publisher colophon

Index

Aaron, 50–51

Aaron bar Zerach, 227

Aaron of Lincoln, 39

Aaron of York, 21, 39–40, 50–51, 57, 300, 304n

Aaron son of David, 212, 214, 225–27

Aaron son of Judah (Haranc of Segré), 90–93, 92fig., 114

Aaron son of Master Simcha Tson (Selichman Schaifson), 249–53

Abba Mari ben Moses, Rabbi, 70, 75

Abba son of Abba, 63, 275–77

Abraham of Cronberg, 236–38

Abraham of Kreuznach, 213–14

Abrahams, Israel, 56

Abraham son of Isaac (Abraham of Kesten), 211–12, 217–19

Abraham son of Jacob, 297–99

Abraham son of Saadia, 127

Abraham the Jew, 266–68, 266fig.

Aferlein son of Nachman, 180, 190, 191fig.

Akiva the Jew, 264–68, 266fig.

Albert II, Duke of Austria, 288, 293

Albert III, Duke of Austria, 288, 289, 300

Albert V, Duke of Austria, 290

Albigenses, 75, 80, 88, 116, 117

Alconstantini family, 131–32

Alert (Alart), 254–56, 255fig., 280, 283

Alexander III, Pope, 146

Alfonso IV, King of Aragon, 140n

Alfonso V, King of Aragon, 140n

Alfonso VII, King of Castile, 33

Alfonso X, King of Castile, 122

Alnacoua (Al-Nakawa), Aaron, 139

Al-Nakawa, Israel ben Joseph, 139

Altman, Count, 322, 323, 323fig.

Altschim, 186–87

Ammon, E., 208

Anchor, 267, 275

Andrew II, King of Hungary, 317–20

Andrew III, King of Hungary, 317–18, 325–26

Angelo, 341–43, 342fig.

Anselm son of Joseph, 244–46

Anti-semitic seals, 112–14, 269–70, 270fig.

Arabic inscription, 142

Aram of Marburg, 302n

Architecture, Jewish, 25

Armes de famille, 159, 168, 202, 246

Armes parlantes, 67–68, 70, 77, 79, 83, 84, 85, 127, 174, 175, 205, 251, 330

Arnhem (Netherlands), 280, 281, 284; Community Archives in, 280

Aron of Salzburg, 190

Aschaffenburg (Germany), seal for Jewish debt, 233–36, 234fig.

Aschoff, Diethard, 245

Asher ben Jechiel, 211

Asher son of Pesach/Solomon (Lamb/Lamp), 169, 170, 173, 174–75, 175fig., 177, 178, 179, 205, 251

Ashkenazi names, 70n

Aster (Asterius), 107–9

Astruc of Canoniga, 109–10

Astruga, 138–39

Augsburg (Bavaria): City Archives in, 171, 174, 176; history of, 168; Jewish community of, 40, 169–71, 208; Jewish community seal of, 168, 170, 171–72, 172fig., 179–80, 185; Jewish seals of, 27, 172–80, 178fig.

Austria: areas of, 290; consolidation of Hapsburg power in, 288; trade routes to, 286. See also Holy Roman Empire

Austrian Jews: connection with Hungary, 316; as high officials, 286, 287, 290–91, 319, 324; as moneylenders, 286–87, 288–89; of noble rank, 291–92, 322; persecution of, 288, 289–90; proclamation of debt by, 298; seals of, 290–307, 294fig., 296fig., 323–24

Avignon (France), community seal of, 97fig., 105

Avneri, Zvi, 155, 187, 189, 205, 233, 247, 295

Azriel son of Menachem, 227

Babylonia, 21

Badge of shame, 50

Baer, Yitzhak, 32, 123, 126, 127, 132

Bagdad, caliphate of, 373–74

Baldwin, Archbishop of Trier, 211, 212, 214–16, 220, 221, 223, 226, 253

Bankers. See Moneylenders, Christian; Moneylenders, Jewish Barcelona Municipal Archives, 139

Bardi banking house, 216

Baron, Salo W., 59n, 182

Barri, David Yomtov del, 83

Bartoli of Alvenno, 106

Bascapè, Giacomo, 33, 158, 334, 335–36, 348n

Bassevi, Jacob, 34

Battering ram, 84

Bavaria, seals from: Augsburg, 168–80; Fürth, 207; Ingolstadt, 204–5; Oettingen-Wallerstein, 205–7; Regensburg, 180–202; Rothenburg, 203–4

Bavarian Main State Archives, 174, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 225, 231, 232

Bear, 24

Bedos, Brigitte (Rezak), 60, 64, 66, 72, 74, 77, 78, 83, 86, 87, 88n, 94, 100, 101, 110, 113, 119, 227

Béla IV, King of Hungary, 313, 314, 320, 322, 323, 367

Beness, 308–9

Beniet (Beniot), 89–90, 89fig.

Benjamin, 159–60

Benjamin, tribe of, 24

Benjamin of Tudela, 65, 73, 75, 373–74

Benna, Anna, 189, 293, 295

Bermejo, Ramón, 139

Bern State Archives, 159, 160

Bertényi, Iván, 315

Berwout the Jew, 281, 282, 283

Besançon (France), 87

Beth Tzedec Synagogue Museum (Toronto), 54

Bet She’ arim, sarcophagus from, 81fig.

Bettelheim, Samuel, 315, 318

Beziers, Languedoc (France), 65, 117

Biblical symbols, 24

Bibliotheca Historica Italo-Judaica, 335

Bingen (Germany), 213–14

Bird, 66, 67, 134, 135, 158, 184, 185, 218, 276. See also Eagle; Peacock

Blackamoor, 348n

Black Death massacres, 151, 152, 153, 154–60, 163, 169, 170, 179, 182, 203, 207, 211, 212, 213, 216, 241, 243, 246, 288

Blanchet, Adrien, 64, 68, 69, 170, 101, 131

Blendinger, Friedrich, 174, 179, 180

Blumenkranz, Bernhard, 60, 64, 66, 67, 77, 78, 86, 88n, 92, 101, 105, 106, 119

Bohemian Jews, 308–9

Boisrouvray, X. du, 90

Boisses, Pierre de, 158fig.

Bonefay son of Barton, 48, 49fig., 57

Bonheym son of Joseph, 244–45, 245fig., 246

Boniface VIII, Pope, 150n

Bonmacip (son of Kalonymos bar Todros), 73, 84

Bonsenyor family, 128

Borrie, M.A.F., 62, 142

Bourquelot, Felix, 103n

Bracteates, 143

Brann, Marcus, 275, 276, 277

Bratislava (Hungary). See Pressburg/Pozsony (Hungary)

Braunschweig (Germany), 265–68; City Archives in, 266

Bregenz, Hugo von, 176fig.

Breslau/Wroclaw (Silesia): anti-Jewish feeling in, 149, 278; early history of, 278; Jewish seals of, 63, 149, 275–78

Bretholz, Berthold, 308

Brilling, Bernhard, 249, 251n, 260

British Library, London, 61, 62, 125, 133, 142, 143

Brittany, 90–93, 114–15

Brückner, Georg, 274

Brussels Archives, 64

Büchler, Sándor, 314n

Budapest (Hungary), 312, 326, 331fig.

Bull/bullock, 24, 79, 86

Burgundy: expulsion of Jews from, 90n; independence of, 115; Jewish conversion in, 88; Jewish seals of, 89fig., 114; moneylenders in, 36; wealthy Jews of, 37–38

Byfegin, 241, 242fig.

Byzantine Jewry from Justinian to the Fourth Crusade (Sharf), 371

Byzantine Jews, 369–72

Cahorsin, 40, 152n, 162, 234n, 288

Calvet Museum, Avignon, 105

Cantera y Burgos, Francisco, 126, 128, 130, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140

Canterbury Cathedral, England, 58

Capernaum, Galilee, 192fig.

Capitula de Judaeis, 44

Carcassonne (France), 117

Carinthia, Austria, 289, 290, 294–99

Carmoly, Eliakim, 111

Caron, M. (Émile), 63

Carpentras (France), 109

Casini, Bruno, 362

Castaigne, Eusèbe, 100

Castan, Auguste, 87, 89

Castellazzi, Laura, 338

Castile (Spain): coat of arms of, 125, 130; Don Abraham Seneor of, 128; Don Samuel Halevi of, 125; notarial system of, 122–23; status of Jews in, 32, 33

Castle, 125, 130, 133

Chaim, as surname, 67

Chaim son of the Sage Master Chaim Navon, 130

Chalafta son of David, 65

Chalmon the Jew, 182–83, 195–96, 195fig., 202

Champagne: fairs of, 37, 98, 103n, 114; persecution of Jews in, 116; Rabbinic center in, 62, 98

Chändel (Chändlein), 180, 193

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, 229, 230

Charles VI, King of France, 103

Charles IX, King of France, 303fig.

Charvet, J., 72

Chasdai, Judal (son of Reuben), 66–67

Chasdai ibn Shaprut, 66

Chatschim (Chaim), 289, 299, 300, 301

Chazan, Robert, 114n

Chenok (Henok), Count, 34, 313, 321–23, 322fig.

Chigi, Agostino, 353

Chirographs, 279

Chmiel, Adam, 364

Christianity: candelabra as symbol of, 105, 107; and influence on Jewish seals, 25, 27, 28. See also Christian seals; Church, the; Moneylenders, Christian

Christian seals: as anti-semitic, 112–14, 269–70; fig. differences from Jewish seals, 31; Jewish caricature on, 112; similarity to Jewish seals, 23, 46; and use of hexagram, 239n

Church, the: anti-semitism of, 269; under Avignon papacy, 151n; and campaign against moneylending, 340, 345, 352; and guilds, 151; and Holy Roman Empire, 152; land sales to, 50n; use of seals in, 146

Ciardini, Marino, 335

Citron, 28, 105

Clanchy, M.T., 51n

Clement VI, Pope, 216

Cluny, Abbey of, 36

Cluny Museum, Paris, 129

Coats of arms, 146–47, 282n

Cock. See Rooster

Coeur, Jacques, 38

Coins: Greek, 177fig.; Judaean, 303fig.; Palestinian, 339fig., 347, 348fig., 361fig., 362

Cologne (Germany): archbishops of, 254; Cathedral of, 269; dispute with protected Jews in, 252; Historical Archives in, 469; Jewish community seal of, 247–49; Jewish right to bear arms in, 32; Jewish seals of, 249–54, 248fig., 250fig.; Jude family in, 168, 282fig., 283–84; moneylenders of, 40, 234n, 251; as trade center, 210

Cologne City Museum, Monumenta Judaica exhibition of, 155, 216, 252

Colorni, Vittore, 337n, 341, 343

Community seals: of Augsburg, 168, 170, 171–72, 179–80, 185; of Cologne, 247–49; of Fürth, 207–8; of Regensburg, 181, 184, 192–94; of Seville, 133; of Sopron, 315; of Ulm, 208; of Verona, 336–38; of Vienna, 293–94

Comtadin-Carpentras Museum, 109

Comtat Venaissin, 104, 109

Conat, Abraham, 339

Conrad IV, Archbishop of Salzburg, 186–87

Constantini, Joshua, 131–32

Copin of Oxford, 46

Coreth, Anna, 189, 253n

Counter seal (contra sigillum), 22, 86, 94, 112

Court Jews, 271, 272

Crain/Kranj (Austria), 297

Crechet, Masip, 83–84

Crescas (Cresques), 85

Crescent moon, 27, 84, 100, 130, 135, 159, 174, 185, 190, 191, 193, 198, 200–201, 239, 301, 348

Cross, 29, 80, 86, 184, 195, 196, 200

Crown, 264, 274, 275

Crudo, Abraham son of Moses, 130

Czeike, Felix, 293

Dan, tribe of, 24

Daniel said the Jew, 280, 281fig., 282, 283

Daniel son of Samuel the Doctor, 348, 350fig.

Da Pisa, Isaac, 351, 352, 354–57, 354fig., 355fig., 358–62

Da Pisa, Jehiel (Vitale), 351–52, 357–58

Da Pisa, Jehiel (Vitale) Nissim, 352–53

Da Pisa, Samuel, 353, 360

Da Pisa family, 38, 351–53

Da Tivoli, David, 351, 353–57, 357fig., 360–62

David of Frankenberg, 239–40

David son of Joseph, 181, 183, 199–200, 200fig., 202

David son of Samuel, 76–78, 83, 87

David the Older (Walch), 212

Davis, M.D., 48, 56, 57

Delatas, Elia, 350n

De Laurière, Eusĕbe Jacob, 101, 102

Del Banco, Anselmo, 351, 353

Delitzche, Franz, 245n

Deloche, M., 107, 109

Derenbourg, Joseph, 75

Dexinger, Ferdinand, 369, 370, 371

Diederich, Toni, 252–53

Dietrich, Archbishop of Magdeburg, 271

Disslob (Disslaba, Tysslaba), daughter of Moses, 47, 181, 183, 198–99, 202

Dôle (France), 88, 89

Doorway (portal), 77, 78, 79, 80, 82

Dortmund (Germany), 256–58; Archives in, 258

Doubs Archives, 87, 88, 89

Dragon, 275–76

Drôme Archives, 86

Duddingstone (Scotland), 142

Duisburg (Germany), 254–56

Dulce, 138

Dulcie of the Portal, 47, 79–80, 138

Dupuy (Paul) Museum, Toulouse, 82

Dura Europos, synagogue at, 24–25n

Düsseldorf Main State Archives, 253, 255

Dutch Jews: as moneylenders, 279–80; seals of, 280–85

Eagle, 24, 27, 87, 88, 94, 126, 172

Eberstein, Count Johann von, 225fig.

Ecclesiastical seals, 23

Edelweiss, 158

Edward I, King of England, 55

Edward III, King of England, 211, 215

Egypt, 21

Eliab (Elais, Elie), 94

Elias of Vesoul (Héliot), 37

Elisabeth widow of Frankfort, 97fig.

El Tránsito synagogue (Toledo), 125, 126fig., 139

Emery, Richard W., 79, 80, 85, 117, 118

Encyclopaedia Judaica, 56, 260, 338, 353n

Engelbert II, Archbishop of Cologne, 234n

English Jews: Exchequer of, 36, 52–53; expulsion of, 40; as moneylenders, 38, 39–40; of noble rank, 33; population of, 38; research on, 58; seals of, 44–55; validity of seals of, 55–58; wealth of, 38

Engravers, 22

Ephraim son of Jacob (Gum pert), 258–60, 259fig.

Ernuszt, Janos, 313

Esztergom (Hungary), 312

Ethrog, 28

Ezekiel, 27

Family badge, 348, 349fig.

Family ensign. See Armes de famille

Fano, Joseph da, 34

Ferdinand I, King of Portugal, 366

Ferrizuel, Joseph, 132n

Finzi, Abraham Raphael, 349

Finzi, Angelo (Mordechai ben Abraham), 338–41, 338fig., 343

Finzi, Solomon, 339

Finzi family, 338–39, 348–49

Fish, 24, 157

Flanders: exclusion of Jews from, 279; seals of, 284–85

Fleur-de-lis. See Lily flower

Florin, 302, 303fig.

Forgery, 22

Fountain, 218n

Fowler, J.T., 50

Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles, 33, 348n

Framond, Martin de, 86

Frankfort (Germany): City Archives in, 233, 236; fairs at, 210

Frederick II, Duke of Austria, 55, 286, 313, 319

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, 150–51, 286, 319

Fredman, Count, 34, 325–26, 325fig.

Freimann, A., 152

French Jews: and anti-semitism, 111–14; and conditions of re-entry, 102; conversion of, 88; excommunication of dissenters by, 75; expulsion of, 37, 73–74, 75, 75, 103; incomplete records on, 60; and lack of monarchial control, 60; of Metz, 111, 114; as moneylenders, 36–37, 103; persecution of, 95–96, 116; personal seals of, 61–93, 114, 119; of Pontoise, 96; population of, 80; as Rabbis, 37, 62, 98; royal seal for debts of, 94–103, 118, 119; validity of seals, 114–16, 117–19; wealthy, 37–38. See also Champagne; Languedoc French National Archives, Paris, 77, 94, 96, 110, 112

French National Library, Paris, 66, 67, 100

Frey, P. Jean-Baptiste, 68, 105, 107

From Memory to the Written Record, England 1066–1307 (Clanchy), 51n

Fryde, E.B. and M.M., 215

Fürth (Bavaria), Jewish community seal of, 207–8

Gad, tribe of, 24

Gaedel son of Master Petter Halevi, 180, 185, 186fig., 187–88

Gallia Judaica (Gross), 73, 77, 84

Gascogne, 101

Gaspar Remiro, Mariano, 136

Gastein, Stephen von, 180, 187

Gaullieur, E., 101

Gauthier, Léon, 88, 89, 115

Gedaliah son of Jekuthiel, 65–66

Gelderland (Netherlands), 280–82, 281fig.

Gems, engraved, 21, 304

Gerhard of Speyer, Bishop, 213

German Jews: and anti-semitism, 269–70; as converts, 255–56, 261–62, 283, 284; as court Jews, 33, 271, 272; importance of seal to, 150; Judenmeister of, 296–97, 298; Judenrichter of, 297, 298, 304; as moneylenders, 35–36, 40–41, 148–49, 152, 154, 169, 208, 211–14, 268; persecutions of, 41, 151–52, 153–54, 154, 164, 182, 201, 203, 207, 210, 227, 232, 252, 267–68, 278 (see also Black Death massacres); protected (Schutzjude), 229–30, 251–52, 257, 278; as refugees, 152, 207; Rhineland settlement by, 209–10; sources on seals of, 155; status of, 154, 192, 194, 207, 215–16; taxation of, 151–52, 181, 183, 212, 215, 236; as traders in Holland, 284; validity of seals of, 148–50, 315 –community seals: of Augsburg, 168, 170, 171–72, 179–80, 185; of Cologne, 247–49; of Fürth, 207–8; of Regensburg, 181, 184 –seals of individuals: in Augsburg, 169–80; in Braunschweig, 265–68; in Cologne, 247–54; in Dortmund, 256–58; in Duisburg, 254–56; in Fürth, 207–8; in Ingolstadt, 204–5; in Koblenz, 217–25, 241–46; in Magdeburg, 271–72; in Mainz, 225–27; in Meiningen, 272–75; in Minden, 264–65; in Münster, 258–62; in Oettingen-Wallerstein, 205–7; in Regensburg, 180–202; in Rothenburg, 203–4; in Strasbourg, 227–31; in Überlingen, 164–68; in Ulm, 208

Germany. See Holy Roman Empire

Gervais the Jew, 106–7

Gèze, Louis, 78

Gillis die Juede, 283fig., 284–85

Giordano, Virgilio, 334

Gnendel the Jew, 182–83, 194–95, 195fig., 202

Goitein, S.D., 142, 375

Golb, Norman, 25, 276n, 371n

Gold, Hugo, 287n

Golden Bull edict, 316–17, 318, 319, 320

Golden penny offering, 152

Goldman, Bernard, 80

Gold seals, 21

Gombrich, E.H., 262

Gonzaga, Ludovica, 339–40, 343, 345

Gonzaga Archives, 338, 341, 343

Goodenough, Erwin R., 80

Gottschalk of Deutz, 238

Graetz, H., 70

Graven image, 61, 63

Graz, Styria (Austria), 299–305

Great seal, 21

Gregory DC, Pope, 317, 319, 320, 367

Gregory XI, Pope, 272

Gregory the Great, Pope, 31–32

Griffin, 65–66

Gross, Henri, 72–73, 74, 77–78, 79, 84, 110n

Gruelhut, Lord Busso, 186fig.

Grunwald, Max, 289, 303, 304, 319

Grünwald, Philipp, 330

Guggenheim-Grünberg, Florence, 160

Guilds, 151–52, 153, 154, 182, 183, 213n

Guillaume, Cardinal, 242fig.

Guillevic, Jeanne C., 82

Gumprecht (Mordechai), 156, 160

Gutkind (Gutkint), 272–75, 273fig.

Gutmann, 204–5

Gutmann, Joseph, 27, 196n

Guyenne, province of, 100–101

Haggadah, from Sarajevo, 81fig.

Hagin, 45

Haim ben Hahet-resh Haim Navon, 129–30

Halafta Bar David, 64–65

Halberstadt Cathedral, anti-semitic seal of, 269–70

Halevi, Don Samuel, 125–27

Halevi, Todros, 68, 70, 125–27

Halevi Abulafia family, 124–25

Halle (Germany), 271, 272

Hamman Lif (Tunisia): inscription from, 109fig.

Hannan-Stavroulakis, Nikos, 371

Hanukkah lamp, 82fig.

Hapsburgs, consolidation of power, 288, 316

Haranc of Segré (Aaron son of Judah), 90–93, 92fig, 114

HaRaSH (Ha-Sar), 61

Hartwich of Münster, 31, 262fig.

Hartwich said the Jew, 260–63

Hat. See Jew’s hat (Judenhut)

Hauteyn, Hamo, 52

Hebrew Deeds of English Jews before 1290 (Davis), 56, 57

Hebrew Manuscript Painting (Gutmann), 196n

Heinrich II of Cologne, 32

Heinrich of Mainz, Archbishop, 214

Heinrich VI of Silesia, 33

Héliot of Vesoul, 32

Henneberg, counts of, 272–75

Henry II, King of England, 38, 39

Henry III, King of England, 39

Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor, 215, 223

Hesse State Archives, 238, 239

Hibbert, A.B., 152, 153n

Hieronymus of Prague, 332fig.

History of the Jews in Italy (Roth), 338

Hoffmann, Moses, 32, 33

Holy Roman Empire: charter to Jews in, 319, 321; disunity of, 151; main cities of, 168–69; and Papacy, 150; patricians vs guilds in, 151, 153–55, 213n; peoples of, 146n; uses of seal in, 146; validity of seal in, 147–50. See also Austrian Jews; German Jews; Hungarian Jews

Horns, animal, 281

Huiskes, Dr., 249, 253

Human form, depicted on seals, 28–29, 50–51, 241, 243, 259, 261, 262

Hungarian Jews: and connection with Austria, 316; Count Altman, 323; Count Chenok, 321–23; Count Fredman, 325–26; Count Samuel, 324–25; Count Teka, 316, 317–21; destruction of archives on, 314, 324; and Golden Bull edict, 316–17, 318, 319, 320; legal status of, 312–13, 314; mint lessees of, 317, 321, 322, 323; 324, 325–26; of noble rank, 34, 313, 316–17, 318, 322, 324n, 325; origins of, 312; prefects of, 313–14, 326; seals of, 314, 315–16, 324, 326–32; settlements of, 312; and use of hexagram, 69; validity of seals of, 315

Hungary, National Archives of, Budapest, 327

Hyrsch son of Isaac (Hyschl, Hirsl), 302–4

Immanuel of Rome, 336

Ingolstadt (Bavaria), 204–5

Innocent III, Pope, 102–3n, 116, 146, 287

Inscriptions on seals: in Arabic, 142; design of, 23; in Hebrew, 22, 29; in Latin, 22, 25, 29; in Yiddish prototype, 277. See also Names; Surname

Institutum Judaicum Delitzschianum, 245n

Isaac, 260

Isaac ben Joseph, 160

Isaac Judah son of Judah Lobel, 69–70

Isaac of Trier, 212, 218

Isaac son of Jacob, 86–87

Isaac the Jew (Ysaach), 292–93

Ishmael son of Isaac, 297–99

Islam, Jewish seals in, 373–75

Israel, O., 267–68

Israel, symbol of, 28

Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 124, 129

Israel son of Samuel/Susman, 157, 160

Issachar, Tribe of, 24

Isserl (Isserlein), 301

Isserlein, Israel, 62

Italian Jews: and accumulation of wealth, 353; of Byzantine Italy, 371; and campaign against moneylenders, 340, 345, 352; da Pisa family of, 351–53; dynastic marriages of, 353n; Finzi family of, 338–40, 349; Finzi-Norsa dispute with, 349; integration into society of, 336, 343; as moneylenders, 35n, 38; of noble rank, 33–34; Norsa family of, 345–47, 348–51; pilgriamages to Holy Land, 347; Renaissance seals of, 336–62; and use of notary, 334–35

Italy: lack of importance of seal in, 335; notarial system in, 334; validity of seal in, 334

Ivanyi, Béla, 330–31

Jachia, Don Solomon, 33, 367

Jäcklin (Jacob), 208

Jacob, 136–37

Jacob bar Machir, 117

Jacobi, Theodor, 308

Jacob of Ful, 180, 188–189

Jacob of Gulche. See Jacob son of Joel Jacob of London (Jacob of Oxford, Jacob of Lundres), 45–46, 47fig., 300n

Jacob of Nantes. See Jacob son of Judah Jacob of Regensburg, 186–87

Jacob son of Daniel (Nathanael), 211, 212, 214, 215, 216–17, 220, 221fig., 222–23

Jacob son of Jekuthiel, 66n

Jacob son of Joel (Jacob of Gulche), 241–44, 243fig.

Jacob son of Judah (Jacob of Nantes), 90–93, 92fig., 114

Jacob son of Mendel, 314, 326–32, 343

Jacob son of Solomon, 157–58, 161, 162fig.

Jacobs, Joseph, 33, 38, 142, 143

Jacob the Scribe, 222

Jäger, Carl, 208

Jana son of Maul, 301

Jean said son of Jueten, 284

Jechiel son of Menachem Chaim, 67

Jekelin (Jeckelin) of Strasbourg, 213

Jekuthiel son of Bienush/Kussiel, 277–78

Jenkinson, C.H., 52

Jesse (Yesse), 264–65, 265fig.

Jewish Encyclopedia, 77, 159, 338n

Jewish National and University Library, 338

Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 244

Jews (Jewry): Christian official over, 297, 304–5; community leader of, 230–31, 296–97, 333–14, 326; converts, 88, 255–56; 261–62, 283, 284, 313, 365; derivation of names, 24; family badge of, 348; high officials of, 33, 287, 290–92, 319, 364; integration into medieval society, 23–24; international nature of, 143; as landowners, 32, 165n; as moneylenders (see Moneylenders, Jewish); of noble rank, 33–34, 313, 316–17, 318–19, 322, 324n, 325, 367; oil painting of, 346, 346fig., 347fig.; pledge of, 278; right to bear arms, 32–33. See also specific nationalities

Jew’s hat (Judenhut), 27, 50, 156, 158, 160n, 167–68, 172, 174, 185, 190, 239, 241, 256, 258, 259, 261, 262, 263fig., 280, 283, 284, 306, 306fig.

Jews of Perpignan (Emery), 79

Joachim II, Prince Elector of Brandenburg, 69

Jochebed, 137–38

Johan the Jew, 281–83

Johannes dictus Juetenzoen, 283fig.

John, King of England, 55

John II, King of France, 103

John II, King of Portugal, 32

John of Capistrano, 278

Jordan the Jew, 266–68, 266fig.

Josce, 86

Joseal (Joselin) son of Isaac, 238–40, 239fig.

Josel of Rosheim, 228–31

Joseph, tribe of, 24

Joseph (of Koblenz), 223

Joseph (Josel) of Rosheim, 228–31

Joseph Ibn Ezra, 33

Joseph son of Judah, 129

Joseph son of Moses, 62

Judah, the tribe of, 24

Judah Aben Menir, 366, 367

Judah son of Abraham, 136

Judah son of Baruch Hacohen, 169, 170, 174, 175–76, 175fig., 177, 178

Jude family, of Cologne, 168, 283–84, 282fig.

Judenburg, Styria (Austria), city seal of, 305–7, 306fig.

Judenhut. See Jew’s hat

Judenmeister, 296–97, 296fig., 298

Judenrichter, 297, 298, 304

Juedlin (Judah son of Baruch Hacohen), 169, 170, 174, 175–76, 175fig.

Jutta (Jutha), 213, 254

Kahn, Salamon, 224

Kalonymos son of Solomon, 21, 85

Kalonymos I, son of Todros, 73

Kalonymus II, son of Todros, 73, 75

Kalonymos III, son of Todros, 22, 36, 71, 72, 73–75, 116, 118, 119, 185

Karl IV, Emperor, 170, 171

Karlsruhe Main County Archives, 167

Kaufmann, David, 127

Keuman, Abraham A., 32

King, C.W., 55

Kisch, Alexander, 157, 159

Kisch, Guido, 148, 149

Klagenfurt, Carinthia (Austria), 294–97

Klagsbald, Victor, 129

Knights Templars, order of, 75n, 96

Kober, Adolf, 32, 169n, 188n, 246, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254

Koblenz (Germany), 216–25, 241–46; Main Provincial Archives in, 216, 219, 220, 222, 223, 224, 241

Koestler, Arthur, 312, 317n

Kohn, Roger, 244

Kohn, Sámuel, 314n, 315

Konigshofen, Jacob von, 154n

Konikoff, Carmel, 244n

Kosice (Kassa) City Archives, Czechoslovakia, 327

Kracauer, I., 152

Kreuznach (Germany), 231–32

Kurkutes, Theudatos, 369–72

Labouret Collection, Paris, 65

Ladislaus IV, King of Hungary, 325

Laing, Henry, 143

Lamb/Lamp (Asher son of Pesach/Solomon) 169, 170, 173, 174, 175fig., 177, 178, 205, 251

Land ownership, 32

Langmuir, Gavin I., 102n

Languedoc: Chalafta family in, 65; Jewish community of, 116–17; Jewish conversion in, 88; Kalonymos family in, 72–76; language of, 72; and loss of independence, 117; moneylending in, 36; Pamiers in, 78. See also Narbonne (France)

Lantilla, Philippe de, 240fig.

Latten matrice, 21

Legend. See Inscriptions on seals

Leopold V, Duke of Austria, 286

Lesier (Lesyer), 296fig.

Levi, tribe of, 24, 28

Levy, Moritz Abraham, 77, 125n

Lily flower, 25, 55, 68, 77, 125–26, 127, 130, 301–2

Lindo, E.H., 366–68

Lion, 61, 62, 70n, 89, 138, 159, 224, 241, 281, 330; as Christian symbol, 27; of Judah, 24, 46, 74–75, 110, 175; rampant, 64, 65, 69, 72, 76, 175, 348; symbolic uses of, 24

Lipman, V.D., 52

Loans, Elijah ben Moses, 229

Loans, Jacob, 34n

Loanz (Loans), as surname, 229n

Loanz, Joseph ben Gershon (Josel of Rosheim), 228–31

Lobel, as surname, 69–70

Loeb, Isidor, 110n, 127

Loewe, Herbert, 46, 48, 52, 56, 142, 143, 249

Loire-Atlantique Provincial Archives, 90

Lombards, 35n, 103, 111, 152n, 211n, 216, 345

Longpérier, Adrien de, 67, 74, 75, 77, 79, 83, 84, 85, 104, 106, 131

Lorenzo the Magnificent, 352

Larimer, M., 110

Lorraine: Historical Museum in, 65, 72, 135; Region Archives in, 241

Louis VIII, King of France, 102, 119

Louis IX, King of France, 102, 103

Low Countries: Jewish moneylenders in, 279–80; Jewish seals in, 280–85

Lowenthal, Marvin, 154

Lübeck (Germany), coat of arms of, 228fig.

Lublin, Count, 34, 287, 290–91, 314n, 322, 324

Lucca (Italy), 351–62; State Archives in, 351, 362

Ludwig, Emperor, 164, 166, 170

Lula, 28, 105

Luther, Martin, 229, 231

Luxembourg, 242

Luzzati, Michele, 355

Magdalen College (Oxford), 46, 58

Magdeburg (Germany), 271–72; State Archives in, 269

Magdeburg law, 148

Mainz (Germany), 225–27

Mandl, Bernát, 328, 330

Manessier of Vesoul, 37, 88

Manfredi, Bartolomeo, 341

Mankint bar Zerach, 227

Mannekint, 213, 226

Mantegna, Andrea, 346

Mantua (Italy), 338–51, 340fig., 342fig., 346fig.

Margarita, Antonious, 230

Marian cult, 25

Marseilles (France), 85, 116

Mast, 275

Matrices, 21–22

Mattathias (Deodatus), 94, 96

Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, 69, 313, 326

Maximilian I, Emperor of Austria, 303

Medieval Jewry in Northern France (Chazan), 114

Mediterranean Society, A (Goitein), 375

Meiller, Andreas von, 286n

Meiningen (Germany), 272–75; City Archives in, 272

Meir Hesse, 181, 183, 201

Meir of Rothenburg (ben Baruch), Rabbi, 203

Meir son of Asher Halevi, 167–68

Meir son of Todros Abulafia, 61

Meisel, Mordechai, 159

Mendel, 314, 326, 327

Mendel, Jacob, 314, 326–32, 330fig., 343

Mendel, Pierre, 111

Mendel family of Buda, 314, 326–32

Menesier the Jew of Dôle, 87–88, 114

Menorah, 28, 104, 105, 107

Menorat ha Moor (Al-Nakawa), 139

Meret (seal cutter), 23

Merolt son of Joseph Halevi, 167

Merton, Walter de, 46

Merton College (Oxford), 45, 47fig.

Merwas Bible, 68

Meshullam son of Kalonymos son of Todros, 73, 74

Messenger, authorization of, 146

Metz (France): anti-semitic seal of, 111–14, 269; City Archives in, 111, 112; Jewish community seal of, 112fig.

Meyer, Christian, 169, 179

Meyer of Siegburg, 213, 253, 254

Meyer son of Judah, 64, 65

Michel of Bingen, 215, 219, 220

Michel the Jew, 176–77

Milano, Attilio, 335

Mildegode the Jew, 46–47

Millás Vallicrosa, José, 126, 128, 130, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140

Milz, Dr., 256

Minden (Germany), 264–65; City Archives in, 264

Minne, Mrs., 160

Moellin (Maharil), Jacob, 62

Moiroudi the Jew, 87–88, 114

Moneylenders, Christian: Cahorsin, 40, 152n, 162, 234n, 288; in Germany, 211n, 216; Jacques Coeur as, 38; Lombards as, 35n, 103, 111, 152n, 211n, 216, 345; monopoly of, 35; papal userers as, 35n

Moneylenders, Jewish: in Austria, 286–87, 288–89; bills, notes, and chirographs of, 279; Christian partners of, 188, 272n; competition from Christian userers, 35–36, 162–63, 183, 235; debt collection by, 36, 148–49, 292; debtor riots against, 36, 149, 179; in England, 38, 39–40; family relationships between, 190, 201, 202, 208, 211–12, 304, 353n; in France, 36–37, 103; in Germany, 35–36, 40–41, 148–49, 152, 154, 169, 208, 211–14, 268; international movement of, 289; Italian, 35n, 38, 340, 345, 352; in Low Countries, 279–80; monopoly by, 234, 286, 313; periods and places of prominence, 35–36; in Spain, 41; Seuss family as, 288–89; women as, 41, 47, 206, 213

Montpellier (France), 117

Monumenta Hungarian Judaic, 314, 318n, 322n, 325, 330, 367

Monumenta Judaica, 32, 47, 154, 168, 216, 284

Moon. See Crescent moon

Moravian Jews, 308

Mordechai ben Abraham (Angelo Finzi), 338–41, 338fig.

Mordechai son of Menachem/Gumprecht, 156, 160–61

Morinot de Tourzel, 282fig.

Mortgages, 32, 50, 96

Moses of Bristol, 45

Moses of Coucy, 61, 62

Moses son of Isaac (Mussin), 211, 219

Moses son of Jacob, 224–25

Moses son of Joseph Halevi, 166–67

Moses son of Menachem (Mose), 156, 160

Moses son of Meyer (Moyszyn), 253–54

Moses son of Nachman. See Nachmanides

Muesche (Musch), 187, 199n

Munkácsi, Ernö, 327n, 328

Münster (Germany), 258–62, 259fig., 261fig.; North Rhine-Westphalia State Archives in, 259, 260

Musch (Moshe), 289, 299–301, 300fig.

Musch grandson of Isserl, 301

Muschlein, 295–96

Mussin (Moses son of Isaac), 211, 219

Nachman son of Aaron, 301–2, 303, 304–5

Nachman son of Jacob, 180, 190–92, 191fig.

Nachmanides, 41–42, 78, 124

Nadav, M., 338

Nagy, Loránt, 321, 324n, 325

Names used on seals: armes parlantes, 67–68, 70, 77, 79, 183, 84, 85, 127, 174, 175, 205, 251, 330; of father, 29–33; nicknames, 204, 220–21n, 260; place of residence in, 46, 48, 242; in the vernacular, 79, 84, 85, 88; See also Ashkenazi names; Surname, use of

Nantes (France), 90, 92fig.

Naphtali, tribe of, 24

Narbonne (France), 117, 118; Jewish population of, 80; Kalonymos family of, 72–76; Municipal Archives in, 71, 79; Museum, 85; status of Jews in, 116

Natan (of Kreuznach), 231–32

Nathan son of Frederic, 54–55

National Archives of Hungary, Budapest, 327

Nehemiah ben Kohen Tzedek, 374

Neuman, Abraham A., 78, 123, 127, 130

Nickel, 287, 290, 291, 314n, 322, 324

Nijhoff, A., 282

Nîmes (France), 116

Nizami, 374n

Norsa, Abramo Emanuele, 349–50, 350fig.

Norsa, Daniele, 345–46

Norsa, Immanuele, 348–49, 352, 353

Norsa, Jedidiah Solomon, 347

Norsa, Leone and Jacob, 343–45, 347, 348

Norsa, Noah Manuel, 33–34

Norsa, Paolo, 345, 347

Norsa family, 335, 345–47, 346fig., 347fig., 348–51, 349fig.

Northampton (England), 52

Notarial system, 122, 147, 305, 334, 335

Nottingham (England), 48, 49fig.

Obernai (Germany), 229–30

Oettingen-Wallerstein (Bavaria), 205–7

Oldenbourg, Zoé, 74

Olive tree, 28

Olivier le Juede, 283fig., 284

Orgon (France), 104

Ottaker II, Duke of Austria, 220fig., 287, 288, 290, 316

Otto, Heinrich, 226

Otto III, Duke of Bavaria, 185–87

Ouverleux, Émile, 242

Ox, 27, 208, 229, 238

Oxford (England), 45, 46, 52, 58

Palestinian coins, 347, 348fig., 361fig., 362

Pamiers, Languedoc (France), 78, 118

Papacy. See Church, the

Papal bullae, 22

Papal userers. See Moneylenders, Christian

Paraige of Jewry, Metz, 111–12, 112fig.

Paris (France): Jewish quarter of, 96; moneylenders in, 36–37; Royal seal for Jews in, 94–95, 95fig.

Parkes, James, 35–36, 214

Passover marking seal, 134–35

Pastorini, Pastorino de’, 350fig.

Peacock, 218n

Pedro IV (The Cruel), King of Castile, 125

Peppercorn, Martin, 205n

Perpignan (France), 79–80, 84, 117, 118

Peruzzi banking house, 216

Personal seal, 23

Pesach Peter, 175n

Pesach son of Abraham Hacohen, 175n

Pesach son of Moses, 175n

Petachia of Regensburg, 373, 374

Peter, Archbishop of Magdeburg, 271, 272

Petter son of Moses, 181, 201–2

Petter son of Moses Halevi, 180, 184–85, 186fig., 187–88

Pfefferkorn, 205–6, 206fig.

Pfefferkorn, Johannes, 205n

Philip IV (The Fair), King of France, 37, 73–74, 75n, 98, 116, 150–51n

Philip Augustus, King of France, 61, 95, 101

Pimenta Ferro, Maria José, 366, 368

Pincas, 308–9

Pirenne, Henri, 88, 150, 209, 279n

Poitiers, Count Aymar de, 240fig.

Poliakov, Léon, 335n

Polish Jews, 364–65

Pontoise (France), 96

Portal: as symbol, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82; as surname, 77–78, 79, 80

Portraits: on medals, 349–50, 350fig.; on seals, 262, 328, 331–32

Portuguese Jews: high position of, 33, 367; and role of chief rabbi, 366; and validity of seals, 367–68

Prayer shawl, 241–42, 243

Pressburg/Pozsony (Hungary), 312, 315, 316

Privaturkunden des Mittelalters, Die (Redlich), 146n

Privy seal, 21

Proving (France), 98, 99fig., 102

Purnel son of Matthias, 55

Rabbis: in French centers of learning, 62, 98; German, 203; use of income from Champagne fairs, 37, 114; use of seals, 41–42, 61–62, 124, 160, 366

Rádóczy, Gyula, 320–31, 322, 323, 324

Ram, 130

Rampart (barrière), 83

Rashi (Solomon son of Isaac), 45, 62n, 98

Raszcicz, Bohadamer, 364–65

Raymond V, Count of Toulouse, 117

Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse, 116

Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse, 117

Redlich, Oswald, 146n

Regensburg (Bavaria): Cathedral in, 269; Jewish community of, 181–83; Jewish community seal of, 181, 184, 192–94; Jewish moneylenders of, 40, 41, 183; Jewish seals of, 180–81, 183–202, 186fig., 191fig., 195fig., 197fig., 200fig.

Regensburg and Augsburg (Straus), 169

Regné, Jean, 73, 74, 76, 84, 117

Reichel, A., 236

Reimann, Dr., 258n

Renaud of Burgundy, 173fig.

Resmini, Bertram, 224

Reubeni, David, 353

Reynette (Reyne) of Koblenz, 188, 224, 225

Rezak, Brigitte. See Bedos, Brigitte Rhineland: Jewish moneylenders of, 211–14; Jewish seals of, 216–56; Jewish settlements in, 209–10; regions and cities of, 209

Richard I, King of England, 38, 55

Richard II, Duke of Normandy, 66n

Rindfleisch persecutions, 169, 172, 182, 203

Ritual seal, 54

Robert II, King of France, 66n

Rome, use of seal in, 146

Rooster (cock), 176, 195, 202

Rose: five-petaled, 91, 196; symbolic uses of, 25

Rosenberg, Arthur, 298, 304

Rosenthal, Gilbert S., 353n

Rosette, 197, 198, 199, 202

Rosi, Asher, 69

Rossell, N’Astruc Isaac, 134

Roth, Cecil, 45, 46, 48, 50n, 52, 54, 56, 62, 138, 335, 338, 339, 343, 346, 347, 353, 367

Rothenburg (Bavaria), 203–4; City Museum in, 203

Rouen (France), Jewish academy of, 25

Royal seal, use of, 23

Rudolf, Holy Roman Emperor, 151, 288, 316

Rudolf III, Margrave of Baden, 212

Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, 288

Ruebel, Karl, 256–57, 258

Rutinger, Matthäus and Wilhelm, 182

Saadia son of Eleazar, 181, 183, 196–98, 197fig., 199

Saadia the Jew, 196

Sabot, Elias, 33

Sacred Portal, The (Goldman), 80

Saige, Gustave, 74, 78, 79, 106, 118

Saint-Jean d’Angély (France), 86

Saintonge, province of, 86

Saints, symbols for, 27

Salemann of Wittlich (Solomon son of Samuel), 212, 217–19

Salmann of Bingen, 214

Samson of Mühldorf, 186, 188

Samson son of Samson, 50n, 61, 62–63

Samuel, Count, 324–25

Samuel ben Ali ha-Levi, 374n

Samuel of Frankfort, 229

Samuel (Smol) of Derenburg, 41, 271–72

Samuel son of Abraham (Samuel from Homberg), 238, 239–40, 239fig.

Samuel son of Isaac, 211, 219, 220, 221fig.

Sancho I, King of Portugal, 33, 367

Sancho II, King of Portugal, 367

San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 337fig.

Sarajevo Haggadah, 81fig.

Sarolli, Gian R., 357

Savonarola, Girolamo, 340

Schaif, Bunheim, 246

Schaif, Simcha (Bunheim), 251, 252–53

Schaifsoen, Selichman (Aaron son of Master Simcha Tson), 249–53, 250fig.

Schiff, Mortimer, 245

Schilling, Konrad, 216

Schlom (Solomon), 286, 291, 293

Schlumberger, Gustave, 66, 67, 101, 131

Schnurrer, L., 203–4

Scholem, Gershom, 68

Schreckenstein, K.F. Roth von, 164, 165n, 166, 167

Schuermans, Henri, 64

Schutzjude, 229–30, 251–52, 257, 278

Schwarzenberg, Tilmann von, 218, 219

Scott, Samuel Parsons, 122

Seal of Solomon. See Star, pentagram

Seals: artistic quality of, 23; categories of, 23; common usage of, 233; devices on, 23; double-faced, 21, 72; engraved gem as, 21, 304; engravers of, 22; evolution of, 236–37; impression of, 22; legal value of, 55–58, 90, 93, 114–16, 117–19, 122–23, 147–50, 249, 304–5, 315, 367–68; as means of authentication, 146, 147; metals in, 21; origins of, 21; period of use, 21; shape of, 21, 236; as sign of identification, 146; similarity of Jewish and Christian, 23, 31, 46; as status symbol, 58, 119, 123; theft of, 149, 246; types of, 21; use in moneylending, 36; witnessing function of, 146, 147. See also Christian seals; Community seals; Counter seal (contra sigillum); Forgery; Inscriptions on seals; Portraits, on seals; Rabbis, use of seals; Ritual seal; Rome, use of seal in; Shield; Signet ring; Symbols, use of on seals; Women, as seal owners

Sefer Mitzvot Katan, 160

Segré (France), 90

Seibt, Werner, 369, 370, 371

Seneor, Abraham, 128

Seneor son of Master Don Samuel, 127–29

Sephardic Museum, Toledo, 134n, 138

Sepher Mitzvoth Gadol (Great Book of Precepts), 61

Seville (Spain), community seal of, 133; Provincial Museum of Archaeology in, 127

Shabbetai Beer, Elijah ben, 33

Sharf, Andrew, 371

Sheep, 251

Shetaroth: Hebrew Deeds of English Jews before 1290 (Davis), 48

Shield, 21, 23, 31–34, 36, 74, 76, 85, 118, 131, 156, 157, 167, 185, 190, 191, 222, 236, 238, 280, 281

Shield of David. See Star, hexagram Shimshon bar Shimshon, 50n, 61–63

Shoshan family, 25, 127

Siete Partidas, Las (The Seven Books), 122–23

Sigillum authenticum, 147

Signet ring, 21, 61, 63, 107–10, 130, 136–38, 146, 275–77, 301–2, 304, 305, 327, 332, 338, 343, 356, 362, 366

Sign of Solomon. See Star, pentagram Lignum rebellion’s, 334

Silesian Museum of Art and Antiquities, 275

Simon, Jew of Herford, 260

Simon Judas of Trote, 110

Simon of Aragon, 318, 319, 320

Simon of Günzburg, 238, 343

Simon of Siegburg, 213n

Simonsohn, Shlomo, 338

Snake, 24

Solomon son of Gedaliah, 67–69, 127

Solomon son of Isaac, 142

Solomon son of Isaac (Rashi), 45, 62n, 98

Solomon son of Joshua, 82–83, 83fig.

Solomon son of Samuel (Salemann of Wittlich), 212, 217–19

Sombart, Werner, 279n

Sopron (Hungary), 315

Spanish Jews: community seal of, 133; official rank of, 33; Passover marking seal of, 134–35; personal seals of, 124–32, 136–40; validity of seals of, 41, 122–23

Specker, Dr., 208

Speyer (Germany), 149

Sponheim, Count Johann von, 231, 232

Squirrel, 220

Star: crescent moon grouping with, 27, 83–84, 100, 135, 160, 174, 185, 190, 193, 198, 201, 301, 348; hexagram, 27, 66, 67, 68, 69, 87, 109, 125, 134, 191, 192, 202, 217, 218, 220, 239, 241, 348; pentagram, 66, 68, 69, 135, 191, 192, 199, 246; symbolic use of, 24

Starrs and Jewish Charters (Loewe), 52

Steinschneider, Moritz, 167, 207

Stengers, Jean, 279

Stephen, Saint, stoning by Jews of, 113–14, 269–70, 27ofig.

Stern, Moritz, 247

Stetten, Paul von, 172n

Steuss, David, 76, 342, 288–89

Stokes, H.P., 48, 49

Strasbourg (Germany): banishment of Jews, 227, 228fig.; Jewish moneylenders of, 40, 212–13, 226–27; Jewish seals of, 227–31; Municipal Archives in, 227, 228, 229; social conflict in, 213n

Straus, Raphael, 169, 174, 179n, 186n

Strauss, Isaac, 129

Styria, Austria: expulsion of Jews from, 302n; Jewish seals of, 302–7, 300fig.; National Archives in, 301, 302

Suezzlein (Suesskind), 294–96

Surname, use of: Chaim, 67; Chasdai, 66; Créchent (Crescent), 83–84; Loans, 229n; Lobel, 69–70; nickname as, 220–21n; Portal, 77–79, 80; taken from house, 250–51n

Susman, 157, 160

Süsskind the Jew of Trimberg, 263fig.

Switzerland, Jewish seals from, 156–63

Symbols, use of on seals: bull horns (anders), 281; Christian, 25–27; 31, 218n, 236; Christian influence on, 28, 184; omitted, 28, 31. See also Anchor; Armes parlantes; Badge of shame; Bird; Bull/bullock; Casde; Crescent moon; Cross; Crown; Doorway (portal); Eagle; Fish; Human form, depicted on seals; Jew’s hat (Judenhut); Lily flower; Lion; Menorah; Ox; Prayer shawl; Rooster (cock); Rose, symbolic uses of; Rosette; Snake; Squirrel; Star, symbolic use of; Tree; Twelve Tribes, symbols of; Wheel

Szerencsés, Imre, 313

Tannhäuser, 287

Tárrega (Spain), 139–40

Tax farming, 37n

Teck, Duke Friedrich von, 170

Teka, Count, 34, 286, 291–92, 293, 313, 316, 317–21, 321fig.

Tetradrachm from Gela, 79

Thompson, James W., 279n

Tobi(ah) son of Isaac, 84

Tobiah son of Master Chiyya, 63–64

Todros son of Kalonymos, 36, 71–73, 75–76, 185

Todros son of Samuel Halevi Abulafia, 23

Toledo (Spain): Al-Nakawa family of, 139; El Tránsito synagogue in, 125, 126fig., 139; Halevi Abulafia family of, 125; Shoshan family of, 127

Toul (France), 113

Toulouse (France), 83, 84

Town seal, 61

Tree, 128–29

Trier (Germany): Archbishop Baldwin of, 214–16; Jewish money lenders of, 211–12

Tripartite Mahzor, 158n

Trnava (Hungary), 312

Twelve tribes, symbols of, 24

Tyrol, 290

Überlingen, Württemberg (Germany), 160; Jewish seals of, 164–68; massacre of Jews in, 164

Ulm (Germany), 41, 208

Ulrich I of Halberstadt, 270fig.

Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 320

Urban IV, Pope, 325 Urkundenbuch der Stadt Augsburg (Meyer), 169

Urry, William, 58

Userers. See Moneylenders, Christian; Moneylenders, Jewish

Valvasor, Baron Johann Weichard, 297, 298

Van den Brincken, Anna-Dorothee, 155, 217, 221n, 222, 223, 227, 247, 249, 252

Vaucluse, department of, 78

Veissière, Abbé Michel, 98

Veivel the Jew, 200–201, 181, 183

Verona (Italy), community seal of, 336–38

Vesica matrix, 21

Vienna (Austria): City and County Archives in, 293; House, Court and State Archives in, 291, 292, 295, 299, 305; Jewish community seal of, 293–94, 294fig.; Jewish moneylenders of, 41, 286–87; Jewish officials in, 286, 287; Jewish seals from, 290–93; persecution of Jews in, 288, 289–90; State Archives in, 179, 182, 185, 188; strategic importance of, 286

Vine leaves and clusters, 136

Vivelin the Red, 40–41, 211, 212, 216, 221–22, 223

Vivlin son of Isaac, 159, 162

Vivlin son of Moses/Vifli, 158–59, 162

Volterra, Manuele da, 351, 353

Vyvelin of Dortmund, 258

Vyvus of Andernach, 256n

Vyvus of Cologne, 251, 252

Vyvus of Dortmund, 256–57

Walram, Archbishop of Cologne, 254

Wax impression, 22

Weisskirchen (Moravia), 69

Wenceslaus, King of Germany, 181, 183, 184

Westminster Abbey, 48, 58, 63

Wheel, 233, 236

Wild, Dr., 232

Wilson, D., 142

Witnessing, vs. sealing, 62

Witte, J. de, 84

Wolf, 24

Wolf, Albert, 77

Wolfel, 322, 323

Women: economic power of, 189, 193; as moneylenders, 41, 47, 206, 213; as seal owners, 47, 80, 188, 224, 254

Wroclaw (Poland). See Breslau/Wroclaw (Silesia)

Wroclaw City Archives, 277

Wuerfel, Andreas, 207

Württemberg: Jewish seals of, 164–68, 208; Überlingen massacre in, 164

Wyvern, 55

Yacob. See under Jacob

Yearbook of Austrian Byzantine Studies, 369

Yehiyel bar Menahem Haim, 67

Yehuda ben Abraham, 136

Yerushalmi, Yosef H., 338

Yitzhak. See under Isaac

Yomtob, Rabbi, 45

York Chest, 52

Yosi son of Bonefay, 48–50, 57

Zacos, G., 369

Zebulun, tribe of, 24

Zimmer, Theresia, 224

Zuckerman, Arthur J., 36, 75n

Zurich (Switzerland), 160–62, 161fig., 162fig.; State Archives in, 156, 157, 158, 160

Zurich SeMak, 160

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780814344859
MARC Record
OCLC
1055142843
Pages
387-399
Launched on MUSE
2018-10-02
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-SA
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