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A scholarly study involving much research is more of a group project than an individual work. The author has been engaged in the writing of this book for over a decade, an effort which required an international canvass of every significant archive, library, and museum in western and central Europe. The cooperation in non-communist areas, especially Austria and West Germany—excluding the important city archives at Worms—has been extraordinary, that in communist areas, with a few exceptions noted below, dismal. The most prominent contributors are listed here, followed by those aiding in translation and photography.

Austria. Styrian Land Archives of Graz: Dr. Gerhard Pferschy; Dr. Heinrich Purkarthofer. House, Court, and State Archives of Vienna: Dr. Leopold Auer; Dr. Anna Benna; Dr. Anna Coreth; Dr. Christiane Thomas. Austrian State Archives of Vienna: Dr. Walter Winkelbauer. City and County Archives of Vienna: Dr. Felix Czeike; Dr. Helmut Kretschmer. Individuals: Walter Pillich, Vienna.

Belgium. General Archives of the Kingdom, Brussels: C. Wyffels.

Byzantium. Institute for Byzantine Studies, Vienna: Dr. Werner Seibt.

England. British Library, London: M. A. F. Borrie. Jewish Museum of London: Carole Mendleson; Alfred Rubens. Westminster Abbey: Howard M. Nixon. Merton College, Oxford: Roger Highfield. Individuals: Vivian Lipman, C.V.O., London; Irene Roth, New York City.

France. Calvet Museum, Avignon: H. Algieri. Municipal Archives of Narbonne, Aude: P. H. Viala. Archives of Doubs, Besançon: Jean Courtieu; G. Moyse. Archives of Drômes: Martin de Fromont. Archives of Seine-et-Marne, Melun: Charles-Henri Lerch. Archives of the Loire Region, Metz: G. Cahen; J. Colnat. Departmental Archives of Loire-Atlantique, Nantes: X. du Boisrouvray. Municipal Archives of Metz: M. Sary. Municipal Archives of Montpellier: L. Valls. Municipal Archives of Obernai: Christine Muller. Service of Seals, Archives of France, Paris: Yves Metman; Brigitte Bedos; Martine Dalas-Garrigues. Medal Room, National Library, Paris: Dr. Michael Pastoureau. Cluny Museum, Paris: Alain Erlande-Brandenburg. French Commission of Jewish Archives, Paris: Bernhard Blumenkranz. City Archives of Strasbourg: J. Y. Mariotte; G. Foessel; F. J. Fuchs. Paul Dupuy Museum, Toulouse: Jeanne C. Guillevic. Individuals: Professor Emeritus Richard W. Emery, Hawley, Pa.; Professor Norman Golb, University of Chicago; Charles Haudot, Strasbourg; Dr. Pierre Mendel, Metz; Professor Fred Raphaël, University of Human Sciences, Strasbourg.

Germany. City Archives of Augsburg: Dr. Friedrich Blendinger; the late Mr. Mayr. City Archives of Braunschweig: Dr. O. Israel. Historical Archives of Cologne: Dr. Anna-Dorothee v. den Brincken; Dr. Toni Diederich (now at the Historical Archives of the Cologne Archbishopric); Dr. Huiskes. City Archives of Dortmund: Dr. Reimann. City Archives of Duisburg: Dr. Milz. North Rhine-Westphalia Main Archives, Düsseldorf: Dr. Schmitz; Dr. Wisplinghoff. Erfurt: Mr. Fischer. City Archives of Frankfurt-am-Main: Dr. Andernacht; Mr. Reichel. City Archives of Fürth: Mr. E. Ammon. Cathedral of Halberstadt: Reverend Schreiner. Oettingen-Wallerstein Library of Harburg: Dr. Volker von Volckamer. Archives of Ingolstadt: Mr. Dittmar. Main County Archives of Karlsruhe: Dr. Ehmer; Dr. Zier. Main Provincial Archives of Koblenz: Dr. Bohn; Mr. Bertram Resmini; Dr. Theresia Zimmer. City Archives of Mainz: Mr. Schutz. Hesse State Archives, Marburg: Dr. Korn. City Archives of Minden: Mr. Brandhorst. Bavarian Main State Archives, Munich: Dr. Bernd; Mr. Höppl; Dr. Jaroschka; Mr. Liess; Dr. Thiel; Dr. Wild. City Archives of Munich: Dr. Schattenhofer. North Rhine-Westphalia State Archives of Münster: Mr. Kohl; Dr. Müller; Dr. Sagebiel; Mr. Schraven; Mr. Westermann; Dr. Knackstedt. Institutum Judaicum Delitzschianum, Münster: Dr. Diethard Aschoff. City Archives of Passau: Mr. Gluck. City Archives of Rothenburg on Tauber: Dr. L. Schnurrer. City Archives of Straubing: Mr. Rohrmayr. City Archives of Ulm: Dr. Specker. Individuals: Friedrich Karl, prince of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg; Professor Bernhard Brilling, Münster.

Holland. State Archives in Gelderland, Arnhem: H. J. A. H. G. Metselaars.

Hungary. National Archives: Dr. István Tarsoly Kollega, Deputy Department Head. Individuals: Ivan Bertényi, University of Budapest; Professor Alexander Scheiber, Budapest.

Israel. Israel Museum: Mrs. Iris Fishof. Kadman Numismatic Museum: Arie Kindler.

Italy. State Archives of Lucca: Professor Vito Tirelli. State Archives of Mantua: Professor Adele Bellù. Catholic University of Milan: Professor Giacomo C. Bascapè. State Archives of Palermo: Professor Virgilio Giordano. State Archives of Pisa: Bruno Casini. State Archives of Rome: Dr. Elio Lodolini. Museum of the Jewish Community of Rome: Comm. Salvatore Fornari. State Archives of Verona: Dr. Laura Castellazzi. Individuals: Professor Vittore Colorni, Mantua; Professor Michele Luzzati, Pisa; Professor Shlomo Simonsohn, Yale University; Professor Yosef H. Yerushalmi, Columbia University.

Liechtenstein. House Archives of the Reigning Sovereign, Vaduz: Dr. G. Wilhelm.

Spain. Museum of Archaeology, Seville: Fernando Fernández Gómez, Director.

Southern Spain or Sicily. Professor S. D. Goitein, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton.

Switzerland. State Archives of the Canton of Bern: N. Barras. State Archives of the Canton of Zurich: U. Helfenstein. Swiss National Museum, Zurich: Dr. H. U. Geiger. Archives of the History of the Jews in Switzerland, Zurich: Dr. Florence Guggenheim.

Help with translations of old German came from the late Eric Ahrens, New York City; Leah Robinson, New York City; Dr. Moshe Rosenfeld, London; Mark Salton, New York City; and Charles Stone, Munich. For Hebrew, I thank Dr. Ira Rezak, Long Island, and Dr. Menachem Schmelzer, New York City. For Hungarian, I thank Joseph P. Schonberger, New York City. For Italian, thanks to Lilia Lodolini and Professor Gian R. Sarolli, New York City. For Latin, thanks to Anne Fremantle, New York City.

The American Numismatic Society, New York City, the British Library, London, the Israel Museum, Jerusalem, the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City, the Kadman Numismatic Museum, Tel-Aviv, and Nat Messik and Yuji Sawa kindly provided photographs for this volume. The city and state archives which supplied photographs are indicated in the text.

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