publisher colophon


Title page to Leviticus, German manuscript, 13th century


        Deed of Merton College, Oxford, 1267

        Deed of Nottingham real estate sale, 13th century


        Drachma of Abdera, ca. 540 B.C.

        Lead coffin from Bet She’arim

        Sarajevo Haggadah, 14th century

        Brass cast Hanukkah lamp, 17th century

        Seal matrix of Solomon son of Joshua

        Quittance from Burgundy, 1286

        Quittance from Nantes, 1234

        Reverse of Nantes quittance, 1234

        Testimony of the debt of the Jews of Paris, 1206

        Testimony of the debt of the Jews of Pontoise, 1204

        Seal of Elisabeth widow of Frankfort, 1223

        Seal of the community of Avignon, 1226

        Testimony of the debt of the Jews of Provins, 1202

        Seven-branched candelabrum from Essen, ca. 1000 A.D.

        Mosaic floor inscription from Hammam Lif, Tunisia

        Conversion of Parraige seal into Metz Jewish community seal

        Conversion of Paraige counterseal into Metz Jewish community seal


        El Tránsito Synagogue, Toledo


        Seal of Solomon son of Isaac


        Seal of Pierre de Boisses, Canon of Levroux, 1264

        Quittance from Zurich, 1329

        Quittance from Zurich, 1343

        Surrender of property from Zurich, 1352

        Sale of a vineyard from Überlingen, 1332

        Security deposit document from Augsburg, 1298

        Seal of Renaud of Burgundy, 1284

        Quittance from Munich, 1307

        Identification badge, southern Germany, 15th century

        Seal of Count Hugo von Bregenz, 1300

        Seal of Yeho’ahaz son of the king, 7th century B.C.

        Greek coin from Miletus, ca. 500 B.C.

        Protection payment from Augsburg, 1308

        Seal of Lord Busso Gruelhut, 1305

        Quittance from Regensburg, 1302

        Loan agreement from Erding, 1338

        Residence affirmation from Regensburg, 1338

        Reverse of aes grave, Italy, ca. 270 B.C.

        Ornament at synagogue of Capernaum, 2d century A.D.

        Denarius of Emperor Hadrian, 125–28 A.D.

        Assessment accord from Regensburg, 1356

        Security deposit document from Regensburg, 1384

        Pledge document from Regensburg, 1391

        Pledge document from Regensburg, 1391, sealed by David son of Joseph

        Surety agreement from Oettingen, 1345, sealed by Pfefferkorn

        Debt reduction agreement from Trier, 1326

        Vienna pfennig issued by Ottakar II, 1261–76

        Rhine river toll lease from Koblenz, 1345

        Seal of Count Johann von Eberstein, 1361

        Appeal of exiled Strasbourg Jews to reenter the city, ca. 1369

        Silver dish with the Lübeck coat of arms

        Silver drachma from Crete, 4th century B.C.

        Stone sarcophagus, Bet She’arim, 2d-3d century A.D.

        Aes grave, Italy, 3d century B.C.

        Debt acknowledgment from Aschaffenburg, 1342

        Reverse of Aschaffenburg debt acknowledgment, 1342

        Aes grave, Rome, 3d century B.C.

        Seal of Abraham of Cronberg

        Seal of Samuel

        Seal of Simon of Günzburg

        Seal of Gottschalk of Deutz

        Quittance from Marburg, 1366

        Seal of Count Aymar de Poitiers, 1355

        Seal of Philippe de Lantilla, Montpellier, 1366

        Part quittance from Koblenz, 1397

        Seal of Cardinal Guillaume, Montpellier, 1381–83

        Debt and part quittance from Koblenz, 1378

        Button bracteates issued by Jewish mint lessees, Poland, 1279–96

        Bracteate from Meissen, Saxony, late 13th century

        Quittance from Brysghe, 1347

        Jewish civil register, Cologne, 1301

        Truce accord from Cologne, 1401

        Affirmation of Düsseldorf real estate transfer, 1513

        Seal of Ephraim from Münster, 1378

        Debt reduction agreement from Münster, 1402

        Real estate sale from Münster, 1356

        “Süsskind the Jew of Trimberg,” 13th-century miniature

        The entombment of Christ, Psalter, ca. 1250–1300

        Acknowledgment of debt from Minden, 1403

        Sol issued at Provence by Louis d’Anjou, 1382–84

        Agreement to drop charges, Braunschweig, 1510

        Jew stoning St. Stephen, illuminated page, 15th century

        Bracteate of Ulrich I of Halberstadt, 1149–60

        Part quittance from Meiningen, 1391

        Debt settlement from Gelderland, 1287

        Seal of Morinot de Tourzel, 1386

        Coat of arms of the Jude family, Cologne

        Seal of Johannes dictus Juetenzoen, Brussels, 15th century

        Seal of Olivier le Juede, Brussels, 15th century

        Seal of Gillis die Juede, Bruges, 14th century

        Compromise settlement on property, Vienna, 1257

        Interest reduction agreement from Vienna, 1338

        Lesier (or Lesyer), Judenmeister in Vienna, 1375–78

        Quittance from Styria, 1360, sealed by Musch

        Hebrew summary, attached below Styrian quittance, 1360

        Coin issued in Judaea (Yehud, under Persian rule), 4th century B.C.

        Gold florin issued at Florence, mid-13th century

        Customs house seal of Charles IX, Lyons, 16th century

        Line drawing of 1488 city seal of Judenberg

        Judenburg new city seal, 1528

        Stationery of the Judenburg municipal office

        “Jew’s head groschen,” 1444–51


        Coin of Count Teka

        Coin of Count Ḥenok

        Coin of Count Altman

        Coin of Count Fredman

        Installment payment agreement from Ofen, 1496

        Seal of Jacob Mendel

        Quittance from Ofen, 1502, sealed by Jacob Mendel

        Commemorative medal of Hieronymus of Prague


        San Pietro in Montorio, Rome

        Seal of Mordechai ben Abraham/Angelo Finzi

        City coin of Ascalon, Palestine

        Appeal to continue a loan business, Mantua, 1460

        Kreutzer from Ulm, Württemberg, 1624–25

        Recommendation from Mantua, 1462

        Appeal for justice, Mantua, 1462

        Painting showing the disgrace of the Norsa family, Mantua, 1495

        Detail from Norsa painting

        Three city coins of Neapolis, Palestine, 2d century A.D.

        Badge of the Norsa family, 1493

        Badge of Daniel son of Doctor Samuel, Forli, 1383

        Medal of Abramo Norsa (1505–79), by Pastorino de’ Pastorini

        Seal of Isaac da Pisa, 1493

        Isaac at Pisa to David at Lucca, April 4, 1493

        Seal of David da Tivoli, 1493

        Seal of Isaac da Pisa, 1493

        Isaac to David, May 6, 1493

        David to the councillors at Lucca, August 26, 1493

        Seal of Isaac da Pisa, 1494

        Isaac to the councillors at Lucca, August 26, 1494

        Seal of Isaac da Pisa, 1494

        Isaac to the councillors at Lucca, August 28, 1494

        Palestine city coin, Emperor Titus

        Palestine city coin, Emperor Hadrian

        Palestine city coin, Emperor Severus Alexander

        Palestine city coin, Emperor Augustus(?)

        Palestine city coin, Emperor Augustus(?)


        Enlargement of seal of Theudatos Kurkutes(?)

        Attempted reconstruction of seal of Theudatos Kurkutes(?)


        Map 1. France in the Thirteenth Century

        Map 2. The Reconquista in Spain

        Map 3. The Holy Roman Empire, ca. 1356

        Map 4. The German Empire from the Tenth to the Thirteenth Century

        Map 5. Jewish Centers in German Territory before the Crusades

        Map 6. Austria ca. 1200–1450

        Map 7. Eastern Europe in the Thirteenth Century

        Map 8. Italy in the Fifteenth Century

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