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THERE ARE many people to whom I owe thanks for their assistance with this volume. Without their kindness, patience, encouragement, and generosity my task would have been very much more difficult. I appreciate all that they have done.

First are my colleagues at York University in Toronto who released me from teaching and administration for research and writing. I benefited from sabbatical leaves and from several research fellowships. I am especially grateful to my colleagues, Professors Sydney Eisen, Martin Lockshin, and Bernie Zelechow, who took over some of my accustomed duties so that I could complete the project, and to my departmental chairs, Professors Margo Gewurtz and Susan Ehrlich, for their cooperation and encouragement. Profesor Eisen, my very dear colleague, deserves to be singled out. As director of the Centre for Jewish Studies, he provided succor in many different ways. As a friend, he has been unfailingly encouraging. As the project neared completion he uncomplainingly read the entire text and offered innumerable judicious comments which have strengthened it immeasurably. Thanks are also due to Susan Rainey and the staff of the Academic Technical Support Group of the Faculty of Arts, the staff of the Scott Library, Daphne Lazar who assisted in preparing the bibliography, and Professors Richard Pope and Mark Webber who helped with translations from Russian and German.

Much of the research for the book was done in Israel, and I am grateful to many people there for their assistance. Professor Moshe Davis, of blessed memory, the founder of the Institute of Contemporary Jewry at the Hebrew University and the founder and long time director of the America-Holy Land Studies Project, provided inspiration for the volume and gave generously of his wise counsel over the years. A fellowship from the Project helped to facilitate the research. Dr. Menaḥem Kaufman of the Institute and the Project provided advice and assistance, as did a number of other colleagues at the Institute and Professor Allon Gal of Ben-Gurion University. Mention must be made of the staffs of several archives as well as others, who graciously answered questions and helped me track down sources. The archives include: the Central Zionist Archives; the Jabotinsky Institute, especially Rachel Halperin and Yehuda Ben-Ari; Genazim; the Ben Zvi Institute, especially Shimon Rubenstein; the Mapai and Katznelson Archives at Beit Berl, especially Baruch Tor-Raz; the Labor Archive, especially Ilan Gal-Pe’er and Meir Galperin; the National and University Library; and the Ben Gurion Archive. Also, portions of chapter 5 were delivered at the conference “Envisioning Israel” at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in June 1993, and may be found in the conference volume, Envisioning Israel: The Changing Ideals and Images of North American Jews, ed. Allon Gal (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1996); an earlier version of chapter 2 appeared in Modern Judaism vol. 9 (Winter 1989), pp. 71–99; portions of chapter 6 appeared in Jewish History vol. 6 (1992), pp. 35–50; and much of chapter 3 appeared in Jewish Political Studies Review vol. 6 (Fall 5755/1994), pp. 47–105.

A number of people on both sides of the ocean, including Emma Ehrlich and Lou Kadar, who are no longer living, Dr. S. Zalman Abramov, Professor Moshe Davis, Sylva Gelber, Judy Hollander, Regina Medzini, Mrs. Shulamith Nardi, and Sarah Rahabi, were kind enough to share with me personal reminiscences about the subjects of this book and the findings of their own research. In addition, Yehuda Ben-Ari, Raḥel Halperin, Jack Chodoroff and Jacob Goldfein helped with translations; Susan Feibus, Cheryl Belkin, Nancy Schwartz, and Rabbi Yaakov Rone located materials in Washington, Paris, Cleveland, and Scranton.

Much gratitude is due to Professor Jonathan Sarna of Brandeis University, the editor of the series in which this volume appears, and to the staff of Wayne State University Press. Arthur Evans, the director of the Press, and Lynn H. Trease and Kathryn Wildfong, who worked with me in editing the book, are owed special thanks. Their valuable suggestions have significantly enhanced the text.

My sons Josh and Matthew read large portions of the book and offered significant insights and helpful stylistic comments; Matthew painstakingly prepared the index; and my daughter Abby patiently endured years of conversation about the project and offered her encouragement. Unfortunately, my wife Frankie did not live to see the completion of the book. During the long years of research and writing, she provided reassurance and inspiration. As she always did, she read the work in progress and tactfully made invaluable suggestions, most of which I eventually accepted. Most importantly, she spurred me on when I flagged. I miss her sunshine, her love, and her wisdom, but I am thankful for the years we shared together.

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