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Courtesy of The Photographic Workshop of The Archives Nationales, France: Testimony of the Debt of the Jew of Paris, p. 95; Testimony of the Debt of the Jews of Pontoise, p. 97; Reverse of the Seal of the Community of Avignon, p. 97; Seal of Pierre de Boisses, Canon of Levroux, p. 158; Seal of David Son of Samuel/Mielet of Portal, p. 76; Seal of the Debt of the Jews of Paris and Counterseal, p. 94; Seal of the Debt of the Jews of Pontoise, p. 96; Seal of Simon Judas of Trote, p. 110; Anti-Semitic Seal of Metz, p. 112.

Courtesy of Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv: Security deposit document from Regensburg, July 17, 1384, Sealed by Gnendel and Chalman, Son of Gnedel (Reich City Regensburg Urkunde 2524), p. 195; Pledge document from Regensburg, Match 17, 1391, sealed by Saadia son of Eleazar and Disslob daughter of Moses (Reich City Regensburg Urkunde 3046), p. 197; Pledge document from Regensburg, March 17, 1391, Sealed by David Son of Joseph (Reich City Regensburg Urkunde 3045), p. 200; Seal of Aferiein Son of Nachman (Kloster Landshut–Seligenthal Urk. 151), p. 190; Seal of Nachman Son of Jacob (Regensburg City Urk. 567), p. 190; Seal of Gnendel the Jew (Regensburg City Urk. 2524), p. 194; Seal of Chalmon [Chalman] the Jew (Regensburg City Urk. 2524), p. 195; Seal of Saadia the Jew (Regensburg City Urk. 2526), p. 196; Seal of Saadia Son of Our Teacher Master Eleazar (Regensburg City Urk. 3717), p. 197; Seal of Disslob Daughter of Moses (Regensburg City Urk. 3046), p. 198; Seal of Disslaba Daughter of Master Moses (Regensburg City Urk. 3717), p. 198; Seal of David Son of Joseph (Regensburg City Urk. 3045), p. 199; Seal of Veivel the Jew (Regensburg City Urk. 2525), p. 200; Seal of Meir Hesse (Regensburg city Urk. 2533), p. 201; Seal of Petter Son of Moses (Regensburg City Urk. 3041), p. 201; Loan Agreement from Erding, January 6, 1338, Sealed by Aferlein son of Nachman (Landshut-Seligenthal Urk. 151), p. 191; Residence Affirmation from Regensburg, January 21, 1338, Sealed by Nachman son of Jacob (Regensburg City Urk. 567), p. 191; Assessment Accord from Regensburg, June 8, 1356, Sealed with the Regensburg Community Seal (Regenburg City Urk. 1965), p. 194.

Courtesy of The British Museum: Seal of Samson Son of Samson, p. 61; Seal of Todros Halevi, Son of Samuel Halevi of the Levi, p. 124; Seal of the Holy Jewish Community of Seville, p. 133; Seal of Solomon Son of Isaac, p. 142.

Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press: Map - France in the Thirteenth Century, p. 59; Map - The Reconquista In Spain, p. 121; Map - Eastern Europe in the Thirteenth Century, p. 311; Map - Italy in the Fifteenth Century, p. 333.

Courtesy of the Israel Exploration Society: Lead Coffin from Bet She’arim, p. 81.

Courtesy of The Library of the Jewish Theological Seminary: Quitclaim by Anselm and Bonheym, sons of Joseph. Von Breisig (Bryssige, 1347), p. 245.

Courtesy of Landesarchiv Nordrhein-Westfalen: Affirmation of Real Estate Transfer from Dusseldorf, October 7, 1513 (LAV NRW R, AA 0226 Duissern. Documents no. 169), p. 255.

Drawings of the Seal of Philippe de Lantilla, p. 209, and the Seal of Cardinal Guillaume, p. 242, by M. Oudot de Dainville, preserved in the archives of the city of Montpellier, Montpellier, Imprimerie Lafitte-Lauriol, 1952.

Courtesy of Kommunalarchiv Minden: No 141, Seal of Jesse (Yesse) attached to debt acknowledgment from Minden, February 26, 1403, p. 265.

Courtesy of Stadtarchiv München: Seal of Asher and Seal of Judah, and Seals 80 & 81 attached to Munich Quittance (Urk. A la – N, 170 S.B.), p. 175.

By kind permission of The Dean and Chapter of Westminster Abbey: Deed of real estate sale in Nottingham, 13th Ct. The Muniment Room and Library, Westminster Abbey, 6734, p. 49.

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