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Notes Introduction 1. In fact, at least two important comprehensive historical studies have been published. Simon Dubnow's early work, History of Hasidism (Hebrew) (reprint, Tel Aviv: Devir, 1984), makes outdated historical assumptions. Raphael Mahler's, Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century (Philadelphia: Jewish Publiciation Society, 1985), does not chronicle the beginnings of Hasidism and is colored by too Marxist an outlook. On the Ba'al Shem Tov, see Moshe Rosman, Founder of Hasidism: A Quest for the Historical Ba'al Shem Tov (Berkeley: University of California, 1996). For a bibliography of works dealing with Hasidism, see Roman A. Foxbrunner, HABAD: The Hasidism of R. Shneur Zalman of Lyady (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama, 1992), pp. 203-206. 2. Gershom Scholem's most important studies on Hasidism include the concluding chapter to his Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (New York: reprint, Schocken, 1967), essays on the neutralization of Messianism in early Hasidism and on devequt (communion with God), included in his The Messianic Idea in Judaism (New York: Schocken, 1971), and an article on the historical Ba'al Shem Tov [Hebrew ] in Devarim be-Go (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1976). 3. Many of Joseph Weiss's English essays on Hasidism are collected in Studies in Eastern European Jewish Mysticism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985). Rivka Schatz Uffenheimer's classic work only recently appeared in English, see Hasidism as Mysticism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993). Isaiah Tishby and Joseph Dan's Hebrew article on Hasidism is found in the Hebrew Encyclopedia, vol. 17 (1988), cols. 769-822. Also see Joseph Dan's introduction to his The Teachings of Hasidism (New York: Behrman, 1983). 4. For a thorough discussion of earlier approaches to the study of Hasidism and the current state of research, see Immanuel Etkes, "The Study of Hasidism: Past Trends and New Directions," in Hasidism Reappraised (London: Littman, 1996), pp. 447-464. 5. See Moshe Idel, Hasidism: Between Ecstasy and Magic (Albany: State University of New York, 1995). 6. Abraham Joshua Heschel's Yiddish articles have been translated and collected by Samuel Dresner in The Circle of the Ba'al Shem Tov (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985). On HaBaD Hasidism, see Rachel Elior, The Paradoxical Ascent to God: The Kabbalistic Theosophy of Habad Hasidism (Albany: State University of New York, 1993); Roman A. Foxbrunner, HABAD: The Hasidism of R. Shneur Zalman of Lyady (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama, 1992); and Naftali Lowenthal, 218 Notes Communicating the infinite: The EmcrgCllcc of the Hllblld School (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). On Bratslav, see Arthur Green, Tormented Master: A Life of Rabbi Nahman of Bratslav (New York: Schocken, 1981); Mendel Piekarz, Stlldies in Bratslav Hasidism, 2nd ed. (Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik, 1995); Yehudah Liebes, "Ha-Tikkzm Ha-Kclali of Rabbi Nahman of Bratslav and Its Sabbatean Links" in his Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism (Albany: State University of New York, 1993). Rachel Elior's "Between Ycsh and Ayin: The Doctrine of the Zaddik in the Works of Jacob Isaac, the Seer of Lublin," in Jewish History: Essays in Honour of Chimen Abramsky (London: Halban, 1988), pp. 393-445, is also a notable exception. 7. On R. Yehiel Mikhel of Zlotchov's prophetic activities as a prototype of the later Hasidic Zaddiq, see Dr. Mor Altshuler's dissertation, Rabbi Meshullam Feibush Heller and His Place in Early Hllsidism [Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Hebrew University, 1994). 8. See Ada Rapoport-Albert, "Hasidism after 1772: Structural Continuity and Change," in Hasidism Reappraised (London: Littman, 1996), pp. 94-109. 9. On the publication of this and other early Hasidic texts, see Zev Gries, The Book in Early Hasidism: Genres, Allthors, Scribes, Managing Editors and Its Review by Their Contemporaries and Scholars [Hebrew] (Israel: Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 1992). 10. See Altshuler, Rabbi Meslllliam Feibush Heller, pp. 19-29. 11. See the selections from Solomon Maimon's autobiography in Gershon Hundert, ed. Essential Papers on Hasidism (New York: New York University Press 1991). 12. See Rapoport-Albert, Hasidism Reappraised, pp. 76-141. 13. See especially Immanuel Etkes' articles, "The Rise of R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi to a Position of Leadership," [Hebrew] Tarbiz 54 (1985): 429-39; and "R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi's Way as a Leader of Hasidim," [Hebrew] Zion 50 (1985): 321-54. Also see the sources on HaBaD in note 5 above. 14. See Mordecai Wilensky, Hasidim and Mitllagdim: A Study of the Controversy Between Them in the years 1772-1815lHebrew] (Jerusalem: Bialik...


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