally published in Davar, 22 July 1928; id., Tel Aviv, letters to M.[ordecai/Max] Lipson, New York, 18 February and 29 April 1925, and to Shlomo Kaplansky, Jerusalem, 24 May 1925, all in BKL, vol. 5, 195, 212, 215.
        For a more positive assessment of the Hebrew movement in America, see id., “HaItonut HaYehudit VeHaShavua HaIvri,” in KBK, vol. 3, 345–47, originally published in Davar, 3 June 1927.

126.    Id., “Delegatim,” in KBK, vol. 3, 322, originally published in Davar, 3 September 1928.

127.    Id., “Erev HaCongress HaḤamisha-Asar,” in KBK, vol. 3, 154, originally published in Kuntres 310 (Tammuz 5687 [1927]).

128.    See among other sources, id., “LeHabima,” in KBK, vol. 3, 358–60, originally published in Davar, 27 March 1928; Israel Mereminsky [Marom], New York, letter to HEC, Tel Aviv, 13 June 1928, in LAT, File IV-208-1-121bet; HVHP”, 11 August 1927, 30 October 1928; Isaac Hamlin, “In Service of Palestine Labor,” The Vanguard, December 1928, 51–52; Fliegel, Max Pine, 15–20, 31–32, 48; Akiva Ettinger, Im HaḤakla’im HaYehudiyim BaTfutzot (Merḥavya: “Sifriat Po’alim,” Workers Book Guild [Hashomer Hatza’ir], 1942), 169; Arthur Liebman, Jews and the Left (New York: John Wiley, 1979), 265; Maier Bryan Fox, “Labor Zionism in America: The Challenge of the 1920s,” American Jewish Archives 35 (April 1983): 53–71.

129.    Yosef [Baratz], New York, letter to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 16 January 1926, in LAT, File IV-208–66bet.

130.    See, for example, Katznelson, Arza, letter to Dov Hoz, [United States, 23 March 1928], in BKL, vol. 5, 252.

131.    Id., “LeVo’o Shel Abe Cahan,” in KBK, vol. 2, 178–79, originally published in Davar, 27 September 1925. Compare also, id., “BiMsibat Preida LeAbe Cahan,” in KBK, vol. 4, 98–99, originally published in Davar, 4 October 1929.

132.    Id., Arza, letter to Dov Hoz, [New York, 23 March 1928], in BKL, vol. 5, 252; Mereham [Israel Mereminsky (Marom) and Isaac Hamlin], New York, telegram to Ovdim Ben-Gurion [Ben-Gurion, HEC], Tel Aviv, 22 May 1928, in LAT, File IV-208-1-121alef; Israel Mereminsky [Marom], New York, letter to HEC, Tel Aviv, 28 June 1928, in LAT, File IV-208-1-121gimel.

133.    Katznelson, “LeShe’eilat HaSochnut HaYehudit,’ in KBK, vol. 2, 58, originally a speech to the thirteenth Zionist Congress at Carlsbad, Czechoslovakia, August 1923; and id., “BaCongress HaḤamisha-Asar,” in KBK, vol. 3, 157–61, originally a speech to the fifteenth Zionist Congress, Basle, Switzerland, 11 September 1927.

134.    Id., “Al Halhud,” in KBK, vol. 3, 210, originally published in Kuntres 320 (Kislev 5688 [1927/28]); id. “Devarim SheHushme’u BeVe’idat ‘Aḥdut Ha-Avoda’ BeEin Harod—2 Iyyar 5684 (1924),” in KBK, vol. 2, 106, originally a speech at the Aḥdut HaAvoda conference at Ein Ḥarod, 2 Iyyar 1924; id., “Tshuva LaMitvakḥim,” in KBK, vol. 3, 218–20, originally published in Kuntres 321 (Kislev 5688 [1927–28]).

135.    Id., “BeYom HaHistadrut HaShishi,” in KBK, vol. 3, 59, originally a speech given at the Hotel Eden in Jerusalem, on Histadrut Day, 1927.

136.    On the ways in which Brandeis, in fact, maintained active involvement in Zionism, see Leonard Baker, Brandeis and Frankfurter: A Dual Biography (New York: Harper and Row, 1984).

137.    Katznelson, “HaBank HaMerkazi LeMosdot Shitufiyim,” in KBK, vol. 2, 42–44, originally published in Kuntres 136 (7 Av 5683 [1923]). On labor’s general disdain for American progressives in these years, see Peter Grose, Israel in the Mind of America (New York: Knopf, 1983), 102.

138.    Katznelson, “BeOchrei Leshoneinu,” in KBK, vol. 3, 294–96, originally published in Davar, 6 September 1928.

139.    Id., “HaCongress U-le-AḤarav,” in KBK, vol. 3, 167, originally published in Davar, 26 October 1927.

140.    Id., “Tshuva LaMitvakḥim,” in KBK, vol. 3, 219–20, originally published in Kuntres 321 (Kislev 5688 [1927–28]); id., “Veto,” in KBK, vol. 4, 71, originally published in Davar, 17 April 1929; and id., “BaCongress HaShisha-Asar,” in KBK, vol. 4, 81–83, originally published in Davar, 13 August 1929.

141.    On the American Zion Commonwealth, see among other sources, Bernard Sandler, “The American-Zionist Concept ‘Achoozah’ and Its Realization in Eretz Israel, 1908–1934” [Hebrew], Cathedra 17 (October 1980): 165–82; and Leah Doukhan-Landau, “The Haifa Bay Lands and the American Zion Commonwealth Crisis (1925–1930)” [Hebrew], Cathedra 41 (September 1986): 173–99.

142.    See the exchange of correspondence in 1926 and 1927 between the HEC and its delegates in America in LAT, Files IV-208-1-66gimel and IV-208-1-67alef. See also, Fox, “Labor Zionism,” 63.

143.    Katznelson, quoted in HVHP”, 25 January 1925; id., ”Tshuva LeDivrei Ḥaverim,” in KBK, vol. 2, 241, originally published in Davar, 15 February 1926; id., Arza, letter to Dov Hoz, [United States, 23 March 1928], in BKL, vol. 5, 251; id., “Veto,” in KBK, vol. 4, 75, originally published in Davar, 17 April 1929; id., “Eser Shnot ‘Aḥdut HaAvoda,’” in KBK, vol. 4, 34, originally a lecture to the Tenth Anniversary Council of Aḥdut HaAvoda, Tel Aviv, 12 Nisan 5689 [1929].
        See also, id., “BaCongress HaShisha-Asar,” in KBK, vol. 4, 85–86, originally published in Davar, 13 August 1929; and Katznelson’s most spirited defense of the AZC bailout, “Im Ge’ulat Mifratz Ḥaifa,” in KBK, vol. 4, 48, originally published in Davar, 26, 30, 31 December 1928.

144.    Id., “Ma’asei Lehatim,” in KBK, vol. 2, 30, originally published in Kuntres 121 (13 Nisan 5683 [1923]).

145.    Id., Arza, letter to Dov Hoz, [New York, 23 March 1928], in BKL, vol. 5, 252. See also, id., Tel Aviv, letter to Ben-Gurion, [London], 24 July 1924, in BKL, vol. 5, 184.

146.    Id., “Ma’asei Lehatim,” in KBK, vol. 2, 30, originally published in Kuntres 121 (13 Nisan 5683 [1923]). See also, id., “HaLivyetanim U-Degei HaRakak,” in KBK, vol. 2, 28–30, originally published in Kuntres, 120 (10 Nisan 5683 [1923]); id., “Te’uda Aliva U-Ma’aliva,” in KBK, vol. 3, 270–78, originally published in Davar, 26 June 1928; and id., “Erev HaPtiḥa Shel HaCongress HaShisha-Asar,” in KBK, vol. 4, 76–79, originally published in Davar, 9 August 1929.
        In fact, Louis Marshall was not a man of great wealth. He was, however, the acknowledged leader and spokesman of American Jewry, and especially of the moneyed Jews, most of whom were of German origin and affiliated with the Reform Movement.

147.    Katznelson, “Tshuva LeDivrei Ḥaverim,” in KBK, vol. 3, 135, originally a lecture to the third Histadrut conference, 18 July 1927. See also, Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 217.

148.    Katznelson, quoted in diary of David Ben-Gurion, 22 April 1929, in LAT, File IV-208-1-156. See also, Ben-Gurion diary, 30 April 1929; and Shapira, Berl, vol. 2, 388.

149.    Katznelson, “Ma’asei Lehatim,” 30.

150.    Id., quoted in MC”, 14–16 April 1939, cited in Allon Gal, David Ben-Gurion—Likrat Medina Yehudit ([Sede Boqer]: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus, 1985), 35.

151.    Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], letter to [Avraham] Regelson, [Tel Aviv, 28 June 1935], in BKL, vol. 6, 176–77; id., quoted in MC”, 21 November 1933.

152.    Id., quoted in MC”, 28 March 1933.

153.    Id., “Avodateinu HaTarbutit,” in KBK, vol. 6, 266, originally a lecture to the fourth Histadrut Convention, January 1934. Among other sources, see also, id., “Kabalat Panim LeMishlaḥat HaPo’alim MeiAmerica,” in KBK, vol. 4, 128, originally published in Davar, 24 August 1930; id., New York, letter to Leah [Miron-Katznelson, Tel Aviv], 24 November 1937, in KABB; Shapira, Berl, vol. 2, 564.

154.    See Shapira, Berl, vol. 2, 399.

155.    Katznelson, “HaMatzav HaMedini,” in KBK, vol. 9, 304. See also, id., “HaEḥad BaMa’aracha,” in KBK, vol. 10, 29–34; and id., “Queries on Jewish Labor,” in Revolutionary Constructivism, 30.

156.    Katznelson, quoted in MC”, 29 December 1937. See also, id., letters, New York, to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 30 October [1937], in KABB, and [Tel Aviv], to Avraham Sharon [Schwadron, Jerusalem, 6 January 1936], in BKL, vol. 6, 209–10.
        Katznelson was aware, of course, that assimilation was not exclusively an American problem. See, for example, his speech, “HaHistadrut HaTziyonit Nitba’at LeFe’ula Tarbutit,” in KBK, vol. 7, 125–39, originally delivered at the World Zionist Congress, Lucerne, Switzerland, summer 1935, which focuses on assimilation in Poland and elsewhere in the European-Jewish heartland.

157.    Katznelson, “Histadrut HaOvdim,” in KBK, vol. 6, 345–46, originally an address to a conference of young working people, Ḥanukah, 5693 (1932).

158.    Id., quoted in HVHP”, 19 January 1937; id., “Tvi’a,” in KBK, vol. 8, 73–78, a second version of the same comments. See also, the Yiddish minutes of the reception speeches, 19 January 1937, in LAT, File IV-208-1-1419; and “Workers’ Delegation Goes to Palestine,” editorial, Jewish Frontier, January 1937, 4–5.

159.    Katznelson, “Bameh Nekadeim et HaHityashvut HaOvedet,” in KBK, vol. 6, 37, originally a talk at the annual Mapai Party conference, Tel Aviv, 31 October 1932; id., “Kaf BeTammuz,” in KBK, vol. 4, 125, originally a speech given in Jerusalem in the summer of 1931. See also, Yitzḥak Chizik, Chicago, letters to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 19 and 22 September 1931, in KABB, File Tzadik-Kuf; “Ma’amada Shel Yehudei America,” Davar, 5 September 1934; Katznelson, “BeḤagah Shel HaKeren HaKayemet,” in KBK, vol. 9, 331–32, originally a speech delivered at a conference of the Keren Kayemet LeYisrael, Tel Aviv, 21 January 1939.

160.    Id., “LeVo HaNasi,” in KBK, vol. 4, 259, originally published in Davar, 17 March 1931, signed, Mem Dalet.
        On the state of American Zionism at the beginning of the 1930s, compare Naomi W. Cohen, The Year after the Riots (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1988), 84–122.

161.    Katznelson, “BaCongress HaShmona-Asar,” in KBK, vol. 6, 186, 190, originally a speech at the Zionist Congress in Prague, Czechoslovakia, 24 August 1933; id., “Adama Le’umit VaAvoda Ivrit,” in KBK, vol. 7, 103, originally a speech to the Keren Kayemet Conference, Lucerne Switzerland, summer 1935; and B[ernard] Rosenblatt, London, letter to Berl Katznelson, New York, 15 November 1937, in KABB, File Resh.

162.    Katznelson, “BaMe Nekadeim et HaHityashvut HaOvedet.”

163.    Id., quoted in HVHP”, 16 December 1937; id., report on trip to America in MC”, 29 December 1937. See also, id., New York, letter to Leah [Miron-Katznelson, Tel Aviv], 8 November 1937, in KABB; Shapira, Berl, vol. 2, 565–66.

164.    Katznelson, “BaCongress HaTziyoni HaEsrim VeEḥad,” in KBK, vol. 9, 69, originally an address delivered at the twenty-first Zionist Congress, August 1939. See also, Marie Syrkin, “Report of the Zionist Congress,” Jewish Frontier, September, 1939, 11; David Ben-Gurion, “Why We Placed Our Trust in Britain,” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, 18 October 1963, 23; Shapira, Biography, 278; Norman Rose, Chaim Weizmann: A Biography (New York: Viking-Penguin, 1986), 353; Marc Lee Raphael, Abba Hillel Silver: A Profile in American Judaism (New York and London: Holmes & Meier, 1989), 78–79; and Aaron Berman, Nazism, the Jews, and American Zionism, 1933–1948 (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1990), 71.

165.    Katznelson, “A New Chapter in Aliya,” Pioneer Woman, April 1940, 3–4.

166.    Ben-Gurion on Katznelson, in BGD, 24 October 1939, quoted in Gal, Likrat Medina, 43. See also, Katznelson, Tel Aviv, draft letter to Dr. R[oland] Gittelsohn, Cleveland, 9 January 1938, in KABB; and Shabtai Teveth, Ben-Gurion: The Burning Ground, 1886–1948 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987), 675.

167.    Personal conversation of the author with Prof. Moshe Davis, Jerusalem, 26 July 1991. Compare also, Daniel Persky, [Tel Aviv], letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 4 February 1933, in KABB, File Samech-Pei; and Katznelson, New York, letter to Leah [Miron-Katznelson, Tel Aviv], 30 October [1937], in KABB, File 1937. In “Ḥuliya Rishona BaSharsheret,” in KBK, vol. 7, 161, originally published in Davar supplement for children, 4 January 1935, signed, “Be’eri,” Katznelson wrote about the 75th anniversary of the Motza settlement, which had been rescued from abandonment by the B’nai Brith and the Ḥovevei Zion, without mentioning that B’nai Brith was an American organization.

168.    Katznelson, “Kodmei-Kodmeinu,” in KBK, vol. 7, 162–74, originally published in Davar, 31 July 1935; id., “Kabalat Panim LeMishlaḥat HaPo’alim MeiAmerica,” in KBK, vol. 4, 129, originally a speech to a visiting delegation of American-Jewish labor leaders, Beit HaAm, Tel Aviv, 24 August 1930.

169.    In “Goral HaAvoda HaIvrit BeYamim Eile,” in KBK, vol. 6, 318, originally a speech to the Aseifat HaNivḥarim, 1 Sivan 5694 (1934), Katznelson spoke of “making Palestine into the California of all this [Middle] East.” See also, his “LaTochnit HaAmitit Shel HaTnu’a HaLe’umit HaAravit: HaGoreim HaAngli,” in KBK, vol. 8, 193, originally a lecture at a meeting of the Mapai Party, Tel Aviv, 13 June 1936.

170.    Katznelson, New York, letter to Leah [Miron-Katznelson, Tel Aviv], 30 October [1937], in KABB; Ben Zion Applebaum [Ilan], “The American Chalutz,” Hechalutz Bulletin (February 1937), 7–8.

171.    Katznelson, “Oraḥ Ḥayav,” a eulogy for Shmaryahu Levin, in KBK, vol. 7, 179, originally published in Davar, 10 June 1935.

172.    Id., London, letter to Zalman [Rubashov-Shazar, Tel Aviv, 22 June 1937], in BKL, vol. 6, 368. See also, id., Tel Aviv, letter to Daniel Fineman, Paris, 26 September 1932, in BKL, vol. 6, 92–93; Yoḥanan Twersky, Boston, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 2 November 1935, in KABB, File Tet; Berl Katznelson, [on board ship sailing towards Italy], letter to [Moshe] Braslavsky [Na’an], n.p., [10 August 1935], in BKL, vol. 5, 180; and id., “Hebrew Culture: Immediate Problems,” Jewish Frontier 2 (November 1935): 17. In his letter to Braslavsky commending to him a poem of B. N. Silkiner, Katznelson did not mention that Silkiner was an American, although he surely knew it.

173.    Katznelson, “Kabbalat Panim LeMishlaḥhat HaPo’alim MeiAmerica,” 129.

174.    Id., “BeVe’idat ‘Po’alei Zion’ BeGermania,” in KBK, vol. 4, 103–04, originally an address to a Poale Zion Party convention, Berlin, 5 January 1930. See also, id., London, letter to Mapai Party Center, Tel Aviv, 31 October [1930], in BKL, vol. 6, 19; and remarks of Zalman Rubashov [Shazar], in HVHP”, 26 September 1932.

175.    Katznelson, quoted in MC”, 7 December 1938. See also, id., quoted in MC”, 29 December 1937. Compare also, D[avid] Remez, New York, letter to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 17 May 1926, in LAT, File IV-208-1-66gimel; remarks of Zalman Rubashov, in HVHP”, 26 September 1932; chapter 6 below on Golda Meir; and Ben Zion Applebaum, “The American Chalutz,” 6–7.

176.    See Yitzḥak Chizik, Chicago, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 23 May 1932, in KABB, File Tzadik-Kuf; Katznelson, quoted in MC”, 5 December 1933; id., quoted in HVHP”, 16 December 1937. Compare also, Nahum Gutman, “Hechalutz in America,” in Arise and Build: The Story of American Habonim, ed. David Breslau (New York: Ichud Habonim Labour Zionist Youth, 1961), 29.

177.    Katznelson, New York, letter to Leah [Miron-Katznelson, Tel Aviv], 24 November 1937, in KABB, File 2. See also, id., quoted in MC”, 29 December 1937.

178.    Id., “LeAḥar London,” in KBK, vol. 9, 48, originally a speech to a Mapai Council meeting, 25 Nisan 5699 [1939]. On his experiences with the Histadrut Youth Department, see Shapira, Biography, 208–25.

179.    See Albert K. Epstein, Chicago, letter to Berl Katznelson, Tel Aviv, 28 February 1939, in KABB, File Alef; Yosef [Baratz], New York, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 14 December 1939, in KABB, Institutions File; and the discussions in HVHP”, 26 May 1938, 16 March and 13 April 1939.
        The question of how best to reach the youth of America remained a concern for Berl in the forties. See, for example, MS”, 18 June 1941.

180.    Among other sources, see Katznelson, Trieste, letter to Benny [Applebaum, New York, 1 July 1937], in BKL, vol. 6, 376–77; A[vraham] Revusky, New York, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 20 September 1934, in KABB, File Resh; and Y. [I. F.] Stone, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., letters to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], n.d. [1934 or 1935], in KABB, File Samech-Pei.

181.    Katznelson, “Milestones—The First and Second Aliyahs,” Labor Palestine 1 (June 1933): 6–9; id., “The Unforgettable Arlosoroff” [Yiddish], in Labor Palestine, Special Souvenir Number (December 1933): 22–23; id., “The Blockade of the Histadrut” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 16 March 1934: 11–13; id., “What Obligations Do We Have Towards the Movement?” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 30 March 1934, 4; id., “War and Peace in Zionism” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 4 May 1934, 2–4; id., “A Reckoning” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 5 October 1934, 4–6; id., “Our Reality and Our Goal” [Yiddish], in Iddisher Kemfer 5 (November 1937): 4–8, the last published while he was in the United States.
        See also, A. Solodar, editor of Dorenu, Chicago, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 5 September 1935, in KABB, File Samech-Pei; Berl Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], letter to Ya’akov Shichvitz, [Haifa, 1 December 1931], in BKL, vol. 6, 63; and id., Cairo, letter to [Yitzḥak] Yatziv, [Tel Aviv], n.d. [March, 1937], in BKL, vol. 6, 289–90. The letter to Shichvitz mentions his having written an article for an unidentified “large Christian-American newspaper.”

182.    E[manuel] N. Mohl, [Jerusalem], letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 15 June 1938, in KABB, File Mem (Mohl managed various Palestine enterprises of the Brandeis group); D[avid] B[reslau], “Under Fire (1936–1940),” in Breslau, Arise, 32. See also, Katznelson, Trieste, letter to Benny [Applebaum, New York, 1 July 1937], in BKL, vol. 6, 376–77; and Ben Zion Applebaum, New York, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], n.d. [1937], in KABB, File Alef.

183.    Katznelson, handwritten notebook from 1937 trip, [6, 9, 13, 22, 28 November and 3, 13 December 1937], in KABB. See also, id., New York, letters to Leah [Miron-Katznelson, Tel Aviv], 30 October and 8 November 1937, in KABB, File 1937; and id., quoted in MC”, 29 December 1937.
        Shapira again overstates the case somewhat with regard to Katznelson’s lack of interest in America during the tour (Berl, vol. 2, 564).

184.    Katznelson, handwritten notebook from 1937 trip, [13, 18, 27, 19 November 1937], in KABB; id., n.p., letter to Isaac Rivkind, [New York], n.d., in KABB, Correspondence File.

185.    Id., speech to the Educators’ Council, New York, Kislev, 5699 [1937], in KBK, vol. 8, 180; id., quoted in HVHP”, 16 December 1937, and MC”, 29 December 1937.

186.    Id., on board the R. M. S. Queen Mary, letter to M[enaḥem Mendel] Ussishkin, Jerusalem, [13 October 1937], in KABB File 2; Shapira, Biography, 270.
        Katznelson did not follow up all leads in this area. Despite the urging of Dr. A. M. Skorodin to visit Chicago on a matter “that if acted upon favorably, our position in Palestine would be strengthened and consolidated,” he did not venture beyond the eastern seaboard. (Dr. A. M. Skorodin, Chicago, letter to Katznelson, New York, 12 November 1937, in KABB, File Samech-Pei.) On the other hand, he tried to raise money for Mish’an, the workers’ aid fund, and other causes. (Katznelson, New York, letter to H. Breinhandler, n.p., n.d. [1937], in LAT, File IV-104–71-2).

187.    Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], letter to Justice Louis D. Brandeis, Washington, 12 March 1931, in BKL, vol. 6, 27. The text quoted is this author’s rendering of the translation into Hebrew of the English original in BKL, the only text available to him.

188.    Katznelson, handwritten notebook from 1937 trip, undated entry relating to meeting with “the old man” (that is, Brandeis), in KABB; id., New York, letter to Leah [Miron-Katznelson, Tel Aviv], 8 November 1937, in KABB, File 1937; id., quoted in MC”, 29 December 1937; Stephen S. Wise, New York, letter to Katznelson, New York, 17 November 1937, in KABB, File Vav; and Maurice Boukstein, New York, letter to Katznelson, New York, 22 November 1937, in KABB, File Mosdot, etc. See also, Shapira, Berl, vol. 2, 565.
        In Biography (271) Shapira gives an incorrect quotation from the Wise letter. Rather than consulting Wise’s original letter written in English, the translator apparently retranslated into English Shapira’s Hebrew translation of it.

189.    See, among other sources, A. Dickenstein, Tel Aviv, letter to Katznelson, Tel Aviv, 5 April 1938, in KABB, File Dalet; and Julius Simon, president, Palestine Economic Corporation, New York, letter to Katznelson, The Davar, Tel Aviv, 27 June 1939, in KABB, File Samech-Pei.
        On the return journey from New York to Palestine, Katznelson got wind of an impending Arab attack on the yishuv. He drafted a panicky letter to Rabbi Stephen S. Wise to be shown to Frankfurter and Brandeis asking for their intervention with the American government to help avert the disaster. (Katznelson, Venice, draft letter to Rabbi [Stephen S.] Wise, [New York], 11 December 1937, in KABB, File Vav.)

190.    Katznelson, quoted in MC”, 29 December 1937. See also, id., unpublished notebooks from 1937 journey to America, in KABB; Tamar de Sola Pool, New York, letter to Katznelson, New York, 18 October 1937, and Jeannette N. Label, New York, letter to Katznelson, New York, 4 November 1937, both in KABB, File Institutions, etc; Shapira, Berl, vol. 2, 566–67. See also, Berman, Nazism, 91–93.

191.    Katznelson, quoted in MC”, 29 December 1937.

192.    For the background of the agreement and Ben-Gurion’s role in it, see chapter 7, herein.

193.    Katznelson, New York, letter to Leah [Miron-Katznelson, Tel Aviv], 8 November 1937, in KABB, Correspondence File.

194.    Id., New York, letter to Leah [Miron-Katznelson, Tel Aviv], 24 November 1937, in KABB, Correspondence File.

195.    Id., report of his trip to the United States, in MC”, 29 December 1937. See also, Shapira, Berl, vol. 2, 565–67. Shapira attributes the failure in large part to Vladeck himself, who, according to her, was lukewarm to Zionism and unwilling to risk prestige in fighting for the agreement. In 1935, in fact, he had accused the WZO of profiting from the misery of German Jews, who exchanged blocked funds in Germany for goods in Palestine ([Isaac] Hamlin, [Joseph] Schlossberg, and [Ḥaim] Feinstone [sic], New York, telegram to Ovdim [HEC], Tel Aviv, 29 October, 1935, in LAT, File IV-208-1-649). On the other hand, as noted below in chapter 7, he acquitted himself well when he visited Palestine.

196.    Katznelson, quoted in MC”, 29 December 1937.

197.    “Extracts of the Minutes of the Convention for Working Palestine at the Hotel Pennsylvania, 26–28 November 1937” [Yiddish], in Iddisher Kemfer, 3 December 1937. See also, “Geverkshaften Campaign” [Yiddish], Forverts, 28 November 1937; Katznelson, unpublished notebooks from his 1937 American trip, in KABB, entry for 7 November 1937; KBK, vol. 6, 269; [Rabbi] Samuel Wohl, Cincinnati, letter to Katznelson, New York, 28 October 1937, in KABB, File Vav; H[irsch] L. Gordon, [National Commander], American Palestine Jewish Legion, New York, letter to Katznelson, [New York,] 2 November 1937, in KABB, File Gimel; and Emma Harris, Boston, letter to Katznelson, n.p., n.d. [1937], in KABB, File Heh.

198.    “On Comrade Katznelson’s Departure,” editorial [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 3 December 1937.

199.    Katznelson, quoted in HVHP”, 19 January 1937. See also, id., “LeVeirur Matzaveinu HaMedini,” in KBK, vol. 8, 231–32, originally a speech at a Mapai Party Council meeting, Haifa, 23 January 1937.

200.    Id., “LeAhar London,” in KBK, vol. 9, 48, originally a speech to the Mapai Party Council, 25 Nisan 5699 (1939).

201.    Id., quoted in MC”, 22 June 1930. See also, Shapira, Berl, vol. 1, 322ff.

202.    Katznelson, London, letter to Merkaz Mapai, [Tel Aviv], 7 November 1930, in BKL, vol. 6, 20–25. The most comprehensive summary of American reactions to the riots is in Cohen, Year After, especially, 13–14, 17–18, 84, 128–29.

203.    Katznelson, quoted in MC”, 9 July 1936. See also, MC”, 3 August 1936.

204.    Katznelson, quoted MPC,” 31 August 1936.

205.    Id., Zurich, letter to [Ben Zion Kunin, his physician, London], 23 August [1937], in BKL, vol. 6, 393. Compare also, correspondence in LAT, Files IV-208-1-1176, 1419.

206.    Katznelson, letter of 14 October 1938, read by Moshe Shertok at an off-the-record meeting of the Mapai Political Committee, MPC”, 26 October 1938. See also, id., comments at Mapai Center meeting, 7 December 1938, and at Zionist Inner Actions Committee meeting in London, 20 December 1938, both quoted in Gal, Likrat Medina, 12; Shapira, Berl, vol. 2, 573; and Gal, Likrat Medina, 47, 203, n. 46.

207.    Katznelson, London, letter to Shaul [Mei’irov-Avigur], n.p., 18 October 1938, in KABB, File alef. Compare also, id., “HaMatzav HaMedini,” in KBK, vol. 9, 316, originally a lecture delivered at Beit Arlosoroff, Tel Aviv, 23 December 1938.

208.    Id., “Al HaIkar BeSha’a Zo,” in KBK, vol. 7, 240, originally a speech at a meeting of the Histadrut Council, 9 February 1936.

209.    Compare, id., “Adama Le’umit VaAvoda Ivrit,” in KBK, vol. 7, 104, originally a speech to the Keren Kayemet Conference, Lucerne, Switzerland, summer 1938.

210.    On the Hebrew University, see Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], letter to Miriam [Zimmels, Vienna, 8 February 1933], in BKL, vol. 6, 101–02; and Dr. D. W. Senator, administrator, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, letter to Katznelson, London, 7 October 1937, in KABB, File Samech-Pei.
        On writers, see Aryeh Matz, secretary, Israel Matz Foundation, Brooklyn, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 15 April [1938?], in KABB, File Mosdot, etc; and Katznelson, Jerusalem, letter to [Zalman] Schocken, [Jerusalem], 26 Tammuz [56]98 [1938], in KABB, File 1938.
        On illegal immigration, see L[ouis] Segal, secretary, Jewish National Workers’ Alliance of America, New York, letter to Katznelson, Tel Aviv, 14 April 1938, in KABB, File Samech-Pei; various letters of Lewis J. Ruskin, Chicago, to Berl Katznelson, Tel Aviv, January-March, 1939, in KABB, File Resh; Sophie A. Udin, executive secretary, Va’ad Bitaḥon, New York, letter to Katznelson, Tel Aviv, 1 February 1939, in KABB, File Yod; Shapira, Berl, vol. 2, 572.
        On campaigns to purchase printing machinery for Davar, see circular letter of “Davar” Printing Campaign, conducted by printing trades unions, New York, n.d. [1931–32], in LAT, File IV-208-1-337bet; Mayer Kartoff, Bronx, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 8 February 1932, in KABB, File Tzadik-Kuf; and notice in Labor Palestine, September-October 1933, 13. On enrolling American subscribers to Davar, see Martin Fox, Chicago, letter to Katznelson, Tel Aviv, [27 October 1932], in KABB, File Pei; Enzo Sereni, New York, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 25 February 1936, in KABB, File Samech-Pei; and other letters in KABB.

211.    See, for example, Katznelson, quoted in HVHP”, 16 January 1933, and 19 January 1937; and id., quoted in minutes of a meeting of the HEC with a delegation of visiting Americans, 19 January 1937, in LAT, File IV-208-1-1419.

212.    Id., speech to a workers’ meeting in Tel Aviv, 24 November 1933, in KBK, vol. 7, 371; and id., “Mo’etzet HaMeḥanchim Be New York,” in KBK, vol. 8, 179–80, originally a speech to the Jewish Educators’ Council in New York, Kislev, 5698 [1937].

213.    Id., “Likrat Pe’ula Mishkit-Tochnitit,” in KBK, vol. 6, 94, originally a lecture at the fourth Histadrut Conference, 1933; id., “Kabalat Panim LeMishlaḥat HaPo’alim MeiAmerica,” in KBK, vol. 4, 131, originally a speech to the visiting labor delegation from the United States, given in Beit HaAm, Tel Aviv, 20 August 1930.
        On Katznelson’s reservations regarding the wealthy American non-Zionists who participated in the enlarged Jewish Agency after 1929, such as Felix Warburg, see, among other sources, Katznelson, letters, London, 16 January [1930] to [HEC?], and 21 January [1930] to Leah Miron-Katznelson, [Palestine], in BKL, vol. 5, 300–01, 305–06; id., St. Vigilius, letter to [Yisrael] Galili, [Na’an, 30 September 1935], in BKL, vol. 6, 197–98; and id., quoted in HVHP”, 9 September 1936.
        In “HaNadiv HaYadua,” in KBK, vol. 7, 143–57, a eulogy for Baron Edmund Rothschild, originally a speech delivered at a memorial meeting held by the Agricultural Workers’ Federation in Tel Aviv, 24 Kislev 5695 [1934], Katznelson argued that Westerners, in general, suffered from superiority feelings that sapped their vigor and spiritual health.

214.    Shapira, Biography, 310.

215.    Katznelson, “BeḤavlei Adam,” in KBK, vol. 5, 321, originally a eulogy for Eliezer Yoffe published in Tlamim, 32 (Kislev-Tevet 5703 [1943]).

216.    Id., [Tel Aviv], letter to Sh.[imon] Halkin, Chicago, 15 Av 5703 [1943], in KABB, File Hei.

217.    Id., “Le’an Paneinu?” in KBK, vol. 5, 251, originally a speech given at a conference at Afikim, 17 October 1942.

218.    Id., “Yetzirato Nimdedet Ach BeAmat-Mida Shel Ḥazon,” in KBK, vol. 9, 300, originally a speech at the opening of the 20th anniversary celebration of the Histadrut, Beit Arlosoroff, Tel Aviv, December 1940. See also, id., “BaVe’ida HaḤamishit Shel HaHistadrut,” in KBK, vol. 5, 74, originally a response given at the fifth Histadrut Convention, April 1941.

219.    Manya [Shoḥat], Bronx, New York, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 19 April 1940, in KABB, Miscellaneous File; Sophie A. Udin, Zionist Archives and Library, New York, letter to Katznelson, Tel Aviv, 24 September 1941, in KABB, File Yod; Katznelson, “Ma BeFinu LeYom Maḥar?” in KBK, vol. 5, 11–18, originally a speech at the Unity Council of Poale Zion-Hitaḥdut, Ayanot, December 1940.

220.    Id., quoted in MC”, 21 September 1939.

221.    Id., “Aḥdut Ḥayaleinu,” in KBK, vol. 5, 135, originally a speech at a gathering of Palestine soldiers, 16 August 1942; id., “LeAḥar London,” 49.

222.    MS”, 3 November 1942; Gal, Likrat Medina, 43.

223.    Katznelson, “Begabeinu el HaKir,” in KBK, vol. 9, 118–19, originally a speech delivered at Kinusim, 25–29 June 1940.

224.    Id., “Ma Lifnim?” KBK, vol. 5, 20, originally published in Bchor (Tel Aviv, 5701 [1941]).

225.    Id., “The Zionist Situation Today,” Jewish Frontier 14 (September 1941): 22. Compare also, Gal, Likrat Medina, 93–94.

226.    Katznelson, unpublished notebooks in Beit Berl, entries for September 1939; id., quoted in MS”, 27 September 1939; and id., “Ma BeFinu LeYom Maḥar?” 15.

227.    See, for example, id., letters to Sh.[imon] Halkin, Chicago, from Tel Aviv, 15 Av 5703 [1943], and from Jerusalem, 29 Tammuz 5704 [1944], in KABB, File 1943–44; A. Dickenstein, New York, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 15 June 1942, in KABB, File Dalet; Aryeh Tartakower, New York, letter to Katznelson, Tel Aviv, 17 July 1943, in BABB, File Tet; and [Rabbi] Samuel Wohl, Cincinnati, letter to Katzenelson [sic], Tel Aviv, 3 November 1943, in KABB, File Vav.

228.    Katznelson, “Neḥemia de Lieme,” in KBK, vol. 9, 282, originally a eulogy delivered at a memorial meeting in Tel Aviv, Kislev 5701 (1940), and printed in Davar, 24 December 1940.

229.    Id., Tel Aviv, letter to E[limelech] Epstein, Jerusalem, 5 November 1942, to be transmitted to Louis Segal of the Jewish National Workers’ Alliance, New York, in KABB, File 1942. See also, letter of Segal to Katznelson, 6 November 1942, in KABB, File Samech-Pei.

230.    Katznelson, “Bein Adam LaḤavero,” in KBK, vol. 10, 114–42, originally published as the introduction to the first volume of Liessin’s collected works, published by Am Oved, Tel Aviv, 5703 (1943).

231.    See MC”, 10 July 1944.

232.    Katznelson, “BeHitkareiv HaḤazit,” KBK, vol. 9, 99, originally a speech to the Mapai Council, Tel Aviv, 14 June 1940. See also, Shapira, Biography, 291–93.

233.    Moshe Shertok, quoted in MS”, 9 July 1941.

234.    Shapira, Biography, 312.

235.    Katznelson, “Morei HaDor o Bnei Meiroz?” in KBK, vol. 5, 47–49, originally published in Davar, 19 September 1941, signed, Meshoteit; id., “BeVe’idat HaMitnadvim HaIvriyim,” in KBK, vol. 5, 124, originally a speech given in Tel Aviv, 24 September 1941.

236.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Sh.[imon] Halkin, Chicago, 29 Tammuz 5704 [1944], in KABB, File 1943–44; A. Dickenstein, New York, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 15 June 1942, in KABB, File Dalet.

237.    Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], letter to David [Ben-Gurion, Tel Aviv], 4 August 1942, in KABB, Ben-Gurion File. See also, Shapira, Biography, 312.

238.    See, for example, Katznelson, n.p., letter to Shimshon Meltzer, n.p., 1 Tammuz 5703 [1943], in KABB, File 1943–44; Z[alman] Shneur, New York, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 10 February 1943, in KABB, File Shin; Israel [Mereminsky-Marom], New York, letter to Katznelson, [Tel Aviv], 2 June 1943, in KABB, File Mem; Friedrich Torberg, Hollywood, California, letter to Katznelson, Tel Aviv, 12 January 1944, in KABB, File Tet.

239.    Katznelson, Jerusalem, letter to Sh.[imon] Halkin, Chicago, 29 Tammuz 5704 [1944], in KABB, File 1943–44.

240.    Id., “BaVe’ida HaḤamishit Shel HaHistadrut,” in KBK, vol. 5, 60, originally a speech at the fifth Histadrut Conference, 19 April 1942, published in Davar, 22 April and 15 May 1942.

241.    Ibid. See also, Shapira, Biography, 148.

242.    Ben-Zion Ilan, letter to his wife in Afikim, from his base in the British army, 17 August 1944, quoted in his An American Soldier/Pioneer in Israel (New York: Labor Zionist Letters, 1979), 50.

243.    “Berl Katznelson,” editorial, Jewish Frontier 11 (September 1944): 6. See also, “Berl Katznelson,” editorial, Pioneer Woman, October 1944, 3; and Ginzberg, Keeper of the Law, 206.

244.    MC”, 14 August 1945.

Chapter 5

    1.    See, for example, Frederick Painton, “Henrietta Szold—American,” typescript, in CZA, File A125/29; Louis Lipsky, A Gallery of Zionist Profiles (New York: Farrar Straus and Cudahy, 1956), 142; Joan Dash, Summoned to Jerusalem: The Life and Times of Henrietta Szold (New York: Harper & Row, 1979), 224–25; and Sylva M. Gelber, No Balm in Gilead ([Ottawa]: Carleton University Press, 1989), 52, 191.
        Dash’s work is the most complete biography of Szold to date. Gelber, who had a career as a distinguished senior civil servant in Canada, lived in Palestine for some time and was the first graduate of the school of social work established by Szold.

    2.    See, for example, [Gershon] A.[gronsky?], “A Life of Dedication,” Palestine Post, 14 February 1945.

    3.    The works which come closest to appreciating the American dimension of Szold’s work in Palestine are Irving Fineman’s Woman of Valor (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1961); and Carol Bosworth Kutscher, “The Early Years of Hadassah,” Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, Brandeis University, April 1976.

    4.    Ernst Akiba Simon, “Henrietta Szold—Meḥanechet HaAm,” in Henrietta Szold 5621–5705. Divrei Azkara SheNe’emru BeYom 3 BeIyar 5705 Al Yedei Prof. Sh. Adler VeDr. E. Simon BaUniversita HaIvrit [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: HaUniversita HaIvrit, 1945), 7.

    5.    Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform from Bryan to F.D.R. (New York: Knopf, 1956), 5.

    6.    See, among other sources, Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877–1920 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1967), 144–59.

    7.    Among other sources on Rabbi Szold, see Shmaryahu Levin, “MiSefer Ḥayyai” [Hebrew], HaAretz, 25 May 1934.

    8.    Szold, speech to Aliyat Noar, Ben Shemen, Palestine, 24 December 1940, in CZA, File A125/188. See also, Simon, “Mehanechet,” 8; and Arnold Zweig, “Henrietta Szold on Her Return Today from America,” Palestine Post, 5 February 1936.

    9.    Partial record book of Szold’s reading, in CZA, File A125/250.

  10.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to sisters, Bertha [Levin] and Adele [Seltzer], n.p., 7 August 1936, in CZA, File A125/265.

  11.    Gelber, Balm, 193.

  12.    Szold, New York, letters, to “Mamma and All,” n.p., 30 July 1914, and to “Mamma,” [Maine], 3 August 1914, both in CZA, File A125/275.

  13.    Id., New York, letter to Dr. [Richard] Gottheil, [New York], 13 May 1917, in CZA, File A125/302; minutes of meeting of Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs, New York, 23 September 1917, stenographic draft. See also, Dash, Jerusalem, 118; and Kutscher, “Early Years,” 162–63.

  14.    Szold, [Jerusalem], letter to Mrs. Edith Gann Kniberg, Newark, N.J., 17 June 1934, in CZA, File A125/95.

  15.    Id., “Extension Work Meeting,” handwritten notes for speech [?], n.d., CZA, File A125/285.

  16.    Ibid.

  17.    Gelber, Balm 190. In an interview with the author in Jerusalem, 6 July 1986, Szold’s longtime personal secretary, Emma Ehrlich, denied that her employer had ever attempted to apply American notions of any sort in Palestine. Rather, Ehrlich asserted, she had merely responded pragmatically to the needs of the hour. Such a view, however, is not tenable.

  18.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to her sisters, Bertha [Levin] and Adele [Seltzer], n.p., 17 February 1939, in CZA, File 125/267.

  19.    Id., letters, Jerusalem, to “dear Family,” [United States], 22 November 1920, in CZA, File A125/256; en route to Marseille [sic], to Sisters, n.p., 17 June 1930, in CZA, File A125/262; and Jerusalem, to sister, Adele [Seltzer], n.p., 8 December 1933, in CZA, File A125/263; and Jerusalem, to Ellis Radinsky, League for Labor Palestine, New York City, 28 January 1943, in CZA, File A125/62. See also, transcript of her address to the The Survey Graphic, New York, January 1936, typescript, in CZA, File A125/83.

  20.    Szold, Maine, letter to Elvira Solis, New York City, 16 August 1915, in CZA, File A125/309; id., Boston, letter to family, [Baltimore], 10 August 1885, in CZA, File A125/275.

  21.    See Louis D. Brandeis, letters, Boston, 11 March 1916, and Washington, 6 November 1925, both to Julian W. Mack, n.p., in Letters of Louis D. Brandeis, vol. 4, ed. Melvin I. Urofsky and David W. Levy (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1975), 115, 191–92.

  22.    Szold, Baltimore, letter to her sister, Rachel [Jastrow], n.p., 25 October 1891, in CZA, File A125/17. See also, her eulogy for Brandeis, delivered on Palestine radio, 9 October 1941, the typescript of which is in CZA, File A125/15.
        On Brandeis as a Progressive, see, among other sources, Allon Gal, Brandeis of Boston (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980); and Melvin Urofsky, Louis D. Brandeis and the Progressive Tradition (Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown, 1981).

  23.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to “dear Ones” (that is, her sisters and their families in the United States), 29 March 1926, CZA, File A125/260.

  24.    Id., Rishon le-Zion, [Palestine], letter to “dear Ones,” 14 April 1922, in CZA, File A125/258.

  25.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to sister, Bertha [Levin, Baltimore], 15 April 1938, in CZA, File A125/266.

  26.    Id., Baltimore, personal letter to Miss [Elvira] Solis, New York, 1 March 1901, in CZA, File A125/308.

  27.    Id., Jerusalem, letters, to sisters, Bertha [Levin] and Adele [Seltzer], n.p., 6 January 1939, in CZA, File A125/267; to sister, Bertha [Levin], n.p., 4 December 1942, in CZA, File A125/274.

  28.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to sisters Bertha [Levin] and Adele [Seltzer, United States], 31 May 1935, in CZA, File A125/265. See also, her letters from Jerusalem, to “Sisters,” n.p., 8 September 1933; and to sister, Adele [Seltzer], n.p., 8 December 1933, both in CZA, File 125/263.

  29.    Id., [Jerusalem], letter to Wendell Willkie, New York City, 27 March 1944, in CZA, File A125/63.

  30.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to sister, Bertha [Levin, Baltimore], 18 July 1940, in CZA, File A125/267.

  31.    Sylva Gelber, personal interview with the author, Ottawa, 24 January 1988.

  32.    See Dash, Jerusalem, 39–79.

  33.    Szold, “Tsu Ḥaim Arlosoroff’s Ershten Yortsayt” [Yiddish], Pioneer Woman, June 1934, 15.

  34.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to “My dear Ones” [her family in the United States], 26 January 1922, in CZA, File A125/258.

  35.    See Dash, Jerusalem, 196–99, 216–17.

  36.    Szold, address to a special meeting of the ZOA Administrative Committee, Hotel Astor, New York City, 9 January 1936, typescript, in CZA, File A125/315.

  37.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Mrs. Edgar J. Wachenheim, New Rochelle, New York, 30 May 1920, in CZA, File A219/4. See also, Simon, “HaMeḥanechet,” 9; and Joan Dash, “Doing Good in Palestine: Magnes and Henrietta Szold,” in Like All the Nations? The Life and Legacy of Judah L. Magnes, ed. William H. Brinner and Moses Rischin (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987), 103–04.

  38.    Shulamith Schwartz Nardi, personal interview with the author, Jerusalem, 26 March 1991.

  39.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to her sisters, [United States], 15 April 1932, CZA, File A125/263.

  40.    Id., [Jerusalem], letter to Mrs. David Greenberg, chairman, National Youth Aliyah Committee, New York, 15 May 1939, in CZA, File A125/59.

  41.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to M[oshe] Shertok, Jerusalem, 8 July 1941, in CZA, File S25/1125.

  42.    Yosef Sprinzak, Haifa, letter to daughter, Naomi Sprinzak [Raanan], n.p., 2 Kislev 5703 [1943], in Igrot Yosef Sprinzak, vol. 2 (1929–1947), ed. Yosef Shapira (Tel Aviv: Ayanoth, 1969), 415–20.

  43.    Id., letter to Edwin Samuel, 5 January 1930, quoted in Susan Lee Hattis, The Bi-National Idea in Palestine During Mandatory Times (Haifa: Shikmona, 1970), 171–72.

  44.    F.[rederick] H. Kisch, Palestine Diary (London: Victor Gollancz, 1938), 30–31.

  45.    Szold, on board the S.S. Esperia, letter to Dr. and Mrs. J. L. Magnes, [Jerusalem], 10 October 1937, in CZA, File A125/30.

  46.    Dash, Jerusalem, 171; Hattis, Bi-National Idea, 259; Anita Shapira, Berl: The Biography of a Socialist Zionist, trans. Ḥaya Galai (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1984), 282; M[oshe] S[hertok (later, Sharett), Jerusalem], letter to Szold, Jerusalem, 17 September 1941, in CZA, File S25/1125; Nahum Goldmann, New York, letter to Ben-Gurion, [Jerusalem], 26 October 1942, in CZA, File S25/237b. On the Biltmore Program, see below, chapter 7.

  47.    Szold, “Ershten Yortsayt,” 15.

  48.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to sisters, Bertha [Levin] and Adele [Seltzer], n.p., 5 June 1936, in CZA, A125/265.

  49.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to “dear Sisters,” [United States], 22 June 1934, File A125/264.

  50.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to sisters, Bertha [Levin] and Adele [Seltzer], n.p., 9 July 1937, in CZA, File A125/266.

  51.    See Michael Brown, “Some Early Nineteenth-Century [should be Twentieth-Century] ‘Travelers’ to America: Sources and Contexts,” in With Eyes Toward Zion, vol. 2, ed. Moshe Davis (New York: Praeger, 1986), 243.

  52.    Simon, “Mehanechet,” 11.

  53.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to sisters, Bertha [Levin] and Adele [Seltzer], n.p., 25 February 1938, in CZA, File A125/266.

  54.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to her sisters in the United States, 22 July 1931, in CZA, File A125/263.

  55.    BGD, 14, 15 December [1923].

  56.    I. J. Kligler, “Builder and Leader of Hadassah,” Palestine Post, 20 December 1940. The article appeared as a tribute to Szold on her eightieth birthday.

  57.    Among other sources, see Report of the Activities of the American Zionist Medical Unit from July, 1919 to August, 1920—Director: I. M. Rubinow, n.p., n.d; Emanuel Neumann, Causes of the Conflict (New York: New Maccabean, [1921]); BGD, 15 December [1923]; Sophie Udin, “Henrietta Szold,” Pioneer Woman, January 1931, 5; and contemporaneous reports in the Palestine press (Do’ar HaYom and HaPo’el HaTza’ir, for example).

  58.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Administrative Committee, ZOA, New York, 21 December 1927, in CZA, File A125/51.

  59.    Ben-Gurion quoted in minutes of meeting between the HEC and the Palestine Zionist Executive, 12 December [1927], in LAT, File IV-208-67bet, and in HVHP”, 5 December 1927.

  60.    See, for example, Katznelson, “Veto” [Hebrew], and “BaCongress HaShisha-Asar” [Hebrew], both in KBK, vol. 4, 71–75, and 79–86. These essays appeared originally in Davar, the first on 17 April 1929, and the second on 13 August 1929. For Szold’s reactions to the ZOA, see among other sources, her letter from Jerusalem to the Administrative Committee of the ZOA, New York, 21 December 1927, in CZA, File A125/51; and “Miss Szold’s Message” to the recent ZOA convention in Pittsburgh, The New Palestine, 13–20 July 1928.

  61.    “Turning the Tide,” The New Palestine, 1 November 1927, 348. See also, “Honoring Henrietta Szold,” The New Palestine, 28 October 1927.

  62.    Szold, Jerusalem, coded cable to the ZOA, New York, 30 November 1927, in CZA, File F38/509. See also, her follow-up letter from Jerusalem to the Administrative Committee, ZOA, New York, 23 December 1927, in the same file.

  63.    Moshe Smilansky, “HaKedosha VeHaTehora” [Hebrew], HaAretz, 20 February 1945.

  64.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to “dear Girls” [Alice and Annie Jastrow, Philadelphia], 2 May 1921, in CZA, File A125/257. The Jastrow “girls” were the sisters of Joseph Jastrow, Rachel Szold’s husband, and childhood friends of Henrietta.
        On Szold’s attraction to the ḥalutzim, see Dash, “Doing Good” 104.

  65.    Judah Magnes, “Henrietta Szold—LiGvurot” [Hebrew], Davar, 20 December 1940; and many other sources.

  66.    Benjamin Akzin, MeiRiga Lirushalayim Pirke Zichronot [Hebrew] (Jerusalem, 1989), 297–98. Also, compare the treatment of Szold’s seventieth birthday in Do’ar HaYom (19 December 1930) and of her eightieth birthday in HaMashkif (24 December 1940) with that in Davar, the Labor daily, or in the unaligned HaAretz.

  67.    Udin, “Henrietta Szold,” 5.

  68.    Szold, New York, letter [Hebrew] to HEC, Tel Aviv, 20 February 1931, in LAT, File IV-208–336alef.

  69.    Hannah Thon, “Sheva Shanim Shel Binyan” [Hebrew], Davar, 6 February 1939.

  70.    Judd L. Teller, “America’s Two Zionist Traditions,” Commentary 20 (October 1955): 351. Compare also, Dorothy Kahn, “Henrietta Szold Stands Fast at Wartime Post,” Philadelphia Jewish Exponent, 20 December 1940.

  71.    Simon, “Mehanechet,” 11.

  72.    Szold, [Jerusalem], letter to Mrs. David B. Greenberg, Hadassah, New York, 27 March 1938, in CZA, File A125/95.

  73.    Lipsky, Gallery, 137.

  74.    Rose Halpern, “Henrietta Szold,” Jewish Frontier 12 (March 1945): 9–10.

  75.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Elvira Solis, New York City, 10 April 1923, in CZA File A125/310.

  76.    Sara Feder, “Henrietta Szold Serves the Yishuv,” Pioneer Woman, January 1941, 7.

  77.    Wiebe, Order, 122.

  78.    Szold, Baltimore, letter to Miss [Elvira] Solis, New York, 17 February 1896, in CZA, File A125/308.

  79.    Id., “The Future of Women’s Work for Palestine,” Jerusalem, 30 May 1930, typescript, 12–13, in CZA, File A44/35. (The paper was a proposal to Hadassah and WIZO for the transfer of welfare activities from the Jewish Agency to the Va’ad Le’umi.)

  80.    Louis D. Brandeis, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, letter to J[ulian] W[illiam] M[ack], J[acob] d[e] H[aas], S[tephen] S[amuel] W[ise], F[elix] F[rankfurter], and A[bba] H[illel] S[ilver, his minions in the ZOA], n.p., in Brandeis Letters, vol. 5, 8. See also, Szold, Jerusalem, letter to “Family,” [United States], 10 July 1921, in CZA, File A125/257.

  81.    “Early Years,” 253.

  82.    See, for example, her letter, from Jerusalem to her family in America, 31 July 1921, in Marvin Lowenthal, Henrietta Szold, Life and Letters (New York: Viking, 1942), 185–86; and her letter of 14 March 1927 to the National Board of Hadassah, recorded in the minutes of the meetings of the ZOA Administrative Committee, 14 April 1927.

  83.    Szold, [Jerusalem], letter to the Delegates to the Convention of Hadassah, St. Louis, 4 October 1938, in CZA, File A125/58.

  84.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Mrs. Lindheim, New York City, 29 June 1926, in CZA, File A125/22.

  85.    Id., Rehobot, letter, to her sister, Adele [Seltzer], n.p., 28 April 1921, in CZA, File A125/257.

  86.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Family, [United States], 3 June 1920, in CZA, File A125/256.

  87.    Id., “Women’s Work;” and letter from R. M. S. Caronia, en route to Zionist Congress, to Elvira Solis, Twin Mountains, New Hampshire, 17 August 1927, in CZA, File A125/310.
        Compare also, her letter from Jerusalem, to “dear Sisters,” 22 June 1934, in CZA, File 125/264; and Michal Hagitti, “A Rest-Home for Agricultural Laborers in Jerusalem, 1919–1923” [Hebrew], Cathedra 30 (December 1983): 99.

  88.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Miss Pinczover, [Jerusalem], 25 May 1921, in CZA, File A125/321. Many other sources could also be cited.

  89.    See, for example, id., Jerusalem, letter to “dear Ones” [family in the United States], 28 November 1922, in CZA, File A125/258.

  90.    See, for example, id., [Jerusalem], letter to Zionist Executive, London, 10 January 1928, in CZA, File S25/997. On behalf of the Palestine Executive, Szold protested the Londoners’ requesting that Felix Warburg alter the terms of a large donation which was intended for the educational system in Palestine.

  91.    F[rederick] H. Kisch, [Jerusalem], memorandum to Dr. [Werner] Senator, [Jerusalem], 20 April 1930, in CZA, File S25/1594.

  92.    Szold, on board the S. S. Amazonia sailing from Marseille [sic] to Jaffa, letter to [Louis] Lipsky, [president of the ZOA, New York], 24 November 1927, in CZA, File F38/509.

  93.    Id., “The Task of the Executive,” address to the Cleveland Conference of the United Palestine Appeal, published in The New Palestine, 11 November 1927. On the Progressives and the city manager concept, see Harold U. Faulkner, Politics, Reform and Expansion, 1890–1900 (New York: Harper Tarehbooks, 1963), 27–28; and Wiebe, Order, 168.

  94.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Gisela Warburg, New York, 31 July 1943, in CZA, File A125/111.

  95.    Id., [Jerusalem], letter to Mrs. Edward Jacobs, president, Hadassah, New York City, 8 June 1936, in CZA, File A125/94.

  96.    Moshe Shertok, typescript of speech [Hebrew] given at the Jewish Agency Building, Jerusalem, 12 December 1940, on the occasion of Szold’s eightieth birthday.

  97.    Aaron Aaronsohn, Copenhagen, letter to Judge Julian W. Mack, n.p., 9 October 1916, in Yoman Aharon Aharonsohn [Hebrew], ed. Yoram Efrati (Tel Aviv: Hotza’at Sfarim Karni, 1970), 112. See also, Extracts from the Diary of Gertrude Goldsmith Rosenblatt, entry for 16 January 1913, in CZA, File A125/18; Aaron Aaronsohn, Washington, D.C., letter to [Henrietta Szold], n.p., 4 January 1917, in CZA, File A125/325; and Kutscher, “Early Years,” 73.

  98.    See Wiebe, Order, 113–17.

  99.    Irma L. Lindheim, Parallel Quest (New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1962), 169. Lindheim succeeded Szold as president of Hadassah and subsequently herself emigrated to Palestine.
        Among other sources with references to “American standards,” see Henrietta Szold, letters, Jerusalem, 18 August 1921, in CZA, File A125/257; Jerusalem, 1 November 1922, in CZA, File A 125/258, both to “dear Ones” [family in the United States]; and her letter from Jerusalem published as a supplement to the Hadassah News Letter, 13 May 1920.

100.    “Mitoch Ne’umah HaAḥaron Shel Henrietta Szold” [Hebrew], HaAhot, December 1945. See also, Dash, “Doing Good,” 100.

101.    Mrs. B. A. [Gertrude] Rosenblatt, Haifa, letter to Szold, Jerusalem, 10 August 1934, including notes from Rosenblatt’s diary, in CZA, File A125/18. Rosenblatt was one of Szold’s early compatriots in Hadassah. See also, American Zionist Medical Unit for Palestine (New York: ZOA, 1919), 6; and Dash, Jerusalem, 108–09.

102.    Kutscher, “Early Years,” 131.

103.    Extracts from the Diary of Gertrude Goldsmith Rosenblatt, 19 May 1913, in CZA, File A125/18. On Addams and her Progressive context, see Samuel P. Hays, The Response to Industrialism, 1885–1914 (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 76–83; and Gunther Barth, City People (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), 7–8ff.

104.    Szold, [New York], letter to Mamma, Rachel, and Joe [Jastrow, Madison, Wisconsin], 4 November 1913, in CZA, A125/275; and Louis D. Brandeis, Washington, letter to Alfred Brandeis, n.p., n.d. [1924], in Brandeis Letters, vol. 5, 107. See also, Charles A. Hawley, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, letter to Szold, Jerusalem, 16 December 1935, in CZA, File A125/160; and Fanny Goldstein, “Jewry Honors Its Chaucer [Mendele Mocher Sefarim] and Its Jane Addams,” Boston Evening Transcript, 21 December 1935.

105.    American Zionist Medical Unit for Palestine, 30, 35. See also, Report of Activities of the American Zionist Medical Unit from July, 1919 to August, 1920—Director: I. M. Rubinow (n.p., n.d.), 7; Twenty Years of Medical Service to Palestine, 1918–1938 (Jerusalem: Hadassah Medical Organization, 1939), 7, 24, 27, 47; and Dash, Jerusalem, 116, 132.

106.    Twenty Years, 25. See also, Szold, Jerusalem, letters to “Family,” [United States], 7 October 1921, and to Miss [Jane?] Friedenwald, [Baltimore], 4 January 1921, both in CZA, File A125/257.

107.    Hadassah Medical Organization Third Report—September, 1920-December, 1921 (Jerusalem, 1922), 39–40.

108.    Twenty Years, 17, 65, 67; Gelber, Balm, 103.

109.    “Dr. Yassky’s Review of Post-War Medical Needs of the Yishuv,” August 1944, mimeograph, in CZA, File F32/120.

110.    Szold, “Jewish Palestine in the Making,” speech delivered at the Hadassah reception in her honor at the Hotel Pennsylvania, New York City, 30 April 1923, typescript, in CZA, File A125/9.

111.    Program of the Women’s Centennial Congress, Hotel Commodore, New York City, 26 November 1940. Szold was the only woman honored who was identified as a Jew.

112.    Alexander Dushkin, “Impressions of Henrietta Szold as a Jewish Educator,” Hadassah News Letter, December 1945.

113.    Szold, “Jewish Palestine in the Making.”

114.    See undated fund-raising brochure for the School of the Parents’ Education Association, as Kallen’s school came to be called. In addition to Szold’s, the brochure carries the endorsement of Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Prof. John Dewey, and others. Among the alumni of the school were members of elite families of the yishuv, including the general, politician, and archaeologist Yigal Yadin and his brother, actor Yossi Yadin. Judy Hollander of Jerusalem was kind enough to share with me information on Kallen and her school.

115.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Miss Pinczover, [Jerusalem], 25 May 1921, in CZA, File A125/321.

116.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to “dear Ones,” [United States], 4 February 1922, in CZA, File A125/258.

117.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to ZOA Education Committee, New York, 7 December 1927, in CZA, File F38/509. See also, Dash, Jerusalem, 198–200.

118.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Executive Committee, Junior Hadassah, New York, 1 January 1928, in CZA, File A125/51.

119.    Kutscher, “Early Years,” 19; and Henry Franc Skirball, “Isaac Baer Berkson and Jewish Education,” Ed.D. dissertation, Teachers’ College, Columbia University, 1976, 115.

120.    Szold, on board the R. M. S. Carmania, letter to “Sisters,” [United States], 18 November 1927, in CZA, File A125/261.

121.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Col. F.[rederick] H. Kisch, Johannesburg, 24 April 1928, in CZA, File S25/1594. Kisch and Harry Sacher were Szold’s two colleagues on the Executive.

122.    Id., near Alexandria on the way to Berlin, letter to “Sisters,” [United States], 13 July 1928, in CZA, File A125/262.

123.    Id., [Jerusalem], letter to Mrs. Stephen S. Wise, New York City, 14 October 1928, in CZA, File Al 25/68.

124.    See, for example, id., Jerusalem, letters to ZOA Administrative Committee, New York, 21 December 1927, in CZA, File F38/509; and to London Zionist Executive, London, 10 January 1928, in CZA, File S25/997; “Brief News from the Homeland,” The Vanguard, April 1928; and Naomi W. Cohen, The Year after the Riots (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1988), 65.

125.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to “Sisters,” [United States], in CZA, File A125/262.

126.    Skirball, “Berkson,” 129. See also, 180–81.

127.    I. B. Berkson, “Reorganization of the Haifa Technical Institute,” 2 February 1931; Skirball, “Berkson,” 150–51.

128.    Szold, en route to Marseille [sic], letter to “Sisters,” [United States], 17 June 1930, in CZA, File A125/262.

129.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Sisters, [United States], 6 February 1930, in CZA, File A125/262. See also the letter cited in n. 124. In fact, Warburg and Szold had clashed even before she left for Palestine. (See Yigal Elam, HaSochnut HaYehudit—Shanim Rishonot, 1919–1931 [Hebrew] [Jerusalem: Hassifriya Haziyonit, 1990], 183, 207.)

130.    Quoted in Skirball, “Berkson,” 181.

131.    Shoshana Persitz, “HaOvedet” [Hebrew], Hed HaḤinuch, 15 Iyyar 5690 [1930].

132.    See Dash, Jerusalem, 214–17.

133.    Dr. I. B. Berkson, “Sirtut LiDmutah Shel HaGv. Szold” [Hebrew], Hed HaḤinuch, 15 Iyyar 5690 [1930].

134.    Gelber, Balm, 55–56.

135.    Szold, Jerusalem, letters to her sister, Bertha [Levin, Baltimore], 26 September 1941, and 16 October 1942, in CZA, Files A125/268, and A125/274.

136.    Id., Jerusalem, letters to sister, Bertha [Levin, Baltimore], 12 November 1943, and 10 March 1944, in CZA, File A125/274

137.    Id., quoted in The Maccabean, July 1913.

138.    Id., transcript of address to the Survey Graphic Association in New York, January 1936, in CZA, File A125/83; Gelber, Balm, 53.

139.    Szold, quoted in Kutscher, “Early Years,” 127.

140.    Id., Haifa, letter to Rachel [Jastrow], n.p., 6 November 1920, in CZA, File A125/256.

141.    Ḥaim Yaphet, Tet-Vav Shnot Sherut Sotziali BiKnesset Yisrael [Hebrew] (Jerusalem, 5707 [1947]), 8. See also, Dash, Jerusalem, 181.

142.    Szold, quoted in “Rashei HaYishuv Mechabdim et Henrietta Szold” [Hebrew], HaAretz, 24 December 1940. See also, “H. Szold Al Darka LaTziyonut Uva-Tziyonut” [Hebrew], Davar, 25 December 1940.

143.    Szold, n.p., letter to Jacob H. Margowski, Philadelphia, 31 December 1912, in CZA, File A125/287. Margowski, had failed to acknowlege a donation from Szold for the United Aged Home of Jerusalem. To her “American mind” the oversight was “of the greatest importance.”

144.    Minutes of the meetings of the Administrative Committee of the ZOA, 29 December 1926.

145.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to the Executive Committee of Junior Hadassah, New York City, 1 January 1928, in CZA, File A125/51. See also, Twenty Years, 8.

146.    Szold, letters, Jerusalem, to Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Straus, Mamaroneck, New York, 14 May 1926, and New York City, 2 March 1928, both in CZA, File A125/39; and Jerusalem, to her sister, Rachel [Jastrow, Madison, Wisconsin], 7 July 1926, in CZA, File A125/260. See also, Miss Sarah Katz, “Report of Soup Kitchen Investigation,” Jerusalem, 1926/1927.

147.    See her letter, Jerusalem, to I. Braude, Straus Soup Kitchen, Jerusalem, 11 March 1929, in CZA, File A125/40.

148.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Dr. Maurice B. Hexter, the Jewish Agency, Jerusalem, 3 November 1931, in CZA, File A125/45. On the ḥalukah system, see David Ben-Gurion, “LeShe’eilat HaYishuv HaYashan” [Hebrew], HaAḥdut, Av, 5670 [1910], reprinted in Ketavim Rishonim (Tel Aviv: Aḥdut, 5722 [1962]), 20.

149.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Mrs. Irving Lehman, New York City, 29 July 1931, in CZA, File A125/47; minutes of meetings held in December 1931, in an effort to establish an investigating committee for the Straus Soup Kitchen, in CZA, File A125/44; Henrietta Szold, Jerusalem, letters to Mrs. Irving Lehman, New York, in CZA, File A125/41, and to Harry I. Viteles, New York, 15 August 1932, in CZA, File A125/43. See also, “An Inquiry into the Activities of the Nathan Straus Soup Kitchens, Jerusalem, Conducted by Harry I. Viteles, December, 1931, to February, 1932.” Viteles, an American, was the local representative of the Palestine Economic Corporation.

150.    Szold, Jerusalem, letters to Mrs. Irving Lehman, New York, 4 August and 30 October 1932, in CZA, Files A125/41 and A125/43.

151.    F.[rederick] H. Kisch, Palestine Zionist Executive, [Jerusalem], letter to [Bernard Stone], Executive Secretary of the United Palestine Appeal, New York, 18 December 1928, in CZA, File S25/1885.

152.    See, for example, Szold, Jerusalem, letter to the Administrative Committee, ZOA, New York, 21 December 1927, in CZA, File F38/509.

153.    Henrietta Szold, “The Future of Women’s Work,” 7–8.

154.    Id., talk given at the Hadassah National Board meeting, New York, 2 January 1936, draft typescript, in CZA, File A125/12. See also, her address to the students of the Jewish School for Social Work, New York, 13 January 1936, in the same file.

155.    “Al HaPerek. LeḤizuk HaVa’ad HaLe’umi” [Hebrew], HaAretz, 4 May 1931.

156.    Szold, “Avoda Sotzialit BiShe’at Ḥerum” [Hebrew], Dvar HaPo’elet, 27 December 1940; and “The Future of Women’s Work,” 2.

157.    Thon, “Sheva Shanim.”

158.    I. Braude, [director, Straus Soup Kitchen], Jerusalem, letter to Mrs. Irving Lehman, [New York], 14 August 1931, in CZA, File A125/41.

159.    Yaphet, Tet-Vav Shnot, 14.

160.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Mrs. Irving Lehman, New York, in CZA, File A125/41.

161.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Mrs. Irving Lehman, New York, 28 March 1932, in CZA, File A125/41.

162.    Id., Women’s Day address at the Levant Fair, Tel Aviv, 31 May 1934, typescript, in CZA, File A125/315.

163.    Rose Luria Halpern, “Portrait of Hadassah,” Jewish Frontier, August 1937, 18.

164.    A.[vraham] Katznelson, “Henrietta Szold” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir, 27 December 1940. See also, Mayor Dahan, Tiberias, letter to Henrietta Szold, [Jerusalem], 22 December 1940, in CZA, File A125/179.

165.    “Henrietta Szold Completes a Job,” Palestine Post, 19 January 1939.

166.    National Executive Committee, Brit HaTziyonim HaKlaliyim, Tel Aviv, letter to Henrietta Szold, Jerusalem, in CZA, File A125/175.

167.    Yaphet, Tet-Vav Shnot, 15.

168.    Szold, Jerusalem, letters to Sisters, [United States], 8 September, and 1 September 1933, both in CZA, File A125/263.

169.    Id., transcript of address to Survey Graphic Association, New York, January 1936, in CZA, File A125/83.

170.    Id., address to a special meeting of the ZOA Administrative Committee, New York, 9 June 1936, typescript, in CZA, File A125/83.

171.    Id., “Avoda Sotzialit.”

172.    Dash, Jerusalem, 235–38.

173.    See, for example, Szold, Jerusalem, letters to Harry I. Viteles, New York, 26 September 1932; to her sisters, Bertha [Levin] and Adele [Seltzer, United States], 4 February 1938; and to Yosef Baratz, Degania, 6 December 1939, all in CZA, Files A125/43, A125/266, and A125/59, respectively. See also, her notes for a discussion on children at a conference in Tel Aviv, February 1938, in CZA, File A125/34.

174.    Zena Herman, “Henrietta Szold and Youth Aliyah,” typescript, n.p., [1945].

175.    MS”, 6 October and 23 December 1942; Szold, New York, letters to Mrs. David Ben-Gurion, Brooklyn, 17 March and 23 June 1919, in LAT, File IV-104–29-7. See also, Shabtai Teveth, Ben-Gurion: The Burning Ground, 1886–1948 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987), 127, 857.

176.    MS”, 6 October and 23 December 1942.

177.    Szold, address sent to delegates to the 22nd Annual Hadassah Convention, Philadelphia, 18–20 October 1936, typescript in CZA, File A125/83.

178.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Mrs. David B. Greenberg, n.p., 2 November 1938, in CZA, File A125/34. See also, Herman, “Henrietta Szold.”

179.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to her sister, Adele [Seltzer], n.p., 18 September 1934, in CZA, File A125/264. See also, her letters, New York, 5 November 1911, to Boris Kazmann, Battle Creek, Michigan; and Jerusalem, 26 March 1944, to her sister, Bertha [Levin], n.p., in CZA, Files A125/283, and A125/274 respectively.

180.    Id., on the train between Houston and Beaumont, Texas, letter to Elvira Solis, New York City, 18 January 1918, in CZA, File A125/309.

181.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Administrative Committee, ZOA, New York, 21 December 1927, in CZA, File A125/51.

182.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to sisters, Bertha [Levin] and Adele [Seltzer, United States], 22 February 1935, in CZA, File A125/265, and many other letters.

183.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to “dear Ones” [her family in the United States], 13 July 1921, in CZA, File A125/257.

184.    Id., Jerusalem, letters to Family, [United States], 22 June and 18 August 1921, both in CZA, File A125/257.

185.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Sisters, [United States, August 1928?], in CZA, File A125/262. See also, the extract of her letter from Jerusalem, 17 August 1928, to Mrs. A. H. Vixman, Pittsburgh, in CZA, File A125/223.

186.    Id., New York, letter to sister, Bertha [Levin, Baltimore], in CZA, File A125/263.

187.    Id., New York, letter to Messrs. [Frederick] Kisch, [Arthur] Ruppin, and [Werner] Senator, Executive, Jewish Agency, Jerusalem, 6 February 1931, in CZA, File S25/1594.

188.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Sisters, [United States], 28 December 1934, in CZA, File A125/264. See also, her letters to her sisters, Bertha [Levin] and Adele [Seltzer], from Trieste, 27 August 1937, and from Jerusalem, 10 September 1937, both in CZA, File A125/266; and Nardi interview.

189.    Quoted by Katznelson in a letter from New York to his wife, Leah [Miron-Katznelson, Tel Aviv], 24 November 1937, KABB, File 2.

190.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Mrs. Edward [Rose] Jacobs, New York, 7 June 1943, in CZA, File A125/35. See also, Dash, Jerusalem, 219–20.

191.    Id., typescript of notes for an address to the Zionist Congress, Zurich, summer 1937, in CZA, File A124/13.

192.    Judah Magnes, quoted in “Rashei HaYishuv Mechabdim et Henrietta Szold,” HaAretz, 24 December 1940. A partial transcript of Magnes’s remarks, which were delivered at an eightieth birthday celebration for Szold at the Jewish Agency, 22 December 1940, mentions not the 1882 pogroms but the Kishinev pogrom “of 1905 or 1906” (CZA, File A125/188). The later version in HaAretz is assumed to be correct.

193.    H. Yaffe, “Di Amerikaner froi vos hot gebracht Erets Yisroel keyn America un America keyn Erets Yisroel” [Yiddish], New York Der Tog, 21 December 1935.

194.    Szold, letter from Jerusalem, supplement to the Hadassah News Letter, 13 May 1920.

195.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to “dear Ones” [family in the United States], 16 April 1926, in CZA, File A125/260.

196.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to Executive Committee, Junior Hadassah, New York, 1 January 1928, in CZA, File A125/51.

197.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to the Administrative Committee of the ZOA, New York, 21 December 1927, in CZA, File A125/51.

198.    Id., [Jerusalem], letter to Mrs. David Greenberg, chairman, National Youth Aliyah Committee of Hadassah, New York, 20 March 1939, in CZA, File A125/59.

199.    Id., “The Future of Women’s Work,” 19.

200.    Id., “Jewish Palestine in the Making,” an address delivered at the Hadassah reception in her honor, Hotel Pennsylvania, New York City, 30 April 1923, typescript in CZA, File A125/21.

201.    Gertrude Rosenblatt, Haifa, letter to Szold, Jerusalem, December 1927; and Henrietta Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Mrs. B. A. Rosenblatt, Haifa, 1 January 1928, both in CZA, File A125/57.

202.    Szold, Jerusalem, letters to Sisters, [United States], 6 February and 8 August 1930, both in CZA, File A125/262.

203.    See, for example, “Review of Activities of Kupat Ḥolim Center, 1 September–15 November 1928,” [Hebrew], mimeo, in LAT, File IV-208-146aleph; “Pe’ulot Hadassah,” [Hebrew], mimeo, Jewish Agency Executive Circular #15, [1930]; Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Harry I. Viteles, Kitzbühl, Austria, 7 August 1932, in CZA, File A125/43; and other sources.

204.    Szold, Jerusalem, letter to Mrs. Jacobs, [New York City], 18 September 1930, in CZA, File A125/35.

205.    Id., [Jerusalem], letter to Mrs. Lola Hahn-Warburg, Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Berlin, 14 September 1936, in CZA, File A125/94. See also, her letter from Jerusalem, to Mrs. David [Tamar] de Sola Pool, president, Hadassah, New York City, 16 July 1941, in CZA, File A125/61. Although she had lived many years in America de Sola Pool was a native of Palestine.

206.    Id., [Jerusalem], letter to Mrs. David B. Greenberg, chairman, National Youth Aliyah Committee, New York City, 1 December 1940, in CZA, File A125/60.

207.    Szold, on board the S. S. Esperia, memorandum to the Agency Executive, Jerusalem, 11 October 1937, in CZA, File S25/1125.

208.    Id., Jerusalem, letter to sister, Bertha [Levin, Baltimore], 12 July 1940, in CZA, File A125/267.

209.    Dash, “Doing Good,” 99.

210.    “HeArot” [Hebrew], HaAretz, 16 February 1945.

211.    Lotta Levensohn, “Henrietta Szold,” Moznayim 2 (25 December 1930): 4; HaAretz, 19 December 1930.

212.    Meir Dizengoff, mayor, Tel Aviv, letter to Szold, Jerusalem, 17 December 1935, in CZA, File A125/159; Moshe Athiash, “LiDmutah Shel Henrietta Szold Limlot Lah Shiv’im VeḤamesh Shana” [Hebrew], Do’ar HaYom, 22 December 1935.

213.    Szold, en route from Trieste to Alexandria, letter to Elvira Solis, New York, 1 January 1929, in CZA, File A125/310.

214.    Id., on the Mediterranean between Alexandria and Trieste, letter to “dear Ones” [family in the United States], 28 November 1909, in CZA, File A125/276.

215.    Id., “The Future of Women’s Work,” 12.

216.    Id., address to special meeting of the ZOA Administrative Committee, New York, 9 June 1936, typescript, in CZA, File A125/83.

Chapter 6

    1.    Meir, in a radio interview in Hebrew in 1969, as quoted in A Land of Our Own: An Oral Biography of Golda Meir, ed. Marie Syrkin (New York: Putnam’s Sons, 1973), 31.

    2.    Meir was the Hebrew name she assumed in 1952. Myerson (or Meyerson) was her marriage name. In later life her first name was usually rendered “Golda,” although earlier “Goldie” and even “Golde” were more common. All are used interchangeably here.

    3.    Compare, for example, Margaret Davidson, The Golda Meir Story (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976), 1–9, 66; Laird O’Brien, Golda Meir: A Perspective on the Woman and Her Times (London, Ont.: London Life Insurance Company, 1978); Yigal Allon, radio interview, 12 January 1979; Ya’akov Ḥazan, Em BeYisrael, (n.d.); Golda—Kovetz LeZichrah [Hebrew], ed. Naḥman Tamir (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1981), 33; personal interview with Sylva Gelber, Ottawa, 24 January 1988; Ralph G. Martin, Golda Meir: The Romantic Years (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988), 99; Meron Medzini, HaYehudiya HaGei’a [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Edanim, 1990), 17, 39–41.

    4.    There are several difficulties in evaluating Meir’s career. The most important of these is the sparse written record she left behind. She was neither a letter writer nor a diarist. As a result there are not many sources on which to base such an evaluation. Moreover, her autobiography, My Life (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1975), the several biographies written during her lifetime, and interviews with her all repeat the same few biographical details, which have about them the air of myth. The autobiography of her sister, Sheyna Korngold, Zikhroynes [Yiddish] (N.p.: Farlag Idpis, [1968]), is not much more revealing. All of these sources seem to conceal Meir’s serious thoughts about her American experience and about other aspects of her life as well. Finally, most of the sources date from the latter part of her life and were colored by her later experiences.

    5.    Meir, Beit Avi [Hebrew] ([Tel Aviv]: Hakibbutz Hame’uchad, 1972), 18; id., quoted in radio interview in Hebrew, 1969, in Syrkin, Land, 17–18; Korngold, Zikhroynes, 130.

    6.    Meir, My Life, 17; Martin, Golda, 35.

    7.    Compare, for example, Meir, My Life, 4–7 and Beit Avi, 43–44; Davidson, Meir Story, 53–54; Korngold, Zikhroynes, 104; Martin, Golda, 16; and Medzini, HaYehudiya, 29. All translations are the author’s unless otherwise noted.

    8.    Meir, My Life, 45, 214. See also, Meir interview in Syrkin, Land, 23.

    9.    Meir, My Life, 23; id., “MiShliḥut HaHistadrut LeShliḥut HaMedina” [Hebrew], report to the HEC on her visit to the United States, before leaving for the USSR (as Israeli minister designate), 1948, in her BeDegel HaAvoda, [Hebrew], (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1972), 237; Marie Syrkin, Golda Meir; Woman with a Cause (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1963), 24; Davidson, Meir Story, 71; personal interview with Sarah Rahabi, Tel Aviv, 2 September 1985.
        Compare also, Michael Brown, “Some Early Nineteenth-Century [should be Twentieth-Century] Holy Land ‘Travelers’ to America: Sources and Contexts,” in With Eyes Toward Zion, vol. 2, ed. Moshe Davis (New York: Praeger, 1986), 243; and id., “The New Zionism in the New World: Vladimir Jabotinsky’s Relations with the United States in the Pre-Holocaust Years,” Modern Judaism 9 (February 1989): 84.

  10.    Meir, quoted in HC”, 21 July 1941; in MC”, 20 May 1942 and 10 July 1944; and in MS”, 21 October 1947; Rahabi interview; Korngold, Zikhroynes, 125; “Bet Avi” [Hebrew], transcript of interview by Dan Raviv with Mrs. Golda Meir and Mrs. [Sheyna] Korngold, in GMM, 22–23; Meir interview in Syrkin, Land, 27–28.

  11.    Personal interview with Regina Medzini, Jerusalem, 29 August 1985.

  12.    Meir, quoted in “The Banquet for Comrades Zuckerman on the 24th of September, 1932” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 27 September 1932; id., My Life, 38; id., “Yamim Rishonim BaKvutza” [Hebrew] (N.p., 1969), [originally a talk at Kibbutz Revivim, Pesach, 1969], 3; Yitzḥak Greenberg, interview with Yitzḥak Elam, 26 June 1989, (transcript in GMM), 1; Meir, Beit Avi, 58. Elam was Golda’s close coworker for many years.

  13.    Menaḥem Meir, My Mother Golda Meir (New York: Arbor House, 1983), 14–15; Gelber interview; Medzini, HaYehudiya, 29.

  14.    Baruch Zuckerman, “Golda Meir” [Yiddish], in his Essayen un Profilin (Tel Aviv: I. L. Peretz, 1967), 423.

  15.    Meir, “Tnu’at HaPo’alim BeMivḥan” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir, 3 August 1944, 6. Compare also, id., “BeLev Shalem U-VeSimḥa” [Hebrew], remarks at a reunion of Third Aliyah veterans in Tel Aviv, n.d., in Sefer HaAliyah HaShlishit, vol. 2, ed. Yehuda Erez (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1964), 910–13.

  16.    Id., “BeHargashat HaYe’ood VeHaAḥrayut” [Hebrew], talk given at the fiftieth anniversary conference of the Histadrut, 9 December 1969, quoted in Tamir, Kovetz. 140; id., “We Are Rooted in the Soil,” statement on receiving an honorary doctorate of humane letters from the Hebrew Union College Biblical and Archaeology School, Jerusalem, 13 October 1970, in Syrkin, Land, 177–78.

  17.    Meir, quoted in The Canadian Zionist, April 1934, 11; id., quoted in “A New Approach to Zionism,” Avukah Bulletin, February 1932, 2; id., quoted by Sophie A. Udin, “The Fourth Convention,” in Pioneer Woman, December 1932, 1; id., “BeLev Shalem,” 911.

  18.    Syrkin, Woman, 57.

  19.    Robert Slater, Golda: The Uncrowned Queen of Israel (New York: Jonathan David, 1981), 26.

  20.    Meir, letter written from Merḥavya, 24 August 1921, quoted in Syrkin, Land, 240–41.

  21.    Id., quoted in “Discussion about the Land of Israel and the Diaspora” [Yiddish], condensed minutes of a session of the annual convention of the Poale Zion-Zeire Zion Party, Baltimore, 17 September 1932, in Iddisher Kemfer, 7 October 1932.

  22.    Id., speech on the dedication of a new neighborhood on the banks of the Yarkon, 22 October 1939 [Hebrew], manuscript in her hand, in GMM, file of unsorted material.

  23.    Id., “The Face of the Histadruth,” comments delivered at a meeting of the HEC held to welcome Richard Crossman, 27 March 1946, [Hebrew], quoted in her BeDegel, 166. See also, Meir, “Rooted.”

  24.    Greenberg interview with Elam, 9 July 1989, transcript in GMM, 17. Compare also, Meir’s “Report to America,” an address to the National Press Club, Washington, 11 December 1956, in This Is Our Strength: Selected Papers of Golda Meir, ed. Henry M. Christman (New York: Macmillan, 1962), 61.

  25.    President Yitzḥak Navon and Shimon Peres, chairman of the Labor Party, press releases after the death of Golda Meir, quoted in Aryeh Ḥashavya, Golda Meir (Jerusalem: Agaf HaNo’ar/HaMaḥleka LeḤinuch Ḥevrati, 1978), 31–32.

  26.    Compare Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, diary, entry for 28 Tammuz 1915, New York, quoted in his Poale Zion BaAliyah HaShniya (Tel Aviv: Mifleget Po’alei Eretz Yisrael Velḥud Olami Poale Zion (Z. S.) Hitachduth, 1950), 186.

  27.    Goldie [Meyerson], Winnipeg, letter to [Chaim] Arlazaroff [sic, Jerusalem], 1 March 1932, in CZA, File S25–793.

  28.    Id., at a Mapai Center meeting, 22 August 1940, ISAMP, Division Bet, File 23/40. Compare also, Golda Meir, “BeLev Shalem,” 910; Dr. Yisrael Eldad, “Golda” [Hebrew], in Tamir, Kovetz, 56; Yitzḥak Elam, “BiMḥitzatah Shel Golda: Siḥot Im Yitzḥak Elam,” transcript in GMM, conversations with Drora Beit-Or, September 1985–February 1986, 12–13, 25; Yehudit Simḥoni, interview with Drora Beit-Or and Sarah Rahabi, 5 April 1987, transcript in GMM; Elam interview with Greenberg, 26 June 1989, 5; Korngold, Zikhroynes, 106; Medzini, HaYehudiyah, 95.

  29.    Meir, Beit Avi, 33.

  30.    Id., at a meeting of the Histadrut Council, 28 January 1941, ISAHC, File 62/810aleph. Compare also Menaḥem Meir, My Mother, 11; Slater, Uncrowned Queen, 19, 22; Eliyahu Agress, Golda Meir: Portrait of a Prime Minister, trans. Israel I. Taslitt (New York: Sabra, [1969]), 12; Terry Morris, Shalom, Golda (New York: Hawthorn, 1971), passim; Martin, Golda, 56, 73, 87; and Medzini, HaYehudiya, 31–32, 36, 38.

  31.    Zuckerman, “Golda Meir,” 423–24.

  32.    Regina Medzini interview.

  33.    Meir, My Life, 60; and Korngold, Zikhroynes, 139. See also, Korngold, Zikhroynes, 58–59, 68–69; Meir, Beit Avi, 61, 66; Slater, Uncrowned Queen, 29; Martin, Golda, 108–09; Mollie Keller, Golda Meir (New York: Franklin Watts, 1983), 37.

  34.    Syrkin, Woman, 53.

  35.    Meir, at a meeting of the Histadrut Council, 28 January 1941, in ISAHC, File 62/810alef.
        These guilt feelings seem to have intensified after the Holocaust, although by then they were less associated with the United States. In 1946, at a ceremony welcoming Zivia Lubetkin, one of the few survivors of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, to Palestine, Meir spoke of the bond between Lubetkin and the Laborites in the yishuv: Although of the same movement, “often we could not but feel that we were unworthy of your stand; that we as parents, had not deserved such children.” Meir asked of Lubetkin that she “work with us in such a way as to reawaken our faith that we are worthy of you.” (Quoted in “Zivia Lubetkin Welcomed by Yishuv,” Pioneer Woman, June 1946, 7.)

  36.    Meir, My Life, 53, 59; customs official quoted in Medzini, HaYehudiya, 41; Golda Meir, “How I Made It in My Kibbutz,” in Syrkin, Land, 12; Korngold, Zikhroynes, 139.

  37.    Korngold, Zikhroynes, 139; and Golda Meir, “BeLev Shalem,” 45; and many other sources.

  38.    Berl Repetur, interview with Drora Beit-Or, 5 March 1985, transcript in GMM, 11–12.

  39.    Meir, quoted in MC”, 11 August 1942.

  40.    Id., “My Kibbutz,” 39; and “BeLev Shalem,” 911–12. See also, id., Beit Avi, 59; Syrkin, Woman, 77; Medzini, HaYehudiya, 45.

  41.    Meir, “My Kibbutz,” 39–40. See also, id., My Life, 64; and Morris, Shalom, Golda, 49.

  42.    Meir, “From the Words of Golda Meir—From Milwaukee to Merḥavya” [Hebrew], in Sefer Merḥavya, HaCo’operatzia (Tel Aviv: Hotza’at Vatikei HaCo’operatizia 1961), 235. See also, Syrkin, Woman, 73; Slater, Uncrowned Queen, 29; Morris, Shalom, Golda, 47; Martin, Golda, 81.

  43.    Sarah [Rahabi] and Menaḥem [Meir], “Imma” [Hebrew], in Tamir, Kovetz, 66; Menaḥem Meir, My Mother, 14–15.

  44.    Shabtai Teveth, Ben-Gurion: The Burning Ground, 1886–1948 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987), 501; Goldie Myerson, “Hadassah and the Zionist Congress,” Pioneer Woman, May 1933.

  45.    Meir, Beit Avi, 47–49; id., radio interview in Syrkin, Land, 34; Raviv interview, 21, 25–26; Korngold, Zikhroynes, 154, 161; Slater, Uncrowned Queen, 26, 31; Morris, Shalom, Golda, 45; Martin, Golda, 169.

  46.    Israel Mereminsky (Merom), [HEC, Tel Aviv], letter to A. Koller, New York, 20 May 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-337bet.

  47.    Repetur, interview, Beit-Or, 16–19.

  48.    Berl Repetur, “Im Golda BeFe’ilut Histadrutit” [Hebrew], in Tamir, Kovetz, 96; Golda Meir, letter [Hebrew photocopy], Tel Aviv, 17 September 1928, to Comrades, Mishkei VeḤavurot HaPo’alot, in GMM, File of unsorted materials; id., speech at the second convention of the Histadrut, Tel Aviv, 21 Shvat 1923, quoted in Hebrew translation in Ben-Gurion, Zichronot [Hebrew], vol. 1 (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1971), 214. See also, Medzini, HaYehudiya, 52.

  49.    Elam, interview with Greenberg, 26 June 1989; Elam, “BiMhitzatah,” 9.

  50.    In HaYehudiya, (52), Medzini claims that Meir expressed such an opinion at a leadership meeting of the Working Women’s Council in December 1922. Although the view is consistent with her later statements, and although she only rarely altered her views, the source cited by Medzini is incorrect. Further verification is therefore needed.

  51.    Meir, at a meeting of the HEC, Tel Aviv, 14 May 1925, in ISAHVHP, File 32/810aleph (1). See also, Medzini, HaYehudiya, 58.

  52.    BGD, 5 May 1924; Jüdische Rundschau, 28 May 1924; Vienna Arbeiter Zeitung, 8 August 1928.

  53.    Yosef Sprinzak quoted in HVHP”, 24 October 1923.

  54.    Remez quoted in HVHP”, 4 September 1928.

  55.    See especially, HVHP”, for meetings of 3, 4, 17, 20 September 1928.

  56.    Eliyahu Golomb quoted in HVHP”, 4 September 1928.

  57.    See letters [Yiddish] of Leah Biskin, secretary, Pioneer Women’s Organization, New York, 3, 23 October 1928, 9 November 1928, to Working Women’s Council, Tel Aviv, in LAT, File IV-208-1-137; Isaac Hamlin, national secretary, National Labor Committee, letter [Yiddish], New York, 19 November 1928, to HEC, Tel Aviv, in LAT, File IV-208-1-121gimel; HVHP”, 20 September 1928.

  58.    See minutes of meeting of the Working Women’s Council Enlarged Secretariat, 10 September 1929. Golda insisted that a delegate be sent to America no later than the end of that month.

  59.    Isaac Hamlin, letter [Yiddish], New York, 15 December 1928, to HEC, Tel Aviv, in LAT, File IV-208-1-121aleph.

  60.    “Decision to Raise $300,000 for Jewish Workers in Palestine,” New York Morgn Zhurnal [Yiddish], 31 December 1928. See also the less enthusiastic account in the New York Forverts [Yiddish], “Workers’ Convention Decides to Raise $300,000 to Help Palestine Workers,” 31 December 1928.

  61.    Budget of Working Women’s Council for 5689 (1928–29), in LAT, File IV-208-1-174; Leah Biskin, secretary, Pioneer Women’s Organization, New York, letter, [Yiddish], to Working Women’s Council, Tel Aviv, 3 July 1928, in LAT, File IV-208-1-137; I[srael] Mereminsky, [HEC, Tel Aviv], letter, [Yiddish], to Pioneer Women’s Organization, [New York], 25 December 1930, in LAT, File IV-208-1-174. See also, Golde Myerson, “The Working Women’s Movement in Palestine” [Yiddish], in Palestine Souvenir on the Occasion of the Fifth Anniversary of the Geverkshaften Palestine Campaign and the Fourth National Labor Convention for Palestine Held in New York, December 29/30, 1928, 35.

  62.    Ibid; id., “The Pioneer Women’s Organization,” Labor Palestine, June 1933, 22; and Yehudit Simḥoni, leader of the Working Women’s Council, in an interview with Drora Beit-Or and Sarah Rahabi, Tel Aviv, 5 April 1987, transcript in GMM.

  63.    Leah Biskin, New York, letter [Yiddish], 17 January 1929, to Working Women’s Council, in LAT, File IV-208-1-137. See also, in the same file, her letter [Yiddish] of 8 May 1929, also to Working Women’s Council; Israel Mereminsky, letter [Hebrew], New York, 7 February 1929, to HEC, Tel Aviv, in LAT, File IV-208-1-121alef; “We Stand Pledged,” editorial, Pioneer Woman, December 1928; ad for farewell banquet in honor of the “Palestine Labor Delegation, Israel Mereminsky, David Bloch, Golde Myerson,” and “The Poale-Zion Program,” The Vanguard, June 1929; Golde Myerson, “Women’s Workers Movement”; Medzini, HaYehudiya, 69.
        On male chauvinism in American Labor Zionism at the time, see Golda Meir, “Travel Impressions” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 2 May 1932.

  64.    Quoted in Martin, Golda, 188.

  65.    Meir, My Life, 104.

  66.    Id., quoted in HVHP”, 3 September 1930.

  67.    Id., speech to the Geverkshaften Campaign Convention, New York, 30 December 1928, quoted in Moshe Rivlin, “At the Convention of the Jewish Workers for Palestine” [Yiddish], in New York Morgn Zhurnal, 1 January 1929.
        In HaYehudiya (68), Medzini claims that on her 1928 trip Golda perceived a gap between herself and American Jews of which she had not previously been aware. He offers no evidence, however, for this assertion.

  68.    Meir, quoted in HVHP”, 3 September 1930. See also, HVHP”, 23 September 1929, 8 September 1930; and MC”, 18 October 1930, ISAMP, File 23/30, section 2; Medzini, HaYehudiya, 74.

  69.    Simḥoni interview with Beit-Or and Rahabi.

  70.    Raḥel Yana’it, report on her work in America for the Pioneer Women’s Organization in HVHP”, 4 September 1928.

  71.    Meir, quoted in HVHP”, 3 September 1930; Martin, Golda, 167–68.

  72.    Meir, “Ma She-Lo Asinu BeZurich U-Ma She Od Mutal Aleinu La’asot” [Hebrew], Davar, 10 January 1930. Medzini claims in HaYehudiya (68) that Golda felt frustrated during her American stay because she had no access to the wealthy, acculturated Jews. He offers no evidence for the claim, however.

  73.    Meir, quoted in HVHP”, 3 September 1930; id., My Life, 105.

  74.    Quoted in HVHP”, 8 September 1930.

  75.    Menaḥem Meir, My Mother, 14–15.

  76.    Ibid., 32; Berl Katznelson, notebook from 1937 trip to the United States, entry for Friday, [9 November 1937], in KABB.

  77.    David (Blumenfeld) Bloch, report on the delegation to America, HVHP”, 19 August 1929.

  78.    Israel Mereminsky, letter [for the HEC, Tel Aviv], 29 May 1930, to Pioneer Women’s Organization, New York, in LAT, File IV-208-1-174. See also, Mereminsky letter [for the HEC, Tel Aviv], 11 July 1930; D[avid] R[emez], letter [for the HEC, Tel Aviv], 10 February 1930, [Yiddish], to Pioneer Women’s Organization, [New York], c/o Leah Biskin; [Leah Biskin, for the] Pioneer Women’s Organization, letter [Yiddish], New York, 28 April 1930, to Working Women’s Council, Tel Aviv; all in LAT, File IV-208-1-174.

  79.    [Leah Biskin], Pioneer Women’s Organization, [New York], letter to Working Women’s Council, Tel Aviv, 28 April 1930, in LAT, File IV-208-1-174.

  80.    Leah Biskin, secretary, Pioneer Women’s Organization, New York, letter to I[srael] Mereminsky, HEC, Tel Aviv, 14 August 1930, in LAT, File IV-208-1-174.

  81.    Elam interview with Greenberg, 9 July 1989, 14. See also, report of David Bloch on the delegation to the United States, in HVHP”, 19 August 1929.

  82.    Meir, “Women’s Movement,” 35.

  83.    Compare HVHP”, 1929–31. Sometimes, even at crucial junctures, Ben-Gurion left her on her own. See, for example, HVHP”, 3 and 15 September 1930.

  84.    D[avid] B[en-Gurion], “At the Imperial Laborers’ Conference,” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir, 15 August 1930. Ben-Gurion used identical language in describing the event in a letter to his wife, Paula, quoted in Medzini, HaYehudiya, 71. See also, memo [Hebrew], Working Women’s Council, Tel Aviv, to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 18 September 1929, in LAT, File IV-208-1-174. Compare, as well, Martin, Golda, 170; Medzini, HaYehudiya, 70.

  85.    Ada Fishman (Maimon) and Raḥel Katznelson (Rubashov), Working Women’s Council, Tel Aviv, letter, [Hebrew], to Golda Meyerson, Tel Aviv, 30 August 1931, in LAT, File IV-208-1-281alef; MS”, 23 September 1931.

  86.    Menaḥem Meir, My Mother, 31; Martin, Golda, 176–77.

  87.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in MS”, 23 September 1931. Shortly after her arrival in New York, she complained bitterly that her colleagues in the yishuv were not giving her and the Americans working on their behalf the support to which they were entitled. See Golda [Meyerson], New York, telegram to Ovdim [HEC], Tel Aviv, 21 October 1931, in LAT, File IV-208-1-336bet.

  88.    Golde Meyerson, open letter, [Yiddish], in Pioneer Woman, October 1931, 4.

  89.    Menaḥem Meir, My Mother, 33. On Golda’s work on behalf of aliyah, see, among other sources, Golda Meir, New York, letter to [Eliyahu] Dobkin, [HEC, Tel Aviv], 19 October 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-338bet; minutes of a meeting of HaVa’ad Lema’an HeḤalutz, New York, 6 June 1934; and HVHP”, 18 August 1934.

  90.    “Facts About the Division of Certificates,” Hechalutz Bulletin, January-February 1935, 3–4.

  91.    Golda Meyerson, “Ma She-Lo Asinu BeZurich”; id., quoted in HVHP”, 3 September 1930, a meeting held with visitors from America. See also, HVHP”, 23 September 1929.

  92.    Meir, quoted in HVHP”, 16 June 1931.

  93.    Id., “Rishmei Masa BeAmerica” [Hebrew], Davar, 25 May 1932. See also Elam interview with Greenberg.

  94.    “In the Pioneer Women’s Organization” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 13 April 1934; Golda Meyerson, New York, letter to [Working Women’s Council, Tel Aviv], 27 April 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-281bet; id., My Life, 111. Her itinerary is recorded in the pages of the Pioneer Woman and the Iddisher Kemfer for these years.

  95.    Bella Collier, for the National Executive of the Pioneer Women’s Organization, New York, letter to Working Women’s Council, Tel Aviv, 25 June 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-281bet; Elisheva [Kaplan], Cincinnati, letter to Bebe Idelson, [Tel Aviv], 30 January 1935, in LAT, File IV-208-1-816bet; Iddisher Kemfer, 27 October 1933 and 23 March 1934.

  96.    Meir, My Life, 109; Morris, Shalom, Golda, 65.

  97.    Golde Meyerson, “Our Organization” [Yiddish], Pioneer Woman, June 1934, 3. See also, id., “Travel Impressions” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 2 May 1932.

  98.    “HaPe’ulah HaPolitit,” summary report of Working Women’s Council, mimeo, [1932], in LAT, File IV-230–5-14alef.

  99.    Yosef Sprinzak, n.p., letter to Merkaz Mapai, Tel Aviv, 2 Tammuz 5694 [1934], in Igrot Yosef Sprinzak, vol. 2 (1929–1947), ed. Yosef Shapira (Tel Aviv: Ayanoth, 1969), 274–75; Golde Meyerson, “Travel Impressions”; Bella Collier, for the national executive of the Pioneer Women’s Organization, New York, letter to Working Women’s Council, Tel Aviv, 2 May 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-281bet.

100.    Golda Meyerson, “Rishmei Masa”; id., report on her mission to the United States in HVHP”, 16 August 1934.

101.    “On Golda Meyerson’s Departure for Eretz Yisroel,” Pioneer Woman, June 1934, 3.

102.    “Comrade Meyerson Visits Chicago” [Yiddish], Pioneer Woman, December 1933, 12; “Welcome Goldie Myerson,” Pioneer Woman, April 1937. See also, “Comrade Meyerson’s Tour” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 12 January 1934, 14–15.

103.    Ada Fishman and Ben-Gurion quoted in MC”, 8 August 1934; Elisheva Kaplan quoted in mimeographed excerpts from her letters, n.d., in LAT, File IV-208-1-816alef.

104.    Meir, speech to the Histadrut Council, 28 January 1941, in ISAHC.

105.    In letters to the Working Women’s Council, Tel Aviv, 13 January 1936, 10 April 1936, both in LAT, File IV-208-1-816bet, Sophie A. Udin, national secretary of the Pioneer Women’s Organization, [New York], complained mildly about Meir’s inattention. Rubashov, on the other hand, reported that she busied herself to a considerable extent with the Pioneer Women (HVHP”, 24 September 1936). See also, Bert Goldstein, member, National Praesidium, Pioneer Women’s Organization, New York, letter to Goldie Meyerson, Jerusalem, 1 August 1947, in CZA, File S25–825.

106.    See among other sources, Israel Mereminsky, “Yoman,” entry for 2 October [1932], in LAT, File IV-208-1-338bet, and letter from [New York] to Merkaz Kupat Ḥolim, Tel Aviv, in LAT, File IV-208-1-407alef.

107.    Goldie Meyerson, New York, letter to [Working Women’s Council, Tel Aviv], 27 April 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-281bet; Zalman Rubashov, report on activities in America, in HVHP”, 26 September 1932. See also, Meyerson, Winnipeg, letter to [Chaim] Arlazaroff (sic), [Jerusalem], 1 March 1932, in CZA, File S25/793.

108.    Yosef Sprinzak, report on his activities in America, HVHP”, 16 August 1934.

109.    Goldie Meyerson, report on activities in America, HVHP”, 7 July 1932; “The Call from the Histadrut” [Yiddish], an open letter to American Jews, n.d. (1932), from Goldie Meyerson, Shimon Kushiner, and Zalman Rubashov.

110.    Shimon [Kushiner], New York, letter to [Israel] Mereminsky [HEC, Tel Aviv], 17 June 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-337bet. See also, Kushiner letter from New York to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 9 February 1932, in the same file.

111.    Goldie Meyerson, report on America, HVHP”, 7 July 1932. Her trips for the Campaign are catalogued in the pages of the Iddisher Kemfer.

112.    E[liyahu] D[obkin for the HEC, Tel Aviv], letters to Yisrael [Mereminsky, New York], 2 November 1932, and 17 July 1933, in LAT, Files IV-208-1-338bet, and IV-208-1-407bet, respectively.

113.    Goldie Meyerson, report on America, in HVHP”, 7 July 1932; id., [Tel Aviv], letter to Avukah, New York, 8 March 1935, in LAT, File IV-208-1-705; id., in MC”, 18 October 1930. See also, her comments in HVHP”, 16 August 1934.
        On Mereminsky, see, among other sources, his letter on behalf of the HEC in Tel Aviv, to HaHanhaga HaRashit Shel HaShomer HaTza’ir, New York, 26 January 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-337alef; “Histadruth Leader Sees Time Ripe for New Migration Movement to Palestine,” Jewish Daily Bulletin, 2 September 1932.

114.    Celia Monowitz, “Camp Kvutzah,” Pioneer Woman, October 1933, 3; Ruth Bondy, HaShaliaḥ [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1974), 240–41; correspondence and memoranda between Goldie Meyerson and Dr. Emanuel Gamoran, director of education for the Union of American Hebrew Congregations in Cincinnati, and other American-Jewish educators, 1935, in LAT, File IV-208–706; Rivka Markovitz, “The Young Poale Zion Convention,” Pioneer Woman, October 1932.

115.    Goldie Meyerson, quoted in MC”, 4 August 1931.

116.    The New Palestine, 31 May 1929, 16 June 1933; Avukah Bulletin, May 1929, December 1931, February 1932, April 1932; Pioneer Woman, May 1933; Yitzḥak Chizik, “MiPe’ulot Mishlaḥat HaHistadrut BeAmerica” [Hebrew], Davar, 15 January 1932. See also, correspondence between Meir and officers of Avukah in LAT, Files IV-208-1-1174 and 1175alef.

117.    Monowitz, “Camp Kvutzah”; Iddisher Kemfer, 26 August 1932, 11 November 1932, 4, 18 August 1933; Jacob Lemberger, “Accord-1933,” in Adventure in Pioneering, ed. David Breslau (New York: CHAY Commission of the Labor Zionist Movement, 1957), 19.

118.    H. Giladi, HaVa’ad Lema’an HeḤalutz, New York, letter to HEC, Tel Aviv, 5 October 1932, in LAT, File IV-208–338bet.

119.    Israel Mereminsky (Merom), diary entry for 30 August 1932, in LAT, File IV-208–338alef; Golda Meyerson, quoted in HVHP”, 3 September 1930.

120.    Among other sources, see Avraham Zeiger and Y. Leibner, HaShomer HaTza’ir, New York, letter to HEC, Tel Aviv [Hebrew], 14 June 1932, in LAT, File IV-208–337alef; minutes of meetings of HaVa’ad Lema’an HeḤalutz in America, 16 May 1932 and 22 September 1932, in LAT, Files IV-208–337bet and IV-208–338alef respectively; Mae Bere (Mereminsky) and Goldie Meyerson, [New York?], letter, to HaHanhaga HaRashit [Leadership], HaShomer HaTza’ir BeArtzot HaBrit VeCanada, New York, n.d. [after 8 February 1933], and E. Galili, New York, letter to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 13 July 1934, both in LAT, File IV-208–407alef.

121.    Goldie Meyerson, review of her recent activities in America, in HVHP”, 6 August 1936; id., quoted in HVHP”, 20 June 1945. The latter quotation is reprinted in “Shliḥim le‘HeḤalutz’” [Hebrew], Meir, BeDegel, 211–12.

122.    Meir quoted in MS”, 31 August 1932 and 18 December 1945. See also, her letter from New York to the [Working Women’s Council], 27 April 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-281bet; Israel Mereminsky, diary entry for 14–18 September 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-338bet; and Yosef Sprinzak, New York, letter to [Berl] Locker, [London], 4 February 1934, in LAT, File IV-208-1-407bet.

123.    Israel Mereminsky, New York, letter to HEC, Tel Aviv, 30 August 1932, and Meyer Brown, secretary, Poale Zion-Zeirei Zion, New York, letter to Israel Mereminsky, Tel Aviv, 15 April 1932, both in LAT, Files IV-208-1-338bet, and IV-208-1-337bet respectively. Maximilian Hurwitz claimed the League was conceived by Ben-Gurion and launched at the 1930 Congress of Friends of Palestine Labor held in Berlin (“Why a League for Labor Palestine,” Labor Palestine, September-October 1933, 15). Joseph Schlossberg, the American-Jewish labor leader, believed the League was founded in order to bring onside people who could not be reached by the Geverkshaften Campaign (minutes of the first session of the National Executive of the League for Labor Palestine, New York City, 25 June 1937, in LAT, File IV-208-1-1176).

124.    Golda Meyerson, quoted in minutes of a meeting of the Poale Zion-Zeire Zion Party, New York, included in a letter from Israel Mereminsky, New York, to the HEC, Tel Aviv, 12 October 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-338bet; Yosef Sprinzak, New York, letter to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 28 Sivan 5694 [1934], in Igrot Sprinzak, vol. 2, 271.

125.    “About Golda’s Visit” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 2 March 1934; Golda Meyerson, report on activities in America, HVHP”, 6 August 1936; Dr. Alexander S. Kohanski, Report of the National Secretary [of the League for Labor Palestine], for the Year 1936–37, 20 July 1937; I[saac] Hamlin, “League Activities,” Labor Palestine, February 1934, 13; Joseph Schlossberg, general secretary of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, New York, letter to Israel Mereminsky, Tel Aviv, 14 September 1936, in LAT, File IV-208-1-705; Avis Shulman, [Highland Park, Illinois, 1 February 1937], letter to Goldie Myerson, [Tel Aviv], in LAT, File IV-208-1-1178alef; minutes of the Administrative Committee of the League for Labor Palestine, special Jewish Frontier emergency session, 23 November 1937; Golda Myerson, “Pe’ulat HaHistadrut BeḤoref 5696 [1936] BeAmerica,” in BeDegel, 226–28; Shlomo Tzemaḥ, quoted in HVHP”, 16 September 1937; Michael A. Meyer, Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion: A Centennial History, 1875–1975, rev. ed. (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1992), 130.

126.    See, for example, remarks of Golda Meir, MC”, 4 August 1931 and HVHP”, 7 July 1932; Israel Mereminsky (Merom), diary entries for 14–18 September 1932 and 28 May 1936, in LAT, Files IV-208-1-338bet and IV-208-1-753bet respectively; and Bondy, HaShaliaḥ. Bondy quotes a report to the HEC sent from Los Angeles by Enzo Sereni in February 1937.

127.    Goldie Meyerson, [Tel Aviv], letters to Dr. Samuel Wohl, Cincinnati, 21 January [May?] 1935, and [Pinḥas] Cruso, [New York], 18 December 1936, in LAT, Files IV-208–706 and 754bet respectively. Wohl, a Reform rabbi, was the first professional head of the League. Cruso was its national secretary for a time.

128.    “Palestine Aid Event Sunday,” Los Angeles B’nai B’rith Messenger, 6 March 1936; Golda Meir, “Skirah al HaPe’ulah BeAmerica,” HVHP”, 6 August 1936; Alexander S. Kohanksi, national secretary of the League for Labor Palestine, New York, letter to Israel Mereminsky (Merom), HEC, Tel Aviv, 28 January 1938, in LAT, File IV-208-1-1177; “League For Labor Palestine,” Jewish Frontier, March 1938, 30; letter of Pinḥas Cruso, national secretary, League for Labor Palestine, New York, to Goldie Myerson, Tel Aviv, 21 June 1935, and minutes of meetings on 29 August 1935 and 28 August 1936 of the Secretariat of the HEC, all in LAT, Files IV-208-1-752bet and IV-208-1-754alef; Goldie Myerson, [HEC, Tel Aviv], letter to Rabbi Samuel Wohl, [executive secretary, League for Labor Palestine], Cincinnati, 21 May 1935, in LAT, File IV-208-1-706; Israel Mereminsky, diary entry for 14 September 1937, in LAT, File IV-208-1-1419; minutes of a meeting on 23 November 1937 of the Administrative Committee of the League for Labor Palestine, Special Jewish Frontier Emergency Session.

129.    “Greetings from the Delegation,” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 13 May 1932; “Golde Myerson Visits Another Few Cities,” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 27 May 1932; “Pioneer Women’s Organization,” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 10 June 1932.

130.    Yosef Sprinzak, New York, letter to HEC, Tel Aviv, 28 Sivan 5694 [1934], in Igrot Sprinzak, vol. 2, 271–73. On these negotiations, see chapters 4 and 7 of this book.

131.    Israel Mereminsky, Boston, letter to Comrades [HEC, Tel Aviv], 18 November 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-338bet; Goldie Myerson, “Hadassah and the Zionist Congress, Pioneer Woman, May 1933, 5–6; id., “To Break—Pious and Not so Pious,” [Yiddish], Pioneer Woman, February 1934, 7.

132.    Letters, D[avid] B[en]-G[urion, for the HEC, Tel Aviv], to I[srael] Mereminsky and G[oldie] Myerson, New York, 1 December 1932; [Israel] Mereminsky, New York, to E[liyahu] Dobkin, Tel Aviv, 12 January 1933; and E[liyahu] D[obkin for the HEC, Tel Aviv], to [Israel] Mereminsky, [New York], 31 January 1933, in LAT, Files IV-208-1-338bet, and IV-208-1-407alef.

133.    MC”, 21 October 1934.

134.    Iddisher Kemfer, 21 July 1933 and 4 August 1933. Partly because of lack of funds, Meir did not attend the Congress.

135.    Meir, foreword to Alexander Manor, Commitment and Creative Action: The Life and Work of Israel Merom (Mereminsky), trans. and adapted S. Leshner-Shapira (Tel Aviv: Sponsoring Committee, 1978), vii. For similar assessments of Meir by others, see Menaḥem Meir, My Mother, 114; and Yehudit Simḥoni, interview with Drora Beit-Or and Sarah Rahabi, 5 April 1987, transcript in GMM, Oral History Section.

136.    Meir, “Ezrah Hadadit Bimei Mashbeir,” lecture to the Histadrut Study Seminar, 1941, in Meir, BeDegel, 53. See also, id., “Darkei Ha’Ezrah HaHadadit BeKerev Tzibur HaPo’alim” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir, 24 December 1939, 6–9; MC”, 22 August 1940; and Elam, interview with Greenberg (transcripts in GMM), 9 July 1989. To Meir’s comments compare the remarks of Irma Lindheim to the convention of the National Labor Committee for Palestine, quoted in the New York Times, 29 November 1937.

137.    Compare Melech Epstein, Jewish Labor in the U.S.A., vol. 2 (1914–1952) (New York: Trade Union Sponsoring Committee, 1953), 161–62, 262, 354, and elsewhere.

138.    HVHP”, 7 January 1942.

139.    Yosef Sprinzak, Chicago, letter to Hannah Sprinzak, n.p., 2 Nisan 5694 [1934], in Igrot Sprinzak: vol. 2, 257–58.

140.    Yosef Sprinzak, report on his eight months in the United States, in HVHP”, 16 August 1934. See also the debate between Sprinzak and Meir Ya’ari, HVHP”, 23 August 1934.

141.    Quoted in HaPo’el HaTza’ir 30 (1937): 22.

142.    Quoted in MS”, 28 September 1938.

143.    See among other sources, E[liyahu] Dobkin, [HEC, Tel Aviv], letters to Israel [Mereminsky, New York], 17 November 1932, and to [Eliezer] Galili, [New York], 16 January 1934, both in LAT, Files IV-208-1-338bet and IV-208-1-407bet respectively; Shimon Kushiner, New York, letter to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 9 February 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-337bet; HVHP”, 9 August 1934.

144.    See remarks of Meir in HVHP”, 16 August 1934.

145.    Goldie Myerson, [HEC, Tel Aviv], letter to Mrs. Belle T. Daiches, Chicago, 11 February 1936, in LAT, File IV-208-1-706alef. Daiches was a travel agent and an active member of a Reform synagogue that arranged tours to Palestine through her.

146.    Among other sources, see the letters to Goldie Myerson, Tel Aviv, of Isaac Hamlin, national secretary of the National Labor Committee for the Jewish Laborers of Palestine, New York, 20 February 1935, Nathan Guttman, acting secretary, Young Poale Zion Alliance, New York, 29 June 1935, and Rabbi Edward L. Israel, Baltimore, 4 October 1935, all in LAT, Files IV-208-1-752alef, IV-208-1-700, and IV-208-1-706 respectively.

147.    Goldie Myerson, [Tiyur ve-Tiyul, Tel Aviv], letter to Mr. Rosen, Palestine Oriental Tours, [New York], 2 May 1935, in LAT, File IV-208-1-705, regarding a projected young people’s tour to be organized by his firm. See also the letters exchanged by Golda with Mr. Weiss of the Compass Travel Bureau, New York, and with John Rothschild, director of the Open Road, New York, regarding youth tours, in LAT, Files IV-208-1-705 and 706.

148.    See Goldie Myerson, [HEC, Tel Aviv], letters to S[amuel] W. Rulnick, Hartford, 3 April 1935, to Samuel Lefcovits, Chicago, 30 July 1935, and to others in LAT, File IV-208-1-706.

149.    Goldie Myerson, “Memorandum on Tourist Activity in the Settlements,” to the Jewish Agency Executive, Jerusalem, 18 January 1935, in LAT, File IV-208-1-758bet.

150.    HVHP”, 25 August 1937. See also, “News from Palestine,” Hechalutz Bulletin, October 1934,

151.    See letters and telegrams from Golda to American Jewish labor leaders, from William Green, president of the American Federation of Labor, to Edward Canavan of the British Trade Union Congress, and from Sir Walter Citrine of the Congress to David Dubinsky, president of the International Ladies Garment Workers, in LAT, Files IV-208-1 -706alef and 754bet.

152.    I[saac] Hamlin, New York, letter to Goldie [Myerson, HEC, Tel Aviv], 24 December 1936, in LAT, File IV-208-1-1419. He had sent a similar letter to the committee two days earlier.

153.    Yosef Sprinzak, Tel Aviv, letter to Yosef Baratz, [United States], 2 Adar 5697 [1937], in Igrot Sprinzak, vol. 2, 331–33; Goldie Myerson, [HEC, Tel Aviv], letter to Isaac Hamlin, [New York], 2 March 1937, in LAT, File IV-208-1-1419; MC”, 16 January and 5 February 1937; Ben-Gurion, Zichronot, vol. 4 (1937) (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1974), 66.

154.    Max Zaritsky, quoted in HVHP”, 19 January 1937.

155.    HVHP”, 19 January 1937.

156.    Quoted in HVHP”, 16 September 1937. Yosef Baratz (MM”, 25 May 1937) reported that the delegation might have been more effective fund raising in the United States, if some of its members hadn’t stumbled into an unfortunate battle with the Bund over one of its campaigns. Golda also acknowledged that the unionists were less helpful than she had hoped with regard to fund raising.

157.    For a discussion of the Campaign in other than Labor circles, see chapter 2 of this book.

158.    Letters of Malkah Goodlow, Totzereth Haaretz Consumers’ League, Inc., New York, and of Sara Feder, [secretary], Pioneer Women’s Organization, New York, July-September 1938, to Goldie Meyerson, Israel Mereminsky, and Jacob Efter, Tel Aviv, in LAT, Files IV-208-1-1173 and 1177; Yosef Baratz, quoted in HVHP”, 8 June 1939.

159.    Rubashov, quoted in HVHP”, 24 August 1931; Lubianiker, quoted in MS”, 28 September 1938.

160.    Meir quoted in MS”, 28 September 1938.

161.    MC”, 3 August 1936.

162.    Yisrael Mereminsky, [HEC, Tel Aviv], letter to General Secretariat, Jewish Agency, Jerusalem, 3 November 1935, in LAT, File IV-208-1-649.

163.    Quoted in Forverts, 28 November 1937.

164.    “Pioneer Women’s Organization’ [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 10 December 1937.

165.    Meir, speech to the Council of Jewish Federations, Chicago, 21 January 1948, in Syrkin, Land, 76.

166.    Exchange of correspondence among Caiserman, Dov Hoz, and Heschel Frumkin, March-June 1935, in LAT, File IV-208-1-705; David Ben-Gurion, “Call of the Sea,” Jewish Frontier, August 1935, 22–25; id., “Realization of Zionism,” speech to the 19th Zionist Congress, in Jewish Frontier, October 1935, 24–31; Elam interview with Greenberg, 19 September 1989, transcript in LAT, GMM; Medzini, HaYehudiya, 82–83.

167.    Correspondence in LAT, File IV-208-1-706bet.

168.    Ovdim [that is, HEC, Tel Aviv], telegram to Ampoalim [that is, National Labor Committee for the Jewish Workers in Palestine], New York, 28 February 1937, in LAT, File IV-208-1-1419.

169.    See chapter 4 of this book.

170.    “Jewish Labor Leader To Give Address At Y.M.H.A.,” Scranton Times, 11 November 1937; “Pioneer Women’s Organization” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 12 November 1937; “League for Labor Palestine,” Jewish Frontier, January 1938; “Golde Myerson Will Appear in Brooklyn, Bronx, and Newark” [Yiddish], Iddisher Kemfer, 4 February 1938; League for Labor Palestine—Report of the National Secretary for the Year 1936–1937, 20 July 1937; MC”, 14 March 1938.
        Meir had tried to avoid conflict with the UPA and had gone to see Wise and Lipsky before she began her tours. She thought she had gained their consent for her efforts, but that proved not to be the case (HVHP”, 16 September 1937).

171.    HVHP”, 16 September 1937.

172.    HVHP, 16 September 1937; MC”, 14 March 1938; minutes of meeting of the Naḥshon administration, 11 August 1938.

173.    Meir, quoted in HVHP, 16 September 1937.

174.    Id., quoted in minutes of Nahshon administration meeting, 11 August 1938.

175.    HVHP”, 13 April 1939.

176.    D[avid] Remez, [HEC, Tel Aviv], letter to The President, American Academy of Political and Social Science, West Philadelphia, 17 February 1936, in LAT, File IV-208-1-705; exchange of correspondence between Myerson, Tel Aviv, and J. R. Carskadon, New Republic, New York, August-September 1936, in LAT, File IV-208-1-1080; Goldie Myerson, [Tel Aviv], letter to Charles [Brown, Los Angeles], 2 March 1937, in LAT, File IV-208-1-1178bet; id., [HEC, Tel Aviv], letters to William Green, Washington, D.C., 25 October 1936 and 23 October 1938, in LAT, Files IV-208-1-701 and 1176 respectively; Yeruḥam Meshel, “Mofet LeRoch Enoshi U-LeKashyut Oref Yehudit,” in Tamir, Kovetz, 49; Melvin I. Urofsky, American Zionism from Herzl to the Holocaust (New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1976), 388.

177.    For example, Avner Yaniv, “All That Glitters Is Not Golda,” Jerusalem Report, 3 January 1991, 50. In HaYehudiya, Medzini implies as much.

178.    Meir, quoted in Julie Nixon Eisenhower, Special People (New York: Ballantine, 1977), 10.

179.    Id., quoted in minutes of meeting of the secretariat of the Poale Zion World Union, 11 April 1940, and in HVHP”, 27 January 1938. The latter is quoted in Medzini, HaYehudiya, 86–87. On Jabotinsky, see chapter 2 of this book.

180.    Meir, My Life, 131.

181.    Quoted in Medzini, HaYehudiya, 87.

182.    See the chapters on those three herein.

183.    Meir, speech to the Histadrut Council, either 28 or 29 January 1941 (the typescript of her speech in GMM, LAT is dated 29 January; in the collected speeches in the Israel State Archives the date of 28 January is given).

184.    See, for example, MC”, 9 April 1940.

185.    Meir, quoted in the minutes of a consultation on the political situation of the Mapai Political Committee, 26 February 1939.

186.    HVHP”, 31 July 1941. See also, HVHP”, 2 October 1941, and Medzini, HaYehudiya, 96.

187.    Myerson and David Remez, [HEC, Tel Aviv], cable to [Moshe] Shertok, London, n.d. [1943]. See also, their cable to Berl Locker, London, 10 May 1943; Medzini, HaYehudiya, 99; and Dina Porat, The Blue and Yellow Stars of David: The Zionist Leadership in Palestine and the Holocaust, 1939–1945, trans. David Ben-Naḥum (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990), 57. On the Revisionist petition of the 1930s, see Joseph B. Schechtman, Fighter and Prophet: The Last Years (New York and London: Yoseloff, 1961), 212–13. On the Bermuda Conference, see Irving Abella and Harold Troper, None Is Too Many (Toronto: Lester and Orpen Dennys, 1982), 126–58; and David S. Wyman, The Abandonment of the Jews (New York: Pantheon, 1984).

188.    HVHP”, 23–24 February 1944; Myerson, “Tnu’at HaPo’alim BeMivḥan” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir, 3 August 1944. See also HVHP”, 16 February 1944.

189.    See, for example, her report in HVHP”, 27 January 1938; and her speech to the Histadrut Council, 29 January 1941, the text of which is in LAT, File IV-104–754-9.

190.    “This Is Our Strength,” Dvar HaPo’elet, 3 May 1939, reprinted and translated in Christman, Our Strength, 5.

191.    Golda Meir, in HC”, 21–24 March and 3–7 July 1944.

192.    MC”, 3 August 1936, and 14 April 1941. See also 9 November 1939.
        Meir’s moment of greatest exasperation with Wise came at the Zionist Congress held in August 1939, just before the outbreak of war. It was increasingly clear that Jews trapped in Europe would suffer a terrible fate. Yet Wise spoke out against illegal immigration to Palestine, the only hope then for Europe’s Jews denied legal immigration almost everywhere (Menaḥem Meir, My Mother, 55–56). See above, pp. 121–22.

193.    MC”, 22 August 1940. See also, her speech to the Histadrut Council, 29 January 1941, the text for which is in LAT, File IV-104–754-9.

194.    MS”, 18 December 1945.

195.    MC”, 22 August 1940.

196.    Meir, quoted in HC”, 28 January 1941.

197.    HVHP”, 25 August 1939; HC”, 28 January 1941. Medzini (HaYehudiya, 92) claims Meir was optimistic and simple-minded regarding American volunteers. The record shows, however, that while she thought recruitment possible, she did not think it would be at all easy.

198.    Quoted in MC”, 14 November 1945.

199.    Meir, quoted in MS”, 18 December 1945.

200.    MS”, 17–18 December 1945.

201.    Meir, speech to a visiting delegation of Histadrut Campaign leaders, in HVHP”, 6 August 1947; also in Meir, BeDegel, 230–32.

202.    JAE”, 28 September 1947.

203.    Meir, speech to the Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds, 25 January 1948, quoted in Syrkin, Land, 78, and Keller, Golda Meir, 74.

204.    See, for example, her report to the HEC, HVHP”, 4 August 1948. Compare also, MC”, 10 September 1950.

205.    Ben-Gurion, letter to Dr. Israel Goldstein on the occasion of the awarding to Golda Meir of the Stephen Wise Award, 25 July 1957, in Tamir, Kovetz, 11, also quoted in Menaḥem Meir, My Mother, 95.

Chapter 7

    1.    Transcript of Ben-Gurion’s speech to the third conference of the Student Federation, Tel Aviv, 12 January 1944, in CZA, File S25/1483; id., “Yisrael ve-HaGola” [Hebrew], Shnaton HaMemshala (1958), quoted in Ze’ev Tzaḥor, “David Ben-Gurion’s Attitude Toward the Diaspora,” Judaism 32 (Winter 1983): 21.

    2.    In David Ben-Gurion—Likrat Medina Yehudit [Hebrew] (Sede Boqer: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus, 1985) and elsewhere, Allon Gal offers the fullest treatment of the issue for the years 1938 to 1941. The English version of Gal’s book is David Ben-Gurion and the American Alignment for a Jewish State (Bloomington and Jerusalem: Indiana University Press and Magnes Press, 1992). References herein are to the Hebrew text.
        Shabtai Teveth’s monumental biography, Ben-Gurion: The Burning Ground, 1886–1948 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987), based on his three-volume Hebrew work, Kin’at David (Tel Aviv and Jerusalem: Schocken, 1977, 1980, 1987), contains a great deal of information on Ben-Gurion and America for the entire pre-state period. Among other scholars who offer important insights and whose works will be cited herein are Avraham Aviḥai, Michael Bar-Zohar, Yosef Gorny, Menaḥem Kaufman, Yisrael Kolatt, Matityahu Mintz, Monty Penkower, David Shpiro, and Ze’ev Tzaḥor. More popular biographies, such as Dan Kurzman’s Ben-Gurion, Prophet of Fire (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983), also address the question.

    3.    Ben-Gurion, Zichronot [Reminiscences], 6 vols. [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1971–1987), vol. 1, 10. The Zichronot are not memoirs in the usual sense but rather a collection of documents and diary extracts edited by Ben-Gurion. They must be read judiciously.

    4.    See Teveth, Burning Ground, 1–88, and other sources.

    5.    Teveth, Burning Ground, 48.

    6.    A.[haron] R.[euveni], “Shvitat HaḤayatim,” 11 Nisan 5673 [1913].

    7.    Avner [Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi], “HaHagira VeTafkidah,” Av, 5670 [1910], 46.

    8.    K.[arl] Kautsky, untitled article, 23 Kislev 5615 [1914]; N. Wagman [Aharon Reuveni], “Te’alat Panama,” 18 Ḥeshvan 5673 [1912]; “MiSipurei Nosei Itonim BeNew York,” 6 Tammuz 5672 [1912]; Yosef Ḥaver [Yosef Ḥaim Brenner], “BeḤayeinu U-VeItonuteinu,” 19 Teveth 5672 [1912]; id., “BeḤayeinu U-VeItonuteinu,” 10 Kislev 5672 [1912]; A. Kretschmar-Yizra’eli, “Avoda No-chriya,” 12 Ḥeshvan 5615 [1914]. Kautsky, of course, was a well-known German/Austrian socialist whose article was reprinted from another journal.

    9.    “Chronika,” 17 Sivan 5672 [1912]; N.[ahman] Syrkin, “HaHityashvut Ha-Co’operativit Ve-HaAḥva,” 4 Sivan 5674 [1914]; Avner [Yitzḥak Ben Zvi], “HaHagira Ve-Tafkideinu,” Av, 5670 [1910]; “Chronika,” 7 Ḥeshvan 5673 [1913]; “Michtav MiKineret,” 26 Tammuz 5672 [1912].

  10.    [A. S. Waldstein?], “Eretz Yisrael VeAmerica,” 3 Ḥeshvan 5675 [1914]; N.[aḥ man] Syrkin, “Ḥasal Sidur Galveston,” 1 Av 5674 [1914].

  11.    “Chronika,” 1 Adar 5674 [1914]. On Aaronsohn, see chapter 5 of this book.

  12.    “Chronika,” 19 Kislev 5673 [1912]; A.[haron] R.[euveni], “America U-Mexico,” 12 Iyyar 5674 [1914]; Yosef Ḥaver [Yosef Ḥaim Brenner], “BeḤayeinu U-VeItonuteinu,” 19 Teveth 5672 [1912]. See also, Wagman, “Te’alat Panama;” “Chronika,” 29 Av 5671 [1911]; and “Chronika,” 10 Teveth 5673 [1913].

  13.    R.[euveni], “Shvitat HaḤayatim BeAmerica”; Katriel [Leon Ḥazanowitz], “BeOlameinu ḤaIvri,” 17 Iyyar 5673 [1913]. See also, “Chronika,” 21 Shvat 5672 [1912]; “Chronika,” 21 Tammuz 5672 [1912]; and A. Shalmon [A. S. Waldstein], “MeiḤayei HaYehudim BeAmerica,” 2 Tevet 5673 [1913]; Abraham] Liessen, “Yovel HaAgudot HaOmanutiyot HaYehudiyot BeNew York,” 24 Adar 5674 [1914], originally published in Tsukunft.

  14.    “Chronika,” 26 Av 5672 [1912]; “BeOlameinu,” 23 Iyyar 5673 [1913].

  15.    [Waldstein?], “Eretz-Yisrael VeAmerica.”

  16.    “Chronika,” 8 Sivan 5673 [1913]; “Chronika,” 18 Tevet 5674 [1914].

  17.    Untitled editorial, 14 Tishrei 5675 [1914].

  18.    “MiYeshivat Misrad HaAvoda,” 3 Ḥeshvan 5675 [1914]; “Chronika,” 12 Ḥeshvan 5675 [1914]; “Chronika,” 2 Kislev 5675 [1914]; “Chronika,” 19 Kislev 5675 [1914]; Y.[a’akov] Z.[erubavel], “Michtav MiYafo,” 13 Teveth 5675 [1914].

  19.    “HaMa’azan Shel HaKapa’i” and “HaVe’ida HaOlamit HaShlishit BeVina,” both in the issue of 8 Elul 5671 [1911]; “Chronika,” 19 Ḥeshvan 5672 [1911]; “BeOlameinu,” 28 Nisan 5674 [1914]; “BeOlameinu,” 18 Sivan 5674 [1914]. See also, “Chronika,” 21 Iyyar 5671 [1911]; “BeOlameinu,” 7 Adar I 5673 [1913]; “HaVe’ida HaOlamit HaRevi’it BeCrakow,” 24 Elul 5673 [1913].

  20.    Ya’akov Zerubavel, Alei Ḥayim [Hebrew], 2 vols. (Tel Aviv: I. L. Peretz, 1960), vol. 1, 364. See also, 375 and 403. Reports of Zerubavel’s trip in HaAḥdut include “Chronika,” 10 Tevet 5673 [1913]; “BeOlameinu,” 28 Adar II 5673 [1913]; and “HaVe’Ida HaOlamit HaRevi’it BeCracow.”

  21.    Zerubavel, Alei Ḥayim, 1, 325.

  22.    Syrkin, “HaHityashvut HaCo’operativit.” See also, D. Yizraeli, “Ha‘Aḥva’ V-Isodotehah,” 12 Iyar 5674 [1914]; and Bernard I. Sandler, “The Jews of America and the Resettlement of Palestine, 1908–1934: Efforts and Achievements,” Ph.D. dissertation, Bar Ilan University, April 1978. For a critique of the Aḥva as an American model inappropriate to Palestine, see “LeTochnit ‘Aḥva,’” 14 Sivan 5674 [1914].

  23.    Ben-Gurion, speech, quoted in “HaVe’ida HaOlamit HaRevi’it BeCracow.”

  24.    Yosef Aharonowitz, “Bifnei HaMe’ora’ot,” HaPo’el HaTza’ir, 20 October 1914, 5.

  25.    Yisrael Kolatt-Kopelovich, “Ideologia U-Metzi’ut BiTnu’at HaAvoda BeEretz Yisrael, 1905–1919,” Ph.D. dissertation, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, June 1964, 285; Isaiah Friedman, Germany, Turkey, and Zionism, 1897–1918 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977), 224; Zvi Shilony, “Changes in the Jewish Leadership of Jerusalem During World War I” [Hebrew], Cathedra 35 (April 1985): 58–90; Teveth, Burning Ground, 92; and Matityahu Mintz, “Ben-Gurion and Po’alei Zion in the United States During World War I,” in David Ben-Gurion: Politics and Leadership in Israel, ed. Ronald Zweig (London and Jerusalem: Frank Cass and Yad Izḥak Ben-Zvi, 1991), 57–58. In A Peace to End All Peace (New York: Avon, 1990), 211, David Fromkin claims that Ben-Gurion and Ben-Zvi agitated in the United States for the formation of a pro-Ottoman Jewish army; but he offers no evidence.

  26.    Ben-Zvi, BaAliya HaShniya, 156. Ben-Zvi erroneously claimed that their goal from the start had been to form a “Hebrew Legion.” See also, Raḥel Yana’it Ben-Zvi, Coming Home, trans. David Harris and Julian Meltzer (New York: Herzl, 1964), 245.

  27.    BGD, 16 Iyyar [30 April 1915]. Diary entries cited herein are from sections located at BGA, CZA, and LAT. Citations from printed diary entries note the work in which they appear.

  28.    Ibid., 29 Iyyar [13 May 1915]; 20 Sivan [2 June 1915].

  29.    Ibid., 3 Sivan [16 May 1915]; 26 Tammuz [8 July 1915]; 28 Tammuz [10 July 1915].

  30.    Ibid., 4 Sivan [17 May 1915]; 10 Sivan [19 May 1915]; 22 Sivan [4 June 1915]; 14 Tammuz [26 June 1915]. Teveth (Burning Ground, 99) notes only the few unfavorable remarks of Ben-Gurion and claims his initial reaction to the New World was negative.

  31.    BGD, 20 May 1935. To his wife, Paula, he wrote more prosaically of “the most interesting flight,” although he conceded that “the two great cities from a great height [were] the grandest sight” he had “ever seen.” (Letter, 20 May 1935, in Letters to Paula, trans. Aubrey Hodes [London: Valentine-Mitchell, 1971], 72.)

  32.    BGD, 14 Nisan [should be Sivan, 27 May 1915]; 13 Sivan [26 May 1915].

  33.    Ben-Zvi, BaAliyah HaShniya, 162. See also, his “‘HeḤalutz’ VeHaHitnadvut LaGdud HaIvri BeArtzot HaBrit,” in Sefer HaAliyah HaShlishit [Hebrew], ed. Yehuda Erez (Tel Aviv: n.p., 1964), 202–08; and id., “America SheHikdima et Eiropa,” Davar, 3 February 1928.

  34.    BGD, 19 Iyyar [3 May 1915]. On HeḤalutz, see among other sources, “The Principles of HeḤalutz,” undated pamphlet in Yiddish from the World War I period, in BZA, File 1/4/13/47; Circular No. 18, Poale Zion Central Committee, New York, 28 June 1915; and Teveth, Burning Ground, 105. On the burgeoning Hebrew press in America in these years, see Michael Brown, “All, All Alone! The Hebrew Press in America, 1914–1924,” American Jewish Historical Quarterly 59 (December 1969).

  35.    Ben-Gurion, open letter to Central Committee, Poale Zion in America, New York, 5 Shvat 5678 [1918], in Igrot David Ben-Gurion, 3 vols. [Hebrew], ed. Yehuda Erez (Tel Aviv: Am Oved and Tel Aviv University, 1972), vol. 1, 335–36.

  36.    BGD, 16 Sivan [29 May 1915], and 17 Sivan [should be Tammuz, 29 June 1915]; Teveth, Burning Ground, 99–103.

  37.    BGD, 23 Tammuz [5 July 1915]; 24 Tammuz [6 July 1915]; 26 Tammuz [8 July 1915]; 16 Av [26 July 1915]; 22 Av [2 August 1915]; Selig Adler and Thomas Connelly, From Ararat to Suburbia (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1960), 302; Teveth, Burning Ground, 103–04.

  38.    BGD, 29 Av [9 August 1915]; Baruch Zuckerman, Zikhroynes [Yiddish], vol. 2 (New York: Farlag “Iddisher Kemfer” and Farband Bikher Farlag, 1963), 206.

  39.    Ben-Gurion, letters to H.[irsch] Ehrenreich, secretary of the Poale Zion of the United States, New York, from Youngstown, Ohio, 19 Teveth 5676 (1916), and Columbus, Ohio, 1 Shvat 5676 (1916), in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 1, 328–29, 333; id., New York, letter to Ben-Zvi, [Washington, D.C.], 22 June 1916, quoted in Matityahu Minc [Mintz], “David Ben-Gurion’s Correspondence with Izḥak Ben-Zvi in America, 1915–1916” [Hebrew], Cathedra 44 (June 1987): 93; Teveth, Burning Ground, 107–08.

  40.    Golda Meir quoted in Meron Medzini, HaYehudiya Ha’Gei’a [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Edanim, 1990), 35; Minc, “Correspondence with Ben-Zvi,” 85; Ze’ev Tzaḥor, “David Ben-Gurion’s Attitude Toward the Diaspora,” Judaism 32 (Winter 1983): 12; BGD, 13 Tishrei [21 September 1915].

  41.    Ben-Gurion, “Min HaTzad” [Hebrew], HaToren, 21 July 1916.

  42.    David Ben-Gurion, Zichronot, vol. 1, 85; Teveth, Burning Ground, 109.

  43.    Among the pamphlets were The Palestine Workers’ Fund and Palestine as a Land of Jewish Colonization by Ben-Zvi; The National Fund—What It Is and What It Has Accomplished and Who Will Give Us the Land? of Ben-Gurion; and the coauthored “HeḤalutz,” Its Tasks at the Present Moment.

  44.    On the dispute between Ben-Gurion and the Kemfer, see the exchange of correspondence between him and Ben-Zvi in Minc, “Correspondence with Ben-Zvi,” 92–94; Teveth, Burning Ground, 110.

  45.    See Brown, “All, All Alone!” Among Ben-Gurion’s articles in HaToren, the most widely read American Hebrew journal of the day, were “Zechuyoteinu HaLe’umiyot BeTurkiya U-VeEretz Yisrael,” 2, 9, 23 June 1916; “Likrat HeAtid—LiShe’eilat Eretz Yisrael,” August 1915; and “Min HaTzad.” Ben-Zvi wrote or coauthored twenty-two articles, three pamphlets, and two books in Yiddish and Hebrew during his stay (Kitvei Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, Bivliografia, 5664–5718 [1904–1958] [Hebrew], ed. Shlomo Shunami [Jerusalem: n.p., 5718 (1958)]).

  46.    Ben-Gurion, New York, letter to Ben-Zvi, [Washington], 19 July 1916, quoted in Minc, “Correspondence with Ben-Zvi,” 96.

  47.    Jonathan Frankel, “The ‘Yizkor’ Book of 1911—A Note on National Myths in the Second Aliya,” in Religion, Ideology and Nationalism in Europe and America: Essays Presented in Honor of Yehoshua Arieli, ed. H. Ben-Israel et al. (Jerusalem: Historical Society of Israel and Zalman Shazar Center for Jewish History, 1986), 381–83; Zuckerman, Zikhroynes, vol. 2, 265; Minc, “Correspondence with Ben-Zvi,” 85–88, 91, 95–96; Teveth, Burning Ground, 109–18.

  48.    Minc, “Correspondence with Ben-Zvi,” 90, 93–94; BGD, 11 Sivan [24 May 1915]; H. Komunoff, “HaVe’ida HaIvrit HaRishona” [Hebrew], HaIvri, 16 February 1917.

  49.    Teveth, Burning Ground, 152; Zuckerman, Zikhroynes, 2: 223; Komunoff, “HaVe’ida”; Melech Epstein, Jewish Labor in the U.S.A., 2 vols. (New York: Trade Union Sponsoring Committee, 1950, 1953), vol. 2, 82–83.

  50.    Gal, Likrat Medina, 5; Teveth, Burning Ground, 115–16; Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, New York, letter to Raḥel Yana’it, Jerusalem, 31 January 1918, in BZA, File 1/1/2/12.

  51.    BGD, 29 November and 16 December 1917; “Poale Zion, HaSnif HaIvri,” HaIvri, 21 December 1917; resolutions quoted in Teveth, Burning Ground, 115. Teveth says there were 2,000 people at the Cooper Union meeting. In his diary, Ben-Gurion claims only 580.

  52.    Teveth, Burning Ground, 115–16, 123–24.

  53.    Ben-Gurion, Egypt, letter to Shmuel Kaplansky, n.p., 15 Ḥeshvan 5679 [1918], in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 1–2; Ben-Zvi, New York, letter to Raḥel Yana’it, [Jerusalem], May 1918, in Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, HaGdudim HaIvriyim—Igrot Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Yad Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, 1968), 2.

  54.    Ben-Gurion, Cincinnati, letter to Comrade [Hirsch] Ehrenreich, [New York], 2 Shvat 5676 [1916], in Ben-Gurion, Zichronot, vol. 1, 84–85. See also, Mintz, “World War I,” 61–65.

  55.    Friedman, Germany, Turkey, and Zionism, 291; Y. L—n, “Likrat Ve’idat Ha-Shalom” [Hebrew], HaPo’el HaTza’ir, 23 June 1915, 5.

  56.    Ben-Zvi, “‘HeḤalutz’ VeHaHitnadvut,” 205. Baruch Zuckerman, a Poale Zion stalwart who went on aliyah and in Palestine supported the Labor establishment, made similar claims (Zikhroynes, vol. 2, 190, 223–24). Accounts of the Congress sessions, however, and of the planning before in the The American Hebrew (29 December 1916), HaIvri (throughout 1916 and 1917), and elsewhere are most reticent regarding Palestinian involvement. The “Report of Proceedings” of the Preliminary Conference of the American Jewish Congress, March 26–27, 1916 (New York, n.d.), does not list Ben-Gurion or Ben-Zvi as a delegate, although it records that they volunteered a donation from the floor (29).

  57.    In his diary entry for 17 Sivan, 27–30 May [1915], Ben-Gurion noted that he had spoken with Rutenberg and the topic of the conversation, but he offered no comment. See also, Michael Bar-Zohar, Ben-Gurion, trans. Peretz Kidron (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1978), 33–34.

  58.    Tzaḥor, “Ben-Gurion’s Attitude,” 37; Zuckerman, Zikhroynes, vol. 2, 226.

  59.    Ben-Gurion, Zichronot, vol. 1, 85–86, 98, 393; id., New York, letter to his daughter, Renana, n.p., 8 January 1939, in BGA, correspondence file; id., “About the Author,” in The A.B.C. of Zionist Policy (New York: Habonim Labor Zionist Youth, 1945), 2; Jabotinsky, letter to Colonel [Patterson], n.p., 30 May 1920, in LAT, File IV-104–29-6alef.

  60.    Ben-Gurion, Zichronot, vol. 1, 86–87; “A Summons to Jewish Youth in America,” draft circular letter in Yiddish, 5 March 1918, signed by fifteen members of the American Jewish Committee for a Jewish Palestine Legion, including Ben-Zvi, Naḥman Syrkin, Ḥaim Zhitlovsky, Reuben Brainin, and Ben-Gurion; Teveth, Burning Ground, 114–26.
        In Zikhroynes, vol. 2, 196, Baruch Zuckerman estimates that 60 percent of the Legionnaires (perhaps 1,500 men) were HeḤalutz alumni. In the Hechalutz Bulletin in January 1934, however, David Yaroslavsky (“Links in the Chain,” 9–13) states only that most of the approximately 150 members of HeḤalutz recruited by Ben-Gurion and Ben-Zvi during the war joined the Legion. The figure is probably closer to Yaroslavsky’s, but there seems to be no ready method of determining it with any precision.

  61.    Zuckerman, Zikhroynes, 2: 228; Ehrenreich quoted in Teveth, Burning Ground, 125.

  62.    Transcript of Ben-Gurion’s speech to the National Council of the Maccabi Federation, 1 April 1943, in CZA, File S25/1483.

  63.    Anita Shapira, Berl (Biografia), 2 vols. [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Sifriyat Ofakim—Am Oved, 1980), vol. 1, 148; Kolatt-Kopelovich, “Ideologia u-Metziut,” 321, 334; Teveth, Burning Ground, 139.

  64.    Ben-Gurion, Jaffa, letters to the Central Committee of Poale Zion in America, [New York], 16 Tishrei 5720 [1919], in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 8–13; and to Comrades [Aḥdut HaAvoda? American Poale Zion?], n.p., 21 Elul 5679 [1919], in LAT, File IV-104–29-3; Nellie Strauss, n.p., letter to [David] Ben-Gurion, [Jaffa], 5 September 1919, in LAT, File IV-104–29-7; Teveth, Burning Ground, 148–51.

  65.    Ben-Gurion, n.p., letter to B.[erl] Katznelson, Vienna, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 69–70. In “America’s Two Zionist Traditions,” Commentary 20 (October 1955): 344, Judd Teller claims erroneously that Ben-Gurion and Ben-Zvi returned to Palestine full of heady enthusiasm for the United States, which misled them in the years to follow. In fact, they returned quite sober.

  66.    Bar-Zohar, Ben-Gurion, 48. An inventory by the present author of Ben-Gurion’s library housed in his Tel Aviv home and at Sde Boker revealed scores of books on various aspects of American life. Most of these, however, were acquired considerably later. Some of them were gifts of the authors and perhaps not read by Ben-Gurion. Most, however, one can assume he read.

  67.    Yisrael Kolatt, “Ben-Gurion: Image and Reality,” in Zweig, Politics and Leadership, 17.

  68.    Shlomo Avineri, “Ideology and Pragmatism in Ben-Gurion’s Leadership: Lessons for the Future,” in Towards the Twenty-first Century: Judaism and the Jewish People in Israel and America, ed. Ronald Kronish (Hoboken, N,J.: Ktav, 1988), 29. See also, Allon Gal, “The Sources of Ben-Gurion’s American Orientation, 1938–1941,” in Zweig, Politics and Leadership, 120; and Ze’ev Sternhell, “Hazon Medumeh Shel Hevra Shivyonit” [Hebrew], HaAretz, 31 May 1991.

  69.    Ben-Gurion quoted in Y. Bankover and Y. Lufbin, Mapai Party Center, “confidential and private” memo, [Hebrew], to Ḥ[aver] Y[akar, that is, Dear Comrade], Tel Aviv, 21 October 1937, in LAT, File IV-104–29-5bet.

  70.    Teveth, Burning Ground, 252, mentions a 1924 trip. There is no evidence that such a visit ever took place, nor does the chronology of his travels in that year make it plausible.

  71.    Ben-Gurion, Zichronot, vol. 1, 211.

  72.    Id., Alexandria, letter to the Central Committee of the Poale Zion in America, [New York], 1 December 1924, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 273; Kolatt, “Image and Reality,” 18–19; Shmuel Sandler, “Ben-Gurion’s Attitude Towards the Soviet Union,” Jewish Journal of Sociology 21 (December 1979); Avraham Aviḥai, Ben-Gurion, State-Builder (New York, Toronto, and Jerusalem: John Wiley and Sons-Israel Universities Press, 1974), 214; Teveth, Burning Ground, 240–41.
        For his comments on Harding, see BGD, 4 August 1923. On Jabotinsky and Harding, see chapter 2 of this book.
        In “Ideology and Pragmatism” (31), Shlomo Avineri describes Ben-Gurion as “a rather orthodox Marxist” with pronounced Leninist tendencies in the 1920s, who left Marxism largely behind by the late 1930s in the search for allies for Zionism. But whatever his theoretical stance, he did not turn his back on capitalist America even in the 1920s.

  73.    Ben-Gurion, letter to Eliyahu Golomb, 10 October 1927, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 360–61; A.[vraham] Harzfeld, [New York], letter to M.[enaḥem] M.[endel] Ussishkin, [Jerusalem], 14 May 1926, in LAT, File IV-208–66gimel; David Bloch quoted in HVHP”, 19 August 1929.

  74.    Ben-Gurion, letters, London, 10 February 1921, to Central Committee, Poale Zion in America, [New York]; 15 June 1921, to B[erl] Katznelson; and Carlsbad, to members of the Aḥdut HaAvoda Executive Committee, 29 August 1922, all in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 55, 69–70, 114.

  75.    Id., Zichronot, vol. 1, 209.

  76.    HEC, Tel Aviv, letter to Mission Members in America, 16 March 1927, in LAT, File IV-208–67alef; summary memorandum of meeting between Hadassah delegation consisting of Henrietta Szold, Mrs. Jacobi [sic], and Comrade [Irma] Lindheim, with HEC representative David Ben-Gurion and Kupat Ḥolim representatives, Drs. Noak, A. Pearlson, Y. Kanivsky, and R. Sinker, 7, 13 April 1927, in LAT, File IV-104–29-17bet; Teveth, Burning Ground, 242–43, 261, 357–58.

  77.    Ben-Gurion, n.p., letter to Baruch Zuckerman, n.p., 30 March 1928, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 364–65; id., speech to the International Conference on Immigration, Prague, September 1924, in Zichronot, vol. 2, 290–94.

  78.    Medzini, HaYehudiya HaGei’a, 48.

  79.    Ben-Gurion, London, letters, to Dr. N.[aḥman] Syrkin, New York, 2 December 1920, in LAT, File IV-104–29-2alef; to Moshe [Shertok], n.p., 20 May 1921, in LAT, File IV-104–29-6gimel; HVHP”, 22 November 1921, 6 January 1922, 7–8 April 1924. See also, Ben-Gurion, letters, London, to Misrad HaAvoda, Jaffa, 23 November and 16 December 1920; and n.p., to People’s Relief Committee, New York, 25 July 1922; all in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 36–38, 49, 108; and to Berl Katznelson, 11 April 1921, in LAT, File IV-104–29-2alef.

  80.    HEC, Tel Aviv, letter to Histadrut Mission Members, [New York], 9 February 1927, in LAT, File IV-208–67alef; HVHP”, 11 August and 13 October 1927, 23 April 1929; Ben-Gurion, [Tel Aviv], letters to [Israel] Mereminsky, [New York], 9, 15 May 1929, in LAT, File IV-208-1-121alef; Teveth, Burning Ground, 332ff.

  81.    Kolatt-Kopelovich, “Ideologia U-Metziut,” 334.

  82.    Bar-Zohar, Ben-Gurion, 49.

  83.    Ben-Gurion quoted in HVHP”, 10 January 1924, and 2 December 1925.

  84.    Ben-Gurion, “US Jewry on the Threshold of Unity,” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, 3 April 1964, 17.

  85.    Id., telegram to Geverkshaften Campaign, recorded in BGD, 26 December 1928. See also, his letters to Baruch Zuckerman, New York, 7 January and 9 March 1924, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 189–91, 204.

  86.    Id., quoted in HVHP”, 5 November 1928; id., n.p., letter to Baruch Zuckerman, n.p., 30 March 1928, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 364.

  87.    See HVHP”, 25 April 1927, 13 February 1928, and 20 March, 1925; Ben-Gurion, [Tel Aviv], letter to Israel Mereminsky, [New York], 15 May 1929, in LAT, File IV-208-1-121alef.

  88.    Teveth, Burning Ground, 164, 174.

  89.    BGD, 22 April 1929; HVHP”, undated discussion [1923].

  90.    HVHP”, 24 October 1923; 10 January 1924; 7, 22 December 1925; 21 February 1928; 16, 23 April 1928; 25 June 1928; and many other dates; minutes of a meeting between the HEC and the Palestine Zionist Executive, 12 December [1927], in LAT, File IV-208–67bet.

  91.    BGD, 15 November 1928.

  92.    BGD, 27 June 1928; id., Warsaw, letter to the Mapai Party Center, [Tel Aviv]. 9 July 1933, in Igrot Ben Gurion, vol. 3, 323–26; id., [Tel Aviv], letters to I[srael] Mereminsky, [New York], 4 March and 15 May 1929, both in LAT, File IV-208-1-121alef; Teveth, Burning Ground, 391.

  93.    Ben-Gurion, diary entry for 20 July 1937, in Zichronot, vol. 4, 309.

  94.    Among many sources, see, Ben-Gurion, London, confidential report to [HEC, Tel Aviv], 3 Tammuz 5690 [1930], in LAT, File IV-104–29-17bet; id., London, letter to Zalman [Rubashov] Shazar, [United States], 31 May 1936, in his Zichronot, vol. 3, 221–25; id., diary entry, 17 July 1937, in his Zichronot, vol. 4, 302; BGD, 24, 26, 31 May 1935, 1, 3, 5, 13 June 1935, 15 July 1936; Naomi W. Cohen, The Year after the Riots (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1988), 163; Menaḥem Kaufman, “Ben Gurion and the American Non-Zionists,” in Zweig, Politics and Leadership, 125–26; Teveth, Burning Ground, 619–20.

  95.    See, for example, Ben-Gurion’s comments at the 12 September 1939 meeting of the Mapai Party Center. See also, Gal, Likrat Medina, 94.

  96.    Ben-Gurion, Zichronot, vol. 1, 124.

  97.    Ben-Gurion, n.p., letter to the Trade Union Center of the Jewish Workers in America, 24 July 1923, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 132–39. The letter was an invitation to send a study mission of labor leaders to Palestine, as suggested by Baruch Zuckerman. (Zuckerman, Zikhroynes, vol. 2, 286–89; HVHP”, 15 July 1923; and Ben-Gurion, n.p., letter to Baruch Zuckerman, New York, 26 July 1923, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 142.) The mission was not undertaken at that time.

  98.    Ben-Gurion, [Tel Aviv], letter to National Labor Committee, New York, 27 December 1928, in LAT, File IV-208-1-121gimel. Ben-Gurion was expressing thanks on behalf of the Histadrut to the Jewish group for its role in securing the AFL statement of support.

  99.    BGD, 21 January 1924; HVHP”, 26 March 1928. See also, Ben-Gurion, London, letter to Dr. N.[aḥman] Syrkin, New York, 2 December 1920, in LAT, File IV-104–29-2alef, also in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 2, 47–48.

100.    Teveth, Burning Ground, 157, 350.

101.    Ben-Gurion, diary, 7 December 1930, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 3, 175–80.

102.    El[iezer] Galili, New York, letter to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 13 July 1934, in LAT, File IV-208-1-407bet, and many similar letters in the Histadrut letter files; Ben-Gurion, diary, 8 December 1930, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 3, 175–80.

103.    Ben-Gurion, on board the Ile de France, sailing from New York to Europe, letter to his wife, Paula, 14 September 1937, in his Letters to Paula, 143.

104.    Id., “New Perspectives on Zionism,” Jewish Frontier, June 1935, 21. See also, Allon Gal, “Zionist Foreign Policy and Ben-Gurion’s Visit to the United States in 1939,” Studies in Zionism 7 (1986): 69–71.

105.    Ben-Gurion, n.p., letter to Dr. Chaim Weizmann, n.p., 26 October 1933, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 3, 360.

106.    Id., quoted in MPC”, 9 March 1936; Dalia Ofer, “HaAliyah, HaGola VeHaYishuv” [Hebrew], Cathedra 43 (March 1987): 77.

107.    Ben-Gurion, remarks at a meeting of the Mapai Party Political Committee, in MPC”, 26 January 1936.

108.    Ben-Gurion, diary entries, 7, 10, 11, 25, 27 December 1930, and letter, Berlin, to Comrades [HEC, Tel Aviv], 24 January 1931, all in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 3, 175–82, 196.

109.    Ben-Gurion, [Jerusalem], letter to Golda [Myerson], Zalman [Rubashov], and [Baruch] Zuckerman, [New York], in Zichronot, vol. 3, 75; BGD, 6, 8, 11 June 1935, 10 January 1939; Gal, Likrat Medina, 115; Teveth, Burning Ground, 690–91.

110.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in MC”, 16 January 1937; id., on board the Ile de France sailing from New York to Europe, letter to Eliezer [Kaplan, Jerusalem], 14 September 1937, in CZA, File S25/1481.

111.    MC”, 15 December 1937; Teveth, Burning Ground, 640–41.

112.    Lewis J. Ruskin, Chicago, letter to [Berl] Katznelson, n.p., 26 January 1939, in KABB, File resh; exchange of cables between Ben-Gurion and Rabbi Solomon Goldman of the ZOA, 22–24, 29 May, 1 June 1939, in CZA, File F/38/473; Letters of Louis D. Brandeis, vol. 5, ed. Melvin I. Urofsky and David W. Levy (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1978), 532, n. 1. See also, David Shpiro, “The Role of the Emergency Committee for Zionist Affairs as the Political Arm of American Zionism, 1938–1944,” 2 vols., Ph.D. dissertation, Hebrew University, 1979, vol. 1, 132; Jacob J. Weinstein, Solomon Goldman: A Rabbi’s Rabbi (New York: Ktav, 1973), 62; Yitzḥak Avnery, “Immigration and Revolt: Ben-Gurion’s Response to the 1939 White Paper,” in Zweig, Politics and Leadership, 109.

113.    Rose G. Jacobs, National President, Hadassah, New York, letter to Ben-Gurion, Jerusalem, 30 April 1936, in CZA, File S44/250. See also, Bengurion, [Jerusalem], cable to Hadassah, New York, 24 April 1936, in CZA, File S25/4525.

114.    HVHP”, 9 June 1930; Ben-Gurion, [for the HEC, Tel Aviv], telegram to [Louis D.] Brandeis, Washington, D.C., 4 April 1932, in LAT, File IV-208-1-337alef, and the reply of Julius Simon, 13 April 1932, in the same file; Louis D. Brandeis, Chatham, Massachusetts, letter to Robert Szold, n.p., 23 June 1935, in Brandeis Letters, vol. 5, 558–59; Melvin I. Urofsky, American Zionism from Herzl to the Holocaust (New York: Anchor, Doubleday, 1976), 315; Teveth, Burning Ground, 497.

115.    Louis D. Brandeis, Washington, D.C., letter to S[tephen] S[amuel] W[ise, New York], 2 June 1936, in Brandeis Letters, vol. 5, 571–72.

116.    Ben-Gurion, Warsaw, letter to Israel Merom-Mereminsky, [New York], in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 3, 296–97. See also, id., in MC”, 15 March 1933, and 7, 15 April 1937; and id., “The Nature of Collective Bargaining,” Jewish Frontier, May 1933.

117.    Ben-Gurion, [Tel Aviv], letter to [Baruch] Zuckerman, [New York], 30 March 1928, in LAT, File IV-208-1-121bet. Exactly the same terminology was used by Berl Katznelson in a letter from Arza to Dov Hoz, [New York, 23 March 1928], in BKL, vol. 5, 252.

118.    Ben-Gurion, remarks in HVHP”, 7 May 1928, and in MC”, 18 October 1930; id., report of World Congress of Workers for Labor Palestine, 6 October 1930, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 3, 160–61; Teveth, Burning Ground, 392–98.

119.    Id., [New York], diary entry, 31 December 1930, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 3, 184; BGD, 25 May and 8 June 1935; id., on board the Ile de France, sailing from New York to Europe, letter to Eliezer [Kaplan], n.p., 14 September 1937, in CZA, File S25/1481; Teveth, Burning Ground, 627.

120.    J. S. Hertz, 50 Years of the Workmen’s Circle in Jewish Life [Yiddish] (New York: National Executive Committee of the Workmen’s Circle, 1950), 261.

121.    BGD, 1, 7, 8, 12, 13 June and 7 July 1935.

122.    Stephen S. Wise, New York, letter to [David] Ben-Gurion, Jerusalem, 15 April 1936, in CZA, File S34/36.

123.    Mereminsky remarks in HVHP”, 9, 24 September 1936.

124.    On the Vladeck visit, see CZA, File S25/4300. On Rubashov [Shazar], see his letter from New York, 16 June 1936, to Ben-Gurion, in Ben-Gurion, Zichronot, vol. 3, 274.

125.    BGD, 10 September 1937; Ben-Gurion, on board the Ile de France, sailing from New York to Europe, letter to Eliezer [Kaplan, Jerusalem], 14 September 1937, in CZA, File S25/1481; Y. Bankover and Y. Lufbin, Mapai Party Center, confidential memorandum to D[ear] C[omrade], 21 October 1937, in LAT, File IV-104–29-5bet; Teveth, Burning Ground, 628–29. On Katznelson’s attempts to conclude the agreement, see chapter 4 of this book.

126.    Ben-Gurion, “United States Jewry on the Threshold of Unity,” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, 3 April 1964, 18; id., remarks in MS”, 17 December 1945; Alexander Manor, Commitment and Creative Action: Life and Work of Israel Merom (Mereminsky), trans. and adapted S. Leshner-Shapiro (Tel Aviv: Sponsoring Committee, 1978), 165–200.

127.    Ben-Gurion, Washington, D.C., letter to Berl Locker, London, 4 January 1942, in CZA, File S25/60. See also, BGD, 9, 12 December 1941; Ben-Gurion remarks in MC”, 23 June 1943.

128.    Ben-Gurion, dairy entry, 7 December 1930, in Igrot Ben-Gurion, vol. 3, 175–80.

129.    Ibid., 31 December 1930, 184–85. On Golda’s involvement with HeḤalutz and HaShomer HaTza’ir, see chapter 6 of this book.

130.    Teveth, Burning Ground, 501; BGD, 17 May 1935.

131.    BGD, 19, 21, 23 May 1935.

132.    Teveth, Burning Ground, 502; BGD, 25, 19 May, 5 June 1935. See also, Ben-Gurion, Milwaukee, letter to [Dr. Selig] Brodetsky, [London], 21 May 1935, in LAT, File IV-104–29-2alef.

133.    Ben-Gurion, New York, letter to his wife, Paula, [Tel Aviv], 1 June 1935, in Letters to Paula, 72.

134.    Id., quoted in MC”, 26 July 1935; Zalman [Rubashov], New York, letter to Ben-Gurion, [Jerusalem], 31 March 1936, in CZA, File S44/250.

135.    Ben-Gurion, remarks quoted in MC”, 9 July 1936.

136.    [Rabbi Stephen S.] Wise, New York, letter to Dr. Chaim Weizmann, London, 18 June 1937, in CZA, File S25/1874.

137.    Id., quoted in minutes of the ZOA National Executive Committee, 11 January 1939. See also, Teveth, Burning Ground, 690; Gal, Likrat Medina, 22.

138.    Ben-Gurion quoted in HVHP”, 10 February 1930; id., [Tel Aviv?], letter to Zionist Executive, London, 25 March 1936, in his Zichronot, vol. 3, 97–98; id., “A Month in a Flying Clipper,” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, 14 February 1964, 21. See also, Gal, “Ben-Gurion’s Visit,” 44; and id., “Eulogy and Policy: David Ben-Gurion’s Address at a Memorial Meeting Honoring Louis D. Brandeis, London, October 21, 1941” [Hebrew], Cathedra 44 (June 1987): 108–9.

139.    Stephen S. Wise, New York, letter to Gershon Agronsky, [Jerusalem], 22 September 1931, in CZA, File S25/794. The context of these remarks is not clear from the letter, but the feelings expressed were not limited to this instance, as the rabbi’s rage over Ben-Gurion’s deal with Vladeck demonstrates.

140.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in Gal, Likrat Medina, 18, and Teveth, Burning Ground, 693. On Jabotinsky and Wise, see chapter 2 of this book.

141.    Anita Shapira, Berl: The Biography of a Socialist Zionist, trans. Ḥaya Galai (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1984), 178.

142.    Albert Hyamson quoted in memorandum of O. G. R. Williams, 12 August 1931, in PRO, File CO 733 209/13.

143.    Felix Frankfurter, letter to Ben-Gurion, 12 October 1933, quoted in Ben-Gurion, Zichronot, vol. 1, 668; Yehuda Even-Shmuel, Philadelphia, letter to HEC, [Tel Aviv], 3 Adar Sheni [1932], in LAT, File IV-208–337bet; MC”, 2 January 1934; Ben-Gurion, n.p., letter to Justice Louis D. Brandeis and copied to Louis Lipsky in New York, 9 January 1934, in CZA, File F38/1192.

144.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in Yosef Sprinzak, New York, letter to [Berl] Locker, [London], 4 February 1934, in LAT, File IV-208-1-407bet.

145.    Ibid; exchange of correspondence between Eliezer Galili, New York, and Eliyahu Dobkin, Tel Aviv, November 1933–January 1934, in LAT, File IV-208-1-407bet.

146.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in MPC”, 5 August 1934.

147.    BGD, 20, 21, 30, 31 May and 1 June 1935; Ben-Gurion, Milwaukee, letter to [Dr. Selig] Brodetsky, [London], 21 May 1935, in LAT, File IV-104–29-2alef. See also, Gal, Likrat Medina, 16; Kaufman, “American Non-Zionists,” 125.

148.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in minutes of meeting of the Jewish Agency Executive, 19 January 1936, cited in Zichronot, vol. 3, 28. See also, Teveth, Burning Ground, 515–17.

149.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in MC”, 29 January 1936.

150.    Stephen S. Wise, New York, letter to Ben-Gurion, Jerusalem, 25 February 1936, in CZA, File S25/6617.

151.    Ben-Gurion, MPC”, 9 March 1936, cited in his Zichronot, vol. 3, 87.

152.    Minutes of Jewish Agency Executive meeting, 29 April 1936, quoted in Zichronot, vol. 3, 132.

153.    Ben-Gurion, diary entry for 8 June 1936, in his Zichronot, vol. 3, 249; Zalman [Rubashov-Shazar], n.p., letter to Ben-Gurion, [London], 18 July 1936, also quoted in Zichronot, vol. 3, 344ff; Ben-Gurion, remarks in MC”, 11 September 1936; Selig Adler, “The Roosevelt Administration and Zionism: The Pre-War Years, 1933–1939,” Herzl Year Book 8 (1978): 133–34.

154.    BGD, 24 June 1936; Urofsky, Voice for Justice, 283.

155.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in the minutes of a meeting of the Zionist Smaller Actions Committee, Zurich, 14 October 1936, in CZA, File S25/1775.

156.    Louis D. Brandeis, Chatham, Massachusetts, letter to [Robert Szold], n.p., 5 September 1936, in Brandeis Letters, vol. 5, 578.

157.    Ben-Gurion, n.p., letter to Dr. [Stephen S.] Wise, [New York], 11 January 1937, quoted in his Zichronot, vol. 4, 24–25.

158.    Id., quoted in MC”, 5 February 1937.

159.    Id., diary entry, 20 July 1937, in his Zichronot, vol. 4, 309.

160.    Teveth, Burning Ground, 589. 593, 601, 608, 625–27, 681; Gal, Likrat Medina, 17; Ben-Gurion, on board the Ile de France, sailing from New York to Europe, letter to Eliezer [Kaplan, Jerusalem], 14 September 1937, in CZA, File S25/1481; id., “Flying Clipper,” 23.

161.    Id., report to the Zionist Executive, Jerusalem, 3 October 1938, quoted in Gal. Likrat Medina, 7.

162.    Gal, Likrat Medina, 8–9; Teveth, Burning Ground, 683.

163.    Ben-Gurion, London, letter to [Rabbi Solomon] Goldman, n.p., 21 October 1938, in CZA, File F38/?. In the file is an English translation of the original “confidential” Hebrew letter. The file number has been misplaced.

164.    Ben-Gurion, address to the ZOA National Executive Committee, New York, 11 January 1939, in minutes of the meeting, CZA, File F38/473. On the genesis of the conference, see Gal, Likrat Medina, 9–10, 202, n.33; and id., “Ben-Gurion’s Visit,” 41.

165.    Kaufman, “American Non-Zionists,” 126; and Avnery, “Immigration and Revolt,” 99–100.

166.    Ibid; BGD, 4, 8 January 1939. See also, Avnery, “Immigration and Revolt,” 102; Gal, Likrat Medina, 19–25; Kaufman, “American Non-Zionists,” 127–28; Teveth, Burning Ground, 686–90, 708–09.

167.    Ben-Gurion, London, letter to wife, Paula, n.p., 6 February 1939, in Letters to Paula, 219–20. From the follow-up discussion in the Mapai Center, it is apparent that Wise followed the plan (MC”, 22 February 1939).

168.    Gal, Likrat Medina, 27–29.

169.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in MPC”, 5 April 1939.

170.    Id., “Additional Notes on the Present Situation,” 17 May 1940, in CZA, File Z4/14632. Useful summaries of the events leading up to the white paper can be found in Urofsky, From Herzl to the Holocaust, 387–90; and Howard M. Sachar, A History of Israel (New York: Knopf, 1976), 222–26.

171.    Ben-Gurion quoted in MC”, 5 July 1939.

172.    Id., quoted in MC”, 12 September 1939. See also “Looking Ahead,” an English translation of his speech to the Va’ad Le’umi, 17 September 1939, in CZA, File S25/1484.

173.    Ben-Gurion, on board the Ile de France sailing from New York to Europe, letter to Eliezer [Kaplan, Jerusalem], 14 September 1937, in CZA, File S25/1481.

174.    Id., letter to his son, Amos, 5 October 1937, quoted in Teveth, Burning Ground, 629.

175.    Teveth, Burning Ground, 700.

176.    MPC”, 29 October and 21 November 1940; MC”, 19 February 1941; Ben-Gurion, “On the Road to the State—I Try to Arouse U.S. Zionists,” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, 7 February 1964. See also, MS”, 27 September 1939; MPC”, 27 November 1939; Ben-Gurion, “A Jewish Army,” Jewish Frontier, November 1940; BGD, 9 November 1940; Gal, Likrat Medina, 67, 88, 107; Shpiro, “Emergency Committee,” vol. 2, 363.

177.    BGD, 29 November 1941; Ben-Gurion, Washington, D.C., letter to Berl Locker, London, 4 January 1942, in CZA, File S25/41. See also, id., statement to press conference held by the Zionist Emergency Committee, New York, 14 November 1940, mimeograph, in CZA, File S25/1494; Shpiro, “Role of the Emergency Committee,”. vol. 2, 392; Yosef Gorny, “Ben-Gurion and Weizmann During World War II, in Zweig, Politics and Leadership, 90.

178.    Ben-Gurion, New York, letter to Judge Louis E. Levinthal, Emergency Committee, New York, 29 June 1942, in CZA, File S25/1458. See also, Ben-Gurion, New York, letters, to Moshe Shertok, Jerusalem, 3 July 1942, and to Judge [Louis] Levinthal, n.p., 2 September 1942, both in CZA, Files Z4/14632 and Z5/1219 respectively.

179.    Id., “On the Road to the State—We Look Towards America,” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, 31 January 1964, 16. See also, his “Lord Lloyd Proposes an Arab-Jewish Federation,” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, 6 December 1963, 20–23.

180.    For a summary of the interchange between Ussishkin and Ben-Gurion, see Gal, Likrat Medina, 60–61.

181.    Teveth, Burning Ground, 768.

182.    Ben-Gurion, New York, cable to [Eliezer] Kaplan, Jewish Agency, Jerusalem, 13 November 1940, in CZA, File S25/1494; id., New York, cables to Berl Locker, [London], 28 October and 13 December 1940, both in CZA, File Z4/14632; id., report on last ten months in England and America, MC”, 19 February 1941; id., “Flying Clipper,” 23.

183.    Ben-Gurion quoted in MC”, 19 February 1941; id., “Flying Clipper,” 23; id., quoted in MS”, 17 December 1945.

184.    Id., MC”, 19 February 1941.

185.    Gal, Likrat Medina, 98–99, 109–13, 171–73; Monty N. Penkower, “Ben-Gurion, Silver, and the 1941 UPA National Conference for Palestine: A Turning Point in American Zionist History,” American Jewish History 69 (September 1979): 72–74.

186.    Ben-Gurion, speech to the Administrative Council of the ZOA, Philadelphia, 5 January 1941, printed in Gal, Likrat Medina, Appendix 6, p. 174.

187.    Id., MC”, 19 February 1941.

188.    J. H. Pollock, “Profile of Ben-Gurion,” National Jewish Monthly, January 1942, 163; David H. Shpiro, “The Political Background of the 1942 Biltmore Resolution,” Herzl Year Book 8 (1978): 170.

189.    Ben-Gurion, “Outlines of Zionist Policy,” 15 October 1941, marked “Private and Confidential,” typescript, in CZA, File Z4/14632.

190.    BGD, 20, 24 November 1941.

191.    Ben-Gurion, report on eight months in England and the United States, in MPC”, 6 October 1942. See also, D[avid] B[reslau], “The Beginning of the War (1941–1942),” in Arise and Build: The Story of American Habonim, ed. David Breslau (New York: Ichud Habonim Labour Zionist Youth, 1961), 42; the letter of Breslau, New York, to Ben-Gurion, Washington, 7 January 1942, in CZA, File S25/10237; and Shpiro, “Role of the Emergency Committee,” vol. 2, 371–72.

192.    BGD, 28 November, 16, 29 December 1941; Teveth, Burning Ground, 840.

193.    Ben-Gurion, Washington, D.C., letter to Berl Locker, London, 4 January 1942, in CZA, File S25/60.

194.    BGD, 16 December 1941.

195.    Naomi W. Cohen, Not Free to Desist (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1972), 249–50.

196.    There is very ample documentation of the Ben-Gurion-Wertheim negotiations in the sources, especially accounts in Ben-Gurion’s letters in CZA and elsewhere. Useful summaries can be found in Ben-Gurion, remarks in MPC”, 3 May 1943; id., “Threshold of Unity,” 16–17; Cohen, Not Free, 252ff; Kaufman, “American Non-Zionists,” 124–32; and other sources.

197.    BGD, 8, 21 December 1941. The latter entry was made following a visit with Justice Frankfurter, which Ben-Gurion had requested.

198.    Ben-Gurion, New York, letter to Arthur Ruppin, Jerusalem, 28 April 1942, in CZA, File S25/4754. See also his remarks in MC”, 6 October 1942.

199.    Ben-Gurion, “Three New Friends for Zionism,” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, 13 March 1964, 20; Gal, “Eulogy and Policy,” 114; Teveth, Burning Ground, 794.

200.    BGD, 21, 23, 28–31 December 1941; Shpiro, “Role of the Emergency Committee,” vol. 2, 366–71. On Weizmann’s response, see Gorny, “Weizmann and Ben-Gurion,” 90.

201.    See letter of I[srael] Mereminsky, New York, to Ben-Gurion, [Washington], 9 January 1942, in CZA, File S25/10237, in which he quotes to Ben-Gurion a report from the Toronto Iddisher Zhurnal about Ben-Gurion’s rebellion against the Zionist authorities; Teveth, Burning Ground, 803ff.

202.    Ben-Gurion, Washington, letter to Berl Locker, London, 26 January 1942, in CZA, File S25/41.

203.    William J. Donovan, Washington, letter to Ben-Gurion, New York, 8 December 1941, in CZA, File S25/10237; BGD, 6 January 1942; Shpiro, “Role of the Emergency Committee,” vol. 2, 392; Teveth, Burning Ground, 833–34.

204.    BGD, 7 December 1941; H[enry] A. Wallace, Jerusalem, letter to Ben-Gurion, [Jerusalem], 29 November 1947, in CZA, File S44/424; Teveth, Burning Ground, 821, 833–34.

205.    Ben-Gurion, report on his visits to England and America, in MS”, 6 October 1942.

206.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in JAE”, 4 October 1942.

207.    Shpiro, “Background of the Biltmore Resolution,” 166ff. See also, id., “Role of the Emergency Committee,” vol. 1, 313; Penkower, “A Turning Point,” 74–76.

208.    Ben-Gurion, quoted in JAE”, 4 October 1942.

209.    Id., “Test of Fulfillment—Can Zionism Be Achieved?” address to the All-Zionist Conference, Biltmore Hotel, 10 May 1942, typescript, in CZA, File S25/1493.

210.    Neumann, In the Arena, 168. See also, Shpiro, “Role of the Emergency Committee,” vol. 1, 319–23, 340.

211.    Weizmann, quoted by Meyer Weisgal, . . . So Far, An Autobiography (New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson and the Ma’ariv Book Guild, 1971), 173–74. See also, Gorny, “Ben-Gurion and Weizmann,” 94; Teveth, Burning Ground, 817–21.

212.    See, for example, Stephen S. Wise and Louis Levinthal, [New York], cable to Ben-Gurion, n.p., 6 October 1942, in CZA, File Z5/1219, telling him that an attempt to unseat Weizmann would be “catastrophic for [the] movement and completely unwarranted by [the] situation or facts.” See also, Norman Rose, Chaim Weizmann: A Biography (New York: Viking-Penguin, 1986), 378–79; Shpiro, “Role of the Emergency Committee,” vol. 2, 397–412; Teveth, Burning Ground, 832–43.

213.    Ben-Gurion, report on his trip to England and the United States, MS”, 6 October 1942; Monty Noam Penkower, “American Jewry and the Holocaust: From Biltmore to the American Jewish Conference,” Jewish Social Studies 47 (Spring 1985): 102–03; Amitzur Ilan, America, Britannia, VeEretz Yisrael—Reishitah VeHitpatḥutah Shel Me’oravut Artzot HaBrit BaMediniyut HaBritit BeEretz Yisrael, 1938–1947 [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Yad Yitzḥak Ben-Zvi, 5739 [1979]), vii-viii.

214.    Amitzur Ilan, “From the Hebrew Press, America, Britain, and Palestine,” Jerusalem Cathedra 1 (1981): 330.

215.    Carl Alpert, Washington, letter to Ben-Gurion, Jerusalem, 20 November 1942, in CZA, File S44/250.

216.    Susan Lee Hattis, The Bi-National Idea in Palestine During Mandatory Times (Haifa: Shikmona, 1970), 250; Shapira, Biography of a Socialist Zionist, 331–32; Teveth, Burning Ground, 842–43; Porat, Blue and Yellow Stars, 258.

217.    Ben-Gurion, speech at the 32nd annual Hadassah Convention, Boston, 11 November 1946, in BGA.

218.    Id., quoted in Avineri, “Ideology and Pragmatism,” 32–33.

Chapter 8

    1.    Dan Horowitz and Moshe Lissak, Origins of the Israeli Polity: Palestine under the Mandate, trans. Charles Hoffman (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), Appendix 2.

    2.    Yehuda Bauer, From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939–1945, trans. Alton M. Winters (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1970), 131–32.

    3.    Horowitz and Lissak, Origins of the Israeli Polity, 150ff.

    4.    Brandeis quoted in Alpheus T. Mason, Brandeis: A Free Man’s Life (New York: Viking, 1946), 460. On Gordon and his attitude towards foreign funds, see Ya’akov Kellner, HaAliyot HaRishonot—Mithos U-Metzi’ut [Hebrew] (Jerusalem: HaUniversita HaIvrit Birushalyim, Beit HaSefer LaAvoda Sotzialit Al Shem Paul Baerwald, 1982), 41–42.

    5.    Zvi Baḥur, an old settler in Bat Shlomo, decrying the decline of morality in Israel after 1967, quoted in Amos Oz, In the Land of Israel, trans. Maurie Goldberg-Bartura (San Diego, New York, and London: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1983), 209.

    6.    Lotta Levensohn, “The American Jew in Palestine,” The New Palestine, 7 June 1929, 485.

    7.    Thomas L. Friedman, “America in the Mind of Israel,” New York Times Magazine, 25 May 1986, 24.

    8.    Ben-Gurion, Jerusalem, letter to [Bernard] Rosenblatt, n.p., 24 December 1951, in Bernard A. Rosenblatt, Two Generations of Zionism (New York: Shengold, 1967), 244.

    9.    Gershon Shaked, “Can Israeli Culture Survive the American Challenge?” Moment, August 1989, 58.

  10.    Quoted in Russell Miller, “Dining on McTreif,” Forward, 23 September 1994. On Feinberg, see chapter 1 of this book.

  11.    Chaim Naḥman Bialik, “Al America” [Hebrew], address at Beit HaAm, Tel Aviv, Tishrei, 5687 (1926), in Dvarim SheBe’al Peh, 2 vols. (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 5695 [1935]), vol. 2, 58; id., Tel Aviv, letter to Chaim Weizmann, London, 8 Kislev 1926, in M. Ungerfeld, “Bein Bialik LeWeizmann” [Hebrew], Moznayim 9 (July 1959): 152.

  12.    Uri Bialer, “Facts and Pacts: Ben-Gurion and Israel’s International Orientation, 1948–1956,” in David Ben-Gurion: Politics and Leadership in Israel, ed. Ronald Zweig (London and Jerusalem: Frank Cass and Yad Izḥak Ben-Zvi, 1991), 232–33.

  13.    Teddy Kollek with Amos Kollek, For Jerusalem (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1978), 96–98; Moshe Zak, “Tzahal—Shtei Etzba’ot MiMilḥemet Korea” [Hebrew], Ma’ariv, 22 April 1988.

  14.    Shmuel Sandler, “Ben-Gurion’s Attitude Towards the Soviet Union,” Jewish Journal of Sociology 21 (December 1979): 153.

  15.    Friedman, “Mind of Israel,” 23.

  16.    Ibid., 26.

  17.    Peter Grose, Israel in the Mind of America (New York: Knopf, 1983), 316. My son, Joshua, called my attention to the fact that Israel and the United States both have ideas at the root of their experience.

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ISBN
9780814344583
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2018-10-02
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