publisher colophon


Jewish seals from England in the period preceding the expulsion of the Jews by the Crown in 1290 are very rare. No organized group of Jews resided in England before the arrival of William the Conqueror in 1066. Their readmittance was not officially sanctioned until 1655, so that any seals known must date from the late eleventh, twelfth, or thirteenth century. In practice, the use of starrs,* or Hebrew documents, and contracts in Latin or French dealing with money matters, including real estate transactions and sales of agricultural products—mainly corn, wheat, and rye—developed in the late twelfth century. The hundred-year period 1175–1275 (in 1275 Jews were forbidden to lend money at interest) is where we must look for signs of Jewish seals. In 1194 the Capitula de Judaeis, loosely translated as the ‘Ordinance of the Jews,” was established under which all such documents were ordered to be registered; thereafter the records are more complete.

*From the Hebrew shtar(s.) or shetaroth (pl.), a writ, document, or deed.

*From the Hebrew shtar(s.) or shetaroth (pl.), a writ, document, or deed.

Previous Chapter

System of Transliteration

Next Chapter

Personal Seals

Additional Information

MARC Record
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Creative Commons
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.