publisher colophon

INDEX

Aaron, Joseph, 375

Aaronsburgh, Pa., 169, 593

Abbo, Jacob, 320

Abolitionists, abolition movement, 282, 313, 331, 339, 343, 368, 405, 522, 552, 554, 588, 616, 641

Abraham, Isaac, 203

Abraham, Solomon, 42

Abrahams, Abraham I., 251

Abrahams, Dorothea, 593

Abrahams, Isaac, 410, 428

Abrahams, Simeon, 372

Abzug, Bella, 22

Academy of Fine Arts, 454

Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the United States of America, 418

Acceptance, of Jews, 40–42, 560, 573, 576, 578, 589, 595, 616, 670

Account of the Origin and Progress of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, An, 434

Act for Establishing Religious Freedom (Va.), 79, 82, 86, 119, 121, 122, 520, 647

Actors, 460, 463

Adams, Abigail, 673

Adams, Hannah, 78, 123, 449, 531, 545–546, 566, 584, 592, 649

Adams, John, 58, 95, 120, 154, 455, 461, 476, 477, 515, 539, 562, 563, 567, 612

Adams, John Quincy, 120, 471, 483, 539, 547, 562, 650

Adath Israel Congregation (Louisville, Ky.), 229

Addison, Joseph, 36

Admiralty Jurisdiction, Law and Practice (Cohen), 444

Adult education, 370–371, 375

“After the Ball Was Over” (Harris), 531

Agassiz, Louis, 448

Age of Reason, The (Paine), 192, 354, 412, 616, 621

Agricultural colonies, 363. See also Colonization proposals

Agricultural training, 365, 470, 548

Aguilar, Grace, 261, 298, 300, 301, 388, 404

Ahavat Israel Society (Richmond), 326–327

Alabama, 86, 94, 171, 216, 581

Albany, N.Y., 168, 215, 229, 677

Alberti (Harby), 451, 494

Alden, John, 544

Alexander, Cosmo, 44

Alexander Severus (Harby), 451

Alexandria, Va., 538

Alger, Horatio, Jr., 113

Algerine Captive, The (Tyler), 535

Allen (member of Mikveh Israel), 590

Allen, Ethan, 621

Allen, Lewis, 274

Allen, Thomas, 42

Allen, William Henry, 106

Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums, 298

Alonso, Hernándo, 25

Alphabetical Compendium of the Sects (Adams), 566

Altman, B., & Co., 212

“America: The Spiritual Center of Jewry” (Marcus), 12

American Antiquarian Association, 536

American Bible Society, 545

American Biblical Repository, 376

American Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine and Surgery, 440

American Fur Co., 153–154, 155

American Israelite, 511, 518

Americanization and acculturation, 317, 490, 574–575, 585, 614

    and conversion to Christianity, 610

    and Harby, 626

    of immigrants, 302, 594, 617, 619

    and Solomon H. Jackson, 194

    and Leeser, 302

    of lifestyle and mores, 574–575, 585, 588–589, 594, 596, 612, 614, 675

    and Noah, 633

    peddling as means of, 134

    and religious loyalty, 596–597, 455, 610, 612, 617

    and religious reform, 614, 615, 616, 617, 626, 628, 631, 633, 640

    Sunday school as agent of, 393

    of synagog and its functionaries, 194, 238, 246–247, 264, 347, 589, 594, 595, 617, 618, 635, 640. See also Patriotism

American Jewish Historical Society, 17

American Jewish Publication Society, 196, 304, 454

American Journal of Dental Science, 432

American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 439

American Medical Association, 440

American Mineralogical Society, 427

American Orator, 507

American Ornithology (Wilson), 440

American Philosophical Society, 431, 432, 438, 462, 491

American Revolution, 214, 561, 589, 644, 673

    battles: Bunker Hill, 55; Camden, 55; Long Island, 67; Saratoga, 57, 459, 485; Savannah, 48, 54, 61, 424, 528; York-town, 66, 485

    benefits of, for Jews, 77, 582, 584

    blockade runners, 50, 58, 62, 63, 90, 142, 204

    Canada expedition, 57, 59, 63, 145

    Charleston during, 52, 73, 591

    in drama, 459, 461, 485, 486

    economic activities during, 98, 145, 427

    economic and social effects of, 218, 265, 332, 614

    financing of, 63, 65–66, 68–69, 71, 74–75, 145

    Jewish participation in, 48, 53, 54–64, 67, 98, 263, 416, 424, 528, 571

    Jewish population size during, 46

    and Masons, 572

    Newport during, 52, 593

    New York during, 51, 52, 142, 209, 316, 485, 653

    Noah’s proposed book on Jews in, 483–484

    Norwalk during, 316

    political positions on: loyalist, 47–50, 51, 55, 69, 653; neutralist, 46–47; patriotic/Whig, 46–47, 50–52, 61, 65, 67

    Philadelphia during, 52, 73, 237, 332, 589, 591

    privateers, 62–63

    Savannah during, 48, 52, 53, 54, 61, 214

    world influence of: in England, 126; in France, 121, 122, 123, 648; in Germany, 122, 472

American Silver Corp., 187

American Society for Evangelizing the Jews, 546, 549

American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews, 358, 471, 546–547, 548, 552, 569

American Spelling-book (Webster), 192

American Sunday School Union, 393, 545

American Tract Society, 545

Amicable Society (Richmond), 571

Amsterdam, Holland, 26, 27, 64, 145, 146, 328, 463, 643, 644, 645

Andover Theological Seminary, 547

Anglicans, 31, 497

Anglicization, of names, 42, 55

Answer to Deacon Johann Kaspar Lavater (Mendelssohn), 566

Anshe Chesed Congregation (New York City), 132, 212, 226, 248, 249, 252, 254, 256, 316, 326, 341, 387, 470, 594–595, 667, 671

Anti-Defamation League, 536

Anti-Semitism

    in armed services, 103, 104, 105, 114

    in consular service, 466–468

    economic aspects of, 495

    extent of, 296, 511, 538–541, 553–554, 555, 559

    and franchise, 40, 70. See also Emancipation of the Jews

    in Germany, 678. See also Hep! Hep! riots

    Harby on, 350, 494

    in Jamaica, 27

    Jefferson on, 477, 562

    and Jewish solidarity, 270, 308

    injudicial proceedings, 66, 525

    Leeser on, 283, 296

    in literature, 283, 350–351, 495, 530–534, 536

    moneylender stereotype, 70. See also Moneylenders

    in politics, 40, 88–89, 495, 497, 525–535, 539–540

    Seixas on, 434, 494

    theological aspects of, 40, 69, 296, 494, 495, 542, 556

    victims of: Henry Etting, 104; G. P. Cohen, 526; Israel Israel, 527; John Israel, 527; Samuel Judah, 87; Uriah P. Levy, 105, 106–108, 109, 112, 113; Abraham Massias, 103; Philip Minis, 541–542; Moses Myers, 539–541; Mordecai M. Noah, 466–468, 479, 494, 526, 529–530; Benjamin Nones, 528; Simon Nathans, 66; Haym Salomon, 69; David Seixas, 434; Solomon Simson, 526. See also Damascus Affair; Inquisition; “Jew,” as pejorative term

    and xenophobia, 494, 497

Aphorisms of Hippocrates, 409

Apologetics and polemics, 299–300, 350–362, 378, 388, 394, 403, 407, 414

Apostasy, 43, 100, 137, 369, 389, 551, 598, 606, 629. See also Conversion, to Christianity; Christian Jews; Defections Apprentices, 382, 395, 405, 426, 428, 464, 465, 468, 561

Apprentices’ Library (Charleston), 419

Apprentices’ Library (Philadelphia), 454

Ararat (proto-Zionist colonization scheme), 474. See also Grand Island, N.Y.

Architecture, 419–420, 447

Arguments Advanced Against the Enfranchisement of the Jews (Goldsmid), 110

Aristotle, 440

Army purveyors, 33, 35, 59–61, 62, 65, 67, 141, 190, 201, 204, 206, 209, 240, 571, 673

Arnold (member of Mikveh Israel), 590

Arnold, Benedict, 57, 98

Art and artists, 419–420, 436, 447, 454

Art galleries, 419, 480

Arthur Mervyn (Brown), 531–532

Articles of Confederation, 80, 510

Artisans and craftsmen, 32–33, 134–137, 174, 186, 187, 204, 212, 213, 218, 427, 464, 639. See also names of crafts

Art of Speaking (Burgh), 533

Asbury, Francis, 281, 294, 402

Ashkenaz, defined, 678

Ashkenazim, 29, 132, 163, 215, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 230, 231–232, 239, 243, 305, 333, 380, 387, 396, 400, 644, 645, 667, 678. See also German and Central European Jews

Ashkephardim, 232

Asmonean, 486, 509

Assimilation, 42–44, 68, 236, 302, 364, 390, 657

Associated Manufacturing Iron Company of the City and County of New York, 190

Associated Press, 536

Association for the Culture and Science of the Jews, 433

Association for the Moral and Religious Instruction of Children of the Jewish Faith, 330

Associations and societies, interreligious, 569, 570–571, 582, 589, 658, 659. See also names of associations and societies; Masonry

Association Zeire Hazon, 131–132

Astor, John Jacob, 153, 155, 168

Astronomy, 454

Atheism, 351

Atlantic Insurance Co., 174

Atonement, Day of, 72, 75, 255, 259, 319, 447, 574, 618

Auctioneers, 157–158, 204, 212, 448

Augusta, Ga., 30

Aurora, 527

“Authenticity of the Pentateuch, The” (Cooper), 622

Awful Disclosures of Maria Monk, The, 482, 555

Azuby, Abraham, 592

Azuby, Mrs. Abraham, 489

Baal Shem Tov, 22

Backus, Isaac, 402

Bahamas, 609

Bailey, Charlotte (Mrs. Mordecai Myers), 97

Bailey, F., 352

Bainbridge, William, 107

Baldwin, Mathias, 191

Balfour Declaration, 475

Baltimore, 91, 139, 216, 229, 267, 463, 598

    anti-Semitism, 503, 504, 526, 539–540

    Ashkenazim, 228, 237, 273, 657

    benevolent and mutual-aid societies, 327, 330, 340

    cemetery, 237, 244

    civic rights, of Jews, 501, 503, 504, 526, 540. See also Emancipation of Jews; Maryland Jew Bill

    colonial period, 236, 501

    commerce and industry of, Jews in, 135, 136, 141, 142, 176, 177, 184, 204, 213, 215, 273, 504, 540; banking and securities, 93, 177, 179, 183; physicians, 202; publishing, 195

    criminals, Jewish, 207–208

    Damascus Affair, 657

    education and schools, 366, 382

    immigrants, Jewish, 51, 327, 668

    Jewish-Christian relations, 668

    Jewish community of: leaders, 179, 539; demography, 213, 228, 501; philanthropic activities, 382; ties to Philadelphia, 204, 236, 237, 657, 668; social-economic status of, 93, 209, 213, 441, 668

    militia, Jews in, 93, 94, 501

    politics and government of, Jews in, 85, 93, 274, 577, 668

    Revolutionary War, 51

    Sephardim, 237, 668

    slave-owning, among Jews, 213

    Sunday laws, 523

    synagog, 206, 228, 236–237, 668, 677. See also Baltimore Hebrew Congregation

    War of 1812, 94–95

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 142, 184

Baltimore East India Co., 141, 540

Baltimore Hebrew and English Academic Association, 327

Baltimore Hebrew Congregation (Nitgy Israel), 228, 233, 242, 254, 273, 347, 557, 574

Baltimore Infirmary, 142

Baltimore Water Co., 540

Baltimore Weekly Register, 526

B. Altman & Co., 212

Bancroft, George, 110, 488

B. & M. Gratz, 170

Bankers, banking, 133, 139, 150, 167, 171, 176–181, 219, 204, 445, 447, 577, 596, 604, 612

Bank of Fear (Wilmington, N.C.), 179

Bank of Massachusetts, 176

Bank of North America, 68, 70, 74, 75, 176

Bank of Rhode Island, 179, 233

Bank of Richmond, 596

Bank of the United States, 180, 482

Bankruptcies, 35, 207

Baptists, 32, 513, 548, 666

Barbados, 26, 40, 233, 239, 276, 383, 537, 647

Barbary pirates, 103, 123, 466, 485, 533

Barlow, Joel, 192, 450, 513

Bar mitzvah, 37, 249, 257, 266, 307, 380, 385, 387, 401, 628

Barnett, Lazarus, 158–159

Barrett, Mrs. Starr, 442

Barron, James, 144, 570

Barsimson, Jacob, 21, 519, 521

Bartlett, Washington, 608

Baruch, Bernard M., 22, 383

Beach, Moses Yale, 209

Beaufort, S.C., 138

    battle of, 56

Beecher, Lyman, 281

Beekman, Gerard G., 45

Beer and spirits manufacturing, 423, 436

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 422

Beggars, 320, 337, 338

Bellini, Vincenzo, 421

Belmont, August, 176, 180, 209, 332, 570

Benevolent Hebrew, The (Cumberland), 165

Benjamin, De Lucena, 411

Benjamin, I. J., 166

Benjamin, Judah P., 138, 198, 210, 323, 416, 444, 611

Benjamin, Mrs. Philip, 138

Bennett, James Gordon, 481, 526, 654

Berlin, Germany, 328, 616, 623, 646, 649

Bernays, Isaac, 295

Bernheim, Isaac Wolfe, 367

Bertoni, F. G., 349

Beth Ahabah Congregation (Richmond), 231

Beth El Congregation (Albany), 229

Beth El Emeth Congregation (Philadelphia), 284

Beth Elohim Congregation (Charleston), 216, 236, 424, 465, 506, 579, 592, 608, 653

    building, 197, 234, 417, 568, 641, 646

    cemetery, 245, 608

    congregational policies: on intermarriage, 608, 625; on proselytes, 551

    congregational records, 247, 317

    constitution, 235, 240, 248, 249, 551, 625, 673

    dues and income, 248, 254, 625

    1838 fire, 646, 651

    1841 dedication ceremony, 448

    “Germans” in, 235

    governance and officers, 249, 250, 253, 342, 579

    hazzanim, 235, 252, 589, 592, 634;

    and Abraham Massias, 94, 583

    membership, 235, 240, 242, 248, 310, 341, 449, 587, 624, 673

    and Noah, 465

    organization and early history, 234–235, 677

    philanthropic activities, 317, 319, 342, 592, 593

    Gustavus Poznanski, 653–656

    Reform secession, 94, 235, 249, 253, 342, 348, 424, 574, 583, 624–625, 626, 632, 634, 635–636, 637

    Sephardim, 235, 245, 634

Beth Israel Congregation (Philadelphia), 223

Beth Shalome Congregation (Richmond), 82, 86, 149, 161, 230, 236, 240, 241, 242, 246, 273, 282, 348, 442, 652

Bevis Marks Congregation (London), 39, 254, 294, 615, 645, 647

Bible, Hebrew (Old Testament), 285, 286, 289–290, 292, 296, 297, 299, 302, 309, 352, 354, 358, 359, 360, 361, 365, 370, 371, 393, 394, 401, 437, 442, 447, 516, 563, 565, 566, 568, 630, 633, 659

    quoted, 28, 119, 135, 222, 262, 289, 337, 338, 353, 358, 368, 378, 381, 545, 546, 622, 665, 671, 674

Biddle, Nicholas, 482

Biddle, Mrs. T., 262

Bill brokers, 33, 68, 69, 71, 175, 181, 422

Billings, John Shaw, 439

Bills of exchange, 146. See also Financial instruments

Bird, Robert Montgomery, 459

Blacks, 80, 508–509, 554, 560, 585, free, 425, 587. See also Freedmen sexual relations with, 91, 420, 425, 586 See also Slaves

Blasphemy laws, 514, 515, 518, 622

Blair, Francis Preston, Sr., 576

Blair, Hugh, 413

Blair, Rochelle, 570

Bleichroeder family, 123

Blind, 429, 436–437, 458

Bloch, Abby, 600

Blockade running, 63, 64, 66, 142, 204, 413

Blood libel, 497, 526, 535, 654, 656, 658, 659

Bluestein, Judith A., 18

B’nai B’rith, 303, 536

B’nai Israel Congregation (Cincinnati), 231, 327, 330, 646, 652

Bnai Jeshurun Congregation (New York City), 324, 590, 669

    adult education, 295, 359, 372, 376, 386

    and Anshe Chesed, 341

    Ashkenazic rite, 224

    budget and financing, 253, 254

    burial and relief societies, 325, 326, 341

    cemetery, 244

    choral group, 422

    constitution, 372

    Damascus Affair, 679

    educational activities, 386–387, 470

    use of English, 275, 295, 359

    ethnicity of members, 132, 224, 225, 275, 348, 356, 360, 372, 387, 614, 679

    founding and early history, 225, 226, 325, 386–387

    hazzanim, 348: Samuel Myer Isaacs, 275, 348, 360

    and Harmon Hendricks, 651

    and Noah, 225, 469, 470

    philanthropic activities, 341, 591

    sermons and lectures, 275, 295, 348, 359

    and Shearith Israel, 225, 253, 372, 386, 470, 614, 651

B’nai Yeshurun Congregation (Cincinnati), 231

Board of Delegates of American Israelites, 196, 303, 304

Board of Deputies of British Jews, 650, 657, 659

Boaz, Shadrach (literary character), 538

Book of Common Prayer, 192

Booksellers. See Publishers, Printers, and Booksellers Boone, Daniel, 56, 149

Booth, Junius Brutus, 538

Booths. See Tabernacles

Bordeaux, France, 645, 663

Borrenstein, David Aaron, 193, 460

Boston, 21, 23, 30, 54, 85, 128, 139, 164, 174, 175, 176, 209, 215, 231, 233, 311, 436, 453, 505, 534, 535, 544, 596, 657, 658

Boston Athenaeum, 453

Boston Marine Society, 175

Botany, 446, 454

Boudinot, Elias, 547

Bowen, Richard, 144

Bowler, Metcalf, 52

Boyd, John Parker, 96

Brackenridge, Hugh Henry, 538

Brackenridge, Hugh Marie, 502, 538, 649

Bradford, William, 544

Braintree, Mass., 197

Brando family, 87

Brandon, David, 587

Bravo, Jacob M., 569

Bravo, The (Cooper), 537

Brazil, 25–26, 109, 519

Brett, Catherine, 182

Brewer, David J., 514

Brisbane, A. H., 443

British West Indies, 28. See also names of islands

Brokers, 158–159, 175, 213, 214, 216. See also Bill brokers, Commission merchants Bromat (Philadelphia Jew accused of Sabbath violation), 256

Bronaugh, James C., 96

Broussais, Francois J. V., 440

Brown, Benjamin Gratz, 575

Brown, Charles Brocken, 531

Brown, Thomas, 566, 567

Brown & Benson, 175

Bryant, William Cullen, 481, 488

Buchanan, James, 547

Buck, Charles, 566–567

Builders and contractors, 419, 420

Bullitt, William Christian, 77

Bunker Hill, battle of, 55

Bunker Hill Monument, 112–113

Burgh, James, 533

Burgoyne, John, 57

Burial societies, 245–246, 278, 315, 328, 329, 330, 382, 627, 641. See also Mutual-aid societies

Burials and funerals, 319, 334, 337, 599, 600, 602, 603, 608, 609, 611, 628, 645, 665, 669

Burke, Edmund, 413

Burns, Robert, 193

Burr, Aaron, 171, 199, 428

Bush, Mathias, 56, 130, 211

Bush, Nelly (Mrs. Mordecai Sheftall), 56

Bush, Solomon, 56, 58, 68, 90, 431, 609

Busher, Leonard, 118

Butchers, 28, 32, 213, 252, 260, 273

Butler, Benjamin F., 574

Buteau (patient of Isaac Levy), 201

Buxtorf, Johannes, 374

Byrd, William, 43

Byron, George Gordon, Lord, 451, 456

Cahokia, Ill., 92, 201

Caldwell, David, 506

Calendars, Jewish, 258, 349, 427, 526, 594

Calhoun, John C., 414, 578

California, 204, 678

Gold Rush, 274

Callner, Etheljane, 18

Calvinism, 27, 291, 311, 400, 404, 624, 629

Cambridge, University of, 650

Camden, N.J., 198

battle of, 55

Canada, 34, 49, 57, 63, 127, 152, 620

Canals. See Turnpikes and canals

Candle manufacturing, 186, 190, 191, 426

Canter John, 420, 570

Canter, Joshua, 420

Cardozo, Aaron, 316

Cardozo, Abraham N., 148

Cardozo, Benjamin N., 22

Cardozo, David N., 424

Cardozo, Francis Lewis, Sr., 425, 586

Cardozo, Isaac Newton, 413

Cardozo, Isaac Nunez, 188, 206, 627, 632, 633

Cardozo, Jacob Newton (Nunez), 424–426, 483, 501, 580, 587, 596, 622

Cardozo, Thomas Y., 586

Carey, E. L., 539

Carey & Hart, 195, 196

Carey & Lea, 195

Carigal, Haim Isaac, 41, 346, 454, 560, 575, 643

Carlyle, Thomas, 195, 196

Carr, Dabney, 586

Carroll, Charles, 184, 668

Carroll, John, 221, 281, 402

Carter (officer who insulted Uriah Levy), 109

Carvalho, David Nunez, 192

Carvalho, Emanuel Nunez, 238–239, 261, 276–277, 382, 383, 385, 386, 420, 627, 633, 670

Carvalho, Solomon Nunez, 192, 420, 421

Carvalho Academy, 408

Casanova, Giovanni Jacopo, 423

Catechism for Younger Children (Leeser), 297, 393–394

Catechisms, 297, 393–394, 400, 401, 404, 641

Catskill Mountains, 168

Cattle ranching, 32

Cazenave, Pierre Destrac, 587

Cemeteries

    access rules, 245

    Ashkenazic, 132, 222, 228

    Baltimore, 244, 666

    Charleston, 224, 244, 245, 627, 665

    Cincinnati, 223

    Columbia, S.C., 202

    in Jewish communal life, 243–246

    Curaçao, 418

    Georgetown, S.C., 245

    Louisville, 229

    Natchez, 228

    New Amsterdam, 28

    New Orleans, 227, 244

    Newport. See Newport Jewish Cemetery

    New York, 36, 37, 224, 244, 456, 615

    Norfolk, 236

    Philadelphia, 222, 244

    Richmond, 149, 244, 574

    Savannah, 233, 244

    Sephardic, 224, 308, 665–666

    Sholem, N.Y., 132

    relation to synagog, 245

    See also Burial societies

    Central Conference of America Rabbis, 340

    Central European Jews. See German and Central European Jews Channing, Edward, 16

    Channing, Walter, 439, 440

    Channing, William Ellery, 281, 402, 414, 593, 625

    Chapel attendance, compulsory, 516

    Chaplains, 119, 513, 515

    Charity. See Philanthropy and charity

    Charles II (English king), 519

    Charleston Book: A Miscellany in Prose and Verse, The, 414

    Charleston City Gazette, 414

    Charleston, S.C., 85, 128, 140, 185, 209, 214, 324, 336, 444, 492, 588, 675, 677, 678

    Ashkenazim, 221, 237, 243

    cemetery, Jewish, 43, 244–245

    colonial period, 30, 221, 244, 677

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 62, 137, 138, 156, 173, 185, 212–213, 446, 448, 449, 513, 622; banking, 179, 447–448, 577; dentists, 203, 213; lawyers, 198, 213; newspapers and publishing, 413–414; physicians, 446; slave-traders, 156

    cultural life, 446, 448, 449, 450, 463, 484, 534

    Damascus Affair, 657

    education and schools, Jewish, 382, 395, 408, 448, 457, 520

    Jewish-Christian relations, 269, 362, 419, 568, 574, 589, 623, 677

    Jewish community of: leaders, 173, 273, 328, 623; social and economic status, 158, 208, 210, 441, 448–449, 622–623; letter to George Washington, 115, 498; job offer to Wise, 216; emigration to New Orleans and other places, 216, 229, 492

    missionaries, 544

    mutual-aid and charitable organizations, 322–323

    Nullification controversy, 580–581

    politics and government, Jews in, 53, 86, 137, 158, 169, 174, 179, 184, 417, 577–578, 581

    philanthropic activities, 169, 316, 328, 382, 591, 592

    reformist religious trends, 269, 362, 367, 372, 417, 448, 615, 619–620, 622–623, 637, 640. See also Reformed Society of Israelites refugees from Santo Domingo, 198, 336, 572

    Revolutionary War, 48, 52, 53, 60, 62, 498, 528

    Sephardim, 221, 232, 235, 243, 245

    slave-owning, by Jews, 210

    synagogs, 221, 234–235, 243, 568, 589, 636, 666. See also Beth Elohim; Reformed Society of Israelites

Charlottesville, Va., 150, 414, 441

Chase, Salmon P., 517–518

Chatham Square cemetery (New York City), 37, 244, 651, 665

“Cheer Boys Cheer” (Russell), 421

Chemistry, 454

Cheraw, S.C., 581

Chesapeake, U.S.S., 144, 582

Chesterfield, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of, 412

Chew, Samuel, 129

Chew family, 589

Chicago, Ill., 35, 77

Chickasaw Indians, 171

Child’s Scripture Question Book, 394

China-East India trade, 141, 142, 147, 148, 167, 175, 205, 218, 540

Chinese Jews, 163, 294, 359, 560, 642

Chippewa, battle of, 485

Chippewa Indians, 154

Chisholm, Edward, 526, 570

Choirs, 239, 256, 277, 592, 595, 616, 630, 637

Cholera, 590, 591

Chopin, Frederic, 422

Chouteau, Pierre, Jr., 155

Christianity, 285–286, 290, 291, 292, 332, 347, 350–352, 357, 358–359, 479, 542. See also names of Christian denominations’, Apologetics and polemics; Theology Christian influence, on Jews and Judaism, 285–286, 290, 294, 298, 302, 313, 329, 330, 383, 390, 394, 395, 400, 490, 595, 616, 617, 618, 619, 624, 629, 631, 637, 641. See also Protestantism Christian nation, America as, 512–515, 548, 524, 542, 556

Christian Jews, 473, 545, 546, 551, 658

Christian Journal and Advocate, 298

Christmas, 289, 472, 515

“Christ Rejected” (West), 557

Christ Unveiled, 412

Chrysler’s Field, battle of, 97

Church and state, separation of, 79, 81, 82, 122, 123, 385, 446, 512–513, 516, 549, 524, 546, 549, 617

Churchill, Charles Henry, 655

Chyet, Stanley F., 18

Cincinnati, Ohio, 136, 140, 204, 229, 600, 608

    Ashkenazim, 223, 231, 330

    cemetery, 134, 223

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 134, 135, 189

    communal leaders, 135, 402, 560

    Damascus Affair, 657

    fund-raising, 223, 225, 369, 604

    Hebrew school, 381

    Jewish-Christian relations, 223, 518, 560, 569

    philanthropic activities, 134, 369

    politics and local government, Jews in, 134, 580

    self-help and welfare organizatons, 330, 340, 343

    synagog, 134, 215, 223, 225, 231, 232, 369, 419, 560, 677

Cincinnati Historical Society, 17

Cincinnati Public Library, 17

Cincinnati Western Messenger, 655, 661

Circular and Plan for an American Jewish Asylum (Solis), 369

Circumcision, 37, 102, 135, 228, 250–251, 267, 269, 277–278, 307, 316, 372, 442, 527, 598–599, 600, 602, 606, 628, 657

City directories, 414

Civic and political rights

    as bond tying Jew to America, 595–596

    colonial period, 31–32, 40, 49, 51, 77, 115, 128, 578, 638

    under U.S. Constitution, 70, 77, 78, 81–83, 115–117, 122, 123, 403–404, 495–496, 553, 559, 562, 564, 575, 576, 578, 582, 584, 638

    in England, 31, 48–49, 526

    in France, 122

    Jefferson on, 477, 562–563

    Leeser on, 403–404

    Noah on, 477, 530

    and religious reform, 614, 616

    See also Emancipation of the Jews; Sunday laws; Test oaths

Civil religion, 524, 595

Civil Rights Act (1st), 508

Civil War, 12, 102, 104, 134, 283, 291, 426, 432, 441, 458, 508, 509, 582, 588, 590, 611

Claiborne, William C. C., 413

Claims of the Jews to an Equality of Rights (Leeser), 403, 522, 551

Clapp, Theodore, 160, 162

Clark, Abram, 608

Clark, George Rogers, 61, 66

Clark, Willis G., 105

Class consciousness, 604

Class structure, 35, 208, 211–212, 218, 232

Classics, Greek and Latin, 87, 447, 450, 451, 452, 455, 461, 492, 583, 662

Clava, Benjamin Moses, 603

Clay, Henry, 379, 420, 539, 540, 541, 589, 601, 612

Clay, Anna Gratz (Mrs. Tom Clay), 14, 612

Clerc, Laurent, 434, 435, 436

Clerical style and titles, 42, 280, 589, 616, 618

Clerks, 148, 204

Clermont, 620

Cleveland, Ohio, 140, 215, 230, 677

Clinton, George, 577

Clothing dealers, 413, 549. See also Used clothing dealers Clothing manufacturers, 188–189, 587

Cobbett, William, 527–528

Cochin Jews, 642

Cochrane, Alexander, 105

Code Noir, 160, 414

Cohen (Creek Indian), 34

Cohen, Abraham H., 186–187, 571

Cohen, Augustus, E., 541

Cohen, Benjamin I., 93, 183, 501, 589

Cohen, Charles T. C., 351

Cohen, Eleanor, 581

Cohen, Frederick E., 420

Cohen, G. P., 526, 570

Cohen, H(artwig?), 383

Cohen, Isaac, 42

Cohen, Israel I., 133, 177, 185, 501

Cohen, Jacob I. (1744–1823), 56, 69, 85, 149, 273, 274, 321, 407, 579, 584, 586, 597, 667, 671

Cohen, Jacob I. (1789–1869), 85, 177, 184, 185, 503, 505, 577

Cohen, Jacob Raphael, 169, 238, 239, 266, 276, 278

Cohen, Joshua I., 202, 438, 505, 604

Cohen, McDuff, 590

Cohen, Maurice, 208

Cohen, Mendes I., 95, 650

Cohen, Mordecai, 169, 173, 208

Cohen, Moses, 181

Cohen, Myer M., 443–444

Cohen, Philip Melvin, 443, 449, 491, 581, 584

Cohen, Samuel, 643

Cohen, Shalom I. (J.), 393, 593

Cohen, Solomon, Jr., 445

Cohen, Solomon, Sr., 184, 444–445, 571

Cohen, Yehiel, 478

Cohen & Isaacs, 56, 69, 70, 149, 150, 176, 177, 410, 418, 591, 594

Cohen, family (Baltimore), 236, 237, 604, 657, 666, 667, 668

Cohensburg, Pa., 169

Cohen’s Lottery & Exchange Office, 178

Cohen’s Gazette & Lottery Register, 178

Cohn, Abraham, 509

Coke, Edward, 514

Colbert, Jean Baptiste, 26

Coleman (member of Mikveh Israel), 590

Colleges, Christian aspects of, 410

Collins, Abraham, 356, 357

Collmus, Levi, 602

Colonial American Jew (Marcus), 18

Colonization proposals, 363, 365–366, 472–473, 479, 548, 552, 569, 619, 669

Columbia, S.C., 202, 214, 223, 229, 235, 413, 447, 581, 677

Columbia College, 86, 120, 121, 203, 278, 376, 410, 423, 428, 429, 481, 518, 561, 582, 596

Columbiad, The (Barlow), 450

Columbia Female Academy, 409

Columbian Order, 571

Columbus, Christopher, 24, 543

Commemorative medals, 419–420

Commercial Directory and a Digest of the Laws of the United States Relating to Commerce, The (Moses), 417

Commission merchants, 158–159, 169, 190, 216, 364, 448

Common-law marriage, 605

Communal and Kinship feelings. See Kelal Yisrael Company of Architects, 420

Comparison of the Institutions of Moses with Those of the Hindoos and Other Ancient Nations (Priestley), 354

Concerts, 442

Concise Account of the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews (Adams), 546

Conegliano family, 423

Confirmation, 395, 616, 628

Congregational autonomy, 661, 666

Congress, U.S., 125, 513, 521

Jews in. See Elected officials Connecticut, 496, 500, 505, 510, 518

Conquest of Canaan (Dwight), 450

Consanguinity laws, 516, 518

Conservative Judaism, 304

Constantinople, 643, 655

Constitution, U.S., 51, 81–84, 116, 117, 122, 128, 219, 278, 351, 468, 496, 497, 498, 504, 505, 506, 510, 511, 513, 520, 522, 534, 551, 570, 579, 584, 648, 652, 653, 658, 676

    Bill of Rights 77, 468

    First Amendment, 496, 513, 524, 545

    Fourteenth Amendment, 508

Constitutional Convention, 81, 82, 115, 117, 304, 463, 496, 499

Consuls. See Diplomatic and consular officials

Continental Congress, 49, 50, 52, 58, 60, 63, 69, 80, 81, 101, 123, 467, 512, 547, 643, 649

Convention of 1832, 443

Conversionism, 378, 538, 547, 559, 560, 564, 565, 566, 567, 569, 658. See also Christian Jews; Missionaries to Judaism, 44, 99, 131, 149, 194, 235, 243, 248, 257, 258, 267–268, 291, 292, 369, 476, 550, 551, 561–562, 590, 597, 602, 605–606, 608, 609, 645

Conversos. See Marranos

Cooper, James Fenimore, 462, 481, 488, 537

Cooper, Thomas Apthorpe, 361, 452, 622

Copper industry, 190–191

Copyright law, 484

Corcos, Aaron Judah, 120, 647

Cordial Balm of Gilead, 431

Cordova, Joshua Hezekiah de, 27, 352

Cornwallis, Charles, 69, 71

Correspondence and Documents Relative to the Attempt to Negotiate for the Release of the American Captives at Algiers (Noah), 467

Correspondent, 359, 550

Cortez, Hernando, 25

Cosmogony, biblical, 359, 360, 361, 362, 401

Cotton, 169, 173, 216, 235, 256, 448, 581

Cotton factors, 169

Cowper, William, 413

Coxe, Tench, 564

Craftsmen. See Artisans and craftsmen

Crane, Captain (commander of U.S.S. United States), 107

Crawford, William H., 106

Crémieux, Adolphe, 654, 655

Cresson, Warder, 291, 369, 475

Crevècoeur, Hector, 45

Criminals and law-breakers, 55, 133, 144, 207–208, 319, 339, 471

Critical Grammar of the Hebrew Language, A (Nordheimer), 375

Crittenden, John J., 189

Crockery business, 433

Crockett, David, 195

Cromwell, Oliver, 28, 48, 118

Crooks, Ramsay, 155

Crosby Street Synagogue (New York City). See Shearith Israel Congregation (New York City)

Cultural level, of American Jews, 43, 397–401, 403, 407, 415–416, 431, 438, 441, 443, 445, 453, 455, 489, 490, 639, 666, 688. See also Southern gentleman; Southern Jew, compared to Northern Cultural nationalism, 461, 464, 486, 488

Cumberland, Richard, 165, 534–535, 566

Curaçao, 26, 28, 233, 319, 324, 418, 646

Currency reform, 180

Cursory Remarks on Men and Measures in Georgia, 497, 498

Da Costa, Charles, 172

Da Costa, Jacob Mendez, 172

Da Costa family, 665

Daguerrotypes, 436

Damascus Affair, 20, 121, 137, 349, 469, 470, 611, 654–661, 669, 675, 678–679

Daniels, Judith M., 17

Danish Jews, in U.S., 420

Da Ponte, Lorenzo, 120, 138, 422–424, 441, 460, 583

Darmstadt, Joseph, 571

Daughter, naming of, 628

David, Pierre Jean, 110

Davies, David, 359–360, 370, 372

Davis, Jefferson, 198, 199, 611

Davis, Joseph, 590

Davis family, 156

Day of Atonement. See Atonement, Day of Deaf-mutes, 433–436, 577, 591

Death benefits, 334

Deborah (biblical figure), 388

Debtors, 319, 336, 420

Decatur, Stephen, 103, 144, 466, 570

Declaration of Independence, 51, 54, 64, 67, 78, 80, 110, 115, 119, 184, 240, 437, 509, 510, 511, 513, 534, 562, 584, 608, 647

Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The (Gibbon), 412

De Cordova, Joshua Hezekiah, 27, 352

Decorum, synagogal, 254, 263–265, 279, 289, 293, 313, 400, 595, 615, 617, 618, 629, 637, 641

Deculturation, 597–602. See also Intermarriage Defections, 608–610, 612, 614, 637, 640, 675. See also Apostasy; Intermarriage Defence of the Cosmogony of Moses, A (Horowitz), 360, 361, 362

“Defence of the Drama” (Harby), 452

Defence of the Old Testament (Levi), 192, 354

Deism, Deists, 23, 41, 43, 54, 79, 82, 118, 119, 147, 265, 269, 279, 350, 351, 352, 356, 357, 358, 363, 397, 411, 412, 431, 491, 500, 528, 564, 601, 603, 615, 616, 620, 621, 622, 623, 624, 629

De La Motta, Emanuel, 233, 427, 445, 446, 525, 554, 628

De La Motta, Jacob, 233, 234, 445–446, 584

De La Motta family, 309

De Lancey, James, 40

De Lancey, Oliver, Jr., 40, 312

De Lancey, Oliver, Sr., 40, 604

De Lancey, Phila Franks (Mrs. Oliver De Lancey), 40, 312, 407, 604

De Lancey family, 168

Delaware, 79, 82, 499, 510

De Leon, Abraham, 202

De Leon, David Camden, 432

De Leon, Mordecai Hendricks, 202, 441

De Lucena, Abraham, 519

De Lucena, Samuel, 575

Democrats (Democratic-Republicans), 417, 427, 430, 463, 464, 465, 467, 468, 480, 482, 518, 526, 527, 529, 579, 580, 622, 656. See also Jeffersonians; Jacksonians Demographic information, 19, 28, 29, 46, 130, 139, 180, 215, 302, 307, 371, 586, 591, 615, 648, 660, 662, 677

Dennie, Joseph, 413, 527, 528

Dentists, 203, 213, 428, 432

Denver News, 518

Department stores, 157, 639

Depew, Chauncey M., 179

Depression of 1837, 177, 326, 327, 330, 340, 427, 447–448, 522, 666

Depression of 1915–21, 90, 422, 461

Derkheim, Myer, 135, 251

Desalination, 426

Descriptive Geography and Brief Historical Sketch of Palestine (Schwarz), 299

Desertion, of wife, 341, 672

d’Estaing, Charles Hector, 57

Deutsch, Gotthard, 12

De Young, Charles, 204

De Young, Isaac, 583

De Young, Michel H. (Michel De Young, Sr.), 204, 322

De Young, Michel Harry (Michel De Young, Jr.), 204, 322

Diabetes, 203

Dickinson, John, 540

Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations (Adams), 78

Dictonary of American Biography, 75

Dictionnaire Philosophique (Voltaire), 353

Didbin, Thomas J., 535

Dietary laws, 237, 561

communal aspects, 249, 259, 260–261, 302, 307, 339, 637

in Jewish religious life, 37, 259, 307, 598, 637

kosher meat industry, 140, 187, 260

Leeser’s view, 293, 598, 657

instances of nonobservance, 228, 267, 268, 596, 610, 640–641

instances of observance, 131, 147, 151, 191, 198, 228, 237, 266–267, 337, 365, 389, 472, 609, 612, 671

and reformist trends, 630, 637

supervision of, 259, 260–261

Digest of Cases Decided and Reported in the Superior Court of the State of Alabama (Phillips), 417

Digest of the Reported Decisions of the Superior Court of the Late Territory of Orleans (Benjamin & Slidell), 416

Dillon, Douglas, 20

Diplomatic and consular officials, 57, 90–91, 99, 441, 465–466, 572, 596

Discourse (Noah), 441, 635, 677

Discourse (Seixas), 192

Discourses Argumentative and Devotional on the Subject of the Jewish Religion (Leeser), 351

Dismal Swamp, 170

Dispersed of Judah (Nefutsot Yehudah) Congregation (New Orleans), 163, 164, 288, 306, 317, 587, 642, 651

Disraeli, Benjamin, 196, 254

D’Israeli, Isaac, 254, 629

Dissertations on the Prophecies of the Old Testament (Levi), 353

Distillers, 189, 423

Divine name, writing of, 262

Divorce, 620, 645

Documents in Relation to the Dismissal of David G. Seixas, 435

Dohm, Wilhelm von, 431

Dom Pedro I (Brazilian emperor), 109

Don Giovanni (Mozart), 460

Donizetti, Gaetano, 421

Donovan, Thomas Washington, 131, 194, 590

Dorcas Society, 330

Dowry societies, 319

Drake, Daniel, 429

Dramatic Repository series, 484

Dramatists. See Playwrights

Dry-goods merchants. See shopkeepers, retailers, and dry-goods dealers

Duane, William, 527

Duchachet (speaker on Damascus Affair), 659

Dueling, 103, 144, 274, 428, 465, 526, 570, 581

Dunbar (Albany friend of G. Seixas), 574

Dunlap, William, 145, 484

Du Ponçeau, Pierre Étienne, 69

Du Pont family, 138

Durell, Edward Henry, 533, 534

Dutch Guiana, 459

Dutch Jews, in U.S., 27, 227, 228, 242, 275, 359, 583, 584, 667

Dutch West India Co., 25, 27, 28

Dwight, Timothy, 281, 450

Dyer, John Maximilian, 273, 590

Dyer, Leon, 94, 273–274

Dyes, 432

Easton, Pa., 31, 138, 151, 189, 230, 244, 247, 577, 677

East Texas, 441

Eaton, William, 126

Economics, study of, 219

Economists, 425

Edgeworth, Maria, 100, 101, 351, 409, 568, 588

Edinburgh Review, 439, 650

Education, Jewish. See Jewish Education; Sunday Schools

Education, secular, 42, 144, 150, 172, 187, 398, 441, 447, 450, 490–491

    of the handicapped, 433, 436–437

    See also Classics, Greek and Latin; Schools

Edwards, Jonathan, 43

Egalitarianism, 446

Egypt, 650

Einhorn, David, 166

Elcan, Marcus, 148, 210, 353, 373, 412

Elected officials

    in Canada, 277–278, 620

    defeated candidacies, 85, 88–89, 97, 527, 570, 580

    U.S. Congress, 88, 94, 97, 117, 145, 172, 183, 200, 263, 365, 416, 417, 445, 446, 570, 580, 638

    state and local, 53, 84–90, 97, 406, 417, 443, 445, 490, 505, 511, 560, 570, 577, 596, 609, 611, 622, 668

Eleemosynary organizations, 318, 326, 332

Elementary Introduction to the Scriptures for the Use of Hebrew Children (Peixotto), 394

Elements of Mineralogy (Feuchtwanger), 427

Elements of the Jewish Faith (Cohen), 393, 394, 395, 593

Eliot, John, 543

Elizabethtown, N.J., 80, 511

Elizer, Isaac, 213

Elsas (Elsass), Jacob, 133–134

Ely, Ezra Stiles, 542, 593

Elzas, Barnett A., 55, 212

Emancipation of the Jews, in Canada, 127

Emancipation of the Jews, in U.S., 115–119, 126, 204, 279, 356, 404, 568, 614

    Connecticut, 496, 500, 510

    Delaware, 79, 82, 499, 510

    Georgia, 79, 82, 497, 498, 510

    Maryland, 79–80, 471, 500–505, 510, 538, 540, 557, 564. See also Maryland Jew Bill

    Massachusetts, 505, 510

    New Hampshire, 80, 296, 495, 509, 510

    New Jersey, 496, 505, 510

    New York, 49, 51, 78, 82, 496, 499

    North Carolina, 80, 296, 496, 506–509, 510

    Northwest Territory, 499

    Pennsylvania, 70, 79, 82, 416, 463, 498–499, 510

    Rhode Island, 496, 505, 510

    South Carolina, 79, 82, 498, 510

    Vermont, 79, 499–500, 510

    Virginia, 79, 497–498, 499, 501, 510, 563. See also Act for Establishing Religious Freedom (Va.); Virginia Bill of Rights

    See also Civic and political rights; Constitution, U.S.; Test oaths

Emancipation of the Jews, Europe, 123, 579, 647

    England, 126–127, 300, 368, 404, 526, 650

    France, 568, 579, 642, 648

    Germany, 650

    Netherlands, 648

Emanuel, David, 87

Emanuel, Lafayette Gomez, 455

Emanuel, Manly, 203

Embargo Acts, 238

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 488, 633

Emet ve-Emunah, 352

Encyclopaedia Americana, 539

Encyclopédie, 121

Engineers, 197, 411, 426, 427

England, 28, 48, 53, 126–127, 356, 577, 649–650, 655, 656, 659

England, George Bethune, 352, 414

England, John, 408, 564

English Jews, in U.S., 226, 239, 276, 369, 380, 409, 411, 421, 612, 645

English language, in prayers and sermons, 377, 400, 560, 592, 595, 617, 618, 621, 627, 628, 630, 633, 634, 635, 636, 641

Engravers, 420

Enlightenment, European, 23, 412, 534, 564, 591, 593, 614, 616, 623

Enlightenment, Jewish (Haskalah), 615

Ennery, Jonas, 301

Epée, Charles Michel de l’, 433

Epidemics, 35, 427, 428, 430, 431, 432, 526. See also names of diseases Epitome of General Ecclesiastical History, An (Marsh), 566

Erie Canal, The (Noah), 485

Essai Historique sur la Colonie de Surinam (Nassy et al.), 431

Essayists. See Writers

Essays of Howard on Domestic Economy (Noah), 483

Estaing, Charles Hector d’, 57

Ethnicity, 402, 411, 472, 479, 599, 663, 666

Etting, Benjamin, 85, 141

Etting, Benjamin (d. 1875), 598

Etting, Fanny, 602

Etting, Frank Marx, 599

Etting, Frederick Henry, 599

Etting, Henry, 104, 258

Etting, Reuben, 79, 93, 125, 501, 526, 599

Etting, Sally, 138

Etting, Samuel, 148

Etting, Shinah Solomon, 540

Etting, Solomon, 85, 104, 141–142, 179, 184, 237, 260, 501, 505, 539–540, 586, 668

Etting family, 236, 237, 604, 606, 657, 666, 668

Evacuation Day, 485

Evangelical Christians, 81, 559, 560, 614, 616, 617

Evans, Margaret, 44

Evening Star, 480

Examination and Answer to a Sermon Delivered by the Rev. George Stanley Faber (Jackson), 358, 550

Eye diseases, 438

Ezekiel, Jacob, 136

Ezekiel, Moses, 136

Ezrat Orchim, 72

Faber, George Stanley, 358

Factory workers, 639

Fagin (literary character), 208

Fallen Timbers, battle of, 98

Family pews, 630, 637

Fancy’s Sketch Book (Moïse), 349, 456

Farmers, ranchers, and planters, 32, 130–132, 172, 291, 296, 340, 620, 639, 675

Farmington, W. Va., 218

Federalists, 94, 388, 526, 527, 539, 579

Feibel (son of Jacob Joseph, the Dover “rabbi”), 30

Feist, Immanuel Gershom, 668

Fellenberg, Philipp Emanuel von, 363, 366

Fell’s Point Hebrew Congregation (Baltimore), 228

Female Association for the Relief of Women and Children in Reduced Circumstances, 329, 389

Female Bible Society, 391

Female Hebrew Benevolent Society (New York City), 330

Female Hebrew Benevolent Society (Philadelphia), 290, 329, 340, 390, 391, 433, 573, 673

Female Hebrew Benevolent Society (St. Louis), 419

Female Policy Detected or the Arts of a Designing Woman Laid Open (Gomez), 192

Female Society of Boston and Vicinity for Promoting Christianity Among the Jews, 546, 547

Fénelon, François, 412

Fenno family, 576

Ferera, David, 28

Fernandes, Benjamin Dias, 300, 358

Feuchtwanger, Lewis, 187, 259, 427

Fevret de Saint-Mémin, C. B. J., 418

Financial instruments, 65, 70, 71, 146, 167, 181–183, 186, 191, 205, 219

Financier and the Finances of the American Revolution, The (Sumner), 75

Firemen, 136, 144, 228, 610, 662

First Baptist Church (Providence, R.I.), 42

Fischel, Arnold, 11, 12

Fish, Hamilton, 517

Fisher, Miers, 70

Fitzgerald, Thomas, 89

Flexner, Abraham, 410

Florance (member of Mikveh Israel), 590

Florida, 30, 145, 364

Forsyth, John, 121, 656, 658

Fort, Mary Anne, 420

Fort George, P.Q., 583

Fort Jackson, Ga., 99

Fort McHenry, Md., 583

Fort Orange, N.J., 28

Fort Pitt, Pa., 34

Fortress of Sorento, The (Noah), 484

Fort Wayne, Ind., 467

Forward, 12

Foster, Stephen, 422

Fourier, François Marie Charles, 131, 363, 366

Fourth of July celebrations, 584, 586

Fox, Charles James, 412

France, 121–122, 501, 615, 654–655, 656. See also French Revolution; July Revolution; Napoleonic Wars

Franco, Solomon, 21, 275, 543–544

Frankfort on the Main, Germany, 678

Franklin, Benjamin, 43, 58, 74, 133, 266, 450, 563, 567, 649

Franklin College, 411

Franks, Abigail, 372, 421, 491, 617, 673

Franks, David, 31, 44, 49, 169, 372, 421, 454, 589, 604

Franks, David Salisbury, 59, 56, 57–58, 59, 68, 90, 98, 180, 538, 575, 601

Franks, Isaac, 67–68, 98, 169, 207, 538, 609

Franks, Jacob, 29, 30, 40, 152, 153, 154, 407

Franks, Moses (brother of David Franks), 49, 410

Franks, Moses, 58

Franks, Moses (son of David Franks), 609

Franks, Naphtali, 491

Franks, Phila (Mrs. Oliver De Lancey), 40, 312, 407, 604

Franks, Rachel (Mrs. Haym Salomon), 67

Franks, Rebecca, 44, 589

Franks family, 32, 33, 44, 48, 152, 168, 209, 217, 575, 589

Frederick County, Md., 603

Freedmen, 248, 478, 508, 586

Freehold, N.J., 44

Free School Society, 386

Freethinkers, 431, 511, 615

Free trade, 581, 582

Frémont, John C., 420

French and Indian War, 34, 49, 138, 143, 563

French Jews, in U.S., 62, 528, 572, 587, 663

French Revolution, 240, 363, 364, 425, 526

    and American Revolution, 83, 119, 121, 122

    excesses of, 79, 83, 126, 500, 510, 526, 545

    influence of, on Jews, 240, 265, 276, 353, 364, 472, 599, 614, 621

    and Jewish civic rights, 22, 122, 566

    and liberal trends in U.S., 82–83, 119, 240, 276, 364, 450

    and traditional religious beliefs, 353, 599

Frey, Joseph Samuel, 193, 354–355, 369, 376, 546, 548, 552

Friedenwald, Jonas, 136, 218, 668

Friedlander, Julius R., 436–437

Friedman brothers, 588

Friedsam, Michael, 212

Friendship Literary Society, 491

Friendships, Jewish-Christian, 574–576, 589

Full Account of the Celebration of Said Revolution in the City of New-York, A (Moses), 580

Full Annals of the Revolution in France, 1830 (Moses et al.), 417

Fulton, Robert, 104, 620

Fund-raising dinners, 470

Fundamentalists, Jewish, 278

Funerals. See Burials and funerals Furness, William Henry, 437, 593

Furst, Moritz, 419–420

Fur trade, 34, 35, 57, 65, 92, 151–156, 204, 337, 639

Gadsden, Christopher, 573

Gallatin, Albert, 415

Gallaudet, Thomas Hopkins, 434

Galloway, Benjamin, 503

Galveston, Tex., 593

Gamble, R., 207

Gambling, 207, 577

Gardiner (member of Mikveh Israel), 590

Garment and textile industry, 188–189, 587. See also Clothing dealers Garrett, Robert, 148

Garrison, William Lloyd, 554

Gaslight, 185

Gaston, William, 508

Gaston & Raleigh Railroad, 184

Gates of Mercy (Shanarai-Chasset) Congregation (New Orleans), 161, 163, 166, 227, 244, 382

Gaunse, Joachim, 21

Gazette of the United States, 527, 528, 529

Geiger, Abraham, 376

General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen, 468

General Union for Promoting the Observance of the Christian Sabbath, 521

General Universal Religion (Hart), 621

Geology, 438

Georgetown, S.C., 61, 198, 203, 210, 235–236, 245, 441, 444, 445, 571

Georgia, 32, 52, 55, 60, 79, 82, 84, 86, 87, 94, 117, 171, 172, 183, 184, 210, 216, 234, 415, 441, 497, 498, 510, 541, 571, 579

Georgia Historical Society, 446

Georgia Sea Islands, 168

German and Central European Jews, in U.S., 228, 436, 506, 581–582, 642, 649, 663

    in commerce, industry, and professions, 177, 182, 187, 204, 427, 432–433, 436

    educational activities, 380, 387

    founding own self-help societies, 165, 222, 321–322, 327, 678

    founding own synagogs, 165, 221–222, 224, 226, 229, 230, 231, 253, 254, 286, 308, 326, 382, 387, 557, 662, 666, 678

    immigration of, 133, 165, 206–207, 302, 336, 340, 347, 396, 640, 649, 678

    individuals: Jacob and Israel Cohen, 177, 321, 506; Lewis Feuchtwanger, 187, 427; Ephraim Hart, 182; Samuel Hermann, 662; Jonas Horwitz, 360; Israel Kursheedt, 273; Isaac Leeser, 281, 303, 305; Leo-Wolf family, 432–433; Samuel Maas, 582; Marks family, 209; Jonas Phillips, 204; George Rosengarten, 187

    as majority of U.S. Jewry, 231, 255, 303, 308, 321

    name changes among, 590

    as peddlers, 133

    poverty among, 165, 206–207, 215, 326, 340, 396, 645

    and religious reform, 403, 433

    religious traditionalism among, 232, 302, 382, 612

    and Sephardim, 221, 224, 235, 305, 308, 396, 668, 678, 679

    social status of, 314, 388, 470, 557, 607, 612, 642, 657, 666, 668

German Hebrew Benevolent Society (New York City), 470

German Hebrew Charity Society (Baltimore), 327

German Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Society (Cincinnati), 330

German language, 230

Germany, 122–126, 472, 473, 623, 629, 632, 633, 634, 637, 649, 660, 678

Gilders, 464

Giles, William Branch, 58

Gilman, Samuel, 623, 632

Girard, Stephen, 143, 158

Girard Bank, 179

Gleanings for a Gathered Harvest (Noah), 483

Glidden, John, 656

Godchaux, Leon, 587

Godman, John, 439

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 678

Goldberg, Arthur, 20, 22

Golden Rule, 357

Goldsmid, Anna Maria, 362

Goldsmid, Francis Henry, 110

Goldsmid, Isaac Lyon, 362, 367, 615, 646

Goldsmith, Morris, 91

Goldsmith, Oliver, 413

Goldwater, Barry, 19

Gomez, Aaron, 209

Gomez, A. Moses, 209

Gomez, Benjamin, 192, 193, 194, 353, 414

Gomez, Daniel, 56, 643

Gomez, Isaac M., Jr., 455, 492

Gomez, Isaac M., Sr., 36

Gomez, Mordecai, 35, 36

Gomez, Moses, Jr., 205, 206

Gomez family, 34, 48, 56, 209, 665, 667

Good citizens, Jews as, 577

Good Friday, 518

Goodrich, Charles A., 567

Gordian Knot, or Causes and Effects, The (Harby), 451

Gotham and the Gothamites: A Medley (Judah), 462

Gotthold, 637

Gottschalk, Edward, 412

Gottschalk, Louis Moreau, 412

Government employees and officeholders, 55, 68, 79, 84–93, 97, 117, 119, 123, 127, 137, 142, 144, 173, 183, 198, 199, 202, 213, 416, 441, 444–445, 464, 482, 560, 577–578, 581, 596, 627, 639. See also Diplomatic and consular officials; Elected officials; Judges and judicial officials; Law-enforcement officials

Gracie, Archibald, 607

Grammar of the Hebrw Tongue (Monis), 43, 360

Grammatical Analysis of Selections from the Hebrew Scriptures with an Exercise in Hebrew Composition (Nordheimer), 375

Grand Island, N.Y., 171, 472, 473, 474, 491

Grand Ohio Co., 168

Grant, Ulysses S., 517

Granville, Ohio, 81

Gratz, B. & M., 205

Gratz, Barnard, 44, 61, 170, 204, 501, 540, 603

Gratz, Benjamin, 14, 170, 187–188, 197, 216, 256, 378, 454, 540, 541, 574, 575, 596, 604

Gratz, Hyman, 174, 179, 205, 257, 411, 418, 454

Gratz, Jacob, 183, 435, 454

Gratz, Joseph, 174, 435

Gratz, Maria (Mrs. Benjamin Gratz), 540

Gratz, Michael, 29, 61, 69, 170, 171, 204, 205, 320, 440, 454, 606, 609

Gratz, Rachel (Mrs. Solomon Etting), 540

Gratz, Rebecca, 125, 351, 377, 379, 383, 570

    assimilated life-style of, 589, 640, 670

    Christian friendships of, 576, 589, 591, 593, 640, 670

    on Henry Clay, 540–541

    on conversion to Christianity, 389, 547, 612

    correspondence of, 388, 389, 438, 456, 670, 671

    and dietary laws, 259–260, 389, 589, 612

    on Edgeworth’s novel, 351

    education and reading of, 290, 388, 389, 454, 640

    and Female Hebrew Benevolent Society, 290, 329, 390, 433

    on freedom of religion, 555

    and William Henry Furness, 437, 593, 633

    importance of, 390

    on intermarriage, 351, 388, 604

    and Benjamin Gratz, 256, 540–541, 604

    and Simon Gratz, 205

    Jewish commitment of, 262, 310, 388, 389, 401, 596

    and Leeser, 296, 297, 304, 347, 393, 636

    and Harriet Martineau, 378

    and Jacob Mordecai, 377

    private life of, 388

    religious views of, 262, 290, 310, 389, 491, 589

    as model for Scott’s Rebecca, 390, 589

    on David Seixas, 434, 435

    social welfare, interests of, 389, 435, 454, 571, 591–592

    and Sully, 418

    and Sunday school, 297, 329, 345, 388, 390–391, 395, 402, 454, 633, 636

    on George Washington, 583

    will of, 290

Gratz, Richea, 411

Gratz, Simon, 170, 179, 205, 454, 591

Gratz College, 257, 454

Gratz family, 43, 141, 148, 204, 209

Graydon, Alexander, 540

Great Seal of the United States, 567–568

Grecian Captive, or The Fall of Athens, The (Noah), 463, 485

Greek War of Independence, 485

Greeley, Horace, 481, 483

Green, Thomas J., 274

Green Bay, Wis., 152, 153

Grégoire, Henri, 566, 642, 648

Grelaud, Mme. (proprietor of Philadelphia school), 408

Grounds of Christianity Examined by Comparing the New Testament with the Old (English), 352

Guadeloupe, 26

Guénée, Antoine, 352

Guide to Health; or Advice to Both Sexes in Nervous and Consumptive Complaints (Solomon), 431

Gutheim, James K., 166

Haggadah, 194, 350

Haiti, 456

Halakhic problems, 373–374, 376. See also Rabbinic authority

Halifax, N.S., 30

Hall, Sarah, 351

Hamburg, Germany, 419, 616, 641, 646

Hamburg, S.C., 185

Hamburg Reform Temple, 362, 433, 615, 635

Hamilton, Alexander, 73, 120, 121, 199, 428, 495, 538

Hammond, James H., 517, 601

Hancock, John, 58, 63

Hanover, Pa., 677–678

Hanukkah, 255

Harby, Isaac, 103, 325, 351, 450, 452, 458, 573, 580, 629, 633, 649, 677

    as apologist for Judaism, 350

    on assimilation, 630

    cultural attainments of, 350, 450, 596, 619

    on Andrew Jackson, 580

    and Jefferson, 410, 513, 619

    on Jewish self-improvement, 619

    as journalist, 413, 414, 450, 467

    on Masonry, 573

    and Jacob Mordecai, 377

    and Noah, 467–468, 494

    patriotism of, 414, 615, 626, 635

    philanthropic activities of, 323, 569

    political involvements of, 414, 451, 467–468, 494, 580

    and Reformed Society of Israelites, 624, 626, 627, 629, 630, 632, 635

    religious views of, 348, 350, 491, 615, 619, 626, 637

    self-image as Jewish Luther, 626

    on sermons in English, 348

    on Spinoza and Disraeli, 629

    as teacher and school proprietor, 323, 381, 408, 416, 450, 452

    as writer and dramatist, 350, 414, 451–452, 459, 483

    Works: Alberti, 451, 494; Alexander Severus 451; “Defence of the Drama,” 452; The Gordian Knot, 451; address on Reform, 649; Reformed Society prayerbook, 627

Harby, Levy Myers, 130

Harby, (George) Washington, 458–459, 485

Harper & Brothers, 195

Harris, Charles K., 531

Harris, Sarah, 301

Harrison, Benjamin, 89, 446

Harrison, N.Y., 473

Harrison, William Henry, 374, 480, 517, 656

Hart, Aaron, 87, 170, 182, 201, 620, 621

Hart, Abraham, 195–196, 391, 539

Hart, Benjamin, 201, 620

Hart, Bernard, 95, 168, 182–183, 209

Hart, David, 209

Hart, Emanuel B., 183, 263

Hart, Ephraim, 157, 182, 260, 506, 618

Hart, Ezekiel, 277, 620

Hart, Henry, 170

Hart, Isaac, 49

Hart, Jacob, 66

Hart, Joel, 428

Hart, Louisa B., 330, 454, 562

Hart, Michael, 151, 316, 562, 577, 591

Hart, Moses, 620–622

Hart, Myer, 31, 257

Hart, Nathan, 342

Hart, Philip, 641

Hart, Sally (Mrs. Moses Hart), 620

Hart, Samuel, 562

Hart, Simon, 246

Hart, Solomon, 316

Harte, Bret, 95, 182

Hartford, Conn., 534

Harvard College, 41, 43, 172, 175, 346, 360, 370, 411, 428, 439, 544, 591

Hased Va-Amet Society (New York City), 246, 324

Hasidism, 287

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 488

Hayne, Robert Young, 540

Hays, Andrew, 92

Hays, Barrack (Barukh), 55, 92

Hays, Benjamin Etting, 131, 260

Hays, Catherine, 596

Hays, David, 48, 130–131, 258

Hays, Isaac, 101, 203, 316, 430, 438–440

Hays, Jacob, 85, 137–138, 241, 602, 609

Hays, John, 152, 467

Hays, John Jacob, 55, 91–93, 639

Hays, Judah, 84, 209, 414, 415, 453

Hays, Judith (Mrs. Samuel Myers), 209

Hays, Michael, 85, 259

Hays, Moses Michael, 41, 52, 85, 91, 115, 143, 159, 161, 174–175, 176, 178, 209, 453, 460, 526, 572, 576, 591, 596, 611, 676

Hays, Reyna (Mrs. Isaac Touro), 159

Hays, Richea (Mrs. Samuel Gratz), 101

Hays, Samuel, 101, 438

Hays, Sarah Ann (Mrs. Alfred Mordecai), 101, 102

Hays, Slowey, 209, 269, 607

Hays family, 32, 48, 130, 149, 369

Hazzanim, 251, 252–253, 255, 261, 266, 273, 275, 276, 280–281, 295, 379, 380, 382, 386, 402, 445, 589, 613, 618, 669

Health spas, 671

Hebrah Ahabat Yisrael (Richmond), 231

Hebra Hased Va Amet (New York City), 246, 324

Hebra Hinuch Nearim (New York City), 224

“Hebrews,” as designation for American Jews, 366, 525, 627

Hebrew and English Benevolent Academic Association, 382

Hebrew Assistance Society (New York City), 326, 331, 332

Hebrew Beneficent Society (Cincinnati), 327

Hebrew Benevolent Society (Baltimore), 678

Hebrew Benevolent Society (Charleston), 235, 245, 322–323, 342, 345, 582

Hebrew Benevolent Society (Columbia, S.C.), 223, 235

Hebrew Benevolent Society (New Orleans), 163

Hebrew Benevolent Society (New York City), 224, 245, 323, 324, 325, 326, 330, 470

Hebrew Education Society (Philadelphia), 302

Hebrew Foreign Mission Society, 163, 642

Hebrew grammars, 374, 375, 376, 379, 400, 462, 547, 565

Hebrew Ladies’ Benevolent Society (Cincinnati), 330

Hebrew language

    Bibles, grammars, and other works in, 282, 297, 360, 374, 375, 376, 392, 397, 404

    Christian interest in, 41, 360, 373, 379, 430, 563, 567–568, 573, 575

    ignorance or rudimentary knowledge of, 95, 228, 266, 297, 289, 371, 387, 442, 452, 547, 600, 636

    in Jewish education, 366, 372, 381, 384, 385, 392, 472, 641

    in Jewish life, 282, 297, 301, 385, 404, 641, 663

    and Leeser, 282, 289, 297, 301, 302, 404, 636

    missionary literature in, 547

    and Seixas, 95, 278

    significant knowledge of, 278, 282, 370, 371, 373, 374, 376, 377, 401, 438, 442

    Simson’s Columbia graduation speech in, 278

    A. Solomon’s army payroll signature in, 55

    in synagog service, 289, 302, 371, 630, 641

Hebrew Literary and Religious Association, 372

Hebrew Orphan Asylum (Charleston), 408, 569, 593

Hebrew Orphan Society (Charleston), 382

Hebrew Reader (Leeser), 297, 392

Hebrews in America, The (Markens), 11

Hebrew Society for the Visitation of the Sick (Philadelphia), 267, 315, 316, 321

Hebrew Society of New York, 366

Hebrew Union College, 14, 17, 136, 367, 653

Hebron, Palestine, 643, 644

Heidelberg, Pa., 442

Helvetius, Claude Adrien, 412

Hemp manufacturing, 596

Hendricks, Harmon, 76, 158, 161, 190, 191, 209, 218, 225, 240, 260, 272, 316, 584, 651, 670, 676

Hendricks, Henry, 225

Hendricks, Uriah, 190, 191, 192, 209, 667

Henriques, M., 177

Henriques, Rabba, 352

Henry, Jacob, 87, 255, 506

Henry, Patrick, 79, 170, 497

Henry, William, 60

Hep! Hep! riots, 349, 356, 660

Hermann, Samuel, 178, 662

Hermann family, 208

Herschel, Solomon, 359

Hessians, 60, 67, 122, 141, 190, 571

Hevrot. See Mutual-aid societies Hevrat Terumat ha-Kodesh, 328, 644, 654, 665

Heydeck, Joseph, 544

Heydenfeldt, Solomon, 86, 198

Hibernian Society, 137

High Holy Days, 225, 228, 231, 233, 236, 242, 255, 310, 346, 471, 618, 630, 671. See also Atonement, Day of; New Year Hindu philosophy, 450

Historians, 463

History of a Heart, The (Mordecai), 610

History of South Carolina (Ramsay), 450

History of the City and Temple of ferusalem and of the Ruin and Dispersion of the Jewish Nation (Brown), 566

History of the Conquest of Mexico (Prescott), 571

History of the Jews (Deutsch), 12

History of the Jews (Milman), 567

History of the Jews (Ottensosser), 123

History of the Jews from the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Nineteenth Century, The (Adams), 123, 449, 531, 545–546, 566, 592, 649

History of the Jews in America (Wiernik), 12

History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella (Prescott), 539

History of the Thirty Years War (Schiller), 450

History of the United Free States of North America (Philippi), 577

Hobart, Australia, 208

Hoffman, Maria Fenno, 671

Hoffman family, 576

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 488

Holocaust, 518

Holy Days, second day of, 636

Homans (Navy Department official), 107

Homburg, Moses, 138

Home and family life, 672

Home Journal, 456

Hone, Philip, 206

Hoover, Herbert, 74

Horwitz, Jonas (Jonathan), 202, 360–362, 376, 407

Horwitz, Jonathan Phineas, 202, 361

Hosack, David, 428, 429, 430

Hoshana Rabbah, 371

Houston, George, 356

Houstoun, William, 64

Howard, Benjamin C., 505

Hume, David, 412, 413

Hume, Joseph, 650

Hungarian Jews, in U.S., 419

Hunt (member of Mikveh Israel), 590

Hurwitz, Hyman, 615

Hyams, Henry M., 622, 624

Hyams, Moses Kosciusko, 590

Hyams, S., 185

Hygeia Fountain, 187

Hymes, Henry, 33

Hymns Written for the Service of the Hebrew Congregation Beth Etohim (Moïse), 456

Iberian Jews, 29. See also Sephardim

Illegitimate children, 420, 425, 586, 620, 621

Illiteracy, 489

Illinois, 152, 169, 170, 201, 467, 572, 639

Illinois-Wabash Co., 168

I. L. Salomon’s Widow & Prager, 146

Immigration Act of 1924, 23, 75

Immigrants, 320, 371, 559, 584

    acculturation of, 302, 594, 617, 619

    communal aid to, 319, 324, 326, 331, 340, 396

    from Germany and Central Europe, 321, 327, 330, 340, 396, 666, 668, 678

    organizations of, 315, 321, 327, 330, 332, 391, 396, 619

    and Orthodoxy, 614, 631, 662, 666

    from Poland, 46

    Seixas on, 489, 666

    social/educational level of, 407–408, 489, 662, 668, 678

Incidents of Travel and Adventure in the Far West (Carvalho), 420

Indentured servants, 30, 55, 129–130, 133, 211, 236, 240, 248, 319

Indiana, 152, 168

Indian agents, 92, 467, 513, 639

Indian (American) Jews, 42

Indian (Asian) Jews, 359

Indian trade, 61, 92, 138, 151, 152, 153, 204, 667

Indians (American), 42, 459, 462, 478, 543, 565. See also names of tribes

Indigo, 32, 61, 140, 144, 361, 448

Industrialists, 675

Industry, 185–187

Ingham, Samuel Delucenna, 575

Inquisition, 24, 25, 29, 36, 300, 350, 351, 459, 505

Inquisition and Judaism, The (Nieto), 300

Insane asylums, 429

Institut Royal des Sourds-Muets, 434

Instruction in the Mosaic Religion (Leeser), 286, 297, 393, 394

Instrumentalists, 438, 447, 448

Insurance industry, 33, 161, 167, 174–175, 178, 191, 199, 213, 219, 604

Insurance Company of North America, 146, 174

Intermarriage, 44, 223, 228, 247–248, 262, 269, 494, 673

    and apostasy and/or defection, 54, 56, 68, 92, 131, 178, 195, 198, 200, 226, 273, 361, 365, 411, 458, 527, 528, 542, 597, 600, 602, 603, 604, 607, 608, 609, 610, 611

    between Ashkenazim and Sephardim, 38, 223, 665, 670

    in backcountry, 44, 602–603, 605

    and burial, 227, 245, 603, 608

    Christian opposition to, 531

    and congregational membership, 262, 267, 268, 322, 561, 601, 603, 625

    and conversion to Judaism, 44, 149, 267–268, 506, 561, 602, 605–606, 607, 608, 609

    as deculturation, 602, 603–604

    efforts to prevent, 44, 245, 248, 249, 625

    in Fiction, 351, 531–532, 536

    Rebecca Gratz on, 351, 388, 604

    instances of: Washington Bartlett’s mother, 608; Solomon Bush, 56, 609; Benjamin M. Clava, 603; Esther (Elizabeth) Mordecai Cohen, 149, 547; Jacob Cohen, 597; Levi Collmus, 602; Phila Franks DeLancey, 40, 604; Frank Etting, 599; David Franks, 44, 604, 609; Isaac Franks, 68, 609; Benjamin Gratz, 596, 604; Michael Gratz’s sons, 606; Washington Harby, 458; Ephraim Hart, 182; Jacob Hays, 602, 609; John Jacob Hays, 92, 131; Henry Hyams, 622; Jacob Henry, 507; Joel Henry, 506; Samuel Hermann, 178; Jonathan Horwitz’s children, 361; Israel Israel’s mother, 527; Phineas D. Israel (Johnson), 608; Solomon Jacobs’s children, 607; Mrs. George Lawe (née Franks), 152; Asser Levy, 603; Benjamin Levy (Baltimore), 608; Benjamin Levy (New Orleans), 195; Benjamin Levy’s children, 200, 606; Chapman Levy, 173; Ezekiel Levy, 597; Levy Andrew Levy, 607; Moses Levy, 528; Sampson Levy, 600; David Lopez, 245, 608; Solomon Lyons, 268; Elias Marks, 409; Asher Marx, 610; Joseph Marx’s children, 606–607; Adeline Marx Mayo, 607; S. Meylert, 603; Philip Minis, 542; Joshua Montefiore, 198; Mordecai family, 102; George W. Mordecai, 199, 268; Jacob Mordecai’s children, 607; Moses Mordecai, 199, 268; Joshua Montefiore, 198; Gustavus A. Myers, 273, 611; Mordecai Myers, 601; Moses Nathans, 606; Mrs. James Pettigrew (née Hart), 607–608; Sarah Jane Picken, 609; Solomon Pieters, 602; Pinto family, 603; Jacob Pinto, 54, 411; Shinah Simon Schuyler, 44, 609, 672; Jacob Solis, 227; Abraham Solomon, 54; Levi Solomons, 44; Fanny Etting Taylor, 602; Wolfe family, 189; David Yulee, 365

    in large towns, 44

    Leeser on, 598, 657

    in New Amsterdam, 602–603

    in New Orleans, 226, 267, 458, 596, 608

    rate of, 44, 268, 608

    reasons for, 604–605

Ireland, 468

Irish Catholics, 521, 555

Irishe Hevrah, 327

Iron industry, 190, 191

Irving, Washington, 389, 413, 488, 538, 539, 576

Isaacki, Samuel, 644

Isaac Moses & Co., 63, 64, 142, 143

Isaac Moses & Sons, 112

Isaac of York (literary character), 463

Isaacs, David, 150, 361, 414

Isaacs, Isaiah, 48, 85, 86, 116, 135, 149, 150, 170, 244, 326, 407, 586

Isaacs, Jacob, 426

Isaacs, Samuel Myer, 275, 296, 348, 360

Isaacs, Solomon I., 190–191

Iscariot, Judas, 495, 503

Islam, 78, 79, 352, 479, 506

Ismail ibn Nagrela, 22

Israel, Israel, 527

Israel, John, 527, 538

Israel, Joseph, 103

Israel, Michael, 527

Israel, Michael Boaz, 369, 475

Israel (Johnson), Phineas, 152

Israel, Phineas D., 608

Israel, State of, 551, 608

Israel ben Eliezer, 22

“Israelite,” as designation for American Jews, 366, 525, 627

Israelite Society (Cleveland), 220

Israel Levin Salomons (business firm), 146

Israel’s Advocate, 358, 547, 555

Israel’s Tabernacle (New Haven), 231

Israel Vindicated, 356–357, 496, 526, 550

Italian Jews, in U.S., 284, 615

Italy, 123

Ivanhoe (Scott), 390, 404, 463, 535, 565

Jackson, Andrew, 88, 103, 110, 414, 420, 421, 481–482, 521, 562, 575, 580

Jackson, James, 440

Jackson, John D., 590

Jackson, Lydia (Eliza) (Mrs. T. W. Donovan), 194

Jackson, Rebecca Esther (Mrs. Mordecai M. Noah), 472

Jackson, Solomon Henry, 131, 193–194, 325, 350, 358, 376, 550

Jacksonians, 391, 405, 417, 430, 459, 510, 530, 580, 616, 625, 634, 656

Jacob (biblical patriarch), 220

Jacob Mark(s) Co., 190

Jacobs, Barnard Itzhak, 251, 442, 490

Jacobs, Jacob, 210

Jacobs, Manis, 227, 567

Jacobs, Myers, 581

Jacobs, Solomon, 86, 156, 158, 206, 236, 442, 490, 607, 672

Jacobson, Eddie, 20

Jacobson, Israel, 365, 366, 616

Jacoby, Ludwig Sigmund, 545

Jamaica, 26, 27, 32, 62, 159, 197, 352, 450, 509, 645

James, duke of York, 519

James River & Kanawha Canal Co., 183

Jarvis, John Wesley, 418

Jefferson, Thomas, 43, 110, 133, 388, 413, 427, 461, 488, 515, 538, 553, 571, 586, 611, 616

    and Abraham H. Cohen’s Hygeia Foundation proposal, 187

    and Academy of the Arts and Sciences, 418

    on church and state, 79, 446, 497, 516

    and David Franks, 58, 575

    and Declaration of Independence, 80, 110

    and Deism, 79, 412

    and De La Motta, 234, 427, 446

    proposed Great Seal design, 567–568

    and Harby, 410, 513, 619, 632

    and Jacob Isaac’s freshwater distillation process, 426

    Jewish political support for, 579

    on Jews and Judaism, 476, 477, 530, 539, 562

    on Jews in higher education, 410, 513

    and Samuel Judah, 461

    and Moses Levy, 415

    and Noah, 476

    on organized religion, 266

    as President, 117, 120, 124, 187, 415, 516, 563, 579

    and promotion of science, 33, 427, 446

    proposed appointing Jew to cabinet, 120, 415, 563

    and Isaac Raphael, 150

    reading of, 353, 412, 461

    on religious freedom, 79, 120, 121, 407, 412, 446, 497, 516, 562–563. See also Act for Establishing Religious Freedom

    as Secretary of State, 426

    and Tripoli War, 124

    and University of Virginia, 120, 361

Jeffersonians, 240, 401, 442, 526, 527, 529, 579

Jerusalem, 475, 478–479, 547, 553, 633, 643

Jerusalem (Mendelssohn), 123, 299

“Jew,” as pejorative term, 40, 366, 495, 525, 537, 539, 549, 553, 556, 574

Jew, The, 194, 358, 550

Jew Bill (England, 1753), 126, 526

Jew Bill (Maryland). See Maryland Jew Bill

“Jewish Cemetery at Newport” (Longfellow), 165

Jewish-Christian relations, 346, 560–561, 562–571, 573, 574–576, 589, 592–597, 670, 676

Jewish Chronicle (London), 298

Jewish Community Bulletin (Wheeling, W. Va.), 12

Jewish Controversial Library, 300

Jewish education, 189, 251, 266, 268, 302–303, 304, 336, 345–346, 347, 362–363, 369, 370, 377, 379, 400, 640, 674, 675

    schools, 224, 226, 227, 228, 380, 384, 385, 386, 390, 552, 663. See also Sunday Schools

Jewish Faith (Aguilar), 301

Jewish identity and commitment and acculturation, 417, 424, 444, 596, 662

    and anti-Semitism, 270, 661

    and circumcision, 135, 269

    defined, 661–662, 663–664

    and Jewish knowledge, 401

    lack of, 147, 154, 172, 195

    and marriage patterns, 144, 198, 226

    and philanthropy, 162, 164

    and progressive thought, 145, 269

    psychic benefits of, 490

    and religiosity, 220, 271, 596, 597, 661, 662

    and religious defection, 194, 596, 662

    secular, 145, 161, 175, 269, 597

    See also Apostasy; Conversion, to Christianity; Defections; Ethnicity

Jewish Intelligencer, 547

Jewish literature, 346–362, 372, 401. See also names of Jewish writers

Jewish observances, 598, 613, 662, 663, 675. See also names of holidays; Circumcision; Dietary laws; High Holy Days; Sabbath Jewish Society for the Education of Poor Children, 430

Jewish Sunday School Association, 329

Jewish Sunday School Society (Philadelphia), 330

Jew of Malta, The (Marlowe), 533, 537

Jew of Mogadore, The (Cumberland), 566

Jew, or Benevolent Hebrew, The (Cumberland), 460, 534, 566

Jews and the Mosaic Law, The (Leeser), 297, 403

Jews for Jesus, 354

Jews’ Hospital (New York City), 332

J. L. & S. Joseph Co., 171, 176, 177, 178

Johlson, Joseph, 292, 393

Johnson, Alexander Bryan, 612

Johnson, Phineas D., 608

Johnson, Richard M., 119, 521

Johnson, Samuel, 412

Johnson, William F., 517

Johnston, Samuel, 506

Johnston, Washington, 89

Jonas, Abraham, 572

Jonas, Joseph, 135, 223, 224, 402, 560, 569, 580, 604

Jonas, Lion (Lyon), 266, 337

Jonas family, 89

Jones (member of Mikveh Israel), 590

Jones, Thomas A. C., 107, 108

Jones, William, 208

Joseph, Henry, 154

Joseph, J. L. & S., 171, 176, 177, 178

Joseph, Joseph L., 325, 417, 580

Joseph, Joseph Lazarus, 177

Joseph, Solomon I., 177, 678

Josephson, Manuel, 48, 258, 265, 274, 308, 376, 441, 618, 638, 653, 654

Josephus, Flavius, 346, 413, 535, 565

Jost, Isaac Marcus, 376, 647

Journalists, 129, 148, 172, 204, 306, 413–414, 425, 426, 430, 439–440, 441, 450, 462, 464, 480–481

J. S. & D. Solis (business firm), 178

Judah, Baruch H., 283, 412

Judah, Benjamin S., 148, 461

Judah, Bernard Samuel, 87, 89

Judah, David, 169

Judah, De Witt Clinton, 491

Judah, Manuel, 189

Judah, Michael, 38, 65

Judah, Moses, 186

Judah, Naphtali, 192, 193, 194, 354

Judah, Sally (Mrs. Moses Hart), 620

Judah, Samuel (Indiana politician and lawyer), 87–90, 416

Judah, Samuel (Montreal merchant), 87

Judah, Samuel (New York merchant), 141

Judah, Samuel B. H. (playwright), 460–462, 483, 492

Judah, Theodore Dehone, 38

Judah, Uriah H., 491

Judah, Walter, 428

Judaism, 27, 220, 269–270, 285–286, 362, 402, 564–566, 576. See also Orthodox Judaism; Reform Judaism; Theology Judeo-Christian heritage, 40–41

Judges and other judicial officials, 325, 416, 443, 464, 482, 528, 609

Jugglers, 460

July Revolution (1830), 417, 463, 477, 580, 582, 591, 648

Juries, 85

Juvenile delinquency, 340

Kaifung-foo, China, 642

Kant, Immanuel, 23

Karaites, 365

Karigal, Haim Isaac, see Carigal, Haim Isaac Kayserling, Meyer, 24

Kean, Charles John, 451

Keene, N.H., 566

Keith, Alexander, 377, 378

Kelal Yisrael, 220, 642, 651–654, 659, 660, 661, 663

Kemble, Rebecca Franks, 154

Keneseth Shalom Congregation (Syracuse, N.Y.), 229

Kennedy, John F., 20, 468

Kennedy, Thomas, 79, 502, 503, 504

Kent, James, 514, 622

Kentucky, 170, 171, 187, 572, 603

Kentucky Agricultural and Mechanical Association, 597

Key, Francis Scott, 95

Key to the Chaldee Language, A (Seixas), 375

Key to the Hebrew Language and the Science of Hebrew Grammar (Stuart), 375

Keys, Abraham Israel, 239, 379, 383

King (member of Mikveh Israel), 590

King, Charles, 481, 529, 530

King’s College. See Columbia College Kingston, Jamaica, 27

King William’s War, 190

Kinship feelings, Jewish, 642, 659

Kley, Eduard, 292, 394

Knight, Christopher, 579

Koblenzer Anzeiger, 473

Kohn, Douglas, 18

Kohler, Max J., 76

Kol Nidre, 447

Korn, Bertram Wallace, 416

Kosciusko, Thaddeus, 76

Kotzebue, August von, 192, 535

KoulJacob (Nikelsburger), 355, 549, 550

Kunze, John Christopher, 575

Kursheedt, Gershom, 164

Kursheedt, Israel Baer, 164, 241, 258, 267, 273, 279, 376, 385, 414, 590

Kursheedt, Sally Seixas (Mrs. Israel B. Kursheedt), 414, 455, 583, 672

Ladies Hebrew Sewing Society (Philadelphia), 330

Lady Book, 456

Lafayette, Marie Joseph Paul de, 66, 110, 208, 442, 455, 611

Laissez-faire, 425–426

Lancaster, Pa., 30, 138, 183, 204, 214, 217, 221, 540, 639, 677

Land developers and speculators, 35, 56, 149, 150, 168–172, 186, 204, 205, 364, 618

Land grants, 512

Landsmanshaften, 333

Laney (North Carolina Jewish businessman), 590

Language, philosophy of, 612

Larkin, Thomas Oliver, 526

Lasher, John, 67

Lavater, Johann Kaspar, 355

Lawe, George, 152

Lawe, John, 152–155

Law-enforcement officers, 91, 92, 93, 137, 212, 213, 481, 519, 520, 576–577, 664

Lawhorn, Eleanor, 17

Lawrence, Amos, 162

Lawyers, 87, 189, 197–200, 210, 212, 213, 273, 411, 415–416, 428, 443, 444, 445, 447, 462, 482, 561, 580, 581, 596, 609, 611, 622, 639

Lazarus, Aaron, 179, 184, 351, 607

Lazarus, Eleazar S., 242, 263, 376

Lazarus, Emma, 242, 264, 376

Lazarus, Gershom, 607

Lazarus, Joshua, 171, 185, 208

Lazarus, Mark, 171, 184, 185

Lazarus, Martha, 319

Lazarus, Marx E., 588

Lazarus, Michael, 171–172, 184, 185, 208

Lazarus, Rachel Mordecai (Mrs. Aaron Lazarus), 351, 568, 588, 618, 630

Leadership, 272–277, 402–403, 669–670

Lear, Tobias, 466, 467, 468

Leatherstocking Tales (Cooper), 462

LeCompte (member of Maryland legislature), 502

Lee, Arthur, 72, 495

Lee, Robert E., 283

Leeser, Isaac, 16, 165, 211, 234, 267, 269, 317, 402, 492, 610

    on agricultural settlements, 131

    as Americanizer of Orthodoxy, 304, 491, 614–615, 623, 636, 640

    as apologist and polemicist, 283, 296, 297, 300, 358, 362, 403–404, 407

    and Bible, 289, 292, 297, 299, 300

    and Board of Delegates of American Israelites, 303, 304

    childhood and early life, 148, 281–282, 292, 293, 315, 405, 407

    and Chinese Jews, 294

    and Christianity, 293, 407, 478, 494

    on Christmas, 289

    on need for communal day school system, 390, 394, 399, 404–405

    and controversy over burial of uncircumcised infant, 599

    and Damascus Affair, 657, 659

    on decorum, 289, 293

    education and reading of, 281–282, 291, 292, 293, 378, 407, 670

    as educator, 297, 302–303, 367, 370, 378, 383–384, 390, 399, 404

    on use of English, 633

    on equal rights, 105, 404

    and Female Hebrew Benevolent Society, 340

    on German immigrants, 230, 305

    and Rebecca Gratz, 390, 393, 636

    as hazzan: at Beth El Emeth, 284; at Mikveh Israel, 236, 237, 252, 275, 276, 283–285, 304, 305, 306

    Hebrew knowledge of, 282, 297, 299, 636

    as home missionary, 293–294

    on Jewish law, 290, 395

    as journalist, 282, 284, 298–299, 303, 306, 487

    and Kelal Yisrael concept, 642

    and Israel Kursheedt, 376

    as leader, 305–307

    and M. E. Levy, 131

    liturgical preferences of, 236, 282, 293, 297, 305

    and Maimonides College, 371

    wrote memorial prayer for Lincoln, 292

    on “mission” of Judaism, 290–291, 292

    and missionaries, 306, 358, 551

    on morality, 633

    and Jacob Mordecai, 282, 283, 378

    on need for national congregational union, 303, 304, 394, 653, 661

    and Noah, 131, 478, 487

    and Occident, 282, 284, 298–299, 303, 306, 487, 674

    on original sin, 290

    overview of, 302–304, 304–305, 305–307, 406, 640

    on peddlers, 133

    personality and character of, 276, 281, 283, 304

    philanthropic work of, 302, 315, 339, 340, 405

    and Poznanski, 635

    as protestantizer of Judaism and rabbinate, 291, 295

    and Zalma Rehiné 94, 282, 283, 594

    relations with congregation, 283–285, 295, 304, 305, 383, 384, 392, 598, 659

    on religious apathy, 268, 405, 598, 637, 657

    religious beliefs of, 285–286, 289, 290, 293, 296, 305, 370, 378, 395, 403

    on restoration to Palestine, 290, 291, 478

    in Richmond, 148, 236, 282, 378

    and Louis Salomon, 394, 405

    and David Seixas, 434

    compared to Gershom Seixas, 281, 292

    sermons and preaching, 268, 282, 289, 294, 295–296, 297, 347, 348–349, 351, 364, 633, 657, 659

    on Sunday laws, 404, 522

    and Sunday School, 297, 390, 391, 392, 393, 405, 636

    and Abraham Sutro, 282, 292

    as translator: of Bible, 299, 300; of prayerbook, 297, 350

    and Judah Touro, 162, 164

    and Simon Wolf, 306

    on women in Judaism, 261, 301, 674

    as writer and publisher, 283, 292, 298, 299, 300, 301, 362, 378, 403, 404, 640; works: Catechism for Younger Children, 297, 393–394; Claims of the Jew to an Equality of Rights, 403, 522, 551; Discourses Argumentative and Devotional, 351; Hebrew Reader, 297, 392, 404; Instruction in the Mosaic Religion, 286, 297, 393, 394; The Jew and the Mosaic Law, 297, 403; introduction to Aguilar’s Jewish Faith, 301; preface to Aguilar’s Spirit of Judaism, 261; review of Noah’s Discourse, 478

Lefanu, Philip, 352

Leicester, Pa., 589

Leisler, Jacob, 462

Lennox, Charlotte Ramsey, 483

Leonora (opera), 484

Leo-Wolf, George, 432

Leo-Wolf, Joseph, 432, 433

Leo-Wolf, Morris, 432

Leo-Wolf, William, 432–433

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, 412, 534, 535

Letters from England (Southey), 569

Letters of Certain Jews to Monsieur Voltaire (Guénée), 352

Letters of Junius, 450, 451

Letters to C. C. Biddle, et al.: Connected with the Dismissal of David G. Seixas, 435

Letters to the Jews Inviting Them to an Amicable Discussion of the Evidences of Christianity (Priestley), 353, 412

Letter writing, 671

Lettre Politico-Theologico-Morale sur les Juifs (Nassy), 432

Levi (pseud.), 359, 550

Levi, Andrew Levy, 98

Levi, David, 192, 349, 353, 360, 371, 373, 565

Levi, John, 621

Levi, Joseph Samuel, 546

Levi, Simon, 354

Levin, Nathaniel, 362, 610

Levirate marriage, 258

Lewis (Charleston Jew), 590

Lexington, Ky., 187–188, 216, 454, 596

Lexington & Ohio Railroad, 187

Levy, Aaron, 129, 157, 169–170, 419, 480, 576, 579, 584, 593

Levy, Mrs. Aaron, 47

Levy, Abraham, 263

Levy, Asser, 28–29, 168, 372, 603

Levy, Benjamin (Baltimore businessman), 51, 91, 413, 606

Levy, Beniamin (New Orleans publisher), 194–195, 608

Levy, Chapman, 94, 173, 198, 210, 218, 562

Levy, Corporal (soldier in Benedict Arnold’s command), 98, 103

Levy, David. See Yulee, David

Levy, E. (author of The Republican Bank), 180

Levy, Eleazar, 65, 201

Levy, Eugenia (Mrs. Philip Phillips), 448

Levy, Ezekiel, 256, 597

Levy, Grace, 319

Levy, Hayman, 61, 71, 141, 188, 419

Levy, Higham, 590

Levy, Isaac, 141, 168, 201, 320

Levy, Jacob, Jr., 177, 191

Levy, Jacob Claudius, 447–448, 640, 658

Levy, Levy Andrew, 34, 138, 267, 607

Levy, Lyon J., 157, 211

Levy, Marcus, 352

Levy, Michael, 135

Levy, Mordecai M., 570

Levy, Moses (Amsterdam Jew), 310

Levy, Moses (lawyer), 30, 169, 200, 208, 415–416, 418, 454, 528

Levy, Moses Albert, 94, 208

Levy, Moses C., 447

Levy, Moses Elias, 114, 131, 145, 172, 173, 303, 364–367, 369, 370, 385, 390, 399, 469, 473, 609–610, 619, 630, 653, 676

Levy, Nathan, 91, 413, 421

Levy, Phoebe Yates (Mrs. Phoebe Pember), 448

Levy, Rachel (Mrs. Benjamin Levy), 91, 129, 413, 606

Levy, Rahma (Mrs. Jonathan Da Costa), 172

Levy, Samson, 200, 600

Levy, Samuel Yates, 448

Levy, Simeon, 194

Levy, Simon Magruder, 98, 99, 607

Levy, Uriah P., 105–115, 135, 477, 580, 583, 587

Levy, U.S.S., 114

Levy family, 236

Liberia, 478

Liberalism, 534, 576, 586

Liberty Bell, 31

Libraries, 372, 411–413, 438, 450, 491, 604, 639

Library Company of Philadelphia, 454

Liberal Republicans, 575

Lichtenstein, Hillel, 292–293

Lieber, Francis, 539

“Life on the Ocean Wave, A” (Russell), 421

Lilienthal, Max, 84, 166, 518

Lincoln, Abraham, 292, 572, 581, 611

Lincoln, Benjamin, 57

Lind, Jenny, 470

Lindo, Moses, 431–432

“Lines on the Persecution of the Jews of Damascus” (Moïse), 349

Linguists. See Translators, interpreters, and linguists

Lippe Detmold, Westphalia, 29

Lippman, Jacob (Rabbi Jacky or Jakey), 222, 382, 402

Liquor industry, 189, 423, 436

Literacy, 372, 662

Literary Chronicle Weekly Review, 483

Literary critics, 451

Literary societies, 451. See also names of societies

Litterateurs. See Writers

Little Washington, Pa., 527

Liturgical melodies, 230, 349, 595, 630

Liturgy and prayerbooks

    in Charleston, 221, 235

    in Cincinnati, 223

    German-Polish (Ashkenazic) rite, 221, 223, 225, 226, 227, 239, 255, 299, 651, 677

    use of Hebrew in services, 289, 392, 617, 630

    in New Orleans, 651

    in Newport, 221

    in New York, 221, 223, 224, 225, 226, 237, 239, 308, 632

    original compositions for liturgical use, 349, 374, 621, 628, 637

    in Philadelphia, 221, 223, 236, 237, 238

    prayerbooks, 346, 349, 372, 373, 392, 400, 630, 632; English supplements, 617; English translations, 39–40, 311, 371, 398, 632; attempts to shorten, 293; Leeser’s, 297, 299, 350; Levi’s, 349–350; Jackson’s, 350; Pinto’s, 346; Reformed Society of Israelites, 627, 628, 631, 637; Union Hymnal, 349

    in Richmond, 236, 282

    in Savannah, 221

    Sephardic rite as “American style,” 232

    Spanish-Portuguese (Sephardic) rite, 37, 39, 221, 223, 227, 232, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 255, 282, 297, 308, 312, 346, 632, 677

    in Wilmington, N.C., 236

    See also names of synagogs

Liverpool, England, 632

Livingston, John H., 569

Livingston, Robert R., 95, 489

Lockwood, Benjamin, 98

Lomde Torah Association (New York City), 470

London, England, 30, 49, 145, 146, 150, 235, 239, 254, 359, 380, 615, 643, 644, 645, 646

London Quarterly Review, 283, 452

London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews, 193, 355, 546, 547, 549

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 165, 196, 484, 488

Long Island, N.Y., 49

    battle of, 67

Longworth, David, 484, 569

Lopez, Aaron, 31, 34, 39, 50, 51, 52, 62–63, 71, 128, 141, 146, 156, 158, 186, 188, 215, 217, 316, 575, 585

Lopez, David, 197, 245, 419, 608

Lopez, David, Jr., 158

Lopez, Mathias, 414, 460

Lopez, Moses, 168, 427

Lopez, Virginia (Mrs. Uriah Levy), 113

Lopez family, 62, 575

Lord’s Prayer, 357

Lost Ten Tribes, 24, 320, 478, 543, 544, 565, 566

Lotteries, 33, 177, 178, 234, 238, 316

Louis Philippe (French king), 580

Louis XVI (French king), 74

Louisiana, 210, 216

    University of, 162

Louisville, Ky., 140, 170, 189, 215, 223, 229, 328, 677

Louisville Water Co., 189

Louzada, Hannah, 316

Love of Israel Association (Richmond), 231

Loyalists (Tories), 47–50, 55, 69, 70, 95, 130, 159, 205, 240, 372, 497, 526, 589, 652, 669

Lucena, Jacob, 603

Lucena, Samuel de, 427

Lumbrozo, Jacob, 32, 201, 515

Lushington, Richard, 55–56

Luther, Martin, 513, 538, 618, 626

Lutherans, 70, 545, 563, 593

Lyceum of Natural History (New York City), 446

Lyons, Jacques Judah, 11, 12, 242

Lyons, Joseph, 447

Lyons, Solomon, 268

Maas, Samuel, 582, 588, 593

Macaulay, Thomas Babington, 127, 196, 650

McCoy, Isaac, 92, 513

McKellar, K. D., 75

Mackinac, Mich., 30, 152, 153, 592

Macon, Nathaniel, 101

Madison, James, 234, 412, 461, 488

    on chaplains, 516

    on church and state, 79, 516

    and Constitution, 82, 496

    and De La Motta, 234, 446

    on Jews, 70, 476, 562

    and Noah, 91, 99, 466, 467, 468, 476, 539, 562

    on organized religion, 266

    on political equality, 70, 539

    as President, 91, 99, 105, 466, 467

    on religious freedom, 82, 121, 446, 476, 496, 520, 562

    and Haym Salomon, 69, 73, 74, 467

    on Sunday laws, 520

    on Thanksgiving proclamations, 516

Maimonides, Moses, 203, 285, 287, 288, 289, 573, 631

Maimonides College, 196, 371

Maine, 30, 510

Malbone, Edward Greene, 388, 418

Maldonado de Silva, Francisco, 25

Malki, Moses, 643

Malta, Ohio, 603

Malthus, Thomas R., 425

Mammoth Cave, 454

Manual Hebrew Grammar for the Use of Beginners (Seixas), 375

Manufacturers, 212, 436

Manumission, 116, 586, 641

Marblehead, Mass., 54

Marc, Jacob. See Mark, Jacob Marc, Philip. See Mark, Philip Marcus, Aaron, 218

Marcus, Jacob. See Mark, Jacob Maria Theresa (Austrian empress), 78

Marion, Francis, 61

Marion, or The Hero of Lake George (Noah), 485

Mark (Marc, Marcus), Jacob, 60, 141, 152, 190

Mark (Marc, Marcus), Philip, 60, 141

Mark(s), Jacob, Co., 190

Markens, Isaac, 11

Marks, Alexander, 413, 522

Marks, Alfred J. (“Roley” Marks), 227–228

Marks, Elias, 408–410, 413, 483

Marks, Levy, 61

Marks, Philip, 209

Marlborough, duke of, 59

Marlowe, Christopher, 533

Marmontel, Jean Francois, 412

Marranos, 24, 25, 36, 228, 543, 610, 679

Marriage, 247–248, 307, 393, 628, 645, 665, 673

    levirate, 258

    of priest, 268, 597

Marryat, Frederick, 196

Marsh, John, 566

Marshall, John, 79, 379, 442, 571

Martineau, Harriet, 378, 650

Martinique, 26

Marx, Adeline (Mrs. Mayo), 607

Marx, Asher, 610

Marx, Frederick, 150

Marx, Henry (or Harry) Carroll (“Dandy”), 610

Marx, Joseph, 50, 145, 149, 171, 183, 209, 366, 367, 380, 395, 412, 598, 606, 610, 619

Marx, Samuel, 150

Maryland, 32, 79, 84, 94–95, 116, 146, 178, 183, 201, 202, 438, 471, 500–505, 510, 515, 523, 526, 538, 540, 557, 564, 649

Maryland Colonization Society, 586

Maryland Historical Society, 438

Maryland Jew Bill, 93, 471, 501, 502, 503, 504, 559, 650

Mason, John Y., 420

Masonry, 450

    and blacks, 80

    Solomon Bush and, 56

    De La Motta and, 554

    Moses Hays and, 41, 175, 572

    and Jews: as members, 41, 56, 73, 80, 91, 97, 137, 175, 200, 203, 427, 446, 447, 489, 571, 588–589; as officers, 56, 97, 179, 442, 571–572, 592, 596, 600, 611

    prejudices against, 554

    Scottish Rite, 41, 446, 592

    and tolerance, 41, 73, 80, 556, 573–574, 616

Massachusetts, 30, 55, 80, 174, 500, 503, 505, 510, 516, 521, 563, 572

Massachusetts General Hospital, 439

Massias, Abraham A., 94, 97, 103, 468, 583

Mathematicians, 101, 420, 422, 427, 462

Mather, Increase, 40, 544

May, Samuel J., 526, 576

Mayer, Maurice, 627

Maylem, John, 519

Mayo, Isaac, 109

Mazzei, Philip, 553

Meat industry, 187. See also Butchers

Medalists, 419–420

Medal of Honor, 509

Medford, Mass., 161

Medical and Chirugical Faculty of Maryland, 438

Medina, Solomon de, 59

Meditation and Prayers (Ennery), 301

Mehdi, Birgitta, 18

Mehemet Ali, 655

Memminger, Christopher, G., 574

Memorial prayers, 258

Memoirists, 448

Memphis, Tenn., 156

Mendelssohn, Felix, 422

Mendelssohn, Moses, 23, 123, 299, 355, 358, 370, 373, 374, 388, 396, 399, 566

Mengs, Anton Rafael, 557

Mercantile Library (Philadelphia), 454

Mercantilism, 26, 28, 49, 568

Merchant of Venice, The (Shakespeare), 32, 350, 459, 460, 533, 538

Mechanics’ institutes, 426

Merchant-shippers

    economic functions of, 33–34, 65, 139, 142, 145, 147, 148, 218, 540

    foreign offices of, 63, 142, 145–146

    and import-export trade, 33, 71, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 147, 190, 205, 638–639

    individual instances: Benjamin Etting, 141; Solomon Etting, 141–142, 540; Franks family, 33; Gratz family, 141, 205; Philip Hart, 641; Moses M. Hays, 175; Hendricks family, 190; Samuel N. Judah, 141; Hayman and Isaac Levy, 141; Aaron Lopez, 34, 50, 62–63, 71, 141, 575; Mark brothers, 141; Isaac Moses, 63; John Moss, 137; Moses Myers, 63, 142–145, 596; Myer Myers, 144; Prager family, 145–147; Haym Salomon, 71; Solomon Simson, 141, 426

    insurance fraud by, 207

    status of, 62, 63, 142

Merchants, 33, 188, 212–214, 217, 218, 579

Merck & Co., 187

Merzbacher, Leo, 632

Meshibat Nefesh Society (Baltimore), 233

Meshummad, defined, 551

Messiah, 288–289, 296, 353, 628, 636, 642

Metallurgical industries, 190–191

Methodists, 294, 545

Methulogic Society (Charleston), 424

Metropolitan Museum (New York City), 212

Mexican War, 113, 361, 482, 582

Mexico, 25

Meyerbeer, Giacomo, 422

Meylert (Mailert), Secku, 130, 603

Miami, Fla., 172

Miami Indians, 92

Michalowitch, M., 376

Michigan, University of, 376

Mickve Israel Congregation (Savannah), 233, 234

Middleton, Henry, 517

Mikveh, 37, 258, 270

Mikveh Israel Congregation (Philadelphia), 72, 149, 183, 237, 582, 590, 662

    Ashkenazim, 222–223, 305

    buildings: first, 56, 76, 149, 170, 239, 316, 563; second, 239, 419, 646

    cemetery, 245

    congregational policies: burial, 245, 257, 599; intermarriage, 247–248, 606; marriage, 597; membership, 247–248, 602; relations with Christians, 170, 238, 239, 257, 563

    constitution, 194, 252, 383, 384

    Damascus Affair, 659

    dedication ceremonies, 182, 239, 241

    discipline and fines, 266

    founding and early history, 237–239, 265, 316, 383, 652, 653

    fund-raising and financing, 178, 238, 240, 316, 563, 646

    and German Reformed Church, 170

    hazzanim: Emanuel Nunez Carvalho, 238–239, 276–277, 383; Jacob Cohen, 186, 238, 239, 266, 276; Abraham Keys, 239, 383; Isaac Leeser, 237, 252, 281, 283, 295, 305, 306, 383, 392, 615; Gershom Seixas, 238, 276, 277, 278, 383

    lawsuit over burial of Robert Phillips, 245

    members, 237, 239, 247–248, 316, 597, 602: Solomon Bush, 56; Cohen family, 666, 668; Jacob Cohen, 149, 321, 597; Etting family, 237, 666, 668; Reuben Etting, 599; Gratz family, 606; Hyman Gratz, 257, 305; Isaiah Isaacs, 149; Solomon Lyons, 268; Mordecai Noah, 91; Nones family, 90–91; Benjamin Nones, 90–91, 442, 528; Joseph Simon, 221; Haym Salomon, 72, 73; Judah Touro, 163; Isaac Hays, 438; Samuel Hays; educational activities, 383–384

    philanthropic activities, 72, 149, 321, 341

    presidents, 662: Abraham Hart, 196; Manuel Josephson, 265, 653; Hyman Polock, 322

    compared to Rodeph Shalom, 222–223

    sermons and preaching, 615

    services and liturgy, 91, 163, 221, 222, 237, 239, 246

    and George Washington, 265, 653

    women’s gallery, 239, 256

Milman, Henry Hart, 567

Miller, William, 658

Mill Street Synagogue (New York City). See Shearith Israel Congregation (New York City)

Military service

    Barbary War, 103

    Civil War, 104, 581

    Indian Wars, 94, 103, 274

    King William’s War, 190

    Mexican War, 361

    Revolutionary War, 48, 53, 54–64, 67, 263, 416, 424, 528, 571; battle of: Beaufort, 56; Bunker Hill, 55; Camden, 55; Long Island, 67; Saratoga, 57; Savannah, 48, 54, 61, 424, 528; crossing of Delaware, 416

    Texas War of Independence, 94, 104, 201, 274

    War of 1812, 87, 94, 95, 96, 99, 104, 105–106, 144, 182, 201, 241, 417, 445, 501, 583, 596; battle of: Baltimore, 94–95, 501; Chippewa, 485; New Orleans, 94, 159

    undeclared war with France, 501

    in British army, 40, 55, 56, 197, 201

    in Continental army, 54, 55, 56, 57, 416

    with Hessians, 60, 571

    in militia, 48, 53, 54, 55–56, 67, 93–95, 96, 144, 173, 182, 187, 190, 200, 241, 263, 274, 282, 361, 413, 417, 419, 424, 501, 571, 577, 583, 594, 596, 610, 620, 662

    in navy, 90, 103–104, 105–115, 144, 258, 361

    in New Amsterdam trainbands, 28, 54

    as privateers, 62–64

    in regular army, 96–98, 101–102, 103, 583, 584

    Sabbath-observer exemption, 561

    anti-Semitism during, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 109, 112–113, 114, 620

    at West Point, 97, 98, 99, 100

Mineralogy, 427, 438, 571

Mining, 411, 427

Minis, Abigail, 61, 210, 219

Minis, Isaac, 184

Minis, Philip, 61, 64, 210, 269, 541

Minis, Philip (grandson), 541–542

Minis family, 61

Minka or the Russian Daughter (Harby), 459

Minyan, 38

Mirabeau, Gabriel de, 648

Miranda, Isaac, 373

Mishkan Israel Congregation (New Haven), 231

Mishnah, 573. See also Talmud

Missionaries, 294, 535, 543–553

    and almshouse inmates, 339

    apostate Jews as, 354, 369, 545, 557

    benefits and results of, 553

    Christian opposition to, 548–549

    in colonial times, 543

    need for conversion in Christian theology, 543

    countermeasures against, 300, 339, 341, 392, 393, 400

    and deserted children, 341

    Hays on, 596

    and Indians, 544–545

    Leeser on, 300, 306, 358

    Moses Nathan on, 392

    Noah on, 471, 473

    in Palestine, 316, 547, 553

    polemics against, 300, 353, 356, 358, 393, 397, 550–552

    Sunday school as response to, 392, 393

    and Touro, 316, 547

Missionary Journal and Memoir (Wolff), 545

Mission of Israel, 292, 301, 368, 631

Mississippi, 94, 171, 173, 210, 216

Missouri, 603

Mitchel (member of Mikveh Israel), 590

Mobile, Ala., 30, 139, 162, 185, 202, 216, 417, 441, 448

Mocatta, Moses, 300

Modern Chivalry (Brackenridge), 538

Modern Religion (Hart), 621

Moehring, Gotthilf, 432

Mohel. See Circumcision Moĩse, Abraham, 198, 348, 627, 633, 635, 637

Moïse, J. C., 626

Moïse, Penina, 349, 456–458, 483, 596, 626

Moïse, Theodore Sydney, 420, 421

Moneylenders, 33, 70, 422, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 560, 566

Monis, Judah, 43, 346, 360, 544

Monk and the Jew, The (Paine), 537

Monroe, James, 91, 107, 206, 374, 450, 451, 466, 467, 468, 494, 562

Monsanto family, 156, 610

Montefiore, Joshua, 197

Montefiore, Moses, 164, 197, 291, 306, 646, 650, 654, 655, 670

Montenero, Berenice (literary character), 351

Montesquieu, Charles de, 356

Monthly Abstract of Medical Science, 440

Monticello (home of Thomas Jefferson), 110

Montreal, P.Q., 30, 37, 57, 152, 153, 201, 238, 677

Morais, Sabato, 284

Mordecai, Alfred, 99–102, 371, 426, 435, 516, 575, 599, 607

Mordecai, Ellen, 269, 610

Mordecai, Esther (Elizabeth) Whitlock (Mrs. Jacob I. Cohen), 149, 597

Mordecai, George, 100

Mordecai, George Washington, 184, 185, 197, 198

Mordecai, Jacob, 71, 99–100, 101, 130, 170, 184, 206, 236, 268, 282, 283, 309, 348, 371, 377, 401, 408, 409, 412, 568–569, 596, 606, 607, 612, 618, 640

Mordecai, Mordecai M., 189, 204, 256

Mordecai, Moses, 100, 198

Mordecai, Rachel, 100–101, 198, 350–351, 607, 612

Mordecai, Rebecca Myers (Mrs. Jacob Mordecai), 671

Mordecai, Samuel, 100, 184, 259, 294, 309, 600

Mordecai, Solomon, 100, 101, 202

More, Hannah, 460

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr., 22

Mormons, 375, 430, 482, 554, 567, 667

Moroccan Jews, 450

Morril (governor of New Hampshire), 517

Morris (member of Beth Elohim), 590

Morris, Richard V., 124, 125

Morris, Robert, 51, 63, 68, 69, 70, 74, 75, 76, 77, 169, 176, 495

Morse, Samuel F. B., 484

Mortara Affair, 417, 424, 611

Morton, W. T. G., 439

Morton’s Hope (Motley), 533

Mosaic System in Its Fundamental Principles, The (Salomon), 394, 395

Moscheles, Ignaz, 422

Moses (biblical figure), 395, 630, 631

Moses, Deborah, 262

Moses, Franklin J., 325

Moses, Isaac, 63, 66, 71, 72, 90, 142, 143, 147, 157, 168, 176, 209, 251, 570, 676

Moses, Isaac, & Co., 63, 64, 142, 143

Moses, Isaac, & Sons, 112

Moses, Jacob R., 262

Moses, Joshua, 142

Moses, Judah, 148

Moses, Myer, Jr., 325, 417, 580

Moses, Myer, Sr., 325, 492

Moses, Octavia Harby, 458

Moses, Philip, 48

Moses, Raphael Jacob, 157–158, 262, 330, 382, 408, 601, 670

Moses, Samuel, 42, 148

Moses, Solomon, 246

Moslems, 78, 79, 352, 479, 506

Moss, John, 136–137, 209

Moss, Theodore Frelinghuysen, 427

Motley, John Lothrop, 533

Moulton, David, 119

Moultrie, William, 60

Mount Levy, N.Y., 169, 584

Mount Sinai Hospital (New York City), 200

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 423

Muehlenberg, Henry Melchior, 70, 498, 563–564

Muehlenberg, John Peter Gabriel, 563

Music, musicians, 421–424, 438, 454

Music teachers, 422

Musical Fund Society (Philadelphia), 422

Musqueto, Jacob, 320

Mutual-aid societies, 223, 229, 230, 278, 320–339, 341–342, 372, 382, 597, 599, 627, 641, 664–665, 675. See also Burial societies

Mutual Assurance Society of Virginia, 611

Myers, Adeline, 491

Myers, Asher, 135, 190

Myers, Becky (Rebecca) (Mrs. Jacob Mordecai), 350, 351, 671

Myers, Gustavus Adolphus, 199, 273, 460, 610–611

Myers, Hyam, 143

Myers, John, 143, 144, 145, 414, 469, 491

Myers, Joseph Hart, 202, 428

Myers, Joseph M., 592

Myers, Joyce (Mrs. Myer Myers), 671

Myers, Levi, 87, 202, 203

Myers, M., 183, 184

Myers, Mordecai, 61, 87, 95–97, 119, 157, 169, 513, 601

Myers, Moses, 63, 90, 143–145, 147, 158, 198, 199, 215, 316, 539, 540, 541, 589, 596

Myers, Myer, 33, 135, 190, 427, 671

Myers, Naphtali Hart, 203

Myers, Samuel, 63, 143, 144, 158, 199, 209, 365, 366, 491, 588, 619

Myers family, 107, 169, 172, 236

Naar, David, 80, 511

Nacogdoches, Tex., 201

Naming practices, 42, 55, 288, 575, 584, 590, 628

Napoleon I (French emperor), 123, 126, 142, 289, 371, 450, 474

Napoleonic Wars, 144, 240, 289, 465, 620, 644

Narrative of Six Months’ Residence in a Convent (Reed), 555

Nassy, David de Isaac Cohen, 203, 431–432, 491, 584, 602

Natchez, Miss., 156, 201, 228, 328, 459

Nathan, Abraham, 206

Nathan, Benjamin, 332

Nathan, Grace Seixas, 86, 349, 456, 583

Nathan, Moses N., 163, 392

Nathan, Simon, 66

Nathans, David, 169, 173, 672

Nathans, Moses, 256, 606

Nathans, Nathan, 411

Nathansville, Pa., 169

Nathan the Wise (Lessing), 412, 534, 535

National Advocate, 96, 193, 413, 463, 467, 468, 480, 483, 502, 503, 529

National Archives, 13

National Assembly, Dutch, 648

National Assembly, French, 648

National Episcopal Cathedral (Washington, D.C.), 385

National Intelligencer, 473

Nationalism, 451, 461, 474

Nationalism, diaspora, 479

National Ordnance Board, 426

National Reform Association, 514, 523

Nativism, 554, 579, 631

Nature and Philosophy (Myers), 460

Nature of Man, The (Noah), 368

New Amsterdam, 21, 27–28, 37, 38, 54, 338, 499, 500, 510, 519, 602. See also New Netherland

Newburgh, N.Y., 34

New Hampshire, 30, 80, 117, 495, 503, 509, 510, 512, 517, 564

New Haven, Conn., 231, 577, 603

New Jersey, 80, 85, 117, 183, 496, 503, 505, 510, 511

Newlands, Francis Gifford, 179

New Netherland, 28, 30–31, 93, 168, 519, 578

New Orleans, 140, 159, 167, 204, 216, 324, 443, 448

    assimilation and religious laxity in, 226, 227, 228, 267, 596, 602, 608, 622

    battle of, 94, 159

    boomtown atmosphere of, 160, 226, 444, 459

    cemetery, 227, 244, 602

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 160, 178, 194, 212, 213, 228; banking, 178, 622; gambling, 137; lawyers, 212, 444, 622; physicians, 202, 212; slave traders, 156, 178

    education and schools, 345

    Franco-Spanish period, 30, 156

    Jewish-Christian relations, 159, 162, 567

    Jewish community of: leaders, 164, 272; social and economic status, 208, 441, 668

    and Leeser, 306

    philanthropic activities, 162, 163, 345, 591, 642

    politics and local government, Jews in, 622

    religious functionaries, 227–228, 275–276

    Sephardim, 227, 668

    synagog, 161, 163, 215, 226–227, 244, 267, 272, 345, 369, 382, 642, 668, 677

    theater, 459, 463, 485

    volunteer firemen, 228

New Orleans as I Found It (Durell), 533

New Orleans Bar Association, 444

New-Orleans Commercial Library Society, 444

New Orleans Price-Current and Commercial Intelligencer, 194

Newport Jewish Cemetery, 161, 162, 164, 594, 666

Newport, R.I., 34, 95, 164, 473, 600

    civic rights, 31. See also Emancipation of the Jews

    in colonial period, 30, 31, 214, 217

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 34, 50, 95, 175, 188

    communal correspondence with Washington, 505, 568, 578

    decline of, 128, 141, 214–215, 233, 675

    Jewish-Christian relations, 589, 592–593

    Palestinian emissaries to, 346, 560, 643–644. See also Carigal, Haim Isaac philanthropic activities, 217, 643–644

    in Revolutionary War, 49, 50, 52, 128, 175, 233, 593

    Sephardim, 232, 233

    synagog, 221, 231. See also Newport Synagogue

Newport Synagogue (Salvation of Israel), 37, 39, 40, 42, 159, 161, 164, 221, 231, 233, 235, 259, 346, 618, 646, 652, 666

Newspapers, 193, 194, 204, 425, 463, 470. See also names of newspapers New System of Measuring and Cutting Ladies’ Dresses, Cloaks, Collars, Caps, Yokes, etc. (Tender), 189

New Testament, 192, 193, 293, 351, 357, 359, 391, 407, 495, 498, 507, 518, 531, 535, 547, 566, 622, 630, 641

    quoted, 506, 522, 543, 546, 575

New Year, 236, 266

New York American, 529

New York Chamber of Commerce, 217

New York City, 123, 140, 214, 216, 455, 605, 643, 645, 670, 671, 675, 678

    anti-Semitism, 526

    Ashkenazim, 224–225, 239, 323, 469, 666, 671

    cemeteries, 37, 244. See also Chatham Square Cemetery

    colonial period, 30, 519, 664, 677; see also New Amsterdam

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 35, 71, 135, 138, 139, 141, 142, 147, 148, 157, 158, 168, 169, 175, 176, 180, 188, 212, 217, 436; banking and investments, 179–180, 181–182, 209; lawyers, 199–200; newspapers and publishing, 194, 468, 483–484

    criminals, Jewish, 208, 462

    cultural life, Jews in, 452, 455, 461–462, 468, 470, 485, 534

    Damascus Affair, 657, 678–679

    education and schools, Jewish, 224, 330, 345, 366, 379, 380, 381, 384–387, 395–396, 399, 408, 452, 470, 647

    immigrants, Jewish, 340, 396, 470

    Jewish-Christian relations, 135

    Jewish community of: demography, 30, 176, 182, 212, 342; social and economic status, 299–210, 453, 671–672

    mutual-aid and charitable organizations, 208, 224, 321, 323–324, 329–330, 331, 342, 343, 345, 644, 664

    philanthropic activities, 319, 329–330, 340, 396, 643, 647

    politics and government, Jews in, 35, 85, 137–138, 183, 212, 417, 481–482, 519, 580, 664

    Revolutionary War, 49, 51, 52, 71, 78, 141, 142, 577

    Sephardim, 232–233, 239, 243, 469, 679

    synagogs, 37, 51, 221, 224–226, 232, 233, 239, 677. See also Anshe Chesed; Bnai Jeshurun; Shearith Israel

New York College of Physicians and Surgeons, 428, 429

New York County Medical Society, 428, 429

New York Evening Mirror, 452

New York Evening Post, 452

New York Evening Star, 480

New York Gold and Silversmiths’ Society, 418

New York Herald, 481, 654

New York Historical Society, 11, 468

New York Israelite Sick-Benefit and Burial Society, 336

New York Journal of Commerce, 283

New York Literary Journal and Belles Lettres Repository, 483

New York Medical and Physical Journal, 429

New York Mirror, 452

New York Provincial Assembly, 40

New York State, 87, 496, 497, 510, 513, 517, 520

New York State and Its Constitution of 1822 (Noah), 485

New York State Assembly, 97

New York Stock and Exchange Board, 181

New York Stock Exchange, 181, 332, 596, 618

New York Times, 32

New York Tribune, 483

New York Union, 480

New York University, 410, 433

Nicholas I (Russian tsar), 156

Nicholson, William, 413

Nickel alloy, 427

Nick of the Woods (Bird), 459

Nick of the Woods (Harby), 459

Nidhe Israel. See Baltimore Hebrew Congregation

Nieto, David, 300

Nikelsburger, Jacob, 355

Niles, Hezekiah, 526

Niles Weekly Register, 503, 548

Ninth of Ab, 430

Nitgy (Nidhe) Israel. See Baltimore Hebrew Congregation

Noah, Manuel, 672

Noah, Mordecai Manuel

    and John Adams, 120

    and John Quincy Adams, 539

    and agricultural colonization, 131, 367, 548, 630

    as America’s best-known Jewish layman, 374, 464, 469, 487

    and Ararat (Grand Island) colonization scheme, 294, 364, 367, 472, 473, 474–475, 491

    attacks on as Jew, 465, 466, 467, 481, 494, 526, 529–530

    as autodidact, 464, 529

    on Barbary War, 123–124

    and James Gordon Bennett, 481, 526

    and Bnai Jeshurun, 225, 469, 470

    and John Cantor, 570

    in Charleston, 465, 482, 484

    childhood and early life of, 129, 464, 465, 468–470, 472

    on Christianity, 479, 593

    as consul in Tunis, 91, 450, 464, 465–466, 469, 482

    on Corcos ransom appeal, 320

    on cultural pluralism, 469

    and Damascus Affair, 469, 470, 660

    and Democratic Party, 129, 464, 465, 468, 529, 580

    as duellist, 465, 570

    as Grand Sachem of Tammany Hall, 129

    compared to Harby, 452

    and Hebrew Benevolent Society, 470

    and Andrew Jackson, 481–482

    on Jewish education, 364

    Jewish identity and education of, 301, 374, 469, 470, 472, 487, 596, 612

    on possibility of Jewish President, 483

    on status of Jews in U.S., 589, 648, 677

    as journalist and newspaper editor, 129, 171, 193, 308, 413, 452, 464, 465, 468, 470, 479, 480–481, 502, 503, 529, 580; and Evening Star, 171, 480; National Advocate, 193, 468, 480, 483; New York Literary Journal, 483; Sunday’s Times & Noah’s Weekly Messenger, 480; Union, 480

    Samuel Judah’s literary attack on, 461, 462

    as Justice of New York Court of Sessions, 482

    and Charles King, 481, 529–530

    as leader and communal activist, 464, 468–469, 470, 471

    and Leeser, 487

    and Uriah Levy, 107, 108

    vs. Madison and Monroe, 91, 466–468, 474, 479, 494, 562

    honorary title of “major,” 464

    marriage and family life of, 470, 472, 487

    on Maryland Jew Bill, 471, 502, 503

    vs. missionaries, 471

    on modernization of Judaism, 633–634

    and Myer Moses, 417

    nativism of, 482

    and New York Historical Society, 468

    and New York University, 410

    and Samuel Noah, 99

    overview of, 486–487, 670, 676

    on Palestine Restoration, 633, 635

    patriotism of, 461, 464, 468, 491, 633

    personality and character of, 85, 274, 486

    in Philadelphia, 91, 464, 465, 484

    philanthropic activities of, 320, 331, 470, 477, 481

    and Aaron Phillips, 463

    and Jonas Phillips, 417, 486

    and Naphtali Phillips, 193, 277, 413, 463, 465, 467, 480, 570

    as politician, 129, 274, 452, 464, 465, 468, 471, 481–482, 529, 580

    proposed literary works: on Jews in American Revolution, 638; history of American Jewry, 484; National Volume, 484

    as proto-Zionist, 288, 464, 474, 475, 476–480, 491, 633, 635

    as public speaker, 274, 469, 486, 542, 593; addresses: Fourth of July speeches, (1799), 464, (1817), 332, 468; synagog dedication speeches, Crosby Street, 633; Mill Street 123, 241, 441, 476–477, 492, 542, 556, 589, 593, 648, 677, 678; Purim (1840), 331; on ten lost tribes (1837), 477; in New York Tabernacle (1844), 478; to General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen (1850s), 468; on Palestine Restoration (1844), 633; to raise funds for Jerusalem synagog (1848), 479

    as publisher, 374, 483

    religious beliefs of, 465, 472, 491

    on religious reform, 634

    and Henry Russell, 421

    and Seixas, 274, 277, 464

    Sephardic background of, 91, 225

    on sermons and prayers in English, 295, 364, 633

    and Shearith Israel, 225, 241, 274, 320, 469, 470, 472, 487

    as sheriff of New York City, 85, 462, 464, 481, 529, 576, 650

    on slavery, 482

    on southern compared to northern Jews, 441, 453, 492

    on southern secession, 483

    as spokesman for New York Jewry, 274, 308, 469, 470

    on Sunday laws, 471

    as surveyor of port of New York, 464, 481–482

    as territorialist, 472, 473

    on Texas independence, 171, 482

    on tolerance, 542, 556

    and Martin Van Buren, 562

    on War of 1812, 465, 468, 530

    and Whig Party, 480, 482

    as writer and dramatist, 308, 452, 461, 463, 464, 483–484, 484–486, 671; works: Correspondence and Documents Relative to the Attempt to Negotiate for the Release of the American Captives at Algiers, 91, 467; The Erie Canal, 485; Essays of Howard on Domestic Economy, 483; The Fortress of Sorento, 485; Gleanings from a Gathered Harvest, 483; The Grecian Captive, 463, 485; Marion, 485; New York State and Its Constitution of 1822, 485; Paul and Alexis, 484; She Would Be a Soldier, 485; The Siege of Tripoli, 485; The Siege of York-town, 485; Travels in England, France, Spain, and the Barbary States, 465, 466, 467, 483; The Wandering Boys of the Castle of Olival, 484; Yusef Carmalli, 485

Noah, Samuel, 99

Noble, James, 88

Noble savage, 462

Nones, Benjamin, 90, 103, 169, 206, 274, 401, 441, 442, 528

Nones, Mrs. Benjamin, 671

Nones, Joseph B., 103

Nones, Solomon B., 572

Nonimportation agreements, 47, 48, 49

Nordheimer, Isaac, 372, 375–376, 378

Norfolk, duke of, 577

Norfolk, Va., 90, 139, 143, 144, 145, 179, 214, 236, 366, 540

North American Review, 413

North Carolina, 80, 117, 179, 184, 496, 503, 506–509, 510, 514, 558, 559–560

Northumberland, Pa., 47

Northwest Ordinance, 80–81, 496, 512, 513

Northwest Territory, 80, 81, 499

Norwalk, Conn., 38, 65, 316

Notes on Political Economy (Cardozo), 425

Notices of Florida and the Campaigns (Cohen), 443

Nullification, 414, 416, 443, 446, 447, 449, 562, 577, 580–582, 632

Nunes, Abraham I., 418

Nunez, Samuel, 43, 108

Nunez family, 34

Observations on the Cause, Nature, and Treatment of the Epidemic Disorder Prevalent in Philadelphia (Nassy), 431

Occident and American Jewish Advocate, 282, 284, 298–299, 300, 303, 306, 402, 456, 487, 674

Occupations, 129, 134–138, 148, 204, 205, 206, 211–214, 217, 219, 490, 676. See also names of occupations

Odofriede, the Outcast (Judah), 461

Oglethorpe, James E., 52, 108, 244

Ohio, 88, 90, 169, 512, 513, 518

Ohio Company of Associates, 512

“Old Arm Chair, The” (Russell), 421

Old clothes dealers, 33, 180, 188, 222, 402, 532

Old Testament. See Bible, Hebrew

Oliver Twist (Dickens), 208

Opera, 423

Ophthalmology, 438

Oppenheim, Martin William, 155

Organs, 446, 627, 634–635, 637

Orient, Der, 298

Orphan asylums, 591

Orphans, 302, 323, 325, 336, 549, 571, 616

Orthodox Judaism, 166, 192, 194, 200, 618, 621, 623, 662

    Americanization of, 247, 279, 291, 309, 314, 623, 635

    and Ashkenazic immigrants, 223, 232, 302, 382, 403, 612

    fears of its dying out, 266, 442

    and Rebecca Gratz, 262, 290, 310, 389, 491, 589

    and Leeser, 278–279, 291, 292, 304, 403, 623

    and missionaries, 550

    predominant faith of American Jews, 268, 302, 304, 309, 442, 613

    vs. Reform, 623, 629, 632, 635–636

    rejection of by acculturated, 403, 442, 610

    and Seixas, 278–279, 288–289, 291, 292, 309, 474

    theology of, 278, 309

    and Judah Touro, 164, 166

    See also Circumcision; Dietary laws; High Holy Days; Sabbath

Ostend, Belgium, 145

Oswald, Eleazar, 70

Ottensosser, David, 123

Ottolenghe, Joseph Solomon, 432, 491

Ottoman Empire, 476, 479, 485, 643, 655

“Our Way Across the Mountains, Ho!” (Russell), 421

Overbrook School for the Blind, 437

Owen, Robert, 131

Oxlee, John, 356, 357

Paine, Thomas, 354, 488, 537, 538, 539, 616, 621, 623

Palestine, 200, 288, 289, 291, 328, 377, 474, 475, 477, 478, 547, 565, 569, 628, 636, 643–645, 647, 651, 654, 655, 669

Palestine Relief Society, 303

Paley, William, 410

Pallache sisters, 381

Panic of 1837, 340, 341, 427, 522

Paper manufacturing, 192

Paradise Lost (Milton), 193

Pardo family, 590

Paris, France, 645

Parliament, British, 300, 404, 650

Parliament, Canadian, 278

Parliamentary procedure, 194, 237, 246–247, 595

Passover, 179, 194, 249, 255, 259, 319, 349, 472, 628, 654

Patriotism, 479, 582–585, 594, 628

Paul and Alexis, or The Orphans of the Rhine (Noah), 484

Paulding, James K., 389, 576

Paupers, 337, 669

Pawnbrokers, 33, 180, 203, 213

Payne, John Howard, 535

Payson, Edward, 547

Peabody, George, 165

Peale, Charles Wilson, 418

Peale, Rembrandt, 418, 448

Peck, Abraham, J., 17

Peddlers, 28–29, 44, 46, 129, 132–134, 139, 150, 213, 603, 667

Peixotto, Daniel Levy Maduro, 203, 330, 333, 339, 348, 369, 370, 399, 417, 429–431, 437, 445, 483, 492, 567, 580, 591

Peixotto, Moses Levy Maduro, 241, 275, 348, 369, 429, 669

Peixotto, Simha Cohen, 297, 381, 394

Peixotto family, 89

Pember, Phoebe Yates Levy, 348

Penn, William, 543

Penn family, 589

Pennsylvania, 34, 35, 70, 76–82, 79, 82, 85, 115, 117, 152, 169, 170, 171, 183, 200, 211, 415, 463, 498–499, 501, 504, 510, 517, 522

Pennsylvania, University of, 200, 202, 407, 411, 427, 432, 438, 445, 570

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 418, 454

Pennsylvania Botanic Garden, 454

Pennsylvania Company for Insurance on Lives and Granting Annuities, 174

Pennsylvania Institution for Instruction of the Blind, 436

Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 434, 435, 436, 471

Pennsylvania Packet, 569, 644

Pennsylvania Railroad, 102

Pensacola, Fla., 30

Pensions, 319

Pentateuch, 194. See also Bible, Hebrew Pentecost, 255, 322, 371, 628

Pereire, Jacob Rodriguez, 433

Performing artists, 33, 460

Perry, Oliver Hazard, 420

Persia, 647

Peru, 25

Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich, 363, 366, 381, 384, 404, 409, 549

Petersburg, Va., 135, 143, 156, 179, 184, 268, 509, 600

Pettigrew, James, 607–608

Pettigrew, Judith, 257

Pettigrew, Samuel, 608

Pharmacists, 212, 427, 431, 445, 446, 459

Philadelphia, 128, 140, 141, 204, 274, 277, 421, 459, 461, 534, 671, 675

    Ashkenazim, 221, 222, 223, 321, 330, 382, 666

    civic rights, of Jews, 70, 72, 82, 85, 463. See also Emancipation of the Jews

    cemetery, 245, 603

    colonial period, 30

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 66, 133, 135, 145, 146, 148, 149, 151, 157, 158, 174, 181, 183, 189, 211, 214, 217; banking, 176, 177, 181; insurance, 174; lawyers, 200, 462; physicians, 203, 431, 432, 433; publishing, 195, 196

    controversies over burial privileges: of apostate, 603; of nonmember, 245

    Damascus Affair, 657

    education and schools, Jewish, 304, 345, 382, 399, 433, 436

    Federal Parade of 1788, 84

    Jewish-Christian relations, 84, 170, 308, 563, 577, 589, 591–592

    Jewish community of: leaders, 274, 308, 309, 376; size, 211, 237; social and economic status of, 72, 209, 211

    missionaries, 544, 545

    mutual-aid and charitable organizations, 72, 222, 223, 318, 321, 329, 330, 340, 342, 345

    philanthropic activities, 318, 321, 329, 330, 340, 345, 433, 436, 591, 643

    politics and government, Jews in, 70, 85

    Revolutionary War, 37, 52, 66, 142, 214, 237, 321, 332, 494, 563, 589

    Sephardim, 221, 223, 232, 237, 382

    Sunday laws, 521, 522

    synagogs, 37, 221, 222, 232, 237, 243, 494, 563, 603, 607. See also Mikveh Israel; Rodeph Shalom

    volunteer fire company, Jews in, 136

Philadelphia Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, 435–436

Philadelphia Infirmary for Diseases of the Eye and Ear, 438

Philadelphia Ladies’ Society for Converting Jews, 549

Philadelphia Directory and Strangers’ Guide for 1825, The, 214

Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences, 439

Philadelphia-Lancaster Turnpike Co., 183

Philadelphia Orphan Asylum, 389

Philanthropy and charity, 35, 37–40, 42, 56, 65, 114, 129, 137, 149, 160, 161, 162–164, 165, 169, 200, 207, 212, 220, 227, 234, 240–241, 257, 291, 315, 317, 385, 389, 422, 453, 489, 569, 571, 641, 644, 651, 666

    by or to Christians, 35, 56, 162, 164, 573–574, 579, 590–593, 596, 651

Philippi, Ferdinand, 577

Philipson, Jacob, 419, 422, 471

Philipson, Joseph, 138, 419, 422, 471

Philipson, Simon, 419, 422, 471

Phillips (member of Mikveh Israel), 590

Phillips (member of Shearith Israel arrested for drunkenness), 264

Phillips, Aaron J., 463

Phillips, Henry B., 463

Phillips, Henry Mayer, 200

Phillips, Henry M., Jr., 462

Phillips, Jonas, 64, 65, 78, 108, 116, 136, 158, 193, 200, 204, 417, 486, 492, 521

Phillips, Jonas Altamount, 374, 375, 462–463, 464, 499

Phillips, Jonas B., 463–464, 483, 486, 580

Phillips, Moses Mendes Seixas, 463

Phillips, Naphtali, 84, 96, 148, 193, 277, 290, 413, 462, 463, 465, 467, 480, 570

Phillips, Philip, 94, 185, 198, 416–417, 492, 581, 611, 622, 624

Phillips, R. & I., 211

Phillips, Robert, 245

Phillips, Zalegman, 200, 530, 580

Phillips family, 200

Philologists, 462

Philo-Judean Society, 368, 390, 650

Philomathean Debating Society, 450, 627

Philosophy of the Hebrews and the Hebrew Scriptures (Davies), 359

Phylacteries, 316

Physicians, 32, 33, 200–203, 204, 212, 213, 361, 409, 428–433, 438–440, 441, 445

Pianists, 422

Picken, Sarah Jane, 609

Pierce, Franklin, 509

Pieters (Pietersen), Solomon, 21, 602

Pike, Mrs. Eleazar, 394

Pilate, Pontius, 526

Pilgrimage Festivals, 671. See also names of festivals

Pilgrims, 515, 516

Pilgrim’s Progress, The (Bunyan), 192

Pinckney family, 589

Pinto, Isaac, 137, 346, 441

Pinto, Isaac de, 353

Pinto, Jacob, 54, 577

Pinto, Joseph Yesurun, 346

Pinto, Rachel, 318

Pinto, William, 54

Pinto family, 48, 603

Pique, Abraham Dov, 241

Pitt, William, 412

Pittsburgh, Pa., 61, 138, 204, 527, 603, 608

Placide, Alexander, 451

Plantation Act, 31, 41, 80

Planters and plantations, 94, 173, 210, 412, 448, 585, 587, 675. See also Farmers, ranchers and planters

Playwrights, 199, 204, 451, 458–464, 484–486, 493, 580

Plumer, William, 564

Poe, Edgar Allan, 488

Poetry and poets, 374, 376, 400, 409, 437, 447, 448, 455, 456–458, 461, 463, 580

Poinsett, Joel, 426

Polemics. See Apologetics and polemics

Policemen. See Law-enforcement officials

Polish Jews, in U.S., 173, 208, 224, 226, 228, 286, 337, 419, 447, 663, 665

Political rights. See Civic and political rights

Politics, Jews in, 115, 274, 416, 463, 578–580. See also Elected officials; names of Jewish politicians

Polk, Charles Peale, 418

Pollack, Coshman, 263

Pollock, Elias, 55

Polock, Hyman, 322

Polock, Lewis, 139

Polonies, Myer, 385

Polonies Talmud Torah, 385, 470

Pool (Charleston Jew), 590

Pope, Alexander, 412

Popular Treatise on Gems (Feuchtwanger), 427

Porter, David, 656

Port Folio, 413

Portland, Maine, 547

Portraits, 418, 420

Portsmouth, Ohio, 133

Portugal, 459

Potter (duel opponent of Uriah Levy), 106

Poughkeepsie Casket, 483, 491

Poznanski, Gustavus, 348, 382, 590, 632, 635–636, 637

Praegers, Liebart, & Co., 146

Prager, David, 146

Prager, Jacob, 146, 200

Prager, Meyer (Mark), Jr., 146, 147

Prager, Meyer (Mark), Sr., 146

Prager, Michael, 174

Prager, Yehiel, 145, 146, 147

Prager, Yehiel (Michael), Jr., 146

Prager & Co., 146

Prager family, 145

Prayer books. See Liturgy and prayerbooks

Prayer shawls, 600

Preaching, 294–296. See also Sermons

Presbyterians, 502, 506, 609

Prescott, William H., 539

Priestley, John, 192, 564

Priestley, Joseph, 353, 354, 357, 544

Primary Catchism of the Jewish Religion for the Use of Infant and Other Schools (Pike), 394

Princeton, N.J., 193

Princeton College (Mass.), 376

Princeton College (N.J.), 376

Principles of Physiological Medicine (Broussais), 440

Printers. See Publishers, printers, and booksellers Privateering, 33, 62–63, 103

Proffitt, Kevin, 17

Prostitutes, 227, 235, 245, 248, 673

Protestantism, 51, 79, 286, 287, 291, 294, 298, 309, 311, 340, 371, 378, 384, 395, 400, 471, 475, 482, 487, 490, 496, 500, 505, 506, 511, 512, 515, 521, 542, 549, 556–557, 595, 641. See also names of Protestant denominations

Protestantization, of American Judaism. See Christian influences

Providence, R.I., 128, 534, 592

Providence as Manifested Through Israel (Martineau), 378

Publishers, printers, and booksellers, 191–196, 276–277, 299, 349–350, 352, 353, 358, 360–361, 362, 374, 404, 414–415, 460, 463, 539, 593, 608

Pulaski, Casimir, 54, 76

Purim, 177, 179, 228, 256, 331, 332, 391, 671, 672

Puritans, 30, 515, 521

Pyke, Rachel, 297

Quackery, medical, 429, 431

Quakers, 28, 45, 70, 255, 515, 564

Quarterly Literary Gazette, 196

Quebec, 30, 57, 87

Quebec Act, 57

Quiver, 413

Quotas, in college, 410

Rabbinic authority. See Religious authority

Rabbinical seminaries, 370

Rabbis, 37, 229, 266, 275–276, 375, 378, 501, 516, 603, 640, 645, 664

“Rabbi’s Daughter, A” (Harris), 531

Railroads, 184, 185, 186, 187, 197, 199, 205, 213, 577, 596, 604, 611, 639

R. & I. Phillips, 211

Raleigh, N.C., 198

Ramsay, David, 87, 450

Randolph (marine officer embroiled with Uriah Levy), 109

Randolph, Edmund, 69, 70, 74

Rankin, Theresa (Mrs. John Lane), 154

Raphael, B. J., 133

Raphael, Isaac, 150

Raphael, Solomon, 133, 150

Raphael & Wolfe, 150

Rapoport, Judah Loeb, 376

Raymond, Henry J., 481

Real estate, urban, 167, 168–169, 177, 213

Reason and Faith (De Cordova), 27

Reasons for Naturalizing the Jews in Great Britain and Ireland on the Same Foot with All Other Nations (Toland), 118

Recife (Pernambuco), Brazil, 25, 26, 27

Rebbes (Hebrew teachers), 379–380, 382, 386, 400

Rebecca of York (literary character), 390, 565, 589

Reconstruction, 508

Red Sea, crossing of, 567

Redwood Library (Newport), 454

Reed, Rebecca Theresa, 555

Reformed Church of American Israelites, 367

Reformed Society of Israelites, 257–258, 286, 309, 311, 342, 444, 631

    and Beth Elohim, 624–625, 626, 634

    and Charleston environment, 622–623

    and Christianity, 574, 629–630

    confirmation and bar mitzvah, 628

    use of English by, 294, 348, 623, 627, 630

    and German Reform movement, 294, 367

    goals of, 624

    Rebecca Gratz on, 389

    as harbinger of Reform in U.S., 400, 615, 632, 636

    Nathan Hart on, 342

    influence of: in Germany and England, 632, 649; in U.S., 400, 615, 632–634, 636

    as Kultusverein, 627

    leaders and founders, 198, 632; Isaac Cardozo, 627; David Carvalho, 627; Morris Goldsmith, 91; Isaac Harby, 348, 626, 627, 632; Henry Hyams, 622, 624; Abraham Moïse, 198, 348, 627; Philip Phillips, 417, 622, 624

    liturgy and services, 627, 628, 630

    membership 622, 623, 624, 627, 631, 667

    Michalowitch’s rhymed version of articles of faith, 376

    Jacob Mordecai on, 618

    organization and structure, 624–625, 627

    preaching and sermons, 294, 348

    and rabbinic Judaism, 629, 631

    as synthesis of Americanism and Judaism, 623, 626, 628, 631, 635, 640

    theology of, 376, 628, 629, 630, 631, 632

    universalism of, 630, 631

    women in, 627

Reform Judaism, 20, 94, 229, 256, 282, 293, 294, 305, 306, 365, 367, 448, 614–637, 649

Rehiné, Zalma, 94, 282, 594, 671

Religio-legal (halakhic) problems, 373–374, 376. See also Religious authority Religion, freedom of, 80–81, 116

Religion of Nature Delineated (Wollaston), 450

Religious authority, 374, 599, 603, 615, 629, 633, 645

Religious Ceremonies and Customs (Goodrich), 567

Religious functionaries, 143, 204, 221, 222, 227, 233, 235, 236, 238, 249, 250–253, 261, 373, 379, 598, 624, 651, 664. See also Hazzanim; Rabbis; Rebbes (Hebrew teachers); slaughterers

Religious observances, 149, 152, 183, 191, 199, 237, 238. See also names of religious observances

“Remarks on Miss Martineau’s Tract Entitled Providence as Manifested Through Israel, and on the Writings of the Rev’d Alexander Keith” (Mordecai), 377

Reminiscences (Levy), 97

Reminiscences of Charleston (Cardozo), 426

Remittance men, 30

“Removal,” 341

Republican Bank or the Present System of Banking, The (Levy), 180

Republicans, 518

Restorationism, 288–289, 290–291, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 544, 565, 600, 642, 655

Reubin, Leon, 126

Revere, Paul, 175, 190, 572

“Reverend,” as title, 618

Revivalism, 616, 641

Revolution of 1830. See July Revolution

Revolution of 1848, 478, 633

Rhode Island, 31, 80, 117, 128, 496, 503, 505, 510, 572, 596

Rhode Island College, 42, 361

Rhode Island Committee of Enquiry, 52

Rhodes, 654, 656

Ribicoff, Abraham, 20

Ricardo, David, 425

Rice, 216, 448

Rice, Abraham, 228, 275, 378

Richmond, 48, 128, 418, 675, 678

    Ashkenazim, 222, 230

    blacks, as customers of Jewish stores, 520

    cemeteries, Jewish, 244, 574

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 48, 133, 143, 148–419, 189, 199, 210, 213, 520, 571, 598; banking, 179; distilling, 189; gambling, 207, 577; lawyers, 199, 273, 611; railroads, 184; slave-traders, 156; urban developers, 169

    criminals, Jewish, 133, 207

    Damascus Affair, 657

    education and schools, Jewish, 366, 382, 395, 408

    1811 theatre fire, 294

    immigrants, Jewish, 326

    Jewish-Christian relations, 273, 571, 591

    Jewish community of: leaders, 308–309; cultural level of, 412, 441, 442; economic level of, 209, 210–211; organizations, 326, 366

    militia, Jews in, 94

    philanthropic activities, Jewish, 591

    politics and government, Jews in, 85–86, 199, 244, 490, 577

    Revolutionary War, 48

    Sephardim, 232

    slave-owning, by Jews, 585

    Sunday laws, 520

    synagog, 82, 86, 149, 214, 222, 232, 236, 243, 273, 326, 677

Richmond Constitutional Whig, 283

Richmond in By-Gone Days (Mordecai), 100, 600

Richmond Library Co., 412

Rienzi (Bulwer-Lytton), 195

Riga, Latvia, 465

Rights of Man, Declaration of, 534, 543

Ritual murder. See Blood libel Rivera, Aaron, 179

Rivera, Jacob R., 34, 156, 575, 589, 592

Rivera & Lopez, 575, 585

Rivington, James, 526

Roanoke Island, 11, 21

Robert & Isaac Phillips Co., 176

Rochester, N.Y., 421

Rodeph Shalom Congregation (Philadelphia), 222, 223, 243, 249, 253, 308, 321, 322, 327, 334, 349, 382, 383, 394, 402, 662, 666

Rodriguez, B. A., 432

Robinson, William D., 473

Robinson Crusoe (Defoe), 192

Roget, E., 349, 590

Roman Catholic Relief Act (England), 127

Roman Catholics, 162, 221, 358, 423, 521, 610

    attacks on, 358, 482, 503, 508, 537, 554–555, 622, 667

    civic rights of: in England, 126, 368, 650; under Spanish rule, 610; under U.S. Constitution, 116, 496, 505, 568

    conversion of, to Judaism, 423

    conversion of Jews by, 537

    discrimination against; 78, 122, 536, 555; in New Amsterdam, 27; in English colonies, 31, 51, 503; in Georgia, 497; in Maryland, 503; in Massachusetts, 505; in New Hampshire, 509; in New Jersey, 506; in New York, 384, 503; in North Carolina, 508; in Pennsylvania, 498; in Virginia, 79, 563

    ethnic tensions among, 221, 231

    intermarriage of, with Jews, 154, 226, 608

    Jefferson on, 79

    and King James Version, 515–516

    Madison on, 82

    in New York City, 37, 239, 384, 503

    parochial schools, 381, 382, 384, 397

    relations with Jews, 503, 568, 592

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 74

Roosevelt, Theodore, 90

Rosengarten, George David, 187

Rosengarten & Sons, 187

Rosh Hashanah, 236, 266

Rossini, Gioacchino, 421

Rothschild, Hester, 301

Rothschild family, 158, 176, 211, 442, 476, 495, 646, 650, 654, 655

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 363, 366, 381, 412

Rowson, Susanna Haswell, 537

Royal Academy of Medicine (Paris), 446

Royal College of Surgeons (London), 410, 428

Rupp, Israel Daniel, 296

Rush, Benjamin, 83, 169, 187, 202, 430, 432, 527, 528, 538, 560, 567, 569

Russell, Henry, 421–422, 464

Russell, Moses M., 91, 468

Russia, 474

Rutgers University, 569

Ruth (biblical figure), 388

Rutter & Etting, 142

Sabbath

    and apprenticeships, 136, 198, 322, 325, 382, 405, 561

    communal enforcement efforts, 248, 249, 254, 256, 266, 625

    De La Motta on, 447

    Leeser on, 293, 522, 598, 657

    and location of synagogs, 240

    neglect of, 266, 267, 268, 269, 389, 405, 447, 598, 600, 601, 610, 640, 657; individual instances: Ezekiel Levy, 597; Lyon (Lion) Jonas, 266, 337

    observance of, 257, 258, 322, 339, 428, 561; in Brazil, 26, 519; at Columbia College, 428; among immigrants, 37; and military service, 561; in New Orleans, 228; individual instances: Jacob Barsimson, 519, 521; Abraham De Lucena, 519; Cohen family, 604; Etting family, 258; Jacob Ezekiel, 136; Jonas Friedenwald, 136; Rebecca Gratz, 389; Nathan Hart, 342; Hendricks family, 191; Rachel Levy, 129; Alexander Marks, 522; Nathan Nathans, 411; Jonas Phillips, 258, 521; Haym Salomon, 71; Moses Seixas, 179; Sheftall family, 198, 561; Abraham Wolf, 521; David Yulee, 365

    and religious reform, 446, 627, 635

    and Sunday laws, 31–32, 514, 518–521, 522, 524

    worship services, 240, 256, 257, 342, 628

    See also Sunday

Sabbath Sabbath Service (Harby et al.), 627, 628, 630

Sabin, Albert, 20

Sacerdote, Solomon, 137

Sacred Dreams (More), 460

Sadoc and Miriam, 567

Saint-Dominique, 26

St. Eustatius, 39, 50, 63, 64, 90, 320, 646

St. George Society, 137, 182

St. Louis, Mo., 138, 140, 215, 218, 229, 232, 328, 459, 666, 677

Saint-Simon, Claude Henri, 131, 363

St. Thomas, 91, 172, 583

Salk, Jonas, 20

Salomon, Benjamin Franklin, 590

Salomon, Debra (Delia) (Mrs. T. W. Donovan), 590

Salomon, Ezekiel, 180

Salomon, Gotthold, 362, 388

Salomon, Haym, 43, 46, 66–77, 131, 176, 206, 373, 467, 583, 600

Salomon, Haym M., 73–74, 75, 190, 590

Salomon(s), Louis, 349, 394–395

Salomon, Samuel Napoleon, 590

Salomon’s Widow & Prager, 146

Saloons, 151

Salvador, Francis, 32, 52, 53, 54, 84, 87, 173, 411–412, 498, 526, 578

Salvador, Joseph, 53

Salvador family, 32

Salvation, 550, 552

Salvation of Israel Congregation. See Newport Synagogue

Samuel, Herbert, 172

Samuel, Hyman, 135

Samuel, Rebecca, 494, 584, 600, 662

Samuel, Wolf, 129–130

Samuels, Moses, 374

Samuel the Prince, 22

San Francisco, Calif., 139, 274, 639

San Francisco Chronicle, 204, 322

Sanhedrin, Napoleonic, 289

Santo Domingo, 26, 198

Saratoga, battle of, 57, 459, 485

Savannah, 128, 163, 444, 648, 675

    anti-Semitism, 497, 541

    Ashkenazim, 237, 243

    cemeteries, 233, 244, 257, 267, 326, 602

    in colonial period, 30, 50, 233

    commerce and industry, Jews in, 138, 184, 266; lawyers, 184, 445; physicians, 202, 445, 542

    Damascus Affair, 657

    education, Jewish, 382

    first Jewish settlers of, 52, 233, 244, 441–442, 444, 541, 646

    Jewish-Christian relations, 42, 569, 570–571, 593, 657

    Jewish community of: communal organizations, 326, 445; controversy over burial of child of intermarriage, 257, 267, 602; attempts to enforce Sabbath observance, 266; appealed to Touro for funds for hazzan, 163; solved halakhic issue by vote rather than rabbinic law, 267

    philanthropic activities, 42, 569, 570–571, 593

    politics and government, Jews in, 86, 202, 444, 498, 560

    in Revolutionary War, 48, 52, 53, 54, 61, 214

    Sephardim, 221, 232, 233, 667

    slave-owning, by Jews, 585

    synagog, 221, 233–234, 243, 247, 276, 445–446, 667

    Union Society, 42, 569

Savannah Steamship Co., 184

Schauffler, William G., 547

Schenectady, N.Y., 87, 97, 601

Schiller, Johann Christoph von, 450

Schlesinger, Daniel, 422

Schneider, Lippman, 61

Scholars, 373–375, 376. See also Cultural level, of American Jews

Schools, 398–399, 405, 408–410, 416, 442, 443, 452, 457, 459, 470, 488, 489, 515–516, 568, 589, 591, 600, 646, 668. See also Jewish education

Schurz, Carl, 584

Schuyler, Nicholas, 609

Schuylkill Bank, 179

Schwarz, Joseph, 299

Science of Judaism, 282

Scientists, 426–427, 430, 431, 438

Scott, Walter, 404, 413, 451, 535, 589

Scott, Winfield, 420, 443, 551, 575, 583, 607

Scribes, 374

Sculptors, 420

Sealing wax, 436

Seamstresses, 673

Secessionists, 458

Second Advent, 475, 565, 658

Second Awakening, 500, 510, 545

Secularism, 269

Secularization, 335

Sedakah, 317, 318

Sefer Ha-Yashar, 374

Seixas, Abraham M., 86, 156, 237, 585

Seixas, Benjamin, 157, 182, 209, 429, 596

Seixas, David G., 186, 433–436, 471, 591

Seixas, Gershom

    and Americanization, 618

    as autodidact, 278, 455

    on Bible, 292

    and Christians, 279, 280, 309, 402, 574, 575, 593

    correspondence of, 455–456, 671

    on need for decorum, 263, 279, 280, 292

    education and reading of: general, 278, 280, 291, 407, 414, 455; Jewish, 11, 39, 278, 292, 374, 376, 384

    family connections, 274: Joseph Jonas, 223; Napthali Jonas, 463; Israel Kursheedt, 279, 414; Sally Kursheedt, 310, 414, 455–456; Grace Nathan, 349; Abraham Seixas, 86; Benjamin Seixas, 596; David Seixas, 433; Moses Seixas, 596

    as fighter for equality, 279

    financial problems of, 252, 280, 455

    general conspectus of, 281

    and German immigrants, 279, 489, 666

    was half-Sephardic, half-Ashkenazic, 39, 279; preferred Sephardic ritual, 238

    as hazzan: at Mikveh Israel, 238, 263, 276, 278, 279, 383, 618; at Shearith Israel, 251, 263, 276, 278, 280, 281, 310, 324, 489, 618

    Hebrew knowledge of, 11, 278, 374, 376, 575; wrote Eloheinu as Elokenu, 262; wrote Simson’s Columbia oration, 278, 376

    and John Kunze, 575

    and Eleazar Lazarus, 376

    as leader, 277, 279, 280–281, 309, 324, 402, 669

    marriage and family life of, 38, 240, 252, 279, 455, 672

    as modernizer of Orthodoxy, 279, 292, 309

    as mohel, 250–251, 277

    in Newport, 231, 238, 278

    and Noah, 277, 374, 464

    as patriot, 95, 289

    personality and personal style of, 238, 263, 274, 277, 279, 280, 309, 402, 669; adopted Christian pastor’s garb and “reverend” title, 618

    philanthropic activities of, 244, 278, 303, 315, 323–324

    political neutrality of, 94, 289

    Portuguese knowledge of, 43, 279

    posthumous tributes to, 240, 280, 281, 348, 420, 463, 593

    relations with synagog board and officials, 252, 274, 277, 280, 672

    religious beliefs of, 278–279, 288–289, 291, 292, 474

    sermons and addresses, 94, 192, 278, 280, 315, 347, 376, 455, 566

    as teacher, 278, 374, 384–385, 464

    as trustee of Columbia College, 86, 120, 278, 280, 561, 596

    on use of vernacular, 279

Seixas, Grace, 86, 349, 456, 583

Seixas, Hannah Manuel, 240, 279, 672–673

Seixas, Isaac, 164, 379

Seixas, James (Joshua), 375, 430, 567, 609

Seixas, Moses, 50, 179, 233, 596, 653

Seixas, Rachel (Mrs. Daniel Peixotto), 429

Seixas, Sally (Mrs. Israel B. Kursheedt), 310, 414, 455, 583, 672

Seixas, Theodore, 317

Selections of a Father (Gomez), 455

Seminole Indians, 94, 185

Seminole Wars, 185, 274, 443, 583

Semon, Emanuel, 207

Separation, marital, 620

Sephardim, 163, 177, 203, 429, 651

    and Ashkenazim, 38, 221, 224, 225, 231, 243, 305, 469, 470, 651, 665–666, 678

    affinity for arts and culture, 27

    dominant element of early American Jewry, 38, 232, 235, 270, 314

    education and schools, 369, 380

    in England, 380

    and European Sephardim, 235, 380, 615, 645

    in Latin America and West Indies, 24–27

    Marrano tradition of, 24, 679

    in New Amsterdam, 27

    in New York City, 239, 380

    and religious reform, 615

    religious traditionalism, 401, 419

    Sephardic rite, 38, 232, 235. See also Liturgy and prayerbooks set standard of American ritual and synagog, 221, 232, 235, 243, 469

    social-climbing adoption of Sephardic identity, 223, 232, 667, 668

    social status of, 215, 667

    in southern colonies, 29

    and Sunday schools, 396, 651

    preferred pattern of synagog interior, 419

Sequeyra (Siccary), John de, 32, 33, 202

Series of Letters on the Evidences of Christianity, A (Fernandes), 300

Sermons, 301, 313, 347–349, 362, 364, 377, 388, 392, 400, 455, 560, 615, 616, 630, 631, 633, 634, 641, 659

Sermons (Sterne), 412

Seventh Day Baptists, 395

Seventy-Six Association (Charleston), 571

Seward, William, 74

Shaarey Zedek Congregation (New York City), 226

Shakespeare, William, 413, 421, 463, 533, 535

Shake[s]peare Illustrated (Lennox), 483

Shanarei-Chasset Congregation. See Gates of Mercy Congregation Shearith Israel Congregation (Charleston), 235, 306, 446, 635

Shearith Israel Congregation (Columbia, S.C.), 235

Shearith Israel Congregation (New York City), 270

    and Americanization, 618, 633

    anti-Semitism, 526

    and Ashkenazim, 206, 224–225, 308, 323, 324, 333, 400, 614, 644, 667, 679

    budget and financing, 182, 240, 253, 254, 280

    buildings, 37: Crosby Street, 241, 633, 672; Mill Street, 37, 240, 241, 374, 476, 542, 593, 652

    burial and mutual-aid societies, 224, 244, 245, 323–324, 325, 477, 647

    cemeteries, 244, 456. See also Chatham Square Cemetery and 1832

    cholera epidemic congregational history by Phillips, 463

    congregational name defined, 288

    constitution and by-laws, 240, 247, 257, 551, 595, 625

    Damascus Affair, 657, 669, 678–679

    decorum and discipline, 263, 595, 601

    dedication ceremonies and speeches: Mill Street (1818), 241, 374, 478, 542, 593; Crosby Street (1834), 242, 633

    donors of bequests, loans, or gifts: Mordecai Gomez, 35; Curaçao Jewry, 646; Hebrew Assistance Society, 326; Harmon Hendricks, 240; Abraham Touro, 161, 240, 318, 644; Judah Touro, 240; Benjamin Nathan, 332

    early history and charters, 239–240

    educational activities, 326, 330, 387: adult education, 371, 470; day school, 242, 276, 278, 384; Hebrew school, 95, 384–385, 386; Sunday school, 396

    English prayers and sermons, 241, 348, 632, 348, 633

    governance, 247, 310

    hazzanim, 618: Eleazar Lazarus, 242; Judah Lyons, 11, 242; Moses Peixotto, 241, 429; Isaac Seixas, 241; Gershom Seixas, 86, 95, 238

    and immigrants, 224

    liturgy, 308, 632, 665

    members, number of, 240; ethnicity of, 667; effort to enforce affiliation, 664; occupations of, 212: Franks family, 205; Gomez family, 205; Moses Gomez Jr., 206; Isaac Gomez Jr., 455; Emanuel Hart, 263; Harmon Hendricks, 225; Uriah Hendricks, 667; Joseph Joseph, 177; Solomon Joseph, 177; Samuel and Bernard Judah, 87, 89; Israel Kursheedt, 376; Eleazar Levy, 65; Michael Levy, 38; Uriah Levy, 114; Mordecai Myers, 87; Grace Nathan, 456; Mordecai Noah, 241; Gedaliah (Gustavus) Poznanski, 590, 636; Wolfe family, 189

    minyan problem, 598

    mohelim, 250–251

    as mother synagog of North America, 39, 239, 308, 652

    and municipal butcher/shohet licensing law, 261

    and Noah, 274, 308, 469, 478, 542, 593, 633

    philanthropic activities, 38, 39, 65, 129, 224, 319, 320, 324–326, 330, 337, 644, 647, 651

    policies on questions of religious practice: burial, 245, 477; conversion and proselytes, 257, 551; intermarriage, 257; use of Christian liturgical melodies, 595; dietary laws, 472; wearing of tallith, 257, 600

    presidents, 206, 274, 662: Mordecai Gomez, 36, 193; Bernard Hart, 168, 182; Ephraim Hart, 182, 506; Harmon Hendricks, 272; Naphtali Judah, 192, 193, 462; Isaac Moses, 168; Benjamin Nathan, 332; Naphtali Phillips, 462; Solomon Simson, 240, 526

    reformist pressures, 348, 371, 633

    relations with Christians, 257, 274, 325, 542, 561, 593, 633

    relations with other congregations: in U.S., 132, 651–652, 679; in England, 39, 647; in West Indies, 39, 241, 646

    during Revolutionary War, 47

    and Sephardim, 132, 177, 224, 237, 308, 333, 665, 679

    shohetim, Hyam Myers, 143; Gustavus Poznanski, 635

    and George Washington, 652, 653

    and women, 241

    Zundel’s gift of Palestinian earth, 477

Sheftall, Benjamin, 52, 94

Sheftall, Esther, 138, 210

Sheftall, Fanny, 673

Sheftall, Frances, 489

Sheftall, Levi, 32, 48, 152

Sheftall, Mordecai, 32, 50, 52, 56, 60, 63, 77, 84, 86, 152, 171, 210, 233, 244, 260, 273, 489, 497, 574, 673

Sheftall, Moses, 86, 87, 91, 202, 234

Sheftall, Sheftall, 60, 86, 259, 415, 582

Sheftall family, 32, 38

Shema Yisrael: The Spirit of Judaism (Aguilar), 298

Shenandoah Valley, 210

Shepherd, Rezin Davis, 159, 164

She Would Be a Soldier, or The Plains of Chippewa (Noah), 485

Shimelah (Montreal Jew), 316

Shippen, Nancy, 589

Shippers. See Merchant Shippers Shoemakers union, 416

Shohetim. See Slaughterers Sholem (Sholam) agricultural colony, 132, 340

Shopkeepers, retailers, and dry goods dealers

    use of barter, 151

    and black customers, 585

    compared to peddlers, 139

    economic functions of, 35–36, 64–65, 218

    individual shopkeepers: Mrs. Philip Benjamin, 138; Israel Cohen, 177; Jacob Cohen, 149, 177; Cohen & Isaacs, 149, 177; Marcus Elkan, 148, 210; Lorenzo da Ponte, 138, 423; Sally Etting, 138; Michael Hart, 151; Benjamin Gomez, 192; Mordecai Gomez, 35; Myer Hart, 31; Moses M. Hays, 175; Michael Judah, 38; Naphtali Judah, 192; Lyon J. Levy, 157, 211; Alexander Marks, 522; Abigail Minis, 219; Philip Minis, 210; Joseph Philipson, 138; Philipson brothers, 419; Lewis Polock, 139; Raphael & Wolfe, 150; Abraham Seixas, 156, 585; Esther Sheftall, 138, 210; Jacob S. Solis, 226–227; Judah Touro, 160

    and intermarriage, 603–605

    locations: frontier and small towns as typical, 30, 35, 130, 151, 167, 218, 639, 670; Augusta, Ga., 30; Baltimore, 138, 204; Beaufort, S.C., 138; Charleston, 156, 212, 448, 520; Charlottesville, Va., 150, 151; Columbia, S.C., 522; Easton, Pa., 31, 151, 230; Lancaster, Pa., 639; Mackinac, Mich., 30; New Orleans, 160; Newport, 175; Norwalk, 38; Philadelphia, 157, 211; Richmond, 148, 149, 177, 210, 520; St. Louis, 138, 419; Savannah, 138; Sunbury, Pa., 138, 423; Wilmington, Del., 150, 151, 227; Yerba Buena (San Francisco), Calif., 139; York, Pa., 540

    as main Jewish occupation, 33, 35, 45, 130, 139, 148, 196, 212, 217, 639

    “merchant” as preferred title, 147, 212, 218

    mobility of, 204

    physical premises of, 151, 175

    political leanings of, 579, 581

    during Revolutionary War, 49, 62, 64–65

    socioeconomic status of, 35, 45, 147, 218, 230, 442, 448

    and Sunday laws, 520, 522

    types of goods sold, 33, 35–36, 64, 138–139, 148, 151, 156, 157, 160, 175, 190, 193, 210, 419

    women as, 138, 210, 219

Short Account of Mr. Frey, a Converted Jew, A, 546

Shulhan Arukh, 376

Shylock (literary character), 350, 460, 495, 526, 533, 538, 542

Sick-care societies. See Mutual-aid societies

Siege of Tripoli, The (Noah), 485

Siege of Yorktown, The (Noah), 485

Silk industry, 432

Silk worms, 491

Silva, Antonio Jose da, 459

Silversmiths, 149, 418

Simon, Joseph, 60, 170, 183, 221, 540, 607, 677

Simon, Nathan, 209

Simon, Shinah (Mrs. Nicholas Schuyler), 609, 672

Simon & Henry, 61

Simons, Leonard N., 18

Simons, Moses, 411

Simons, Saul, 411

Simon the Just, 39

Simon, Trent, Levy & Co., 34

Simpson (Charleston Jew), 590

Simson, Joseph, 135

Simson, Nathan, 209

Simson, Sampson, 190, 199, 217, 278, 358, 376, 560, 579, 582, 587

Simson, Solomon, 141, 190, 240, 401, 426–427, 526, 624, 642

Simson family, 209

Singers, 421–422

Six Months in a Convent, 482

Sketch of the Origin and Progress of the Institutions for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb in Pennsylvania, A, 436

Slaughterers, 252, 260–261, 379, 540, 598, 637, 669

Slaves, 35, 116, 122, 129, 133, 151, 158, 210, 211, 216, 217, 282, 313, 368, 411, 414, 425, 442, 446, 482, 520, 547, 581, 585–586, 587, 588, 621, 672. See also Manumission

Slave trade, 34, 156–157, 178, 213, 483, 585

Slaves in Algiers (Rowson), 537

Slidell, Thomas, 416

Smallpox, 35

Smith, Adam, 425

Smith, John C., 126

Smith, Joseph (Revolutionary War soldier), 55

Smith, Joseph (Mormon leader), 375, 430, 554, 567, 621

Smith, Laura (Mrs. Henry Hyams), 622

Smith, Sidney, 468

Smith, William, 40

Smollett, Tobias, 412, 413

Smuggling, 33

Smyrna, Turkey, 647

Snyder, Simeon, 576

Socialism, 588

Social relations, interreligious, 574–576, 589

Social reform movement, 332, 339, 405, 579, 616, 641

Social workers, 389, 571

Society for Charity and Secret Giving, 323–324

Society for the Education of Poor Children and the Relief of Indigent Persons of the City of New York, 386, 417

Society for the Education of Poor Children and the Relief of Indigent Persons of the Jewish Persuasion, 325, 326, 345, 348, 370

Society for the Offerings of the Sanctuary, 328, 644, 654, 665

Society for the Relief of Orphans and Children of Indigent Parents, 323

Society for the Study of Natural Philosophy, 454

Society of Concord (Syracuse, N.Y.), 229

Society of True Love (New York City), 324

Solis, Jacob R., 272, 303

Solis, Jacob S., 226–227, 345, 369, 370, 399, 651

Solis, J. S. & D., 178

Solomon, Abraham, 54–55

Solomon (Saliman), Isaac, 129

Solomon, Isaac (Ikey), 208

Solomon, Levi, 44

Solomon, Samuel, 431

Solomon I. Isaacs and Soho Copper Works, 191

Solomons, Frances, 214

Solomons, Mary (Mrs. Jacob Franks), 153

Solomons, Levy, 59

Solomons, Solomon, 38

“Some Love to Roam” (Russell), 421

Songwriters, 464

Sons of Liberty, 67

Sorrows of Werter [sic] (Goethe), 192

South Carolina, 32, 53, 55, 79, 82, 84, 86, 87, 94, 117, 119, 168, 172, 179, 184, 202, 210, 415, 443, 498, 510, 517, 577, 579, 580, 581

South Carolina Academy of Fine Arts, 420

South Carolina College, 361, 447, 448

South Carolina Female (Collegiate) Institute, 409–410

South Carolina Gazette, 419

South Carolina Society for the Promotion of Domestic Arts and Manufactories, 417

Southern gentleman, 446, 465, 490, 623

Southern Jew, compared to Northern, 216, 578, 581–582

Southern Patriot, 414, 425, 467, 501

Southern Quarterly Review, 448

Southern Review, 413, 425

Southey, Robert, 413, 569

Southwick, Solomon, 513

Spain, 22, 24, 370, 376, 539, 676

Spanish and Portuguese Jews, 646, 665. See also Sephardim

Sparks, Jared, 625

Spectator, 36

Speyer, Philip, 180, 332

Spinoza, Benedict, 27, 629

Spinsters, 673

Spirit of Judaism (Aguilar), 261

Spirit of Laws, The (Montesquieu), 192

Stage English, 528, 532

Stage Jew, 532–533, 534–535, 536

Standish, Miles, 544

Stark, James Jones, 541–542

State Department, U.S., 176, 441, 466, 468

States’ rights, 414. See also Nullification

Stationers, 192

Statisticians, 425

Steamboats, 172, 184, 185, 191, 620

Sterett, Andrew, 124

Stern, Malcolm H., 17, 262, 608

Sterne, Laurence, 412, 413

Steuben, Frederic William Augustus, 74

Stevenson, Alexander, 656

Stiles, Ezra, 41, 95, 411, 454, 567, 575, 589, 592

Stewart, Commodore (U.S. naval officer), 107

Stix, Louis, 134

Stocks and bonds. See Financial instruments

Stonard, John, 96

Stonecutters, 420

Straus, Oscar, 90

Stuart, Gilbert, 44, 143, 418, 540

Stuart, Moses, 375, 547, 551

Stuyvesant, Peter, 27, 28, 29, 168, 338, 499

Succinct Account of the Rites and Ceremonies of the Jews (Levi), 353

Succoth. See Tabernacles

Suffrage movement, 122

Sugar, 216, 587

Suicides, 227, 245

Sukkot. See Tabernacles

Sully, Thomas, 143, 388, 418, 488, 611

Sumner, William Graham, 75

Sunbury, Pa., 138

Sunday laws, 31, 81, 116, 404, 413, 471, 501, 514, 515, 518–524, 520, 557

Sunday mail deliveries, 521–522

Sunday Sabbath, 269, 367, 598, 619, 628

Sunday School Association for the Moral and Religious Instruction of Children of the Jewish Faith, 396

Sunday schools, 297, 329, 345, 390–396, 398, 399, 400, 401, 403, 405, 454, 457, 552, 633, 636, 641, 674

Sunday’s Times and Noah’s Weekly Messenger, 480

Superstitions, 269, 617

Supreme Court, U.S., 417, 514

Surinam, 26, 28, 38, 39, 140, 418, 431, 432, 519, 584, 587, 592, 646

Sutro, Abraham, 282

Swartwout, Samuel, 171

Swift, Jonathan, 508

Swift, Joseph Gardner, 98

Switzerland, 123, 471, 541

Synagogs, 31, 35, 36, 37, 38, 92, 132, 206, 207, 214, 220–231, 234, 262, 285, 306, 307, 315, 316, 317, 333, 334, 335, 347, 579, 587, 595, 598, 645–646, 666–667, 671–672

    affiliation and membership, 193, 248–249, 442, 587, 597, 598, 599, 601

    buildings and equipment, 37, 135, 197, 242–243, 418, 419, 595

    centrality of, 599, 600, 663, 664, 671

    constitutions, minutes, and by-laws, 235, 246–249, 267, 345, 382, 384, 397, 574, 594–595, 595, 625, 627, 664, 678

    cooperation among, 651, 668–669

    decorum and internal discipline, 262–266, 625

    finances, 35, 253, 651

    functions of, 37, 220–242, 257–261, 402, 594, 599, 600, 660, 671

    officers and governance, 249–250, 272, 640, 661, 662, 664, 667, 670

    paid officiants, 250–253. See also Hazzanim; Rabbis; Religious functionaries

    religious services, 255–256, 360. See also Liturgy and prayerbooks

    and women, 261–262, 618, 673. See also Women’s gallery

    Syracuse, N.Y., 215, 229, 677

Tabernacles (Succoth), 242, 243, 255, 561, 628, 671

Table Talk (Luther), 538

Taft, William Howard, 74

Tailors, 188, 206

Tale of Lexington, A (Judah), 461

Tales for Leisure Hours (Phillips), 463

Talmud, 21, 315, 376, 629, 633, 637, 640

    quoted, 24, 39

Tammany Hall, 129, 417, 463

Tammany Society, 192

Taney, Roger B., 503, 599

Tappan, David, 516

Tariff of Abominations, 426, 449, 540, 581

Tariffs, 216, 581

Taylor, John Louis, 507

Taylor, Zachary, 96

Trainbands, 54

Teachers, 425, 443, 450, 451, 457

Teetotalers, 437

Temperance movement, 313, 331, 343, 552, 579, 616, 641

Temperance Talisman, 491

Temple (Jerusalem), 628

Temple Emanu-El (New York City), 628, 634, 636

Ten Commandments, 359, 393, 395, 521, 630, 631, 659, 673

Tender, A., 189

Territorialism, 472–473, 474, 475

Test oaths, 70, 82, 85, 87, 93, 197, 416, 438, 498, 499, 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 511, 557, 609, 638

Texas, 71, 99, 204

    War of Independence, 94, 104, 201, 274, 482

Textbooks, 301, 404. See also Catechisms Textile industry, 186, 205, 639

Thackeray, William Makepeace, 196

Thanksgiving and other religious proclamations, 516–517, 557, 601

Thanksgiving Day, 471

Thayer, Sylvanus, 99

Theatre managers, 463

Theological Dictionary (Buck), 566

Theology, 285–286, 289–290, 351–354, 376, 412, 550, 628, 631, 649

    Christian, 285–286, 290, 291, 292, 250

    See also Apologetics and polemics

There Is But One God (pseud. German-work), 649

Thomas, Gabriel, 428

Thornton, William, 433

Thoughts Suggested by Bible Texts (Harris), 301

Three Days in Paris or the Triumph of Liberty (Phillips), 463

Three Rivers, P.Q., 278, 620

Tipton, John, 88, 89

Tobacco, 28, 33, 190, 213, 215, 216, 442, 448

Tobias, Abraham, 577

Tobit’s Letters to Levi, 355, 549, 550

Todd & Hay, 92

Toland, John, 118

Toleration, 119–121, 572–573, 574

Toleration Act, 32

Tomaso, Father (Franciscan allegedly murdered in Damascus), 654

Tombstones, 43, 418, 428

Tom Jones (Fielding), 192

Torah. See Bible, Hebrew Tories. See Loyalists Torres, Luis de, 24, 543

“To the West, to the West, to the Land of the Free” (Russell), 422

Touro, Abraham, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 174, 183, 185, 209, 241, 316, 318, 439, 453, 644, 666

Touro, Isaac, 159, 453

Touro, Judah, 76, 94, 159–166, 167, 208, 241, 316, 453, 526, 547, 587, 666, 676

Touro, Rebecca, 160, 161

Touro, Reyna Hays (Mrs. Isaac Touro), 159

Touro Infirmary, 163

Trade schools, 395

Transactions of the Parisian Sanhedrin (Tama), 371

Transcendentalism, 488, 617

Translations, 299, 362, 374, 376, 394, 409, 441

Translators, interpreters, and linguists, 346, 440–441, 462, 528

Transportation industry. 183–185, 186, 187, 219. See also Railroads; Steamboats; Turnpikes and canals Transports, 30, 55, 129, 186, 208

Transylvania (Ky.) College, 454

Travels (Noah), 465, 483

Travels in England, France, Spain, and the Barbary States (Noah), 465, 466, 467, 483

Trinity Church (New York City), 42, 592, 664

Tripoli, 103, 123, 124, 466, 513

Truman, Harry S., 20

Trumbull, John, 58

Tryon, William, 316

Tunis, 465, 647

Turner, Nat, 588

Turnpikes and canals, 183–184, 186, 187, 191, 205, 215, 217, 577, 596, 639

Tuscumbia, Ala., 588

Tutoona or the Indian Girl (Harby), 459, 485

Twelve Sermons Delivered in the New Temple of the Israelites at Hamburgh (Salomon), 362

Twenty Years’ Life of a Courtesan (Harby), 459

Tyler, John, 112, 113, 180, 517, 551

Tyler, Royall, 535

Tyson, John S., 502

Ueber die buergerliche Verbesserung der Juden (Von Dohm), 431

Ulster County, N.Y., 132

Unification, of American Jewry, 651–654

Union (newspaper), 480

Union Bank, 179

Union Canal, 183

Union Hymnal, 349

Unionists, 414, 416, 426, 446, 581

Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 367, 653

Union Society (Savannah), 569

Unitarianism, Unitarians, 84, 311, 354, 358, 365, 437, 471, 476, 488, 511, 526, 550, 592, 593, 600, 616–617, 619, 623, 624, 629

United Company of Spermaceti Candlers, 34

United Hebrew Beneficent Society (Philadelphia), 322, 327, 341, 382, 574, 603, 665

United Hebrew Congregation (Louisville), 229

United Israel Appeal, 328

United States Military Academy. See West Point Universalism, Universalists, 558, 564, 568, 617, 624

University of the City of New York, 375

University of the State of New York, 410

Used clothing dealers, 33, 180, 188, 222, 402, 532

Utopian colonies, 364–367, 488, 616. See also Colonization proposals

Valenzin, David, 124–126

Valenzin, Moses, 126

Van Buren, Martin, 121, 426, 541, 562, 580, 656, 658, 659–660, 661

Vandalia Co., 32, 168

Vanderberg, Caleb, 260

Van der Hooght, Everardus, 376

Van Oettingen (New York cantor), 288

Van Rensselaer, Gratz, 575

Van Rensselaer, Stephen, 144

Vermont, 79, 499–500, 510, 535, 569, 621

Vernacular, for prayers and sermons. See English Verplanck family, 576

Views of the Evidence of Christianity (Paley), 410

Virginia, 30, 32, 66, 79, 117, 118, 120, 123, 135, 170, 171, 179, 183, 199, 209, 214, 231, 496, 497, 499, 501, 510, 563, 571, 572, 582

Virginia, University of, 120, 361, 410, 589

Virginia Bill of Rights, 46, 119, 497

Virginia Executive Council, 66

Virginia Historical Society, 611

Virginia Historical and Philosophical Society, 571

Virginia Museum, 412

Visiting cards, 436

Viticulture, 32

Voice of Israel, The (Collins), 357

Voltaire, François Marie de, 350, 352, 353

Volunteer firemen, 136, 144, 228, 610, 662

Waco, Texas, 27

Waksman, Abraham Selman, 20

Wall Street Journal, 194

Wandering Boys of the Castle of Olival, The (Noah), 484

Wandering Jew, 531, 565

War of 1812

    siege of Baltimore, 94–95, 501

    battle of Chippewa, 485

    in drama, 485

    economic activities during, 205, 206

    effects of, 90, 206, 360, 451, 461, 644

    Gomez on, 455

    Harby on, 414

    Jewish participation in, 87, 94–97, 99, 104, 105–106, 144, 173, 182, 187, 201, 202, 241, 413, 417, 445, 501, 583, 596

    national war loan, 191, 584

    nationalist/patriotic view of, 414, 451, 455, 468

    Noah on, 465, 468, 530

    opposition to, 530, 584

Warburg, Daniel, Jr., 420

Warburg, Daniel, Sr., 420

Warburg, Eugéne, 420

Ware, John, 428, 439, 440

Warren, James, 55

Warren, John Collins, 439, 440, 572

Warren, William, 317, 590

Warrenton, N.C., 99, 100, 377, 568, 607

Warrenton Female Academy or Seminary, 99–100, 408, 420, 668

Wars of the Jews (Josephus), 565

Washington, D.C., 425, 581, 670

Washington, George, 35, 43, 56, 58, 77, 90, 95, 121, 388, 412, 437, 459, 583, 611

    birthday celebrations, 459, 577, 583

    on church and state, 79

    correspondence with Jewish communities, 48, 116, 563, 652–653; Charleston, 115, 498, 568, 653; Newport, 467, 505, 563, 568, 578, 653; New York, 652, 653; Philadelphia, 265, 653; Richmond, 653; Savannah, 648, 652–653

    on Jews, 120, 653

    personal relations with Jews, 562, 563, 589; Solomon Bush, 90; David Franks, 49, 538; Isaac Franks, 538; Benjamin and Rachel Levy, 91; Mark Prager, 147; Haym Salomon, 67, 75, 77

    on religious freedom, 120, 562, 563, 648

    issued Thanksgiving proclamation, 516

Watchmakers, 174, 212, 213

Waterman (Charleston Jew), 590

Watts, Isaac, 393

Waxed mustaches, 610

Wayne, Anthony, 98

Wayne, Caleb P., 529

Wealth of Nations (Smith), 412

Wealth of New York, The (Beach), 209

Webster, Daniel, 500, 514, 525, 540, 541

West, Benjamin, 557

Westchester County, N.Y., 32, 85, 48, 130, 227

West India trade, 418

West Indian Jewry, 646, 647. See also names of islands West Indies, 648

West London Synagogue of British Jews, 615

West New Jersey, 168

West Point, 65, 97–99, 197, 426, 488, 516, 607

West Virginia, 171

Whalers, 426

“Whether Moral Causes Have More Influence on National Character Than Physical” (Harby), 450

Whig Continental Committee, 51

Whigs, 47, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 78, 208, 238, 240, 480, 482, 498, 499, 526, 577, 579, 589, 622, 653, 656, 669

Whiskey Insurrection, 93, 189

Whitaker, Hannah, 309

Whitehurst, Esther (Mrs. Jacob Henry), 507

Whitney, Eli, 448

Whittier, John Greenleaf, 488

Who was a Jew, 312

Widows, 235, 240, 258, 316, 323, 325, 334, 569, 671

Wiernik, Peter, 12

Wilkinsburg, Pa., 169

Willard, Emma, 409

Williams, Roger, 31, 118, 543

Williamsburg, Pa., 202

Williamsburg, Va., 32, 460, 533, 538

Willoughby University, 429

Wills, 316, 583, 586, 587, 593, 594, 641, 670, 672

Wilmington, Del., 150, 178, 179, 184, 227

Wilmington, N.C., 236, 441, 618

Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, 184

Wilson, Alexander, 440

Wilson, Jacqueline, 17

Wilson, James, 74, 169, 565

Wilson, Woodrow, 16, 74

Winchester, Elhanan, 564, 569

Wirt, William, 469, 575

Wise, Henry Alexander, 516

Wise, Isaac M., 11, 16, 166, 216, 229, 299, 301, 304, 305, 306, 336, 367, 518, 595, 632, 653

Wise, Stephen S., 16

Wolf, Abraham, 521

Wolf, Simon, 12, 284, 306, 339

Wolfe, Benjamin, 189, 222, 244

Wolfe, James, 189

Wolfe, Joel, 189

Wolfe, Joseph, 545

Wolfe, Sophia, 189

Wolfe, Udolpho, 189

Wollaston, William, 450

Women, 219, 261–262, 298, 301, 441–442, 621, 672–674

    education of, 365, 384, 408, 411, 441–442, 454, 488, 489, 670

    and Sunday Schools, 395–396, 674

    charitable work of, 343, 673

    literary attainments of, 349, 457–459, 674

    in synagog, 618, 637. See also Women’s gallery

Women’s gallery, 239, 241, 243, 253, 256, 261, 263, 326, 637, 673

Women’s organizations, 328–331

Women’s rights movement, 313, 405, 616

Women’s suffrage, 522, 552

Wood carvers, 464

“Woodman Spare That Tree” (Russell), 421

Woolverton, Dr., 88

Worthington, William G., 502

Wright, James, 52

Writers, 431–432, 438, 443, 450, 451, 455, 462, 463, 465, 483–484, 491, 612. See also names of writers; Playwrights; Poets

Wythe, George, 379

Xenophobia, 494, 510, 554

Yale College, 41, 54, 410, 411, 547, 567, 575

Yankees, 536

Yazoo land rascals, 168

Yellow fever, 182, 227, 323, 324, 431, 444, 445, 481, 491, 533, 560, 671, 672

Yerba Buena, Calif., 139

Yiddish, 43, 64, 255, 279, 308, 407, 442, 663, 667

Yigdal, 285, 309

Yom Kippur. See Atonement, Day of

Yonkers, N.Y., 200

York, Pa., 540

Yorktown, Va., battle of, 66, 69

Young Quaker, The, 538

Yulee, David Levy, 145, 172, 365, 416, 580, 609

Yusuf Carmelli (Noah), 485

Zafren, Herbert C., 17

Zchokke, Johann Heinrich Daniel, 549

Zelcer, Fanny, 17

Zevi, Shabbetai, 22, 475, 566

Zionism, 288–289, 474, 475, 476, 479, 483, 608

Zoology, 454

Zundel, Enoch, 477

Zuntz, Judah, 385

Previous Chapter

Notes

Additional Information

ISBN
9780814344682
Related ISBN
9780814344699
MARC Record
OCLC
1055143335
Pages
775-820
Launched on MUSE
2018-10-02
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC
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