publisher colophon

NOTES

PREFACE

  1. American Jews’ Annual for 5648 A.M. (1887–1888), 36.

  2. PAJHS, 37:430 ff.; “Lyons, Jacques Judah,” UJE; Pool, Old Faith, 190; AI, Dec. 20, 1861, editorial page.

  3. “The Forward,” EJ.

  4. Harry S. Linfield, The Communal Organization of the Jews in the United States, (N.Y., 1927), Preface.

  5. Wolf, Presidents I Have Known, 412; Channing, History, Preface.

  6. W. & W., Philadelphia, 150.

CHAPTER ONE

WHY STUDY AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORY

  1. The material in this chapter has been built on Marcus, CAJ, a three-volume documented history of the American Jew to the Revolution. There are a few supplementary references.

  2. M. & M., History, 315 ff.

  3. PAJHS, 10:52.

  4. Marcus, CAJ, 1:60–61; “Jesuit Martyrs,” Oxford Companion to Canadian History and Literature (Toronto, 1967).

  5. “De Cordova, Jacob,” UJE.

  6. Schappes, JIUS, 13.

  7. Ruppin, Jews in the Modern World, 23; PAJHS, 6:143.

  8. Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 40; Adolph Kohut, Geschichte der deutschen Juden (Berlin, 1898), 753.

  9. AJA, 23:198 ff.

10. Pool, Portraits, 235–37.

11. Marcus, CAJ, 2:801.

12. Pool, Portraits, 237.

13. Marcus, CAJ, 2:1041.

14. Marcus, AJD, 17–18.

15. PAJHS, 11:149–50; 21:115.

16. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1119.

17. Stiles, Diary, 1:68; PAJHS, 1:94; Marcus, AJD, 200–201.

18. Marcus, AJD, 224.

19. PAJHS, 58:138.

20. Marcus, Jew in the Medieval World, 4.

21. Philip L. White (ed.), The Beekman Mercantile Papers, 1746–1799 (3 vols., N.Y., 1956), 1:396.

CHAPTER TWO

THE EARLY REPUBLIC 1776–1840

  1. PAJHS, 50:23 ff.; Ruppin, Jews in the Modern World, 23; Marcus, EAJ, 2:393; Schappes, DHJUS, 579, n. 4; Thorpe, Constitutions, 7:3812.

  2. PAJHS, 27:31–32; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1262–66.

  3. Morison, History, 224; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1285–86, 1297.

  4. AJHQ, 67:21, n. 22; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1292–95, 1300–2; Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 39–40.

  5. PAJHS, 1:70 ff., 31:33 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 2:715, 755, 3:1253, 1282 ff., 1290, 1296–99; Marcus, EAJ, 2:93; Marcus, AJD, 241 ff.; PMHB, 98:131 ff.; RIJHN, 7:266 ff., 271; R. Morris, “The Jews, Minorities, and Dissent in the American Revolution,” Proceedings of the Anglo-American Jewish Historical Conference (London, 1971); Clark, Naval Documents, 2:767 ff., 3:1180–82, 1273–74.

  6. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1278 ff., 1292, 1580, n. 18; Noah, Travels, xxiv; Marcus, EAJ, 1:143–50; Clark, Naval Documents, 1:649, 955, 3:167, 423, 4:1057–58, 1224, 1230–31, 1421–22; Marcus, AJD, 233.

  7. Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 113–14; Clark, Naval Documents, 1:811–12; “Levy, Benjamin,” UJE; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1281–82, 1341.

  8. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1272–73, 1294; Marcus, Studies, 54 ff.

  9. Marcus, EAJ, 1:152–57; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1270–71, 1289–90, 1293.

10. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1275 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:40 ff.; AJHQ, 62:348 ff.

11. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1306; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 68 ff., 108 ff.

12. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1122, 1249 ff., 1278 ff., 1306 ff.; PAJHS, 9:107–22.

13. PAJHS, 18:35, 41:108 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1251 ff., 1303–5; Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 65; “Nones, Benjamin,” UJE; Morais, Philadelphia, 26; R. & E., Charleston, 69, 272, nn. 92, 95; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 78 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1305; W. & W., Philadelphia, 95–96.

14. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1310–14; “Pinto, Abraham (4),” “Pinto, Solomon (3),” “Pinto, William,” BDEAJ.

15. B. & B., JOUS, 1:70–73; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1295, 1309–10; “Hays, Baruch,” BDEAJ.

16. PAJHS, 19:151 ff., 27:462; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1274, 1305; Daly, Settlement, 54; Marcus, AJD, 425–26; Minutes of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 12:151; Marcus, EAJ, 2:73–94, 502–3, 531; Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 25–27, 171–72.

17. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1266 ff.; Marcus, EAJ, 1:chaps. 10–11, 254; “Judah, Samuel (1),” “Solomons, Levi (1),” BDEAJ; PAJHS, 4:81 FF., 224, 23:184; Sack, Canada, 70 ff.; Shortt and Doughty, Documents, 2:590.

18. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1267–69; W. & W., Philadelphia, 93 ff., 406, n. 98; Marcus, AJD, 275 ff.; Marcus, EAJ, 1:251–55, 2:508–9, 531; PAJHS, 1:76 ff., 5:157 ff., 10:101 ff.; Papers of Robert Morris, 1:255, n. 9, et passim; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:45–49.

19. Pennsylvania History, 16:77 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 158–64; PAJHS, 1:76 ff., 2:92–93, 10:101 ff. For another Canadian with strong Whiggish leanings see “Solomons, Levi (1),” BDEAJ; Marcus, EAJ, 1:251–55; Clark, Naval Documents, 3:1273; Baltimore Jewish Comment, Sept. 29, 1899, p. 1, Oct. 6, 1899, p. 1; “Franks, David Salisbury,” BDEAJ; AHR, 82:8. There are numerous references to Franks in the Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vols. 6–13, 16; see especially, 6:241, 251, 11:95, 16:158–59. See also, Scharf and Westcott, Philadelphia, 1:401–3; Robert L. Brunhouse, The Counter-Revolution in Pennsylvania, 1776–1790 (Harrisburg, Pa., 1942), 88; Pennsylvania Archives, first series, 12:495; Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 31–35, et passim.

20. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1269–70; Friedman, Pilgrims, 71 ff.; PAJHS, 3:151, 17:167 ff.; Marcus, AJD, 237 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1316 ff., 1323 ff.; JCC, 7:188.

21. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:47 ff.; JQR, n.s., 45:565 ff.; East, Business Enterprise, 72; Marcus, EAJ, 1:225, 228, 232 ff., 253–58, 265–66, 2:266–69; “Solomons, Levi (1),” BDEAJ; “Solomons, Levy,” UJE, Clark, Naval Documents, 3:1273; Marcus, CAJ, 2:707, 3:1269, 1317, 1322; Lebeson, JPA, 209; Elzas, Jews in S.C., 100; Rosenbaum, Myer Myers, 41; Petition of Manel (Manuel) Myers to the Conn. General Assembly, Jan. 7, 1782, Conn. Archives, Revolutionary War, 1763–89, series 1, vol. 23, doc. 286; AJA 1(no.2):3 ff.; PAJHS, 2:119 ff.

22. Marcus, AJD, 237–40, 269 ff., 426–28. Documents throwing light on some of Sheftall’s activities as an army supplier may be found in the following depositories, collections, and references: Nathan-Kraus Collection, AJAr; JCC; PCC; the Levy collection in Savannah; NYPL; NYHS; the Sheftall Papers in the AJHSL; the Historical Society of Georgia; AJA, 27:174–75. AJHQ, 57:26; Clark, Naval Documents, 3:1106, 4:85; Marcus, EAJ, 2:364; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1316 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:40 ff.; PAJHS, 1:86–87, 17:180–82.

23. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1318–19, 1324–25, 1583, n. 7; “Zuntz, Alexander,” BDEAJ; Barrett, Old Merchants, 2(no.2):87 ff., 3:150, 225; Philip Marc papers in AJAr; E. & L., Richmond, 27–28; Mordecai, Richmond in By-Gone Days (Richmond, 1856), 108–12; “Darmstadt, Joseph,” BDEAJ; Marcus, AJD, 243 ff., 253, 423; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1319, 1324; JCC, 7:302; PAJHS, 1:66–67, 23:99, 38:48.

24. PAJHS, 1:67–68, 32:12; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 18–19, 23, 204, 210, 215, 370, et passim; Michigan Jewish History, 4:9–11; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1323, 1325.

25. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1317, 1325; PAJHS, 1:67, 29:144; Marcus, AJD, 428–29; “Polock, Cushman,” “Minis, Mrs. Abigail,” “Minis, Philip,” BDEAJ; Marcus, EAJ, 2:356–57; AJA, 27:174–75.

26. East, Business Enterprise, 184; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1320.

27. Wallace, History of S.C., 2:86; PAJHS, 2:126–27, 37:103–15; Friedman, Pilgrims, 47 ff.; CRI, 2:55–56, 80–81; The Revolutionary War prize cases: Records of the Court of Appeals in cases of capture, 1776–1787, case no. 28: The schooner Hope and cargo, Lopez claimant, NA, copy in AJAr.

28. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1320–21; Marcus, EAJ, 2:368–69; PAJHS, 23:163 ff.; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 22, 227, see also Index sub “Privateers”; Lebeson, JPA, 210; Calendar of records, High Court of Vice-Admiralty, Jamaica, Cases of La Hardi (1779), the Johanna and Allita (1779), the Adventure (1780); Marcus, AJD, 423–28; East, Business Enterprise, 160; JCC, 13:213.

29. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1265, 1267, 1316, 1320–21, 1323; Calendar of records, High Court of Vice-Admiralty, Jamaica, Case of Riche (1778), Johanna and Allita, (1779), Adventure (1780), Polly (1782); PCC; Isaac Moses, Petition to Continental Congress, July 27, 1779; Isaac Moses, N.Y., to Thomas Mifflin, Phila., Mar. 10, 1784, LC; “Moses, Isaac,” UJE; Marcus, EAJ, 1:99 ff.; PAJHS, 3:84, 19:72, 23:174, 27:331–32.

30. PAJHS, 6:53–54, 25:128 ff.; Phillips, Jonas,” UJE; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1272; Marcus, AJD, 424–45.

31. East, Business Enterprise, 216; CRI, 2:66–67; Calendar of records, High Court of Vice-Admiralty, Jamaica, Case of Riche (1778), Johanna and Allita (1779), Adventure (1780); Samuel Myers, Phila., to Aaron Lopez, Newport, June 18, 1781, copy in Lopez Papers, AJAr; PAJHS, 2:123–26, 25:130; Marcus, EAJ, 1:166 ff., 174 ff.; 2:266 ff.; Marcus, AJD, 424–25, 428–29; AJA, 1(no.2):3 ff., 27:183 ff.; Kenneth P. Bailey, The Ohio Company Papers, 1653–1817 (Arcata, Calif., 1947), 466 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 2:773, 3:1273; “Levy, Eleazar (1),” BDEAJ.

32. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1326, 1342; RIJHN, 7:12 ff.

33. Schappes, DHJUS, 69; PAJHS, 1:86–88; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1315–16; Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 3:315, 316, 320–24, 327, 328, 428, 4:282–84, 5:61, 87–89, 110–11, 152–53, 266, 334–35, 6:197, 200–201, 270, 319–24; Samuel Oppenheim, “Simon Nathan’s Important Service to the American Cause in the Revolution,” paper read before the AJHS, Feb. 7, 1925, copy in AJHSL; Temple Bodley, George Rogers Clark (Boston, 1926), 229–30.

34. Pool, Portraits, 387, 411–12. Students of the life of Salomon will find the following works helpful when evaluating the work and career of this man: Schappes, DHJUS, 52–53, 63–66, 578 ff.; Schappes, JIUS, 32ff.; Marcus, EAJ, 2:132–64, et passim; Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 12, et passim, 115; Kohler, Haym Salomon; Manuscript Catalogue of American Jewish Archives, sub Haym Salomon. See also vol. 4 of Appendices of AJAr catalogue, 169, 452. Copies of reports on the claims of the family of Haym Salomon are found in the AJAr. Some are listed in the Manuscript Catalogue of the American Jewish Archives, 3:297 ff. Other claims on the government are listed in PAJHS, 2:18. These lists are not necessarily complete. PAJHS, 2:5 ff., 3:7 ff., 4:94, 6:50–53, 11:67–68, 16:189–92, 19:51, 21:121, 145, 22:196–97, 27:40, 43, 51, 156, 227–28, 253, 461, 463, 466–73, 33:1–2, 251, 34:107–16, 67:9 ff., 140 ff.; AH, Apr. 19, 1918, pp. 702–3, Mar. 27, 1931, pp.492 ff., Apr. 10, 1931, p. 586; Russell, Haym Salomon; The Picket Post, Oct. 1950, p. 38; Jewish Daily Bulletin, Aug. 2, 1927, pp. 2–4, Mar. 17, 1931, p. 3, Apr. 6, 1931, p. 1; Hebrew Standard, June 7, 1918, pp. 1 ff.; New York World (editorial section) July 31, 1927; Lebeson, JPA, 217 ff.; P.& K., Tourist’s Guide, 153–54, 530–32; Jewish Life, 32(no.6):21 ff.; Glanz, Milieu, 52; Haym Salomon: Gentleman; H.M. Salomon, N.Y., to W.H. Seward, Washington, D.C., Dec. 2, 1863, copy in Marcus Collections; Friedman, Pilgrims, 58 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 66–70; Marcus, AJD, 41 ff., 65, 74, 116, 119, 205, 288, 442–44; Marcus, CAJ, 1:260, 2:541, 712, 1027, 1086, 3:1128, 1274, 1311, 1316, 1318; “Haym Salomon Letter Book,” AJHSL; “Salomon, Haym,” Americana (1907), vol. 13; W. & W., Philadelphia, 3, 98–113, 116, 120–21, 132–37, 146, 156, 171, 255–56, 408, 410–15, 419, 429–30, 447–48; Gaillard Hunt (ed.), The Writings of James Madison, (N.Y., 1900), 1:237, 242; E. & L., Richmond, 18–19; AJA, 27:114–15, 146–47, 207–16; “Salomon, Haym,” JE, UJE, EJ, DAB; East, Business Enterprise, 69, 73, 107, 146, 157–58, 163, 166, 230, 258, 272, 290.

35. “Revolutionary War, Loyalist Troops in the,” DAH (1976–1978); Marcus, CAJ, 3:1273–74; Schappes, DHJUS, 580, n.7; W. & W., Philadelphia, 101–3; AJHQ, 67:12; PAJHS, 21:121.

36. W. & W., Philadelphia, 97, et passim for Isaac Franks; PAJHS, 4:201, 5:7 ff., 6:49 ff., 54 ff., 10:168 ff., 19:41, et passim; “Franks, Isaac (2),” BDEAJ; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1311–12; release and sale of property by Isaac Franks and wife to his sister Rachel, Mar. 24, 1800, in Phila. city records, copy in AJAr.

37. AJHQ, 67:21, n. 22; Marcus, EAJ, 2:139; Russell, Haym Salomon, 277; W. & W., Philadelphia, 107–8; AJA, 27:211.

38. East, Business Enterprise, 146; W. & W., Philadelphia, 104 ff.; PAJHS, 67:21; AJHQ, 67:9–15; “Revolutionary War, Foreign Volunteers in,” DAH (1976–1978).

39. AJHQ, 67:9 ff., 24, 28–45, 47, 140 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 107; AJA, 27:210 ff.; PAJHS, 2:9–10; AH, Apr. 19, 1918, p. 703; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1316; East, Business Enterprise, 146, 158, 258; Papers of Robert Morris, 1:121–23, 2:32, 37–38, 43–44, 47, 50, 60, 92–93, 107–10, 137–39, 269; Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 86–89.

40. W. & W., Philadelphia, 107; AJA, 27:211; Russell, Haym Salomon, 246, 249; Papers of Robert Morris, 1:272, n. 1; PAJHS, 2:5 ff.; “Revolution, Financing of the,” DAH (1976–1978); Papers of James Madison, 2:78–79, 96–98, 251–53, 3:37–39; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 204; PAJHS, 2:9–10, 27:468; E. & L. Richmond, 18–19; Marcus, EAJ, 2:142; Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 92–94; AH, Apr. 19, 1918, p.703; Kohler, Haym Salomon, 19; Gaillard Hunt, The Writings of James Madison (N.Y., 1900), 228, 237, 242.

41. Marcus, EAJ, 2:156 ff.; AJA, 27:213 ff.; Marcus, AJD, 40–46; W. & W., Philadelphia, 111–13, 173; Robert L. Brunhouse, The Counter-Revolution in Pennsylvania, 1776–1790 (Harrisburg, Pa., 1942) 88 ff., 150–51.

42. Haym Salomon: Gentleman; AJHQ, 67:25, 48; East, Business Enterprise, 146, 158, 162, 258, 290; Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 83–84, 98, 258, n. 35; Russell, Haym Salomon, 190–91; PAJHS, 2:5 ff., 3:9, 6:51–52; Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, Sept. 21, 1784; Kohler, Haym Salomon, 21; W. & W., Philadelphia, 107 ff., 171; AJA, 27:211; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 143 ff.; “Haym Salomon Letter Book, 1781–1783,” AJHSL; PMHB, 98:131 ff.

43. Unrecorded Chapter in the History of Philadelphia’s Mikveh Israel Congregation … Collection of Sigmund and Felicia Harrison, copy in AJHSL; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, 1782, 90; PAJHS, 27:461–63; AJA, 27:211 ff.; Haym Salomon: Gentleman, 12; W. & W., Philadelphia, 101, 116.

44. W. & W., Philadelphia, 101, 116, 171, 448, n. 35; The J. R. Cohen Mohel Book, 1782, in AJHQ, 59:23 ff.; PAJHS, 21:145, 27:461 ff., 33:251, 34:107 ff.; Marcus, EAJ, 2:148–54; Unrecorded Chapter in the History of Philadelphia’s Mikveh Israel Congregation … Collection of Sigmund and Felicia Harrison, copy in AJHSL; Marcus, AJD, 286 ff.; Haym Salomon, Phila., to Philip Moses, Charleston, S.C., June 20, 1783, H. S. to Bar’t Spitzer, Charleston, S.C., June 20, 1783, H.S., Phila., to Israel Myers, N.Y., Apr. 29, 1783, Hyam Salomon, Phila., to Cushman Polack, Carolina, June 20, 1783, “Haym Salomon Letter Book, 1781–1783,” AJHSL; AJA, 27:211–13; Horeb (Hebrew), 1(1934):222–24.

45. Elzas, Leaves, Second Series, no. 8, p. 4; PAJHS, 19:51, 22:196–97; AJHQ, 67:152, n. 92; Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 91; Marcus, AJD, 286 ff.

46. Stern, FAJF, 257; W. & W., Philadelphia, 429–30, n. 33; Kohler, Haym Salomon; AJHQ, 67:160, n. 114; East, Business Enterprise, 258; Goodman, “Spruce Street Cemetery,” Aug. 29, 1912, p. 102.

47. H. M. Salomon, N.Y., to J. Madison, Jan. 9, 1827, NYPL; AJHQ, 67:11; PAJHS, 27:466 ff., 471; Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 234.

48. Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 231.

49. JOAH, 55:5 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 102; Kohler, Haym Salomon; Congressional Committee on Revolutionary Claims reports are listed in PAJHS, 2:18; additional reports—and this list may not be exhaustive—U.S. Senate, Report, 35th Cong., 2d sess., Jan., 1859, no. 353; U.S. House, Report, 52d Cong., 2d sess., Feb. 24, 1893, no. 2556; JTA-DNB, Aug. 2, 1927, pp. 2–4, Apr. 6, 1931, pp. 1, 3–4; PAJHS, 2:5 ff., 16:189 ff., 27:466–73; Hebrew Standard, June 7, 1918, pp. 1 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 66–70; Daly, Settlement, 58–60; “Salomon, Haym,” Americana, (1907); “Salomon, Haym, DAB; Rezneck, Unrecognized Patriots, 259, 274, n. 19, 277, n. 24; Russell, Haym Salomon, xiii; Memorandum for a note to Secretary of Treasury by Senator W.H. Seward, Mar. 1849, Seward Papers, Rush Rhees Library, Univ. of Rochester; AJA, 5:56; U.S. Senate, 31st Cong., 1st sess., Aug. 9, 1850, S. Rept. 177; The Patriotic Foundation of Chicago (Chicago, n.d.); Madison C. Peters, The Jews Who Stood by Washington: An Unwritten Chapter in American History (N.Y., 1915) (2d counting), 3 ff., 24 ff.; Madison C. Peters, The Jew as Patriot (N.Y., 1902), 53 ff.; Madison C. Peters, Justice to the Jew: The Story of What He Has Done for the World (N.Y., 1921), 91; Madison C. Peters, The Jews in America, etc. (Phila., 1905), 40–43.

50. AJHQ, 67:9–15, 33, 44–45, 160; Marcus, AJD, 46; Kohler, Haym Salomon, 4–5; AH, Mar. 27, 1931, p.492; AJA, 16:132; Papers of Robert Morris, 1:544–46.

51. Kohler, Haym Salomon; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 42, 139, 153–54, 537.

52. Stern, FAJF, 12, 118; Marcus, EAJ, 2:162–64; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1316; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 153–54; Jewish Life, 32(no. 6):29 ff.; Collector, 84, no. 10, 1971, whole no. 819.

53. AJA, 27:209–10; Morison, History, 280; Marcus, EAJ, 2:372–73, 547–49; Dale Rosenkrantz, “A Study of the Military, Economic, and Financial Contributions of the Jews in the American Revolutionary Period, 1776–1783,” (HUC term paper, 1977). See also, Modern Judaism, 1:149–60; Azriel Eisenberg and Hannah Grad Goodman (eds.), Eyewitnesses to American Jewish History. Part 1: From the Colonial Period through the Revolution, 1492–1793 (N.Y., 1976), 55 ff.

CHAPTER THREE

POLITICAL GAINS IN THE EARLY NATIONAL PERIOD

  1. Ellis, Am. Catholicism, chap. 2; Channing, History, 5:210–12; Luzzatti, God in Freedom, 687 ff.; PAJHS, 27:33–34; Dubnow, Weltgeschichte, 7:291–92; Thorpe, Constitutions, 5:2623 ff., 2636–38; AJA, 10:16 ff.

  2. Adams, Dictionary, 358; Morison, Hour, 45; RIJHN, 7:536; Stokes, Church and State, 1:369; Commager, Documents, 125; Friedman, Pioneers, 142 ff.; Thorpe, Constitutions, 7:3812–14; AJA, 10:42 ff.

  3. Thorpe, Constitutions, 1:537, 544–45, 568, 2:785, 6:37–62, art.3, 3258, 3767, 7:3801; AJA, 10:45, 46, 51; American State Papers (1911), 527–28; Edgar E. Siskin and Rollin G. Osterweis (eds.), Centennial Volume: Congregation Mishkan Israel, New Haven, Connecticut, 1840–1940, 10 ff.; The Public Statute Laws of the State of Connecticut, etc. (Hartford, 1821), Title 94, 430 ff., 434, 436.

  4. Occ. 7:226–28; Stokes, Church and State, 1:865 ff., 870.

  5. “Naar, David,” UJE, ACOAB; Markens, Hebrews, 265–66; Eastern Union, 7, 21–24; Thorpe, Constitutions, 4:2491–92, 5:2800 ff., 2814–15; AJA, 10:16 ff.

  6. Commager, Documents, 111, 130; AJA, 10:22–23, et passim; Beard, Rise of Am. Civilization, 512–13.

  7. Theodore Calvin Pease (ed.), The Laws of the Northwest Territory, 1788–1800 (Springfield, Ill., 1925), 377–78; AJA, 10:22, et passim; Ray Allen Billington, Westward Movement in the United States (Princeton, N.J., 1959), 30–31; American State Papers(1911), 136; Commager, Documents, 128 ff.

  8. Schlesinger, New Viewpoints, 189 ff.; Commager, Documents, 145–46; Farrand, Federal Convention, 2:335, 342, 461, 468, 579, 616, 663; 3:227, 310, 362, 609; American State Papers (1911), 143 ff., 152 ff.; Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 121.

  9. W. & W., Philadelphia, 150; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1279–80; New York Constitution, Article 38 in Thorpe, Constitutions, 5:2636–37; the South Carolina constitution of 1790, Article 8 in Thorpe, Constitutions, 6:3264; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser,” 4:16.

10. Farrand, Federal Convention, 3:78–80; Luzzatti, God in Freedom, 691; Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 82 ff., 102, 108, 112; Marcus, EAJ, 2:534–35; PAJHS, 2:107 ff.; AJA, 20:21–22; Schappes, DHJUS, 68 ff.

11. Beard, Rise of Am. Civilization, 291; Allan Nevins & Henry Steele Commager, The Pocket History of the United States (New York, 1943), 183.

12. PAJHS, 10:47; Philipson, Max Lilienthal, 96; AJA, 7:65–67, 27:246–50; W. & W., Philadelphia, 150–51; NYHSQ, 46:24; Pennsylvania Gazette, July 9, 1788, no. 84; Marcus, EAJ, 2:533–34.

13. Paul P. Gordon and Rita Simon Gordon, The Jews Beneath the Clustered Spires (Fredericktown, Md., 1971), 21–22; R. & E., Charleston, 37; Thorpe, Constitutions, 3:1889–90, 1900, 1903, 1908, 1914; AJA, 10:35 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 28–29; “Portugal,” EJ; “Franks, Isaac,” “Phillips, Zalegman,” “Sheftall, Mordecai(1),” “Simson, Sampson,” BDEAJ; B. & B., JOUS, 1:243, n. 47; A Volume of Records Relating to the Early History of Boston Containing Boston Town Records, 1796–1813 (Boston, 1905), 39, 183, 194; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1275 ff., 1307; PAJHS, 2:68; Minutes of Mayor’s Court, New York City, volume dated Sept. 1789 to Dec. 1792, 354–55; PMHB, 78:99; “Noah, Mordecai Manuel,” DAB; Goldberg, Major Noah, 122; W. & W., Philadelphia, 302; E. & L., Richmond, 121. The Ephraim Hart who served in the state senate of New York was a Gentile from Utica and is not to be confused with Ephraim Hart, a New York Jew, who was a stockbroker and land speculator (Franklin B. Hough, The New-York Civil List, etc., (Albany, 1855), 146).

14. Berman, Richmond, 72, et passim. Biographies of the Cohens are found in Md. Hist. Mag., 18:357, 19:54 ff. For Ettings see Fein, Baltimore, 22, et passim; “Etting,” UJE; PAJHS, 27:483; “Myers, Moses(1),” BDEAJ; Calendar of Virginia State Papers (Richmond, 1890), 8:282, 305; E. & L., Richmond, chaps. 10, 17; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1316.

15. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 127–28, 194–207, 242–43; R. & E., Charleston, 103–4, 285–86, n. 111; Marcus, EAJ, 2:255–57; Luzzatti, God in Freedom, 691; Records of the Georgia Department of Archives and History, Atlanta, for Mordecai Sheftall, Sheftall Sheftall, and Moses Sheftall. There is detailed information on the earliest Georgia Jews in the Department of Archives and History. The records include data on the Sheftalls, Abraham R. Abrahams, Isaac Abrahams, Benjamin Jacobs, and Philip Minis. “Sheftall, Moses,” BDEAJ; PAJHS, 17:167 ff., 20:129 ff., 27:185, 483; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1275–76; B. & B., JOUS, 1:60, 2:347; Markens, Hebrews, 50.

16. SCHGM, 3(1902):62; PAJHS, 12:163, 16:37 ff., 17:192, 19:39; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 68 ff., 128, 140, 202; Robert Pooler Myers, “Biographical Sketch of Dr. Levi Myers,” original in the Southern Historical Collection, U. of N.C., Chapel Hill; Charles P. Finlayson, Edinburgh University Library, to JRM, Aug. 24, 1977, copy in AJAr; “Myers, Levy,” BDEAJ; “Myers, Mordecai,” UJE, BDEAJ; AJHQ, 62:351–61; Markens, Hebrews, 127–28; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:50 ff., 75.

17. Indiana Magazine of History, 19:26–27, 133 ff., 164 ff., 248–49, 263, 265–66, 278–79; Representative Men of Indiana: A Biographical History of Eminent and Self-Made Men of the State of Indiana, etc. (Cincinnati, 1880), 1:19–20; PAJHS, 12:164, 19:34; “Judah, Samuel,” DAB; Stern, FAJF, 141; Logan Esarey, History of Indiana, (2d ed., Indianapolis, 1924), 362 ff.; John Tipton Papers, Indiana State Library, Indiana Historical Collection, Indianapolis, 1:25, 2:298, 495–96, 553, 618, 717, et passim, 3:506, 507, 512.

18. B. & B., JOUS, 1:138 ff., 2:313, 468; PAJHS, 10:101 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:45 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 156 ff., 172; S. Bush, Phila., to G. Washington, Jan. 8, 1795, S. Bush, Whitemarsh, Montgomery County, to G. Washington, Nov. 12, 1793, Applications for Office under Washington, LC; S. Bush, London, to G. Washington, July 20, 1789, Washington to S. Bush, Nov. 24, 1789, General Records of the Dept, of State, Misc. letters, Oct.–Dec., 1789; Isaac Moses, N.Y., to Thomas Mifflin, Phila., Mar. 10, 1784, PCC; Marcus, EAJ, 2:73 ff.; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 528; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 204; Markens, Hebrews, 174; Marcus Festschrift, 543. For A. Seixas in Charleston, see Governor Charles Pinckney, Charleston, to G. Washington, Nov. 6, 1791, Applications for Office under Washington, copy in AJAr.

19. B. & B., JOUS, 2:342 ff., 616–17, nn. 82–86; W. & W., Philadelphia, 289–90; Wolf, American Jew, 85; PAJHS, 46:1 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 400–401; Markens, Hebrews, 174; “Hart, Joel,” UJE; Moses M. Russell, Baltimore, to Dr. Moses Sheftall, Savannah, Feb. 19, 1817, Levy collection in Savannah; letter of Moses M. Russell to the government, R.G. 59, General Records of the Department of State, Consular Dispatches, St. Petersburg, v. 17.

20. Stern, FAJF, 154; Rachel Levy, Baltimore, to G. Washington, July 26, 1789, Applications for Office under Washington, LC; B. & B., JOUS, 1:60, 98, 2:325 ff., 334 ff., 342, 611, n.54, 613, nn.62–77; W. & W., Philadelphia, 43, 215; Report of the Committee of Claims in the Case of Goldsmith and Roderick with a bill for their relief, Mar. 22, 1824, 18th Cong., 1st Sess., 91; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 142.

21. Joseph Levine, John Jacob Hays: The First Known Jewish Resident of Fort Wayne (Fort Wayne, 1973). The data on Hays were built in part on the John Tipton Papers for the Year 1823, Indiana State Library, Indianapolis, Ind., on the Records of the War Department, Office of the Secretary of War, John Hays Letters received 1820–1823; Records of the Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, Michigan Superintendency, Letters Received 1820–1823; PAJHS, 16:27 ff.

22. PAJHS, 18:35; Marcus, EAJ, 1:45–46; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1251, 1303 ff., Index, sub “Military service”; AJHQ, 64:302; Altfeld, Maryland, 54; Blum, Baltimore, 4; Morais, Philadelphia, 459; Md. Hist. Mag., 19:54–57.

23. Chapman Levy, Noxubee County, Miss., to R.I. Manning, Washington, Jan. 15, 1834, vol. 86, Jackson Papers, LC; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 143–44, 163, 192–93, 206–7; “Dyer, Leon,” UJE; Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine, 1:1–2; E. & L., Richmond, 72 ff.; Georgia Dept. of History and Records, Atlanta, for Isaac Minis, Benjamin Sheftall, and Dr. Moses Sheftall; Adelaide Wilson, Historical and Picturesque Savannah (Boston, 1889), 81–82; R. & E., Charleston, 90, 105, 285, n. 102; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:138; PAJHS, 17:185, 26:189, 30:306, n. 398, 46:101 ff., 49:202.

24. W. & W., Philadelphia, 282 ff.; Heitman, Historical Register, 1:696; John Myers of Norfolk was captain and aide-de-camp to General Robert Taylor of the Virginia Militia (letter of General E. F. Witsell, Washington, to JRM, Jan. 12, 1949, Marcus Collections); Jewish Tribune, July 28, 1922, p. 18; PAJHS, 27:337–38, 398, 37:209; “Massias, Abraham A.,” BDEAJ; R. & E. Charleston, 104–5; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 195, n. 63; B. & B., JOUS, 2:608, n. 35; Markens, Hebrews, 133.

25. Md. Hist. Mag., 18:371 ff.; “Hart, Bernard,” BDEAJ; Barrett, Old Merchants, 2(part 1):119 ff.; PAJHS, 26:178, 185; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 418–20, 426.

26. PAJHS, 27:396–97.

27. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:50 ff.; M. Myers, Cantonment Williamswell [sic], N.Y., to N. Phillips, N.Y., Mar. 31, 1813, in PAJHS, 27:396–97; “Myers, Mordecai(2),” BDEAJ; M. Myers, N.Y., to Secretary of State, Washington, June 3, 1808, RG, no. 59 N.A., General Records of the Dept. of State, Miscellaneous Letters, Jan.–June, 1808; PAJHS, 26:173 ff., 27:337–38; W. & W., Philadelphia, 282 ff., 290; Schappes, DHJUS, 127 ff., 591–92, 598–99; R. & E., Charleston, 104–5; Morais, Philadelphia, 459; B. & B., JOUS, 1:268–69, n. 98; Wolf, American Jew, 67 ff. Many of his German Jews are actually German Gentiles. Jewish Tribune, July 28, 1922, pp. 1, 18; Mrs. Peter Bolhouse, Newport Historical Society, to JRM, Jan. 7, 1948, AJAr; Myers, Reminiscences; The Record, 10:13 ff.; Report: The Committee on Invalid Pensions, to which was referred the petition of Levi Colmus, of Baltimore … 25th Cong., 2d sess., Mar. 7, 1838, H.R. no. 645; 3d sess., Feb. 6, 1839, H.R. no. 259; 26th Cong., 1st sess., Mar. 5, 1840, H.R. no.220; JM, Oct. 19, 1860, p. 182, Oct. 26, 1860, p. 125, Dec. 27, 1861, p. 110; AI, Jan. 25,1856, p. 237, Jan. 7, 1859, p. 214, Dec. 7, 1860, p.182.

28. Heitman, Historical Register, 1:696; B. & B., JOUS, 2:608, n. 35; Morais, Philadelphia, 459. See W. Edwin Hemphill, The Papers of John C. Calhoun (Columbia, S.C., 1963) for a petition of young Solomon Tobias, Charleston, for an appointment in the army, July 4, 1818, 2:360.

29. Bloom, Newburgh, 4.

30. Marcus, EAJ, 1:228, 2:23–35, 46–49, 52; Register of Cadets Who Have Graduated at the United States Military Academy … June, 1802 to July, 1822 (n.p., n.d.); typescript data on Levy in Philipson Papers, Feb. 16, 1915, AJAr; AJHQ, 61:69 ff.; Bloom, Newburgh, 4–6; PAJHS, 25:96; Ellery, Swift, 34, 36–37, 40, 47; B. & B., JOUS, 64, 249, n.109; broadside announcing formation of the military society to promote military science and history, Nov. 12, 1802, copy in Marcus Collections; Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society, 80:272–73.

31. PAJHS, 4:90 ff.; “Noah, Samuel,” UJE; Wolf, American Jew, 35–37.

32. Va. Mag. of Hist. and Bio., 53:272; Marcus, AJD, 74 ff.; AJA, 10:125 ff.; E. & L. Richmond, 23 ff.

33. Va. Mag. of Hist. and Bio., 49:364 ff.; Lizzie W. Montgomery, Sketches of Old Warrenton, North Carolina, etc. (Raleigh, 1924?), 16–17, 133 ff.; Solomon Mordecai, Warrenton, to Samuel Mordecai, Richmond, Oct. 31, 1806, copy in AJAr.

34. Stern, FAJF, 200; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, Index, sub “Mordecai, Alfred”; NCHR, 22:58 ff., 23:536 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:216 ff.; AJA, 10:125 ff., 131–32; statement of Dr. David Philipson, Sept. 7, 1948, to JRM re refusal to circumcise a Mordecai son; Alfred Mordecai, West Point, N.Y., to Rachel Lazarus, Wilmington, N.C., Sept. 14, 1823, Mordecai Collection, LC; B. & B., JOUS, 1:64–66, 250, n. 113; PAJHS, 6:39 ff., 48:147 ff.; Journal of Military Service Institution of U.S., 1882, 413–14; Morais, Philadelphia, 461–62; Ellery, Swift; Merit rolls of the Military Academy, academic transcripts of the record of A. Mordecai; Records of the War Department, Office of the Adjutant General, U. S. Military Academy, Merit Rolls; Correspondence of Jacob and Alfred Mordecai re admission to U. S. Military Academy, 1818–1819, Records of the War Department, Office of the Adjutant General, U.S. Military Academy, Application Papers of Cadets; Cohen, Records of the Myers, Hays, and Mordecai Families, 25 ff., 42; “Mordecai, Alfred,” DAB, ACOAB; Jacob Mordecai, Warrenton, to Dear Sir, Oct. 27, 1818, Records of the War Department, Office of the Adjutant General U.S. Military Academy, Application Papers of Cadets; MacDonald, Education of the Heart, 325 ff.; Jewish Exponent, Nov. 4, 1887, Nov. 25, 1887, pp. 1–2; A. Mordecai, Washington, to Rachel Lazarus, Wilmington, N.C., Nov. 18, 1828, Papers of Alfred Mordecai, LC; Marcus, AJD, 74 ff.; Berman, Richmond, 88–90; Lance J. Sussman, “Our Little World: The Early Years at Warrenton,” (HUC term paper, 1979); Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 227 ff.

35. Heitman, Historical Register, 1:696; Message from the President of the United States Communicating the copy of a letter from Richard O’Brien, late consul of the United States at Algiers giving some detail of transactions before Tripoli, 31st December, 1804, etc. (Washington City, 1804); Cohen Papers, Md. Hist. Soc.; Morais, Philadelphia, 470–72, 477–78; Wolf, American Jew, 85–86; Henry A. Alexander, “Abraham Phillips, U. S. Navy,” typescript copy in Marcus Collections; Charleston Courier, June 28, 1843, p. 2, c. 2; PAJHS, 46:1 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:340 ff., 616, n. 82; W. & W., Philadelphia, 289–90; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Apr. 29, 1887, p. 5, c.2.

36. “Harby, Levy Myers,” BDEAJ; Wolf, American Jew, 81 ff., 116; Markens, Hebrews, 136–37; PAJHS, 26:194 ff.; Eleanor S. Cohen, “Jews in the American and Confederate Navies,” typescript copy in Md. Hist. Soc., Cohen Papers; Jacob Voorsanger, “A Chapter in the History of American Jews”: this is a newspaper article dealing with the Harby family, n.p., n.d., copy in Marcus Collections; Mrs. Joseph Levy, Galveston, to S.L. Itkin, Flushing, N.Y., May 29, 1961, copy in AJAr; Government record of service of Levi M. Harby, United States Navy, typescript, copy in AJAr; “Harry’s (Harry Harby) notes and recollections concerning his father’s career,” typescript copy in AJAr.

37. Md. Hist. Mag., 15:1 ff.; Eleanor S. Cohen, “Jews in the American and Confederate Navies,” copy in Md. Hist. Soc., Cohen Papers; Morais, Philadelphia, 470; “Proceedings of Court Martial in the Case of Purser H. Etting, United States Navy,” No. 563, NA; Wolf, American Jew, 82; Record of Career of Henry Etting in U. S. Navy prepared for the Curator of the United States Naval Academy, Mar. 23, 1943, by Louis H. Bolander.

38. Leeser, Claims, 82.

39. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:78 ff., 90, 108; U.P. Levy, Court Martial No. 4, Sept. 5, 1821; Southern Patriot, Sept. 1822, copy in Marcus Collections; The American Mercury, 56:728 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 673, n. 6; PAJHS, 3:97 ff.; Francis Henry Goldsmid, The Arguments Advanced Against the Enfranchisement of the Jews, Considered in a Series of Letters (London, 1831), 37; AH, Apr. 10, 1925, p. 743.

40. PAJHS, 39:33, 48–49, 63; “Hale, John Parker,” DAB; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:102.

41. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:76 ff., 83 ff., 103–5, 115–16; Schappes, DHJUS, 375 ff., 637, n. 5, 672–73; PAJHS, 3:97–98, 4:222–23, 12:163–64, 18:209, 23:121–23, 39:1 ff., 25–26, 59 ff.; “Levy, Uriah Phillips,” DAB, JE, UJE, EJ; AJHQ, 53:219 ff.; Wolf, American Jew, 62–63, 84; AJYB, 4(1902–1903):42 ff.; Correspondence with U.S. Senate and House of Representative Committees regarding the gift of a bronze statue of T. Jefferson, 1834, Cong. Records, 23d Cong., 1st sess.; Debates in Congress concerning Levy’s gift of a statue of T. Jefferson, 23d Cong., 1st sess., June 17, 1834, vol. 10, part 4, copy in AJAr; Statue of Jefferson, 23d Cong., 1st sess., H.R. 240; Memorial of U.P. Levy to Senate and House dated N.Y., Dec. 3, 1855, NA, copy in AJAr; 1857 Court-Martial Records, copies in AJAr; Naval Court of Inquiry under Act of Jan. 16, 1857, Case of U.P. Levy, NA Case No. 3, Nov. 1857; Charles W. Mixer, U.S. Naval Academy, to Rabbi Judah Nadich, Chicago, Nov. 18, 1941, bibliography on U. P. Levy, copy in AJAr; Brandeis Avukah Annual, 536; A Brief Review of the Trials of Commander U. P. Levy, United States Navy (ca. 1840), copy in AJHSL; Morais, Eminent Israelites, 205 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 469–70; William A. Sanderson, “The Yankee Boy for Fighting: The Story of Uriah Phillips Levy,” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1951); AH, Apr. 10, 1925, pp. 694 ff.; Record in the Case of Uriah P. Levy, Late a Captain in the U.S. Navy, (Naval Court of Inquiry, No. 3, Washington, D.C., 1857), NA, copy in AJAr; American Mercury, 56:728 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 284 ff.; R, no. 468; Samuel Sobel, Intrepid Sailor (Phila., 1980); Markens, Hebrews, 134; B.F. Butler, Defence of Uriah P. Levy before the Court of Inquiry, Held at Washington City, November and December, 1857 (N.Y., 1858); The United States Magazine and Democratic Review, 25(Aug. 1849):97 ff.; Stern, FAJF, 179; U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, Mar., 1929, 270–73; obituary of Levy in the New York Herald, Mar. 23, 1862, p. 8; JM, Mar. 23, 1862.

42. Greene, Revolutionary Generation, 98.

43. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1279; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 123; E. & L., Richmond, 328.

44. “Barry, John,” “Moylan, Stephen,” ACOAB, DAB; Ellis, Am. Catholicism, 285, sub 1775–1776; Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 87; Marcus, CAJ, 1:150 ff.

45. Carl Zollman, American Civil Church Law (N.Y., 1917), 14–17, 29, 31, 33, 36–37.

46. EIAJH, 30; Curti et al., American History, 171; Sweet, Religion in Colonial America, 322 ff.; Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 92–93; Beard, Rise of Am. Civilization, 439, 449; Thorpe, Constitutions, 7:3819; Schlesinger, New Viewpoints, 193, 198.

47. Max Savelle, Seeds of Liberty (N.Y., 1948), 81; Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 84–85; Marcus, CAJ, 1:30.

48. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 71–72.

49. AJA, 10:42 ff., 66; Luzzatti, God in Freedom, 705; American State Papers (1949), 311; Blau, Cornerstones, 31–159, especially 144 ff.; Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 88–90; Schlesinger, New Viewpoints, 208.

50. Wolf, American Jew, 53 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 1:241, n. 22; Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 152–53; American State Papers (1949), 169 ff.; Marcus, Jewish Americana, 56; PAJHS, 3:87 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 140; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 119 ff.; Marcus, EAJ, 2:536–37; Writings of Washington, 33:108, 125–29, 135; Luzzatti, God in Freedom, 682, 700; Leon Huhner, Jewish Contacts with George Washington, etc. (reprint from the Jewish Forum, N.Y., June, 1932); The Hebrew Standard, Jan. 6, 1922, pp. 1 ff.

51. Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 152–53; Abrahams and Levy, Lord Macaulay, 69; Commager, Documents, 125; Luzzatti, God in Freedom, 680 ff., 697–98, 700–701; Friedman, Pioneers, 38–41; Blau, Cornerstones, 71 ff., 81 ff.; Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 1:559n, 2:552; Schappes, DHJUS, 150 ff., 208–10; B. & B., JOUS, 1:6 ff.; PAJHS, 3:95–96, 11:53 ff., 62, n.1,66, 36:4–5.

52. Luzzatti, God in Freedom, 672, 682–83; Marcus, EAJ, 2:179 ff.; Stokes, Church and State, 3:861, sub 1789; AJA, 10:42 ff.; Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 2:547 ff.; R.(?) Clairborne, London, July 23, 1789, to George Washington, U.S. Applications for Office under Washington, LC.

53. Commager, Documents, 125; PAJHS, 6:5–8, 9:95, 37:171 ff.

54. PAJHS, 22:126 ff., 26:266–68; B. & B., JOUS, 1:9–11, 241, n. 25; Ottensosser, Die Geschichte der Yehudim, 125 ff.; PAJHS, 22:126 ff.; Catalogue of the Hebrew Books in the Library of the British Museum (London, 1867), 623–24.

55. Marcus, Studies, 108 ff.

56. AJA, 6:19–21; Michael Kraus, The Atlantic Civilization: Eighteenth Century Origins (Ithaca, 1949), 249–50, 292; Langer, World History, 654 ff.; Luzzatti, God in Freedom, 672; PAJHS, 18:209–10, 26:266–68, 27:480–83; E.H. Lindo, A Jewish Calendar for Sixty-Four Years, etc. (London, 1838), 130–34; Henriques, Jews and the English Law, 221 ff., 247 ff., 265 ff., 309 ff.; Abrahams and Levy, Lord Macaulay, 39, 49, 69, n. 28, 70; “Canada,” UJE; Roth, History of the Jews in England, 239 ff.

CHAPTER FOUR

THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF THE AMERICAN JEW: THE TRADITIONAL ECONOMY 1776–1840

  1. B. & B., JOUS, 3:825 ff.; PAJHS, 2:101 ff.; East, Business Enterprise, 73; Gutstein, Newport, 181–88.

  2. Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 4.

  3. Raphael Mahler Jubilee Volume (Tel Aviv, 1974), 53 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 136, 186; London, Portraits, 30–31; Marcus, AJD, 340–43; Grinstein, New York City, 22, 26, 530, n. 17; PAJHS, 34:11 ff.; Krout and Fox, Completion of Independence, 41–42.

  4. Wish, Society and Thought, 1:397; Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement, Dec. 12, 1784; AJA, 3(no.3):38–40; B. & B., JOUS, 1:95, 3:819–20; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:221, 232 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 23.

  5. PAJHS, 2:71, 27:320–26; Markens, Hebrews, 29–32; “Hays,” UJE.

  6. Noah, Discourse (1818), 22–23.; For Noah, see Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 4; among the notes left by Leeser, there is one dated in the late 1830’s with the three words, Florida, Levy, Noah; Stern, FAJF, 257; Providence, R.I. Patriot, Dec. 20, 1920, p.1, c.2.

  7. Grinstein, New York City, 115–22; “Agricultural Colonies in the United States,” JE; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Apr. 8, 1837, Mar. 18, 1838.

  8. Glanz, Folklore, 122 ff., 221, n. 18; “Pittsfield,” UJE; Friedman, Pilgrims, Index sub “Peddlers”; Leeser, Discourses, 2:399.

  9. E. & L., Richmond, 36, 39, 78, 80–84, 129–30, 133–34; Barrett, Old Merchants, 2(no. 2): 188; Marcus, AJD, 143–44, 186–87; W. & W., Philadelphia, 184–85, 435, nn. 133–36.

10. Typescript biography of Jacob Elsas in AJAr.

11. Phila. Jewish Exponent, article written by Jack Solis-Cohen, Jr., n.p., n.d., copy in Marcus Collections; Malcolm Stern, N.Y., to Jack Solis-Cohen, Jr., Phila., Jan. 23, 1956, copy in Marcus Collections; E. & L., Richmond, 67–69, 78–81; Glanz, Studies, 55, 104–21; AJHQ, 64:300, 315 ff., 67:101 ff., 109 ff., 120, 253–54; Welch, “Assimilation,” 61 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:6–8; JQR, n.s., 53:306–21; B. & B., JOUS, 1:95 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 125; The Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 35:223–24; W. & W., Philadelphia, 183–84, 355; Schappes, JIUS, 39.

12. “Bavaria,” UJE, 2:218–119; W. & W., Philadelphia, 184, 353–54; E. & L., Richmond, 32 ff., 80; Markens, Hebrews, 21; “Derk(h)eim, Myer,” “Myers, Asher,” BDEAJ; PAJHS, 25:123; Moses Gomez: Chocolate Maker, see De Peyster Papers, vol. 6, Jan. 20, 1792, NYHSL; “Gomez, Moses Mordecai,” BDEAJ; Rosenbaum, Myer Myers; Gottesman, Arts and Crafts, 1777–1799, 269, no. 881.

13. PAJHS, 11:159–60, 26:248; E. & L. Richmond, 13 ff.; “Isaacs, Isaiah,” BDEAJ; AJHQ, 64:308–11, 67:111, 117–20; Marcus, AJD, 51 ff.; George Barton Cutten, The Silversmiths of Virginia … from 1694 to 1850 (Richmond, Va.,1952), 105, 165, 177–78; Williamson, American Economy, 331.

14. Beard, Rise of Am. Civilization, 646; B. & B., JOUS, 3:871–74; E. & L., Richmond, 117–18, et passim.

15. “Lyons, Eleazar,” “Lyons, Rebecca,” BDEAJ; Sanford A. Moss, Genealogy of John Moss and His Wife, Rebecca (Lyons) Moss (Rutland, Vt., 1937), 3–4; PAJHS, 2:171–74; Morais, Philadelphia, 51–52; W. & W., Philadelphia, 347–49; “Moss, John,” EJ, BDEAJ; Ritter, Philadelphia and Her Merchants, 163–65.

16. Korn, New Orleans, 178; Marcus, AJD, 292 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 143; B. & B., JOUS, 3:976, nn.37, 40; Pool, Portraits, 328–31; Daly, Settlement, 146–47; Markens, Hebrews, 28–29; “Hays,” UJE; “Hays, Jacob,” BDEAJ; W. & W., Philadelphia, 174–77; AJHQ, 64:305, 309, 310, 312; Baltimore Telegraph and Daily Advertiser, Mar. 29, 1803: “Levy A. Levy runs a boarding house.”

17. Sally Etting, Baltimore, to Ben Etting, Phila., May 19, 1825, HSP; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 185–87; Made, Judah P. Benjamin, 42–43; SCHGM, 40:18; Marcus, AJWD, 111–17; Trachtenberg, Easton, 80; Livingston, Memoirs of Lorenzo Da Ponte, 391 ff.; Account book of Joseph Philipson, 1807, in Mercantile Library Association, St. Louis, Mo.; Claim of Lewis H. Polock, United States-Mexico, Claims Commission 1848, November Term, Claim No. 159, Folder 18, NA; Lewis N. Pol[l]ock file in California State Library, Sacramento; copies of Polock papers in the Marcus Collections. Edwin Wolf of Philadelphia has a Lewis Polock file of documents.

18. W. & W., Philadelphia, 349, 353–54; E. & L., Richmond, 21–22, 70; B. & B., JOUS, 3:829–30, 987, nn. 201–5, 992, n. 275; JSJHS, 1(no.1):8; Ritter, Philadelphia and Her Merchants, 165; Charleston Courier, Nov. 30, 1835, advertisement of B. D. Lazarus and E. L. Levy; PAJHS, 25:43–44, 27:457–58; East, Business Enterprise, 27.

19. Williamson, American Economy, 279 ff.; EAH, 515–16.

20. Manifests, Import Cargoes, 1:129, 141, 153, 166, 2:8, 159, 184, 3:30, 78, RISA. Michael Gratz, Phila., June 21, Sept. 5, 1786, to M. Hays, Boston, Bortman-Larus Collection; Barrett, Old Merchants, 2(no. 2): 87–89; Markens, Hebrews, 23; PAJHS, 17:81 ff., 27:239; Grinstein, New York City, 416–19, 436, 590, n. 10; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:56 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, see Index sub “Etting”; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, see Index sub “Etting”; Fein, Baltimore, 13–21; B. & B., JOUS, 1:202–3; “Etting,” UJE.

21. “Etting, Solomon(1),” BDEAJ; B. & B., JOUS, 1:60–62, 141–42, 279, n. 167; Fein, Baltimore, 13 ff.; Correspondence of S. Etting with Secretary of the Treasury, S. D. Ingham, June–July, 1830, in R. G. no. 56, NA; Md. Hist. Mag., 15:1 ff.; Richea Hays, Phila., to Sarah Ann Hays, Lexington, June 14, 1835, Mordecai Papers, LC; Rutter & Etting Account Book, 1796–1802, Md. Hist. Soc.

22. PAJHS, 19:72, 27:331 ff.; Gottesman, Arts and Crafts, 1777–1799, no. 435, p. 137; N.Y. Spectator, Oct. 10, 1801, p. 4, Dec. 19, 1801, p. 4; Receipt Book of Isaac Moses, 1785–1787, typescript copy in Marcus Collections; East, Business Enterprise, 176, 328; Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, 1907–1908, 3d series, vol. 1, Dec., 1907, 272; undated newspaper clipping in Marcus Collections: Obituary of Col. Isaac Moses, who died Dec. 14, 1889, a grandson of Isaac Moses; “Moses, Isaac,” BDEAJ; Markens, Hebrews, 70–71, 128.

23. PAJHS, 19:72 ff., 20:17; AJA, 27:111, 236–39; Samuel Myers, N.Y., to Mendes, Amsterdam, Dec. 5, 1785, S. and M. Myers Letterbook, 1786–1787, 32 ff., AJAr; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 630–31; “Judah, Elizabeth,” “Myers, Hyam,” “Myers, Moses(1),” BDEAJ; JSJHS, 1:5 ff.; Kenneth and Anna M. Roberts, Memoirs of Moreau de St. Méry’s American Journey, 1790–1798 (Garden City, N.Y., 1947), references to Myers family; Moses Myers & Son, Norfolk, to Brown & Ives, Providence, Sept. 9, 1809, John Carter Brown Library, Providence; Calendar of State Papers, Virginia, 5:13, 22; Marcus, EAJ, 2:192–215, 408, 416, 495, 511; Moses Myers: Marcus, CAJ, 3:1286, 1316. For Isaac Moses, see Marcus, CAJ 3, Index, sub “Moses, Isaac (N.Y.)”; Marcus, AJD, 459–61; Hening, Laws of Virginia, 13:599 re the bank at Norfolk; Michael A. Barenbaum, “A Study of the Myers Family of Norfolk, Virginia, 1817–1821,” (HUC term paper, 1968); William Rosenthall, “Moses Myers: American Enterprises, etc.,” (HUC term paper, 1956); Barry H. Greene, “Business Letters of the Myers Family, 1812, Merchant-Shippers, Norfolk,” (HUC term paper, 1957); B. & B., JOUS, 1:95–99, 257–58, n. 4; Herbert Brockman, “A Study of the Myers Family of Norfolk, etc.,” (HUC term paper, 1968); East, Business Enterprise, 60.

24. E. & L., Richmond, 105; PAJHS, 17:81–88, 19:72 ff., 20:17, 25:5, 34:279; typescript data assembled on Myerses by Malcolm H. Stern, copy in Marcus Collections; Myer Myers, Stockholm, to Father, Norfolk, Dec., 1818, Myers Family Records, AJAr; Roger C. Klein, “The Myers Family of Norfolk, Va.,” (HUC term paper, 1968); Lyon G. Tyler (ed.), Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography (N.Y., 1915), 4:526–27; AJA 2(no. 2): 27–28; Stern, FAJF, 218; obituaries of Moses Myers are found in the Norfolk American Beacon, July 9, 1835, and the Richmond Whig, July 14, 1835.

25. JSJHS, 1:10; Richmond Whig, July 14, 1835; PAJHS, 25:1 ff., 34:279; Norfolk American Beacon, July 9, 1835; Isaac Moses, Phila., to the Congress of the United States of North America, July 27, 1779, PCC.

26. PRO, Reel no. 4640, Doc. 871C, 111–7, 1783–1792, CLLL/6–7, 157: this reel is in the General Jewish Archives in Jerusalem. Morais, Philadelphia, 29; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 61, n. 2; W. & W., Philadelphia, 183, 189, 224, 340, 436, n. 11; PAJHS, 3:150; Gedalia Yogev, “The Economic Activity of the Anglo-Jewish Patriciate in the Eighteenth Century International Trade (Summary)” (Ph.D. diss., Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1962), 27–35, et passim; Yogev, Diamonds and Coral, especially chap. 10.

27. W. & W., Philadelphia, 172–75, 352; E. & L., Richmond, 54 ff.

28. E. & L., Richmond, 85–87; Samuel Etting, Phila., to R. Garrett & Company, Baltimore, Mar. 2, Apr. 3, 1832, Jan. 22, Aug. 6, 1833, Garrett Family Papers, LC; Markens, Hebrews, 23–24; W. & W., Philadelphia, 186, 347; Marcus, AJD, 308–10, 439 ff., 450 ff., AJHQ, 64:302–3; “Etting,” UJE. Commercial transactions in the 1790’s of a New York Jewish firm of merchants, Isaac Gomez, Abraham R. Rivera, and Moses Lopez, are reflected in the case of Louis Le Guen v. Isaac Gouverneur and Peter Kemble in which Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr, among others, represented the complainant. See Julius Goebel, Jr. (ed.), The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton, etc. (N.Y., 1964), 1:183–88, 2:48–164. See Isaac Gomez, Jr., and Abraham R. Rivera v. Louis le Guen, etc., Alexander Hamilton Legal Papers, 2d series, vol. 11, Jan. 20, 1799, LC; see also B. & B., JOUS, 1:141 ff., 202–3; Md. Hist. Mag., 15:1 ff.; Fein, Baltimore, 17.

29. E. & L., Richmond, 21–22. See also the appraisement of the estate of Israel I. Cohen, Henrico County Court House, Va., Will Book no. 3, pp. 97, 126 ff. (1804).

30. E. & L., Richmond, 13 ff.; “Isaacs, Isaiah,” BDEAJ; PAJHS, 27:462; W. & W., Philadelphia, 96, for J. I. Cohen: 70, et passim, especially 126–27; Marcus, EAJ, 2:182–84, 187, 215–16, 397; Marcus, AJD, 441–42; Heads of Families, First Census of the United States: 1790. State Enumerations of Virginia: From 1782 to 1785 (Baltimore, 1952), 115; Junta of Mikveh Israel, Phila., to Hazzan Seixas, Aug. 25, 1782, Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, re marriage of Jacob I. Cohen, 75 ff.; Goodman, “Spruce Street Cemetery,” 33, contains a record of burial of Jacob I. Cohen; Publicity release on Jacob I. Cohen by the AJAr, March 1966.

31. Morais, Philadelphia, 432; E. & L., Richmond, 47 ff.; Marx Papers in the Virginia Historical Society Library and in the Wilson Cary Nicholas Papers, Alderman Library, U. of Va.; power of attorney of Philip Gowan and George Marx, London, to Joseph and Samuel Marx, Feb. 9, 1827, Virginia Historical Society Library; Stern, FAJF, 188.

32. Trachtenberg, Easton, 68 ff.

33. John M. Dorsey (ed.), The Jefferson-Dunglison Letters (Charlottesville, Va., 1960), 45–46; “Hart, Michael,” “Isaacs, David,” BDEAJ; E. & L., Richmond, 39, 87, for Isaac Raphael; B. & B., JOUS, 1:268, n. 94; Trachtenberg, Easton, 68 ff.; Welch, “Assimilation,” 79 ff.

34. Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 28, et passim; M. Sheftall, Savannah, to S. Sheftall, Phila., Feb. 22, 1793, Levy collection in Savannah; B. & B., JOUS, 1:112ff

35. PAJHS, 8:46; “Franks, Jacob(2),” BDEAJ; Stern, FAJF, 83.

36. Stern, FAJF, 276.

37. Porter, John Jacob Astor, 2:696, 708, 735–36, 777, 779, 826, 829–30, 860; John O. Holzhueter, Madison, Wis., to JRM, Apr. 11, 1986; Wisconsin Magazine of History, 64:3–27; Publius V. Lawson, History, Winnebago County, Wisconsin, etc., (Chicago, 1908), 1:140–43; B. & B., JOUS, 3:834–42, 983–84; C. E. Carter (ed.), Territorial Papers of the United States, The Territory of Michigan (Washington, D. C., 1943), 11:308, 384. John Lawe: I wish to express my thanks to the staffs of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin and the History Division of the Michigan Department of State. They have been most helpful. For details of Lawe’s life and especially for the story of his trip down the river see Biography of John Lawe, Wisconsin Historical Society.

38. Martin W. Oppenheim, N.Y., to American Fur Company, N.Y., Apr. 19, 1836; Ramsay Crooks, N.Y., to M.W.O., N.Y., Apr. 20, 1836, American Fur Company letters, NYHSL; see letters nos. 1052 A and B, 1508B, 1572, 1742, 1745, 1810B, 2995, 4150 A and B, 4388 A and B, 4468 A, B and C, 6011 A and B, 7756 A and B, 13651 A and B; Ramsay Crooks, N.Y., to Samuel Abbott, Mackinac, Dec. 22, 1846, American Fur Company Papers, NYHSL.

39. For Jews and slavery in colonial days, see Marcus, CAJ, Index sub “Slave trade”; E. & L., Richmond, 41 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 1:192 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 128–30; Marcus, AJD, 446 ff., 456–57; AJA, 3(no. 2):44, 27:231 ff.; PAJHS, 50:151 ff.

40. L.J. Levy bills and statements in the Andrew Jackson Papers, LC; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 308; W. & W., Philadelphia, 352; Stephen Girard, Phila., to S. Myres(sic), Petersburg, Va., Nov. 17, 1790, Boston Public Library.

41. E. & L., Richmond, chap. 11; N.Y. Spectator, Mar. 10, 1810; Barrett, Old Merchants, 2(no. 2)238, 3(no.l):239ff; “Levy, Aaron(3),” BDEAJ; PAJHS, 27:343, 397; Stern, FAFJ, 159, 209; New York Directory for 1786, 31–37; N.Y. Daily Gazette, May 1, 1789, p. 427; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:74, 153; B. & B., JOUS, 1:104–7; Marcus, AJD, 305 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 176; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 119; Markens, Hebrews, 21; Friedman, Pilgrims, 60.

42. Marcus, AJD, 459–64; East, Business Enterprise, 273, 283; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 119; AJHQ, 64:298; Correspondence of Samuel Etting in Garrett Family Papers, 1832–1833, LC; Stephen Girard, Phila., to Samuel Myers, Petersburg, Va., Nov. 17, 1790, Boston Public Library; W. & W., Philadelphia, 167–68, 171, 175, 412, n. 68, 429, n.31, plate 21; M. & H. Oppenheim, London, to Harmon Hendricks, N.Y., Feb. 4, 1802, copy in Marcus Collections; Greene, Revolutionary Generation, 274; PAJHS, 6:49–59; Rhodes, Newport Mercury, 19–20; Account Book of Lazarus Barnett, 1784, in U. of Pa. Library.

43. RIJHN, 3:262 ff.; Occ., 11:589 ff.; Korn, New Orleans, 289, n. 8. The date of Touro’s birth on his tombstone is wrong. He was born April 28, 1775. His birthdate is recorded in the account book of the physician who assisted at the birth. Dr. Wm. Hunter of Newport, Account book, Newport Historical Society; “Touro, Judah,” JE, UJE, EJ; Hunt, Lives, 2:441 ff.; PAJHS, 27:442; Touro’s tombstone: Gutstein, Newport, 304–5; Huhner, Judah Touro.

44. Asmonean, Feb. 17, 1854; PAJHS, 27:421; Hunt, Lives, 2:448, 466; Huhner, Judah Touro, plate between 28–29, 49–50, 54, 58; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 28; J. Touro, N.O., to C. G. Champlin, Newport, June 3, 1820, RIHSL; Korn, New Orleans, 74 ff., 289, n. 14, 293, n. 46, see Index sub “Touro, Judah”; JQR, n.s., 45:568 ff.; Gutstein, Newport, 304–5; Occ., 11:589–602; Clapp, Autobiographical Sketches, 102.

45. Medford Daily Mercury, July 15, 1957, p. 5; Commentary, 15:492.

46. Shpall, Louisiana, 8, 20, 34–36; Notes and Queries of the Boston Transcript, Dec. 30, 1913, Note no. 2478, cited in the Boston Jewish Advocate, June 27, 1957, by Leo Shubow. There are papers re his maritime insurance in the Savage Papers in the Mass. Hist. Soc. Collections. There is an insurance policy for Brown & Ives of Providence, Feb. 4, 1806, John Carter Brown Library, Providence. Pool, Old Faith, 49, 55, 108, 169, 299–300, 345; PAJHS, 13–93 ff., 27:417 ff., 428–29; B. & B., JOUS, 2:649, n. 31; Niles Weekly Register, Dec. 27, 1823, p. 262; Thorpe, Constitutions, 3:1914; Friedman, Pilgrims, 134; Friedman, Pioneers, 245 ff.; Gutstein, Newport, 256–57, 291 ff.; RIJHN, 3:262 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 362; “Touro, Abraham,” BDEAJ; A. Touro, Boston, to S. Jacobs, Richmond, June 28, 1822, AJHSL.

47. “Touro, Abraham,” BDEAJ; Occ., 11:589–602; Huhner, Judah Touro, 68 ff., 73–76; Asmonean, Feb. 17, 1854, Address of Clapp, “The Just Hebrew”; JQR, n.s., 45:568 ff.; AJA, 7:64; Clapp, Autobiographical Sketches, 94 ff.; PAJHS, 13:93 ff., 100–101; Hunt, Lives, 2:444–66; Korn, New Orleans, 217–20, 256.

48. Korn, New Orleans, 86–89, 292, nn. 33, 35; Huhner, Judah Touro, 75; Schappes, DHJUS, 334, 658, n.23; Gutstein, Newport, 244, 304; “Touro, Judah,” EJ; PAJHS, 13:93 ff., 99, 27:450–51; RIJHN, 3:262 ff.; Huhner, Judah Touro, 63, 74–75; JQR, n.s., 45:568 ff.; “Lawrence, Amos,” DAB; “Clapp, Theodore,” ACOAB; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 226; Hunt, Lives, 2:465.

49. Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, 224; Korn, New Orleans, 248–53, 256, 292, n. 35; W. & W., Philadelphia, 362, 496, n. 12; Isaac Hart, New Orleans, to I. L., Sept. 19, 1851, Leeser Collection; JQR, n.s., 45:572; Hunt, Lives, 2:460; Huhner, Judah Touro, 88, 90 ff., 99; Gutstein, Lopez and Touro, 109; Myers, Israelites of Louisiana, 40–41; Spectrum 9(1961):113 ff.

50. Schappes, DHJUS, 333 ff.; Korn, New Orleans, 256–58, 339, n. 26; “Touro, Judah,” EJ; Huhner, Judah Touro, 78, 102 ff., 129 ff.; Gutstein, Newport, 304–5, 332–33.

51. Korn, New Orleans, 255; JQR, n.s., 45:576 ff.; London Jewish Chronicle, May 15, 1863, p. 5; Gershom Kursheedt, New Orleans, to I. L., Phila., Dec. 18, 1847(1848?), Same to same, Mar. 20, 1848, Same to same, Feb. 19, 1854, Leeser Collection; Schappes, DHJUS, 658, n. 25; AJHQ, 53:349.

52. R, nos. 100, 101.

53. JQR, n.s., 45:576; Occ., 11:589–602, 12:209–26, 18:79–82; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Dec. 3, 1954, pp. 13, 18; Korn, New Orleans, 90, 257–58, 339, nn. 26, 28; M. Solomons, N.Y., to I. L., Feb. 2, 1854, Leeser Collection; “Peabody, George,” DAB; Huhner, Judah Touro, 111 ff., 118–21, 181–82, n. 10; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:320–33; JM, June 29, 1860, pp. 196–97; AI, June 1, 1860, p. 382, cs.1–3, June 15, 1860, p. 395, c.2; Brooklyn Jewish Center Review, May, 1954, pp. 12, 22; Gladys E. Bolhouse (Newport Historical Society), to J. Weiss, AJAr, Mar. 2, 1966; Gutstein, Newport, 304–5.

CHAPTER FIVE

THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF THE AMERICAN JEW: THE NEW ECONOMY 1776–1840

  1. PAJHS, 17:36–37; R, no. 68; Marcus, CAJ, 1:251 ff., 2:533, 580–81, 765; Marcus, AJD, 218 ff., 449–50; “Indiana Company,” “Vandalia Colony,” DAH (1976–1978); W. & W., Philadelphia, 177–78.

  2. PAJHS, 3:61, 27:345; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 143, 188; Porter, John Jacob Astor, 1:409–10; Bernard Hart Papers in Misc. Mss., NYHSL; see the Naphtali Judah and Jacob Seixas Papers, 1812–1820, NYHSL; Will of Samson Levy, 1781, no. 395, Will Book, Register of Wills, Phila.; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 221–22, 271–72; for Lancaster and Simons, see AJA, 12:96 ff.; for Moses, see PAJHS, 10:164, 27:344–45; “Moses, Isaac,” BDEAJ; for M. Judah, see E. & L., Richmond, 46; for M. Lopez, owner of a land office, see N.Y. Spectator, June 22, 1811, p. 4; for M. Myers, see B. & B., JOUS, 1:284, n. 211.

  3. PAJHS, 16:189, 27:339–40; W. & W., Philadelphia, 174, 431, n. 51; JSJHS, 1:7; Feldman, Pittsburgh, chap. 1; conveyance of land to Isaac Franks: land is in Bedford County, Pa. (Philadelphia Autograph Company Catalog, p. 14, no. 46); Will of David Nathans, July 27, 1817, Register of Wills Office, Phila.; Allegheny County Deed Book, no. 6, pp. 232–34, June 8, 1796; AJA, 12:96 ff.; Nones: Emmett Collection, no. 3288, Division of MSS, NYPL. For Lancaster real estate and tract purchases, see AJA, 12:96 ff.; Moses Levy: Act of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, 3rd of April, 1792 and Opinions Thereon. To the persons emigrating to the land in Pennsylvania north and west of the Ohio River, etc. Signed by Moses Levy, et al, (Philadelphia, 1796), Aldine Catalogue, no. 1289.

  4. PAJHS, 2:157 ff.; R, nos. 74–75; “Levy, Aaron(1),” BDEAJ; W. & W., Philadelphia, 57, 117, 183, et passim; Fish, Aaron Levy, 14–16, 42, 56–57, et passim; “Pennsylvania,” JE, 9:587; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 532–33; Reformed Church Affair: Marcus, EAJ, 2:125 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 1:331, et passim, see Index in vol. 3.

  5. Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 14–15; “Gratz, Benjamin,” BDEAJ; “Louisville,” EJ.

  6. Henry Hart, Kingsbury, N.Y., to A. Hart, Three Rivers, Canada, Oct. 21, 1787 (1797?), Hart Papers in Seminaire du St. Joseph, Three Rivers, Canada; Henry and Moses Hart letters in NYHSL; see Moses Hart, Three Rivers, to Jeremiah van Rensselaer, Aug. 1, 1797, Misc. Mss., NYHSL; also Henry Hart, Albany, to Jeremiah van Rensselaer, Apr. 22, 1782, Misc. MSS, NYHSL; B. & B., JOUS, 3:835–36.

  7. E. & L., Richmond, 15; Invoice of Dorsey Pentecost to B. and M. Gratz, Nov. 4, 1783–Mar. 1785, Bortman-Larus Collection; Marcus, CAJ, 2:759 ff.

  8. Marcus, CAJ, 2:746 ff.; “Simon, Joseph,” BDEAJ; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Nov. 3, 1978, Friday supplement, p. 6; Michael Gratz, Phila., to Moses Michael Hays, Boston, June 21, 1786, Bortman-Larus Collection; Slowey Hays, Boston, to R. Gratz, Phila., Feb. 22, 1907, Bortman-Larus Collection; Marcus, EAJ, 2:187; Marcus, AJD, 441–42; PAJHS, 20:101–102, 23:1 ff., 61:71 ff.; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 25–27, 94, 167 ff., 183, 191, 196–97, 200, 215–24, 227–30, 232, 244, 247–49, 251–53, 257–58, 276–77, 351–53; cf. also for the Bloch family, AJA, 8:63 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 66, 72, 180–81, 340–41, 399, 433, n. 95; Feldman, “Western Pennsylvania,” (typescript), chap. 1, Marcus Collections; Feldman, Pittsburgh, chap. 1.

  9. Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 114; “Swartwout, Samuel,” DAB; NYHSQ, 48:307 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 47; Mordecai Sheftall to the Georgia Senate and Legislature, Nov. 9, 1794, Levy collection in Savannah; R. & E., Charleston, 111–12; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 32, 40, 161–64, 192, 206; release by AJAr on South Florida, 1965.

10. Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 14; PAJHS, 25:1 ff., 132 ff.; Florida Historical Quarterly, 19:319 ff.; Stern, FAJF, 171; B. & B., JOUS, 1:156, 284, n. 212; Proceedings of the Conference on the Writing of Regional History in the South (Miami Beach, 1956), 85 ff.

11. SCHGM, 19:16–17, 23; Markens, Hebrews, 60–61; R. & E., Charleston, 92; “Gatherings By the Wayside,” unidentified newspaper clipping dated Dec. 17, 1880, dealing with the life of Mordecai Cohen, Marcus Collections; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 140–41, 143–44, 188, 193, 205–6, 245; PAJHS, 18:209, 22:154–55, 26:189, 27:483.

12. W. & W., Philadelphia, 340, 343–44, 486, n. 14, 487, n. 42; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 194; R. & E., Charleston, 282, n. 76; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 266; Gratz Papers, Reel No. 168, no. 87, MOHSL; Ritter, Philadelphia and Her Merchants, 177–78; William H. A. Carr, Perils: Named and Unnamed: The Story of the Insurance Company of North America (N.Y., 1967), 4, 11.

13. Copies of Insurance documents in Marcus Collections; Savage Papers, Mass. Hist. Soc. Library; Masonic Craftsman, Dec., 1939, 72 ff., 94–95; Rhodes, Newport Mercury, 13, 15; Smith and Tatsch, Moses Michael Hays, 28 ff.; “Hays, Moses Michael,” UJE, BDEAJ; PAJHS, 6:102, 12:104 ff., 19:5–8, et passim, 35:288 ff., 38:150 ff.; Boston Jewish Advocate, Sept. 15, 1939, pp. 16 ff.; The Proceedings of the Bostonian Society Annual Meeting, Jan. 19, 1955, 25 ff.; Edward R. Hardy, The Insurance Library Association, Boston, Reports of 1888–1900. With an Account of the Early Insurance Offices in Massachusetts, from 1724–1801 (Boston, 1901), 50, 69, 78–80, 95–96; Boston Independent Ledger, Dec. 24, 1781, advertisement; Joseph S. Davis, Essays in the Earlier History of American Corporations (2 vols., Cambridge, Mass., 1917), 2:237; CRI, 2:189 ff., 312.

14. Boston Independent Ledger, Dec. 24, 1781; Marcus, AJD, 46 ff.; Masonic Craftsman, Dec., 1939, 35–36, 73 ff., 94; Smith and Tatsch, Moses Michael Hays, 35–36, 40–41; Joseph I. Kemp, Boston, to J. H. Tatsch, Boston, Sept. 7, 1937, copy in Marcus Collections; Boston Jewish Advocate, Sept. 15, 1939, 16 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 1:260, n. 16; PAJHS, 38:150–51, 43:205; East, Business Enterprise, 69, 295–96; Hays material in the Broches Collection, AJAr; M. M. Hays, Boston, to Chris Champlin, Newport, Jan. 10, 1789, Baker Library, Boston, 3(1732–1790):92, same to same, Nov. 12, 1791, John Carter Brown Library, Providence; I. M. Glover, Marblehead, Mass., to M. M. Hays, Boston, May 15, 1786, copy in Marcus Collections; CRI, 2:58–59, 312, 399–400; The Independent Chronicle of Boston, Jan. 1, 1784, was reprinted in the Boston Globe, Supplement, Jan. 1, 1884, (it was an appeal for a bank), Broches Collection, copy in AJAr; Report of Court of Claims in the French Spoliation Cases: Judah Hays and M. M. Hays, the schooner Olive (Washington, 1900), Aldine Catalogue, no. 883; Cohen, Records of the Cohen, Hays, and Mordecai Families, 13–14.

15. Gras and Larson, Casebook, 164; N. S. B. Gras, The Massachusetts First National Bank, 1784–1834 (Cambridge, Mass., 1937), 25, 56, 57, 633–35; East, Business Enterprise, 296, 327–28; The Independent Chronicle of Boston, Jan. 1, 1784, reprinted in the Boston Globe, Supplement, Jan. 1, 1884; Proceedings of the Bostonian Society Annual Meeting, Jan. 18, 1955, 36; for population, see Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 486; Rossiter, Cent. of Pop. Growth, 11; Russell, Haym Salomon, 166–67; Schappes, JIUS, 39.

16. Glanz, Studies, 378–80; AJHQ, 66:67–70; Markens, Hebrews, 139–40; PMHB, 76:214; B. & B., JOUS, 1:143 ff. For Phillips: W. & W., Philadelphia, 350; PAJHS, 16:195. For Cohens, see Infra. “Belmont, August,” DAB; Rebecca H. Mayer (Memoirs in AJAr) states that the family name of Belmont was originally Schoenberg (Beautiful Mountain). The Belmonts say their name is older. Rothschilds: B. & B., JOUS, 1:143 ff.; “Rothschild Family,” ESS; Glanz, Studies, 358 ff., 374.

17. For special Purims, see “Purim, Special,” JE. PMHB, 76:214; W. & W., Philadelphia, 471, n. 87; Stern, FAJF, 137; E. & L., Richmond, 131; Markens, Hebrews, 25, 76, 140; Barrett, Old Merchants, 1:16, 133, 219 ff., 2(no. 2):176, 3(no.2):75; B. & B., JOUS, 2:534, 655, n. 89; Occ., 2:515; Pool, Crosby Street Synagogue, 10–11; Solomon I. Joseph, N.Y., to Senator Wm. Woodbridge, Washington, D. C., Jan. 31, 1842, Burton Hist. Coll., Detroit Public Library; Whiteman, Hendricks, 171; Rupert L. Joseph, N.Y., to JRM, Jan. 11, 19, 1953, Marcus Collections; Grinstein, New York City, 184, 420, 434, 552, n. 24, 593, n. 7; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 114, 126–27.

18. “Cohen,” UJE, 3:223 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 94–95; Fein, Baltimore, 22–23; B. & B., JOUS, 1:152 ff.; Blum, Baltimore, 5; E. & L., Richmond, 29–31; Stern, FAJF, 82.

19. Marcus, AJD, 142–43, 202–3, 217–18, 221 ff., 461–62; B. & B., JOUS, 1:119–22, 2:648, n. 27; N.Y. Spectator, July 1, 5, 1815, June 5, 1818, p. 3, lottery ads; W. & W., Philadelphia, 354; R, no. 147; PAJHS, 20:20, 105; Md. Hist. Mag., 18:364 ff., 68:288 ff., 307–8; copy of advertisement for a lottery for the benefit of the Surgical Institution of Baltimore, 1817, is in the AJAr; Commager, Documents, 228 ff.; Washington Republican and Congressional Examiner, Sept. 18, 1822, has a large advertisement of a lottery run by the Cohens.

20. PMHB, 76:214; Korn, New Orleans, 110–19, et passim.

21. Markens, Hebrews, 113; “Rivera, Aaron,” BDEAJ; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 143, 188, 190, 192, 196, 205; R. & E., Charleston, 282, n. 76; B. & B., JOUS, 3:1003, n. 97; Daniel Clark, Richmond, to Isaiah Isaacs, Richmond, Dec. 26, 1783, Ayer Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago; Hening, Laws of Virginia, 13:599(1792); E. & L., Richmond, 48, 129–30.

22. Blum, Baltimore, 4; W. & W., Philadelphia, 342 ff.; “Etting, Solomon,” BDEAJ.

23. Henry Wysham Lanier, A Century of Banking in New York, 1822–1922 (N.Y., 1922), 18; Markens, Hebrews, 23–24; Schappes, JIUS, 39; W. & W., Philadelphia, 342 ff.; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 266; Marcus, AJD, 443; AJHQ, 66:70; Circular of Philip Speyer, N.Y., Mar. 1, 1840, American Fur Company Papers, NYHSL.

24. W. & W., Philadelphia, 164; Markens, Hebrews, 23–24; W. & W., Philadelphia, 342, 351, 354; B. & B., JOUS, 3:873; “Salomon, Ezekiel,” BDEAJ; R, no. 448.

25. W. & W., Philadelphia, 111, 167, 412, n. 68; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 130; Gras and Larson, Casebook, 325 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 139–40; “New York City,” UJE, 8:180; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 379; Kull and Kull, Chronology, 89; Schappes, JIUS, 38; N.Y. Spectator, Mar. 21, 1801, p. 3; Robert Sobel, The Big Board: A History of the New York Stock Market (N.Y., 1965), 14 ff.

26. Pool, Old Faith, 316–17, et passim; Pool, Portraits, 289–90; PAJHS, 4:215 ff., 21:167, 169, 27:491–92; B. & B., JOUS, 1:606, n. 13; Stern, FAJF, 266.

27. Barrett, Old Merchants, 2:119–29; Pool, Portraits, 33, 44–45, 49, 74, 82, 101–3, 142, 161, 307; “Hart, Bernard,” EJ, UJE, BDEAJ; PAJHS, 21:167, 32:104 ff.; Porter, John Jacob Astor, 1:409–10; B. & B., JOUS, 2:591–92, 666, n. 231; Glanz, Folklore, 166 ff.; Md. Hist. Mag., 19:54–57; Baltimore Jewish Times, June 28, 1974, pp. 18, 20, 21.

28. Marcus, AJD, 224 ff.; AJHQ, 54:99–100, 412, 67:154, n. 100; W. & W., Philadelphia, 343; Commentary, 15(1953):492; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 265; B. Aycrigg to Jacob Gratz, President of the Union Canal Company, privately printed letter, Harrisburg, Pa., 1836, cited in Aldine Catalogue, no. 783; “Richmond,” UJE; E. & L., Richmond, 48; Richard D. Arnold, Savannah, to Governor Wilson Lumpkin, Jan. 16, 1834, Georgia Department of Archives and History; GHQ, 3:45 ff.; “Charleston,” UJE; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 192; PAJHS, 27:378; Charleston Courier, Sept. 20, 1862, necrology of Michael Lazarus.

29. E. & L., Richmond, 30–31, 136; Adams, Atlas of American History, 108–9; Markens, Hebrews, 94–95; Md. Hist. Mag., 18:365, 376; Blum, Baltimore, 4–5.

30. Stern, FAJF, 151; B. & B., JOUS, 1:92–95, 155–57; Aaron Lazarus, Wilmington, N.C., to John Huske, Nov. 30, 1839, copy in AJAr; “North Carolina,” UJE, 8:238; Adams, Atlas of American History, 108; Kull and Kull, Chronology, 100; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 205–6; R. & E., Charleston, 277, n. 24; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:144.

31. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 192.

32. Marcus, CAJ, 2:692 ff.; Marcus, AJD, 393 ff.; Faulkner, American Economic History, 305; Stern, FAJF, 140; AJA, 5:46, sub “Judah, Moses.” PAJHS, 27:398 has a reference to a Moses Judah as a bank director. This may be the same non-Jew.

33. Lopez as garment manufacturer in Marcus, CAJ, 2:677 ff.; “Cohen, Abraham Hyam,” “Seixas, David G.,” BDEAJ; W. & W., Philadelphia, 352; Morais, Philadelphia, 343–44, 355; AJA, 14:29–30.

34. Marcus, CAJ, 2:672 ff.; PAJHS, 20:18 ff., 27:370, 377; Pool, Portraits, 371–72 (D. G. Seixas); Markens, Hebrews, 23, 25–26; R. & E., Charleston, 109; Harry Hart, Kingsbury, N.Y., to Aaron Hart, Three Rivers, Canada, Oct. 21, 1787?, Hart Papers, Seminaire de St. Joseph, Three Rivers, Canada; Marcus, AJD, 436–38, 461–62; re Levi Bernd (Berndt) and his harness shop in NYC in 1836: Helen Frank, Brookline, Mass., to JRM, n.d., Marcus Collections; for the tanyard and shoe factory in Cheraw, S.C., owned by Joshua Lazarus, see Cora Page Godfrey, Cheraw, S.C., to Mrs. Jacob Raisin, Charleston, S.C., Apr. 4, 1950, copy in Marcus Collections; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 278; W. & W., Philadelphia, 288; B. & B., JOUS, 2:476 ff., 644, n. 155; Morais, Philadelphia, 444 ff. Rosengarten: B. & B., JOUS, 1:275–76, n. 144; Morais, Philadelphia, 343, 355.

35. Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 262 ff., 278, 327; Robert Peter, History of Fayette County (Chicago, 1882), 612–14; W. & W., Philadelphia, 341; B. & B., JOUS, 1:134 ff.; Thomas D. Clark, A History of Kentucky (Lexington, 1954), 7, 166 ff.; “Gratz, Benjamin,” BDEAJ.

36. Rhodes, Newport Mercury, no. 166; Marcus, CAJ, 2:537; Glanz, Folklore, 100, 129, 147–48, 154, 160; Historia Judaica, 8:212; AJA, 12:3; “United States,” JE, 12:375; Michael, “Cincinnati,” 109, 113, 116, 118–22.

37. PAJHS, 6:102, 9:155; Marcus, CAJ, 2:688; Trachtenberg, Easton, 81; Report on the Remission of Customs Duties, 14th Cong., 2d sess., Executive Document, Rep. W. Lowndes, Jan. 2, 1817: C.H. Saunders and Manuel Judah; “Mordecai, Mordecai M.,” “Wolfe, Benjamin,” BDEAJ; Biographical Encyclopaedia of Kentucky (Cincinnati, 1878), 650; History of the Ohio Falls Cities and Their Counties (Cleveland, 1882), 312–13; Jefferson County, Kentucky, Marriage Book 3, abstract, p. 55, sub Nathaniel Wolfe; Jefferson County, Kentucky, Will Book No. 6, sub N. Wolfe, d. July 3, 1865; Barrett, Old Merchants, 3:152–59; E. & L., Richmond, 39, 65–66, 77–80, 85, 87–88, 122, 133, 240, 283, 316; W. & W., Philadelphia, 346, 462, n.18; Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 40–41. The Philadelphia distiller, Benjamin Wolf, is not to be confused with the Richmond Benjamin Wolfe (d. 1818); Pool, Crosby Street Synagogue, 48–49 for the Wolfes; Stern, FAJF, 304.

38. M. Myers, N.Y., to A.C. Flagg, Albany, Mar. 27, 1824, Mss. Div., NYPL; AJA, l(no.2):35–37, n. 21; Marcus, AJD, 288–89; Joseph Davis, Essays in the Earlier History of American Corporations (2 vols., Cambridge, Mass., 1917), 2:260; PAJHS, 38:115–16, 43:214 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 1:103, 261–62, n. 32; “Simson, Solomon,” BDEAJ; Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Under Their Vine and Fig Tree: Travels Through America in 1797–1799, 1805, etc. (Elizabeth, N.J., 1965), 25, 301, n. 73a.

39. “Hendricks, Uriah,” “Hendricks, Harmon,” BDEAJ; “Hendricks,” EJ; Roth, Anglo-Jewish Letters, 220; Marcus, EAJ, 1:45–47; Stern, FAJF, 124; Whiteman, Hendricks, 30–324; PAJHS, 13:139–41, 43:199 ff., 48:170 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 16–17; Barrett, Old Merchants, 1:116–18, 330–31.

40. “Gomez, Benjamin(3),” BDEAJ; R, nos. 93, 95; The Colophon, Part Nine, 1932, n.p.; “Gomez, Benjamin,” UJE; Gottesman, Arts and Crafts, 1777–1799, no. 945, p. 284; B. W. Korn, notes on B. Gomez and N. Judah sent to JRM in Marcus Collections; Friedman, Pioneers, 180 ff.

41. Whiteman, Hendricks, 34, 45; R. & E., Charleston, 109; “Seixas, David G.,” BDEAJ; The Colophon, Part Nine, 1932; N.Y. Spectator, June 16, 1802, p. 4; PAJHS, 21:212, 38:123–24; Gottesman, Arts and Crafts, 1777–1799, no. 873, p. 267; R, nos. 93, 95, 114, 118, 127, 135.

42. Brigham, American Newspapers, 1:672; R, nos. 239, 453; W. & W., Philadelphia, 186; R. & E., Charleston, 280, n. 53; PBSA, 30:1 ff.; Elmer T.(?) Hutchinson to George J. Miller, July 22, 1951 in Marcus Collections; Borrenstein was suspended from the First Presbyterian Church of Princeton for fraud (1829).

43. Elizer, A Directory for 1803; Stern, FAJF, 130; Marcus, AJD, 117; “Jackson, Solomon Henry,” UJE, EJ; Grinstein, New York City, 43, 79, 116, 214, 218, 255, 385; R, nos. 190, 258, 265, 272, 278, 284, 291, 352, 382, 395, 418.

44. Korn, Benjamin Levy, 11 ff.; PBSA, 62:251; also MS notes given to JRM by Dr. Korn in Marcus Collections; Korn, New Orleans, 144 ff., et passim.

45. Krout & Fox, Completion of Independence, 361–63; “Hart, Abraham,” DAB; W. & W., Philadelphia, 352–53.

46. Thomas Carlyle to A. Hart, Phila., Jan. 7, 1846, PAJHS, 28:xxxiv; R, nos. 375, 407, 408, 460; Markens, Hebrews, 77–78; “Hart, Abraham,” DAB, EJ; Morais, Philadelphia, 53 ff.; Louis Ginsberg, A. Hart: Philadelphia Publisher, 1829–1854 (Petersburg, Va., 1972), 1 ff.; S. Morais, A Tribute of Respect to the Memory of Abraham Hart (Phila., 1885), July 24, 1885; Scharf & Westcott, Philadelphia, 1:703; East Tennessee Historical Society’s Publication No. 43(1971):3 ff.; David Crockett and the Jews, AJAr release, June 22, 1955; EIAJH, 217, no. 108; Letters of Abraham Hart to J. Fenimore Cooper, 1844–1845, Yale Library; AJA, 5:45.

47. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 140–43; “Phillips, Henry Myer,” UJE; W. & W., Philadelphia, 216. Journalists: “Noah, Mordecai Manuel,” DAB; R. & E., Charleston, 88, 282, n. 73. Economists: “Cardozo, Jacob Newton,” DAB. Druggists: W. & W., Philadelphia, 329–30; B. & B., JOUS, 1:134. Dentists: Elzas, Jews of S.C., 128, 140–43, 203–4. Engineers: “Mordecai, Alfred,” DAB. Naval Officers: “Levy, Uriah Phillips,” DAB. Beatrice St. Julien Ravenel, Architects of Charleston (Charleston, 1945), 156, 210, 215, 222, 223. Theatre: “New York City,” JE, 9:271; “Phillips, Aron J.,” “Phillips, Jonas B.,” UJE; AJA, 15:21–57; Markens, Hebrews, 28–29. For lawyers and physicians, see infra; also see the chapter on General Culture.

48. Curti, American Thought, 142; PAJHS, 19:179–80, 40:119 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 315; Morais, Philadelphia, 331; Henriques, Jews and the English Law, 202–6; “Montefiore, Joshua,” DAB, EJ, JE.

49. Marcus, Memoirs, 3:133 ff.; “Myers, Abraham,” “Myers, Moses(4),” “Moïse, Abraham(2),” BDEAJ; “Phillips, Philip,” Biographical Directory of the American Congress; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 128, 141, 163–64, 193, 196, 202, 205–6; B. & B., JOUS, 1:251, n. 124, 3:1003, n. 98; Wallace, Hist. of S.C., 2:456; Chapman Levy: B. & B., JOUS, 2:376 ff., 384–89, 621–22, nn. 153 ff.; “Levy, Chapman,” UJE, BDEAJ; PAJHS, 27:483; AJHQ, 53:149; Heydenfeldt: PAJHS, 10:129 ff.; “Benjamin, Judah Philip,” JE, UJE, EJ, DAB; Korn, New; Orleans, 191; “Phillips, Philip,” UJE.

50. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:239; B. & B., JOUS, 1:110; Mordecai, Moses(2),” BDEAJ; Stern, FAJF, 201; Rachel Mordecai, Warrenton, N.C., to Samuel Mordecai, Richmond, May 9, 1807, Mordecai Papers, Duke University; Cohen, Records of the Myers, Hays, and Mordecai Families, 40–42.

51. JSJHS, 1:7; Stern, FAJF, 217; E. & L., Richmond, 60–62, 89.

52. Markens, Hebrews, 21–22; PAJHS, 10:108 ff., 22:147 ff.; “Zuntz, Judah,” “Judah, Samuel B.H.,” “Simson, Sampson (2),” BDEAJ; “New York City,” JE, 9:270–71.

53. W. & W., Philadelphia, 202, 350–51; “Levy, Moses(4),” “Levy, Samson(2),” “Levy, Daniel(2),” BDEAJ; PAJHS, 22:139 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 38–41, 49, 202, 409 ff., 431; David Paul Brown (ed.), The Forum, or Forty Years Full Practice and the Philadelphia Bar (Phila., 1856), 542 ff.; National Genealogical Quarterly, Sept., 1956, 96; Friedman, Pilgrims, 79 ff.; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 278. Alexander Hamilton, as lawyer, was attorney in a number of cases in which Jews were involved. See Julius Goebel, Jr. (ed.) The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton, etc. (N.Y., 1964), 170, 175, 293, 448, et passim. See also Alexander Hamilton Legal Papers, 2d series, vol. 11, LC.

54. PAJHS, 22:147; Yogev, Diamonds and Coral, 329, n.100; Marcus, EAJ, 2:398–99; Marcus, CAJ, 1:375–76.

55. Marcus, EAJ, 1:282–83; “Hart, Benjamin,” BDEAJ; “Hart,” UJE; Kagan, Contributions, 2–8; E. & L., Richmond, 140, 201; PAJHS, 2:151, 46:101 ff.; Korn, New Orleans, 327, n. 35.

56. Korn, New Orleans, 176 ff., 182, 318, n. 33, 336, n. 3; W. & W., Philadelphia, 480; B. & B., JOUS, 2:464 ff.

56. AJA, 23:198 ff.; R, nos. 185, 463; Kagan, Contributions, 2–3; R. & E., Charleston, 77, 86–88, 104–5, 144, 281, n. 70; PAJHS, 22:165, 27:398; Occ., 3:59–60; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 128, 141–42, 179–80, 206; “Myers, Levy (2),” “Sheftall, Moses,” BDEAJ; Harris, Columbia, 11.

57. Kagan, Contributions, 26–27; “Horowitz, Jonathan Phineas,” UJE; Md. Hist. Mag., 19:58–59; “Myers, Naphtali Hart,” BDEAJ; B. & B., JOUS, 2:606, n. 9; Wolf, Essays, 244–45. Diabetes: “Medicine,” EJ, 11:1185. Hart: PAJHS, 22:161–62; “Hart, Joel,” BDEAJ; PAJHS, 4:217, 22:162–63; “Abrahams, Isaac,” “Judah, Walter,” UJE, BDEAJ; Pool, Portraits, 268–70; AJA, 14:26 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 330, 482–83, nn. 40–44.

58. W. & W., Philadelphia, 325 ff., 480; Kagan, Contributions, 9, 484–85; Morais, Philadelphia, 416, 428; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 141–42, 241–42; R. & E., Charleston, 88–89, 281, n. 71.

59. “Phillips, Aaron J.,” “Phillips, Jonas,” “Phillips, Manuel,” “Phillips, Naphtali,” “Phillips, Zalegman,” BDEAJ; Stern, FAJF, 243; AJHQ, 67:101 ff., 108–9; W. & W., Philadelphia, 184–85, 413–14, 417.

60. For Barnard and Michael Gratz, see the Indices to Marcus, CAJ, and Marcus, EAJ; see also DAB and Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 7 ff., 256–304; East, Business Enterprise, 271, 316; E. & L., Richmond, 33 ff., for Myer Derkheim, and W. & W., Philadelphia, 331 ff., for D. G. Seixas as illustrations of vocational mobility.

61. Morais, Philadelphia, 271, 431–32; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 250 ff., 256–59; “Gratz, Benjamin,” “Gratz, Hyman,” “Gratz, Joseph,” “Gratz, Jacob,” “Gratz, Simon,” UJE; W. & W., Philadelphia, 177 ff., 339–41, 344–45, 355; Marcus, AJD, 81–83; B. & B., JOUS, 1:134–37; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Mrs. Ogden Hoffman, N.Y., Mar. 19, 1818, Gratz Papers, AJHSL; Will of Simon Gratz, Register of Wills, Orphan Court, Phila., probated in 1839.

62. Moses Gomez, Jr., N.Y., to the Trustees of S. I., N.Y., June 19, 1796, Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes.

63. B. & B., JOUS, 1:193; R. & E., Charleston, 51; Papers of James Madison, 9:256–57, n. 2, 298, 408, 10:52–53; Schappes, DHJUS, 92 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 174, 429, n. 33; Russell, Haym Salomon, 272–75.

64. Stern, FAJF, 29; Trachtenberg, Easton, 92 ff.; AJHQ, 67:121–24; Bayard Tuckerman (ed.), Diary of Philip Hone (N.Y., 1889), 2:98; B. & B., JOUS, 3:802; Isaac Franks, Ephrata, Pa., to Benjamin Rush, Phila., June 25, 1810(1818?), Library Company of Phila.; PAJHS, 10:98, 27:337; W. & W., Philadelphia, 174.

65. PAJHS, 21:2–3; E. & L., Richmond, 81, 83.

66. E. & L., Richmond, 80, 83; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 236–38; Appearance Docket, Court of Common Pleas, 1789–1794, Allegheny County Court House, Prothonotary Office; Whiteman, Hendricks, 45; Petition of Isaac Suares and Bernard Johnson, Charleston, to President Jefferson, Feb. 28, 1805, Bixby Collection, MOHSL; AJHQ, 66:315, 67:115–20, 250; Petition of Philip Lyon and Daniel Longstreet re the absconding broker Lazarus Barnet to the Pennsylvania State Assembly, Feb. 28, 1785, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission Library, copy in Marcus Collections; Glanz, Folklore, 107; Barrett, Old Merchants, 3(no. 2):45–49; Papers of Alexander Hamilton, 26:29–30, 32–33, 302–4, for Isaac Roget who collected insurance fraudulently; J. S. Levi & G. F. J. Bergman, Australian Genesis: Jewish Convicts and Settlers, 1788–1850 (Adelaide, Australia, 1974), 122 ff.

67. Rupp, He Pasa Ekklesia, 360; Schappes, DHJUS, 20–22; W. & W., Philadelphia, 173–75; “Charleston,” UJE, 3:116; AJHQ, 67:258.

68. Marcus, CAJ, 1:279, et passim; Taxlists: NYHS Collections (1912), 319–20, 322–23, 325–27, 337, 345, 358–59, 362, 369–70, 372; “Beach, Moses Yale,” DAB; Carman and Syrett, History, 488–89; Donald B. Cole, Handbook of American History (N.Y., 1968), 115. For the Hermanns and Judah Touro, see Korn, New Orleans; for Joseph Marx, Samuel Myers, and Slowey Hays, see E. & L., Richmond; for Ettings and Cohens, see UJE; for John Moss and the Gratzes, see W. & W., Philadelphia; for Moses M. Hays and Abraham Touro, see UJE; for the Simsons, Gomezes, Frankses, Isaac Moses, see Marcus, CAJ; for Benjamin Seixas, Simon Nathan, see BDEAJ; for the Hendrickses, see Whiteman, Hendricks; for the Marks brothers, see Barrett, Old Merchants; NYHSQ, 54:155 ff.; Moses Yale Beach, The Wealth … of New York, etc. (N.Y., 1855), 3, 33, 36, 37, 42; E. & L., Richmond, 92–93; W. & W., Philadelphia, 487, n. 49.

69. Meade, Judah P. Benjamin, 47 ff.; “Benjamin, Judah Philip,” EJ; Wills of Esther and Mordecai Sheftall, Abigail and Philip Minis, in Chatham County Court of Ordinary, copies in the AJAr; Sheftall Records in the Levy collection in Savannah; AJHQ, 53:148–49; B. & B., JOUS, 1:104–5; R. & E., Charleston, 70.

70. Elcan: Inventory and appraisal record in the Chancery Court of the City of Richmond; E. & L., Richmond, 335; 1788 manuscript taxlist in the Heth Collection of the University of Virginia Library; Morais, Philadelphia, 50–51, 447; W. & W., Philadelphia, 266, 350, 352, 461, n. 16, 490, n. 94; Leeser, Discourses, 2:399.

71. PAJHS, 34:11 ff.

72. Pool, Crosby Street Synagogue, 48 ff.; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, sub Mar. 21, 1838; “Friedsam, Michael,” UJE; Lewis, “Cincinnati Jewish Businessmen”; Jerome C. Rosenthal, “A Study of Jewish Businessmen in New York City as Reflected in the City Directories, 1776–1830,” (HUC term paper, 1977); Thomas J. Friedmann, “A Study of Jewish Businessmen in New Orleans as Reflected in the City Directories of 1811–1840,” (HUC term paper, 1977); Kraus, “Philadelphia Jewish Businessmen”; Beverly Hyman, “New York Jewish Businessmen, 1831–1835,” (HUC term paper, 1977); Markens, Hebrews, 21; Schappes, JIUS, 38.

73. “Elizer, Eleazer,” “Elizer, Isaac,” BDEAJ; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 128, 141, 172–204; Elizer, A Directory for 1803.

74. AJHQ, 67:104 ff., 123, 246 ff., 258–59; E. & L., Richmond, 133.

75. Michael, “Cincinnati,” 116; Brickner, “Cincinnati,” 254–55; Lewis, “Cincinnati Jewish Businessmen”; Wm. A. Greenebaum, “A Study of the Economic Activity of Cincinnati Jewry Prior to the Civil War,” (M.A. thesis, HUC, 1957); Morais, Philadelphia, 444 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 354–56; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” n. 89; Schappes, JIUS, 38; Kraus, “Philadelphia Jewish Businessmen.”

76. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 166, et passim.

77. Fish, Common Man, 71.

78. Marcus, AJD, 211, 213, 217–27; PAJHS, 2:83; “Simson, Sampson,” BDEAJ; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 194; Fein, Baltimore, 22.

79. Morais, Philadelphia, 444–47; W. & W., Philadelphia, 183; Marcus, EAJ, 2:428; Memorial of the 90th Birthday Anniversary of Jonas Friedenwald (Baltimore, 1891), 12.

80. Morais, Philadelphia, 445 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 2:535, et passim; W. & W., Philadelphia, 351 ff.

CHAPTER SIX

JUDAISM IN THE UNITED STATES: THE STRUCTURE 1776–1840

  1. Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 271–72; Journal of Lancaster County Historical Society, 80(no.4):230.

  2. SCHGM, 3:63; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 116; Ellis, Am. Catholicism, 44; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 52.

  3. Rodeph Shalom, Phila., Minutes, Mar. 22, 1840; Skirball, “Rodeph Shalom,” 40; Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 11–58, esp. 15 ff., 32; “Philadelphia,” JE, UJE, EJ; PAJHS, 9:123–27; W. & W., Philadelphia, 225–27; Morais, Philadelphia, 84–85.

  4. Harris, Columbia, 8–9; Michael, “Cincinnati,” 31; PAJHS, 8:43 ff., 10:97–99; Schappes, DHJUS, 177 ff.

  5. Elzas, Old Cemeteries, 104.

  6. Bloom, Amsterdam, 27; Hertz, Authorised Daily Prayer Book, 491; Stern on the Chatham Square Cemetery; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 56, et passim.

  7. Theo. J. Seixas, N.Y., to I. L., Phila., Oct. 18, 1826, Leeser Collection; B. & B., JOUS, 2:535 ff.; Pool, Old Faith, 436 ff., Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 45 ff.; PAJHS, 27:311, 398–99; Grinstein, New York City, 39 ff., 231, 472, 520; National Advocate, Dec. 5, 1825, article by “Homo”; Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 43–47.

  8. R, no. 443; Pool, Old Faith, 439–40; Grinstein, New York City, 49–53, 391–93, 472, 534, n. 30; Simon Cohen, Shaaray Tefila: A History of Its Hundred Years, 1845–1945 (N.Y., 1945), 3.

  9. Korn, New Orleans, 221–23; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:239 ff.; Aaron Solomon, N.O., to Mrs. J. Solis, Mt. Pleasant, N.Y., Feb. 7, 1830, copy in Marcus Collections; Gates of Mercy, New Orleans, Constitution, 16.

10. Mississippi Inventory, 3, 15; Markens, Hebrews, 309–10; “Louisiana,” EJ; Korn, New Orleans, 192–215, 221–23, 225–27, 240 ff., 248; AJHQ, 52:310–19; R, no. 302; Schappes, DHJUS, 179 ff., 610, n. 7; Louisiana Inventory, 2.

11. Ca. 1827 the Ettings resigned from M.I. of Philadelphia; Nitgy Israel, Baltimore, Constitution, 10; Guttmacher, Baltimore, 21–23; AJA, 28:119–25; R, no. 452.

12. PAJHS, 1:100–101; “Louisville,” EJ; Makovsky, The Philipsons; “St. Louis,” JE, UJE, EJ.

13. “Albany,” “Cleveland,” EJ; “Syracuse,” UJE, EJ; Rudolph, Syracuse, 1–2; Gartner Cleveland, 3, 7–10, 29–30; Peskin, Cleveland, 1–3, 7–9; Occ., 10:305–6.

14. Trachtenberg, Easton, 115–16, 129 ff., 319, n. 3.

15. Berman, Richmond, 135–40; Edward N. Calisch, The Light Burns On, 1841–1941 (Richmond, Va., 1941), 13–14; PAJHS, 4:23; “Richmond,” EJ.

16. Boston Jewish Advocate, Nov., 1939; Edgar E. Siskin and Rollin G. Osterweis (eds.), Centennial Volume: Congregation Mishkan Israel, New Haven, Connecticut, 1840–1940 (n.p., n.d.), 10–11; Osterweis, New Haven, 213; Silverman, Hartford Jews, 9; Heller, Isaac M. Wise, 244–45; Heller, As Yesterday When It is Past, 24–30; Brickner, “Cincinnati,” 35, 39–40.

17. Dolan, The Immigrant Church (Baltimore, 1975); B. & B., JOUS, 2:521, 652, n. 53; Ahlstrom, Religious History, 578; Grinstein, New York City, 472; Heller, As Yesterday When It is Past, 25; R. & E., Charleston, 118; Leeser, Claims, 83–84.

18. Gutstein, Newport, 198–99, 214–25; PAJHS, 27:189; “Newport,” JE, UJE, EJ.

19. “Savannah,” UJE, EJ; Occ., 1:249, 486–89; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, Sept. 20, 1795, June 6, 1832, July 13, 1838, Aug. 19, 1839, Aug. 3, 1840; Sussman, “Religious Life of Savannah,” 12; Hershman, “Mikveh Israel,” 20–21; Markens, Hebrews, 50–52; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, 1790–1843; Marcus, AJD, 172–81; Schappes, DHJUS, 77–78; B. & B., JOUS, 2:572–77; 3:686–90; PAJHS, 4:219–20, 20:21; R, no. 212.

20. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 116; Bloom, Amsterdam, 14–15.

21. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 120 ff., 287 ff., 292; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Constitution (1820) (1836); “Charleston,” “South Carolina,” UJE; Occ., 1:338–42, 385 ff., 434 ff., 492; AJA, 5:66; Marcus, EAJ, 2:274–75; Marcus, CAJ, 1:344–47, 2:884–87, 931, 1007; Barnett A. Elzas, Jewish Marriage Notices from the Newspaper Press of Charleston, S.C., 1775–1906 (N.Y., 1917), 19.

22. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 241 ff., 246–47, 282 ff.; Harris, Columbia, 8–11, 15; Berman, Richmond, 102–4; JSJHS, 1:9; “Norfolk,” EJ.

23. E. & L., Richmond, 32 ff., 236 ff., 239–41, 281–82; Marcus, AJD, 144–48; “Richmond,” EJ; PAJHS, 4:21 ff.; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; Berman, Richmond, 102–3.

24. Joseph Gratz, Phila., to J. I. Cohen, Jr., Baltimore, May 11, 1824, and Joseph Gratz, Phila., to Solomon Etting, Baltimore, May 11. 1824, Mikveh Israel, Phila., Correspondence; E. & L., Richmond, 31; Baltimore Jewish Times, June 28, 1974, the Aberbach articles; Stiffman, “Baltimore,” 36; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Managers Minutes, Jan. 14, 1827; Berman, Richmond, 27; Myron Berman, Richmond, to JRM, Sept. 18, 1978, re a shehitah book by Marcus Levy in possession of the Baltimore Cohens.

25. PAJHS, 27:461–62; Rosenbach, Philadelphia, 17–18, 22–23; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, 1782 (5543); “Philadelphia,” UJE, EJ; W. & W., Philadelphia, 114–24; Gratz College Annual of Jewish Studies, 2:43 ff.; Marcus, AJD, 104–5, 114 ff.; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser,” chap. 7.

26. B. & B., JOUS, 2:510 ff.; R, no. 147; W. & W., Philadelphia, 121–22; Morais, Philadelphia, 18–19; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, 1782–1840.

27. Pool, Mill Street Synagogue, 55; PAJHS, 27:252; Beth Elohim, Charleston Constitution (1820), 14; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Constitution (1836), 15.

28. Mikveh Israel, Phila., “Report of Treasurer of the Building Committee to the Parnas, 1822–24,” AJAr; see also Mikveh Israel, Phila., Managers Minutes, Mar. 6, 1825, for the report; Liebowitz, “Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia,” 9–12; Morais, Philadelphia, 43 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 228–29, 244 ff.; PAJHS, 31:181; R, no. 278; AJA, 27:216–19; Zimmerman, “Mikveh Israel,” 10–14; Niles Weekly, 23:275, Jan. 4, 1823; Dedication of the New Synagogue of the Congregation Mikveh Israel at Broad and York Streets on September 14, 1909 Elul 29 5669 (Phila., 1909), 17, 24; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to B. Gratz, Lexington, Feb. 27, 1825, copy in AJAr; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustee Minutes, Mar. 27, 1825; Occ. 13:60. Under Leeser a member of the congregation began publishing Jewish liturgical music for the first time in the U.S. Karff, “Mikveh Israel”; Fox, “Mikveh Israel,” 9–10, 13–14.

29. Marcus, AJD, 144–46, 148 ff., 150; Pool, Old Faith, 262 ff.

30. Pool, Mill Street Synagogue, 67.

31. Marcus, CAJ, 2:869; PAJHS, 6:131, 27:134 ff.; Marcus, AJD, 148; B. & B., JOUS, 2:517–18; Morison, History, 293; Stokes, Church and State, 1:861; Stern, AJD, 190; Pool, Mill Street Synagogue, 59; Whiteman, Hendricks, 147.

32. Pool, Portraits, 428 ff.; Stern, FAJF, 265; R, nos. 134, 382, 395; PAJHS, 21:xxiii–xxiv, 196–210, 27:134 ff., 37:203 ff.; Pool, Old Faith, 170–80; Jerusalmi, “Shearith Israel,” 1–3; New York State Act: passed Apr. 6, 1784, as cited in Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, 1784; Grinstein, New York City, 39; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Constitutions, 1805, 1835; Report of the Proceedings in the Case of Mrs. Anne Seixas (N.Y., 1823), Aug. 12, 1823 (Mrs. Seixas’s pension was to run till 1827 though the report was in 1823); Pool, Crosby Street Synagogue, 22 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 73–74, 83, 129–30.

33. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 132, n.2, 288; Trachtenberg, Easton, 129, 131; see Shearith Israel, N.Y., Constitution, 1805, Art. 10; Skirball, “Rodeph Shalom,” 26; Pool, Mill Street Synagogue, 57 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 118; Pool, Crosby Street Synagogue, 32–33; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, May 10, 1840.

34. Pool, Portraits, vii, 509; Devine, “Sephardic Jews,” 122; R, no. 291; Fein, Baltimore, 19–23.

35. Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Feb. 9, Aug. 29, 1836, June 2, 1839; Korn, New Orleans, 196–97; E. & L., Richmond, 281–84; Fein, Baltimore, 54; Blum, Baltimore, 4; Md. Hist. Mag., 15:9–10. Cemeteries: Devine, “Sephardic Jews,” 122; Trachtenberg, Easton, 79–80; PAJHS, 8:54–55; Marcus, CAJ, 2:872, 888–89; Korn, New Orleans, 203–5; “Savannah,” EJ; Elzas, Old Cemeteries, 103–4; R. & E., Charleston, 152–53, 301, n. 208; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 35, 293; Grinstein, New York City, 66, 313 ff. Burial of intermarried: Beth Elohim, Charleston, Constitution (1836), 16–17; Gates of Mercy, New Orleans, Constitution, 12; Marcus, AJD, 122, 128 ff., 139–41; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Constitution (1824); Mikveh Israel, Phila., Constitution (1841); Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, 1776–1840; Beth Shalome, Richmond, Resolution (before 1818); W. & W., Philadelphia, 24–25; R, no. 169; Bloom, “Mikveh Israel”; Berman, “Mikveh Israel”; Rules and Regulations of the Congregation K.K. Mikveh Israel, Phila., 1813, copy in AJAr; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes; Hershman, “Mikveh Israel,” 7, 14, 16; Sussman, “Religious Life of Savannah,” 9, 17; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, 1782–1840; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Constitution (1805); B. & B., JOUS, 2:517; PAJHS, 6:131–32, 27:270 ff., 42–430; Channing, History, 5:208; Nitgy Israel, Baltimore, Constitution; Guttmacher, Baltimore, 20, 21; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Auszug, 1839; Margolis, “Shearith Israel”; Pool, Old Faith, 178, 305; S.F. Chyet, “Early Nineteenth Century American Jewry as Reflected in the Minute Book of Congregation Mikve Israel, Philadelphia, 1796–1811,” (HUC term paper, 1956); Beth Shalome, Richmond, Constitution; E. & L., Richmond 281–85; SCHGM, 27:223–24; Elzas, Beth Elohim; Fox, “Mikveh Israel,” 6–7.

36. Pool, Portraits, 83–104.

37. This was the case of The State vs. Solomon Moses; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 154–55, 246, 282 ff.; Elzas, Beth Elohim; Tobias, Hebrew Benevolent Society, 2, 4–8; PAJHS, 42:431; Pool, Portraits, 93–104; W. & W. Philadelphia, 266–70; Saul Jacob Rubin, Third to None: The Saga of Savannah Jewry (Savannah, 1983), 5, 38, 46, 59, 188; Richmond also had an Ezrat Orechim; Pool, Old Faith, 263, 268, 352–53, 354–57; Grinstein, New York City, 313 ff.; Jerusalmi, “Shearith Israel,” 10–11; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, 1782–1840; Md. Hist. Mag., 18:369; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, 1790 and on; Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 6, 13, 14–15, 20, 28–29; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 78; PAJHS, 6:131–32, 42:431; R, no. 291; “Cemeteries,” “Philadelphia,” EJ; Fein, Baltimore, 19–20; Guttmacher, Baltimore, 24–25; W. & W., Philadelphia, 261; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 246, 282 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 302; Harris, Columbia, 7–8, 15; Elzas, Old Cemeteries, 3–4, 103–4; Goodman, “Spruce Street Cemetery.”

38. PAJHS, 21:1.

39. Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, June 6, 1836. A reference to an Inlag (Einlage?) Book; Guttmacher, Baltimore, 26–27; New York, 1805: R, no. 134; see also R, nos. 169, 246, 256, 262, 270, 272, 302, 307, 316, 357, 395, 401, 403, 423, 443; W. & W., Philadelphia, 229, 447, n. 28; Skirball, “Rodeph Shalom,” 9–17; Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 15 ff.; Marcus, AJD, 144–46; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Constitution (1820), 17–18.

40. Trachtenberg, Easton, 131; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, Rule 15, July 25, 1791; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Managers Minutes, Sept. 10, 1826; “Bavaria,” JE; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, May 26, June 26, Sept. 25, Oct. 22, Nov. 19, Dec. 24, 1836, May 21, 1837, July 8, Aug. 26, 1838; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Constitution (1820) (1836).

41. Marcus, AJD, 144–46; Liebowitz, “Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia,” 20–21; Anshe Chesed, N. Y., Auszug, 27 ff.; Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 35; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Constitution(1824).

42. Marcus, AJD, 139–40; Liebowitz, “Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia,” 16; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Constitutions(1820) (1836); Skirball, “Rodeph Shalom,” 11–13; R, no. 265; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Constitution (1824).

43. Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 15, 17, 26, 31–32; W. & W., Philadelphia, 251–52; AJA, 27:119–20; for a collector see Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Oct. 13, 1836; “Abrahams, Abraham Isaac,” “Derkheim, Myer,” “Jacob(s), Barnard Itzhak,” BDEAJ; E. & L., Richmond, 32–34; PAJHS, 19:90, 27:150–56, 348–49, 35:195; G. Seixas, N.Y., to his children, Richmond, Mar. 22, 1813, Marcus LB, 800–801, no. 120; Elzas, Beth Elohim, 3; Pool, Old Faith, 249; Marcus, CAJ, 1:327, 330, 2:938, 965, 985–88.

44. Pool, Old Faith, 46, 94.

45. Devine, “Sephardic Jews,” 78; W. & W., Philadelphia, 255; Liebowitz, “Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia,” 24–25; R. & E., Charleston, 245–46.

46. Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Maria G. Gratz, Lexington, Aug. 9, 1831, copy in AJAr; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Mar. 19, 1836, Apr. 7, 1838; G. Seixas, N.Y., to Electors of S.I., Nov. 22, 1801, Marcus LB, 946–48, no. 136. Seixas Salary: Pool, Portraits, 349–50, 354, 356–57; PAJHS, 27:135–37; W. & W., Philadelphia, 244–48, 452, n. 4; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Constitution (1824); Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 412–15, 417, 426–29; Pool, Old Faith, 168, 171–72; Marcus LB, 802.

47. W. & W., Philadelphia, 242, 453, n. 4; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Constitution (1836), 10; Skirball, “Rodeph Shalom,” 25.

48. Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 18; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 77 ff.

49. Moses, Oration, 26–27; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 132, n. 2.

50. Liebowitz, “Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia,” 18, 22; Beth Shalome, Richmond, Resolution (before 1818); Fox, “Mikveh Israel,” 5–8; “D’Israeli, Benjamin, Earl of Beaconsfield,” “D’Israeli, Isaac,” JE; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 289; Elzas, Beth Elohim, 3; Guttmacher, Baltimore, 25; R. & E., Charleston, 245; Grinstein, New York City, 481–83.

51. AJYB, 40:66.

52. PAJHS, 27:185 ff.; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 52; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; R, nos. 284, 411, 418, 636; Pool, Portraits, 358–59; Schappes, DHJUS, 155; Berman, Richmond, 103; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Resolutions, Jan. 9, Mar. 27, 1825; Occ., 1:143–44.

53. Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 72–76; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Ben Gratz, Lexington, Ky., Feb. 27, 1825, copy in AJAr; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, July 28, 1839; W. & W., Philadelphia, 125, 234, 257; B. & B., JOUS, 2:576–82; PAJHS, 1:18.

54. PAJHS, 21:143, 217; Goodman, “Spruce Street Cemetery,” 68; “Gratz,” “Gratz College,” JE; Marcus, AJD, 114–20, 128–30; “Mordecai, Mordecai M.,” “Nathan, Moses(1),” BDEAJ; W. & W., Philadelphia, 127–31, 258, 261, 460, n.131; Curti et al., American History, 1:392.

55. Grinstein, New York City, 286; “Etting, Samuel,” “Etting, Henry,” BDEAJ; B. & B., JOUS, 2:588; for the Ettings, see Marcus LB, 875–76.

56. “Levirate Marriage,” JE; Devine, “Sephardic Jews,” 98–99; Marcus, AJD, 134 ff.; PAJHS, 2:69–70, 27:172–73, 239.

57. Berman, Richmond, 103; Sheftall Sheftall, Phila., to Mordecai Sheftall, Savannah, Apr. 6, 1792, Marcus LB, 689, no. 96; Gutstein, Newport, 103; George Champlin Mason, Reminiscences of Newport (Newport, 1884), 55; Samuel Mordecai, Richmond, to Rachel Mordecai, Warrenton, N.C., Sept. 16, 1805, Marcus LB, 774, no. 113.

58. “Dietary Laws,” JE, UJE; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 43; R. Gratz, Phila., to Miriam Moses Cohen, Savannah, July 31, 1836, Gratz Papers, Univ. of N.C.

59. Grinstein, New York City, 140–41, 300.

60. Marcus, CAJ, 2:938, 986; “Etting, Solomon(1),” “Hart, Ephraim,” Sheftall, Mordecai(1),” BDEAJ; PAJHS, 21:164, 25:31–62, 27:327–28, 399; Pool, Old Faith, 239 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:524–28, 652–53, nn. 62–63; Trachtenberg, Easton, 75; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 43; Markens, Hebrews, 31–32; W. & W., Philadelphia, 125, 416, n. 54; Isaac Moses Receipt Book for Apr. 22, 1785–July 23, 1787, payment to A. Van Ottingen, for killing poultry for Moses, May 1, 1785, AJHSL; Berman, Shehitah, 287 ff.; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, 20th of Nissan 5569 (Apr. 1809), 190 ff.

61. Aguilar, Spirit of Judaism, Preface; B. & B., JOUS, 3:955.

62. Duschinsky, Rabbinate of the Great Synagogue, 133; Grinstein, New York City, 266–67; R. & E., Charleston, 290, n. 134; Marcus, AJW, 56; Marcus, AJWD, 133–34; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:172–73; B. & B., JOUS, 1:199–201, 2:524–32, 3:872–74; AJA, 6:93–94; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 50, 83 ff.; PAJHS, 27:104, 239, 344; Henry Etting, Washington, D. C., to Benjamin Etting, Phila., Jan. 8, 1826, Etting Correspondence, HSP; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 154; W. & W., Philadelphia, 125, 139–41; Devine, “Sephardic Jews,” 121; Marcus, CAJ, 2:877; Marcus, AJD, 140–41; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 43; 1782 prayer for George Washington and the Continental Congress by Seixas in Memorable Documents in American Jewish History (AJHS, N.Y., 1946), 7; Marcus Festschrift, 540.

63. William Warren Sweet, Religion on the American Frontier, 1783–1840: The Methodists (Chicago, 1946), 4:728–30.

64. Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 81 ff.; E. Lyte, N.Y., to Abraham Pinto, N.Y., Feb. 2, 1796 Marcus LB, 730–32, no. 104; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, Apr. 30, 1832; “Hart, Emanuel Bernard,” Biographical Directory of the American Congress. Pollack: Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, Aug. 25, Sept. 1, 1793; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, 1783; B. & B., JOUS, 2:522–23; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 418–19; PAJHS, 21:157 ff.

65. B. & B., JOUS, 2:516, 520–23; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, Sept. 3, 1792, 1782–85, 1792–93; PAJHS, 21:163, 27:129–30; 185 ff., 35:198–99; Grinstein, New York City, 272–75; Pool, Portraits, 257–58; Gershom Cohen, Charleston, to Mordecai Sheftall, Savannah, Aug. 29, 1791, in Marcus, AJD, 183; Leeser, Discourses, 4:233; Krout and Fox, Completion of Independence, 32; Albert M. Hyamson, The Sephardim of England (London, 1951), 256–57; W. & W., Philadelphia, 370–71; Hershman, “Mikveh Israel,” 9; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 81 ff.; Parzen, Architects, 11; Jerusalmi, “Shearith Israel,” 6–8; Beth Shalome, Richmond, Constitution; Marcus, AJD, 152, 158–60; Tradition (Fall, 1976):18.

66. AJHQ, 53:345; Ahlstrom, Religious History, 365; Grinstein, New York City, 343–44.

67. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:247; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Correspondence, 1782–1790; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, Apr. 28, May 21, Sept. 1, 1793, Sept. 17, 1827; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Resolutions, Sept. 16, 1827; B. & B., JOUS, 2:517 ff., 546 ff., 3:549–52, 669; W. & W., Philadelphia, 132, 224, 257, 418, n.88; Grinstein, New York City, 268; Leeser, Discourses, 1:342, 2:400, 402, 9:82–88, 91, 229, 250; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, Feb. 9, 1809; Bloom, “Mikveh Israel,” 7; PAJHS, 27:185 ff.; Hudson, Religion in America, 131–32; Hudson, Am. Prot., 75, 85; Sweet, Religion in Colonial America, 7, 311, 322 ff.; Marcus, AJD, 166; R. & E., Charleston, 118; “Religious Liberty,” DAH (1976–1978); Curti, American Thought, 199–204.

68. Marcus, AJD, 180; Leeser, Discourses, 1:90, 162, 199, 366; Hershman, “Mikveh Israel,” 3, 5–6; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, Oct. 2. 1791, Mar. 11, 1792; PAJHS, 21:157 ff.; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, Aug. 11, 1809, re Lyon Jonas; “Jonas, Lyon,” BDEAJ.

69. Marcus, CAJ, 2:996–97; Marcus, Jew in the Medieval World, 69, 72–73; Reinah Judah, Charleston, to I.L., Nov. 14, 1831, Leeser Papers in Marcus Collections; B. & B., JOUS, 2:652–53; Pool, Old Faith, 241–46; Berman, Shehitah, 274 ff.

70. Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, Sept. 17, 1793; Hebrew Society for the Visitation of the Sick and Mutual Assistance(1813), Article 2, Section 3, Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes. Ezekiel Solomons of Canada and circumcision: Marcus, CAJ, 2:984–85, 3:1226; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, Hirschell Report, 328 ff.; Etting story, Marcus LB, 1011–19 (1834–35); I.L., Phila., to Lewis Allen, Phila., Mikveh Israel, Phila., Correspondence, Elul 27, 5595 (Sept. 21, 1835), Marcus LB, 1017–19, no. 145c.

71. Fein, Baltimore, 43, 73; B. & B., JOUS, 1:xxvi–xxvii,2:588–89; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 18, 29–31, 44; Skirball, “Rodeph Shalom,” 28–33; Schappes, DHJUS, 138, 179–81; Leeser, Discourses, 2:1–17; Nitgy Israel, Baltimore, Constitution; Stern, AJD, sub “Lyons IV,” 183; Marcus, AJD, 187 ff.; Liebowitz, “Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia,” 38–39; AJHQ, 67:257; cf. Ezra, chap. 10. Mordecai: Berman, Richmond, 109, 111–19; Duschinsky, Rabbinate of the Great Synagogue, 120, n. 130; Constitution and By-Laws, United Hebrew Beneficent Society, June 16, 1822 (Phila., 1829), Article VII, Section 2.

72. Leeser, Discourses, 1:14–25, 349, 396–97, 2:1–17, 74, 161–82, especially p. 168, 232–53, especially p. 251; W. & W., Philadelphia, 131; Grinstein, New York City, 372–81; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Miriam G. Cohen, Savannah, Apr. 29, 1839, Marcus LB, 1036–37, no. 147. J.R. Cohen and the widow: W. & W., Philadelphia, 126 ff.; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, for 1782; Marcus, AJD, 52–53, 138 ff.

73. Slowey Hays, Richmond, to Rebecca Gratz, Phila., Oct. 19, 1832, Bortman-Larus Collection. Petersburg: Marcus, AJD, 51 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 187 ff.; Leeser, Discourses, 1:396–98, 3:164–66; Berk, History of the Jews, 302; T. Seixas, N.Y., to I.L., Oct. 27, 1833, Leeser Papers in Marcus Collections; Mrs. Benjamin I. Cohen(?), Baltimore, to her daughter, June 25, 1840, Marcus LB, 940–42, no. 135.

74. Berman, Richmond, 99, 117–19; B. & B., JOUS, 2:502–5; PAJHS, 27:158–59; Marcus, Studies, 121 ff.

75. Shearith Israel, N.Y., Constitutions, (1790) (1805); Marcus, AJD, 148–67; B. & B., JOUS, 2:517–21; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Constitution (1820); Grinstein, New York City, 298; Devine, “Sephardic Jews,” 133; Bloom, “Mikveh Israel”; PAJHS, 21:158–59; Liebowitz, “Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia,” 38.

CHAPTER SEVEN

JUDAISM IN THE UNITED STATES: LEADERSHIP 1776–1840

  1. Korn, New Orleans, 233; Schappes, DHJUS, 603, n. 1; “Motta, Jacob de la(2),” BDEAJ; R. & E., Charleston, 86–88, 144, 284, n. 93, 295–96, n. 175, 301.

  2. Berman, Richmond, 36 ff., 47; Stern, FAJF, 217; E. & L., Richmond, 17 ff., 60–62; Richmond News Leader, Sept. 15, 1922; “Mordecai, Jacob,” “Kursheedt, Israel Baer,” BDEAJ.

  3. Bartlett, Familiar Quotations, (13th ed., Boston, 1955), 1012a. Dyer: Fein, Baltimore, 47–48; Guttmacher, Baltimore, 27 ff.; Stern, FAJF, 62; PAJHS, 2:148–49; Dyer Papers in AJAr.

  4. Rosenbach, Dedication of the New Synagogue of the Congregation Mikve Israel, etc. (Phila., 1909), 25; Pool, Old Faith, 502–3.

  5. Duschinsky, Rabbinate of the Great Synagogue, 95; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 92–93; Fein, Baltimore, 54 ff., et passim; Guttmacher, Baltimore, 27.

  6. Korn, New Orleans, 195–96, 197, 199–209, 214–15, 237, 240–45; Marcus, AJD, 67–68; Powell, Bring Out Your Dead, 104–5; Pool, Portraits, 430 ff.

  7. R, no. 181.

  8. Markens, Hebrews, 279–80; Menorah Journal, 24:278–88; Carvalho, Seixas; PAJHS, 27:463–64, 35:189 ff.; R, nos. 176, 181; B. & B., JOUS, 1:294–95, n. 90; W. & W., Philadelphia, 249 ff.; Goldberg, Major Noah, 51–53; Morais, Philadelphia, 43; G. Seixas, N.Y., to Sarah Kursheedt, Richmond, May 24, 1815, AJHSL.

  9. “Hart,” UJE, 5:224; Marcus, EAJ, 2:157.

10. Pool, Portraits, 360 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 229; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 409 ff.; Marcus, AJD, 189; G. Seixas, Phila., to Hayman Levy, N.Y., Dec. 21, 1783, in Marcus, EAJ, 1:96–98; Seixas, N.Y., to Electors of S.I., Nov. 22, 1801, Marcus LB, 946–48, no. 136; PAJHS, 27:130 ff., 35:190, 197, 203–4 for the letter of Jan. 23, 1814.

11. PAJHS, 21:146, 27:129–30; PAJHS, 21:148; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 431.

12. Carvalho, Seixas.

13. Jacob Mordecai, Richmond, to M.I., Phila., June 15, 1824, in W. & W., Philadelphia, 455, n. 57; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 409 ff.; AJHQ, 58:445 ff.; Carvalho, Seixas, 17; PAJHS, 27:129 ff; R, nos. 181, 185, 187; Grinstein, New York City, 84–88; Finkelstein, The Jews (1960), 490–91, 493.

14. Leeser, Discourses, 1:iii.

15. David H. Solis, Phila., to I.L., Phila., Mar. 7, 1837, Emily Solis-Cohen Collection in Marcus Collections. The Cohen Collection no doubt was originally part of the Leeser Collection; Stern, FAJF, 153; E. & L., Richmond, 38–39, 54–56; Bevis Marks correspondence with Philadelphia, Dec. 29, 1828, copy in Marcus Collections; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 17; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 108–9, 193; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; W. & W., Philadelphia, 372–73; Jacob Mordecai, Richmond, to Raphael de Cordova, Phila., June 10, 1829, Leeser Papers in Marcus Collections; Raphael de Cordova, Phila., to I.L., Richmond, June 29, 1829, Marcus LB, 1000, n.145a; Occ., 1:258, 2:463, 10:21 ff., 11:355, 25:593 ff.; AJA 21:140 ff.; M. & M., History, 650; Adler, Cat. of Leeser Library; I.L., Richmond, to Abraham Sutro, Westphalia, May 15, 1825, copy in the Leeser Papers in Marcus Collections; Leeser, Discourses, 2:385–88; I.L., Phila., to Dr. Joshua I. Cohen, Baltimore, Feb. 22, 1864, Leeser Papers in the Emily Solis-Cohen Collection in Marcus Collections; JM, Apr. 3, 1868; CCARYB, 28:213–52; Bennett, “Isaac Leeser,” 10 ff., 28 ff., 179, Appendix A; Leeser, Jews and the Mosaic Law, v–vi.

16. Jung, Guardians, 252–53; Berman, “Mikveh Israel”; I.L. to M.I., Aug. 25, 1831, copy in Leeser Papers in Marcus Collections; Occ., 7:376–77, 567 ff., 9:105 ff., 110, 10:21 ff., 16:46 ff.; I.L. to Uncle Zalma, Baltimore, Ab 28, 5597 (Aug. 1837), Zalma Rehine, Baltimore to I.L., Apr. 21, 1836, I.L. to M.I., Phila., May 15, 1840, I.L. to M.N. Nathan, N.O., Mar. 1, 1850, copies in Marcus Collections; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; I.L. to Uncle Zalma, Cheschwan 28th, 5597 (Nov. 1836), copy in Marcus Collections; Zimmerman, “Mikveh Israel,” 14; H. Shapiro, “Was Isaac Leeser an Orthodox Jew, a Modern Orthodox Jew, or a Conservative Jew?,” (HUC term paper, 1966); Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 37–38; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Maria G. Gratz, Lexington, Ky., Apr. 18, 1830, AJHS; Leeser, Discourses, 3:76; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Managers Minutes, Oct. 21, 1849, Sept. 24, 1850, Apr. 14, June 8, 1851; Review of the Late Controversies: R. no. 681; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, May 13, 1849, Mar. 24, Apr. 28, 1850; A Review of “The Reviewof the Late Controversy Between the Rev. Isaac Leeser and the Philadelphia Congregation, “Mickve Israel,” by An Israelite (N.Y., 1850): R, no. 682; Bennett, “Isaac Leeser,” 168 ff.; Kohler, Simon Wolf Addresses, 97 ff.; Leeser, Form of Prayers, Preface; Liebowitz, “Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia,” 30–32.

17. Hudson, Am. Prot., 90–96; Krout and Fox, Completion of Independence, chap. 10.

18. Sweet, Story of Religion in America, chap. 1; Koch, Republican Religion, 205 ff., 292, 297; Ahlstrom, Religious History, 364–80, 387, 416, 513, 637–38; Hudson, Am. Prot., vi, 81–83; Hudson, Religion in America, 131–57, 173 ff.; D. Runes, The Dictionary of Philosophy (N.Y., n.d.), “Transcendentalism”; Curti, American Thought, 185–204; Cohen, Elements of the Jewish Faith, 7; Leeser, Instruction in the Mosaic Religion, 13.

19. “Theology,” JE.

20. Hertz, Authorised Daily Prayer Book, 254; References for messianic name: Isa. 11:12, Dispersed of Judah; see Marcus, CAJ, 2:868–69, 877; R, no. 97.

21. Ahlstrom, Religious History, 575 ff.; Stiles, Diary, 1:19, 42; PAJHS, 27:34–37, 129, 26:127 ff., 35:203–4; R, nos. 97, 98, 99, 106, 107, 110, 113, 174, 206, 352; Marcus, AJD, 147; Roth, History of the Jews in England, 243, 287–88; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 130, n. 22; Seixas, Discourse (1798); Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 447–62; Zion, 15:105–34, English summary ix–x; Raphael Mahler, A History of Modern Jewry (London, 1971), 12–14; Noah, Discourse (1818); Leeser, Instruction in the Mosaic Religion, 94; Leeser, Discourses, 1:251–60, 2:253 ff., 7:395–96; Grinstein, New York City, 443 ff.; Bennett, “Isaac Leeser,” 44–45; Seller, “Isaac Leeser,” chaps. 4–5.

22. Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; Leeser, Catechism, 30, 33 ff.; Leeser, Discourses, 1:312–14, 324, 353–54, 3:291, 7:250, 9:95; PAJHS, 20:158; Curti, American Thought, 206; James M. Bennett, “A Study of the Mind of Isaac Leeser as Reflected in his Published Discourses, Volumes VII–VIII, 1847–1850,” (HUC term paper, 1981), 11; Seller, “Isaac Leeser,” chap. 3.

23. CCARYB, 28:244–46; Leeser, Holy Scriptures, Preface.

24. Leeser, Discourses, 2:51, 7:173, 9:120–21, 218–20; Bennett, “Isaac Leeser,” 44; Mendelssohn, Jerusalem, xviii.

25. Leeser, Discourses, 1:261, 9:73 ff.; Seller, “Isaac Leeser,” chap. 5, 116 ff.; CCARYB, 28:246; Occ., 25:1–13; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser.”

26. Cohen, Elements of the Jewish Faith, 7; CCARYB, 28:227; Occ., 1:524–25; Leeser, Discourses, 2:385 ff., 3:301 ff., 9:1 ff.; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 246–47; Leeser, Catechism; Leeser, Jews and the Mosaic Law, Part 2, 225 ff.; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 464–66; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 141–44; Theodore S. Levy, “The Place of Isaac Leeser in American Life” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1951), 62 ff. References for Leeser’s theology: CCARYB, 28:244–47; Bennett, “Isaac Leeser,” 28 ff., 40–42; Leeser, Discourses, 1:v–vi, 1 ff., 48–49, 54, 63–83, 118, 129, 266, 312, 355–56, 409, 2:iii; Rupp, He Pasa Ekklesia, 350 ff., 362 ff.; Abrahams, Hebraic Bookland, 259; Leeser, Holy Scriptures, iv, v–vi; Pomerantz, “Analysis of Claims; Samuel N. Gordon, “The Mind of Isaac Leeser,” (HUC term paper, 1977); B. & B., JOUS, 2:578 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” lxxx, n. 637; Judea Miller, “The Philosophy, Theology, and Ideals of an Early American Preacher as Reflected in the Discourses of Isaac Leeser, Volumes I and II,” (HUC term paper, 1956); Occ., 23:162–63, 25:10–13.

27. Mendelssohn, Jerusalem, xvii.

28. Leeser, Instruction in the Mosaic Religion, 80–85, 104; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; “Sutro, Abraham,” JE, JL; A Review of the late Controversies; Leeser, Discourses, 3:135–37, 6:43, 82. 9:73 ff.; Conservative Judaism, 23:67–75; Bennett, “Isaac Leeser,” 178; “Lichtenstein, Hillel,” “Johlson, Joseph,” JE; “Johlson, Josef,” JL.

29. Marcus, Memoirs, 2:58–87; Seller, “Isaac Leeser,” chap. 5; Channing, History, 5:222; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, chap. 16; CCARYB, 28:230; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; Sanford Seltzer, “Theology of Isaac Leeser as Imparted to the Children of the First Half of the 19th Century,” (HUC term paper, n.d.); Occ., 1:410–12; Leeser, Discourses, 2:365–66, 3:322; I.L. to M.I., Mar. 31, 1833, copy in Marcus Collections.

30. Marcus, Israel Jacobson, 57, 61; Leopold Zunz, Die Gottesdienstlichen Vortraege (Berlin, 1832), preface; “Homiletics,” JE; Hyamson, Jews in England, 241; Berman, Richmond, 101; Samuel Mordecai, A Discourse Delivered at the Synagogue in Richmond on the First day of January, 1812, a Day Devoted to Humiliation & Prayer, in consequence of the loss of many Valuable Lives, Caused by the Burning of the Theatre, on the 26th of December, 1811 (Richmond, 1812); Moïse, Isaac Harby, 34; R. & E., Charleston, 123; “Bernays, Isaac,” JE, UJE, EJ.

31. Leeser, Discourses, 3:v ff.; Mendelssohn, Jerusalem, xiii–xiv.

32. Louis Bernstein, “The Emergence of the English Speaking Orthodox Rabbinate” (Ph.D. diss., Yeshiva U., 1977), 4–6; Mendelssohn, Jerusalem, xiv; W. & W., Philadelphia, 292; Grinstein, New York City, 86–89, 269–70, 543, n. 13; B. & B., JOUS, 2:543, 566–71, 661, n. 169; PAJHS, 21:221, 223, 27:342, 48:213, n. 34; R, nos. 39, 80, 118, 181, 185, 187, 199, 212; “Leeser, Isaac,” JE; Hyamson, Jews in England, 241, 254–56; Leeser, Discourses, 1:1–2; Lance Sussman, “Another Look at Isaac Leeser and the First Jewish Translation of the Bible in the U.S.,” (paper delivered at HUC, Mar. 1984), p. 9, copy in Marcus Collections; Review of the Late Controversies, 15; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; Joseph L. Blau, Judaism in America (Chicago, 1976), 37–38; I.L. to Congregation, Aug. 28, 1842, copy in Marcus Collections; R. & E., Charleston, 123, 139–42, 144, 295–96, n. 175; Mendes Cohen, Baltimore, to I.L., July 22, 1849, AJAr; Occ., 13:401; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:87; Rosa Mordecai, “Necrology on Isaac Leeser,” typescript, Feb. 4, 1868, copy in Marcus Collections.

33. Seller, “Isaac Leeser,” chap. 6; Occ., 7:525; Leeser, Jews and the Mosaic Law, Part 2, 211 ff.; Arnold Sher, “The Theology and Polemics of Isaac Leeser as Reflected in his Book Jews and the Mosaic Law,” (HUC term paper, 1961); Leeser, Discourses, 1:153–54, 2:253–372, 5:393, 6:219, 7:250, 9:168, 10:86–87; EIAJH, 295–323; Sheldon Gordon, “Isaac Leeser as an Apologist for Jewry,” (HUC term paper, 1957); Pomerantz, “Analysis of Claims”; Leeser, Claims, 4, 20, 22 ff., 26, 33, 36 ff., 48, 50–51, 52 ff., 64–67, 73 ff., 78–83, 90–91, 99; Rupp, He Pasa Ekklesia, 350 ff., 357.

34. Occ., 2:411.

35. Stern, FAJF, 242; Levine, Am. Jew. Bibliography, 63, no. 639.

36. Aguilar, Spirit of Judaism, Preface; R, no. 488 (1842). There was a second edition, 1849.

37. Sweet, American Culture, 184.

38. Mocatta, Inquisition, v–xv; also a Reply to the Sermon by Carlos Vero (Phila., 1860); TJHSE, 12:52 ff.

39. Sarah Harris, Thoughts Suggested by Biblical Texts Addressed to My Children, ed. by I. Leeser (Phila., 5621) 3–4; Seller, “Isaac Leeser,” chap. 3, v; [Ennery] Imre Lev, Preface (1864).

40. Mendelssohn, Jerusalem, xiii, xv; Leeser, Instruction in the Mosaic Religion; Leeser, Jews and the Mosaic Law; Levine, Am. Jew. Bibliography, nos. 8, 25, 49, 54, 63, 64, 201, 237, 275, 276, 283, 373, 639; R, nos. 411, 428, 446, 488, 541, 625, 636, 650, 661, 683; “Schwarz, Joseph,” JE; CCARYB, 28:221; Joseph Schwarz, A Descriptive Geography and Brief Historical Sketch of Palestine (English trans., Phila., 1850), preface v–ix; Wise, Reminiscences, 57; Roth, Bibliotheca, 230, no. 159, 257, nos. 7–8; Bennett, “Isaac Leeser,” 192; “Ennery, Jonas,” JE; Mocatta, Inquisition; [Ennery] Imre Lev, Preface (1864); Markens, Hebrews, 292–93; Leeser, Instruction in the Mosaic Religion, v–viii; Leeser, Jews and the Mosaic Law, viii; Leeser, Hebrew Reader, Preface; Leeser, Catechism, dedication page; PAJHS, 48:214; Wiernik, History, 172; Jung, Guardians, 247 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 196; Curti, American Thought, 216; EIAJH, 295 ff.; Leeser, Holy Scriptures, iii–iv, v–vi; Channing, History, 5:227; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, 366–68; Abrahams, Hebraic Bookland, 254–59; Leeser, Discourses, 1:x, xii; Aguilar, Jewish Faith, Preface, v–vi.

41. Mendelssohn, Jerusalem, xii; Leeser, Instruction in the Mosaic Religion, 94–96; CCARYB, 28:231–32; Occ., 1:532, 2:412, 23:258 ff., 24:293; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; Seller, “Isaac Leeser,” chap. 3.

42. Morais, Philadelphia, 155; Leeser, Discourses, 9:2–3, 12, 14–15.

43. Seller, “Isaac Leeser,” chap. 5.

44. Occ., 25:593 ff.; AJA, 19:127 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 145 ff.; Morais, Eminent Israelites, 195 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 46 ff., 154; Jonathan V. Plaut, “Isaac Leeser and The Occident” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1970); Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; E. & L., Richmond, 54–56; W. & W., Philadelphia, 373; Leeser, Discourses, l:vii, 1–2, 3:164; “Leeser, Isaac,” JE, UJE, EJ; CCARYB, 28:213 ff.; JM, Feb. 21, 1868; Kohler, Simon Wolf Addresses, 97 ff.; “Philadelphia,” EJ; Jung, Guardians, 250, 253–54; M. & M., History, 650; Elbogen, Cent. of Jewish Life, 122–23; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:58–59; Markens, Hebrews, 291–93; Wiernik, History, 171–72; Ableser, “Isaac Leeser”; Korn, New Orleans, 246 ff.; Parzen, Architects, 8–11.

45. W. & W., Philadelphia, 254; R. Gratz, Phila., to Maria Gist Gratz, Lexington, Apr. 18, 1830, this is no. 609 of the AJHS Collection; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 110, no. 13; R. Gratz, Phila., to Miriam Cohen, Savannah, Mar. 29, 1841, copy in AJAr.

46. PAJHS, 27:3–4; AJA, 19:127 ff., 21:140 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 148; Ableser, “Isaac Leeser”; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser.”

47. Occ., 1:1, introductory remarks; see R, Index sub “Leeser, Isaac”; “Leeser, Isaac,” JE; CCARYB, 28:213–52; Morais, Philadelphia, 45–48; Leeser, Jews and the Mosaic Law, 243, dedication page; Leeser, Discourses, dedication page; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 127; JOAH, 68:35–51.

48. See M. Jastrow, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature (N.Y., 1926), sub “refuah”; Rosa Mordecai, “Necrology of Isaac Leeser,” typescript, Feb. 4, 1868, copy in Marcus Collections; L.H. Joseph, N.O., to I.L., Oct. 4, 1865, I.L., to Joseph, Oct. 27, 1865, Leeser Papers in Marcus Collections; W. & W., Philadelphia, 372–73; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; Occ., 10:21 ff., 31 ff.; Seller, “Isaac Leeser,” chap. 5.

49. Rossiter, Seedtime of the Republic, 38; EAH, 582.

50. Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 17.

51. Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Maria Gratz, Lexington, July 23, 1826, AJAr; Fish, Aaron Levy, 1–3, 56.

52. B. & B., JOUS, 2:576.

53. Stern, AJD, Preface; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 464; PAJHS, 35:191–92.

54. Hudson, Am. Prot., 95–96; Michael, “Cincinnati,” 24–27; “Religion,” DAH; Karff, “Mikveh Israel”; Rossiter, Seedtime of the Republic, 38; Margolies, “Shearith Israel”; Ahlstrom, Religious History, 381, 508; Will of Sarah Da Costa, Oct. 7, 1793, “Will Book, XXV, 1793–1800,” pp. 89–91, Charleston Court House; Gershom Seixas, N.Y., to Sarah Kursheedt, Richmond, Mar. 22, 1813, AJHSL; PAJHS, 35:189–205; B. & B., JOUS, 1:190–91, 2:494, 497, 502, 576, 585–86; Oscar I. Janowsky (ed.), The American Jew, A Reappraisal (Phila., 1964), 5; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 63–64; Bloom, “Mikveh Israel”; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:247; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; W. & W., Philadelphia, 228, 234; Bernard J. Bamberger, The Story of Judaism (N.Y., 1957), 14–15; Devine, “Sephardic Jews,” 93; George Alexander Kohut, Ezra Stiles and the Jews (N.Y., 1902., 6–7; Stiles, Diary, 3:499; Thomas Cooper and David J. McCord (eds.), The Statutes at Large of South Carolina (Columbia, S.C., 1840), 8:162–63; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 35, 43; T. J. Seixas, N.Y., to I.L., Oct. 27, 1833, Marcus LB, 903–6, no. 132; Pool, Crosby Street Synagogue, 7; Channing, History, 5:238; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, 9–10; Hudson, Religion in America, 129–30; Koch, Republican Religion, 296.

CHAPTER EIGHT

SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE JEWISH COMMUNITY 1776–1840

  1. Hebrew Society for the Visitation of the Sick and Mutual Assistance, Phila., Minutes, in Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustee Minutes; Gryn, “Hebra Kaddisha,” 3; Marcus, EAJ, 2:481; Leeser, Discourses, 2:35 ff., 375, 385 ff., 401; Seixas, Discourse (1798), 18 ff.

  2. Marcus, EAJ, 1:171–74, 178; Marcus, AJD, 137–38; Tobias, Hebrew Benevolent Society, 1 ff., 6; Will of Israel Joseph, 1804, Charleston Probate Court, copy in AJAr; AJHQ, 52:303 ff.; AJA, l(no. 2):15–17; Marcus, Studies, 68 ff., 101–2.

  3. PAJHS, 27:461; Marcus, EAJ, 2:204–5, 276, 330, 340; AJHQ, 59:25; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Dec. 15, 1835; Grinstein, New York City, 136, 140–41; W. & W., Philadelphia, 114 ff., 275; George E. McCracken, Des Moines, to Malcolm Stern, Nov. 23, 1969, re Easton, Marcus Collections; Abraham Touro, Boston, to Solomon Jacobs, Richmond, June 28, 1822, Marcus Collections; B. & B., JOUS, 3:832–33; Pool, Mill Street Synagogue, 61; Huhner, Judah Touro, 70–71; Pool, Old Faith, 346; Pool, Portraits, 269 ff.; T.J. Seixas, N.Y., to I.L., Phila., Oct. 27, 1833, Marcus LB, 903–6, no. 132; Curti, American Thought, 122 ff., 169–70, 299; “Charity,” JE; Temkin, “Jewish Charities”; for Abraham Touro, the philanthropist, see PAJHS, 27:428–29; Will of Mordecai Levy, Oct. 4, 1786, Book T, p. 414, Register of Wills, Orphans’ Court, Phila.; “Philanthropy,” “Social Legislation,” UJE; Marcus, AJD, 137–38; Tobias, Hebrew Benevolent Society, 3–7; Sweet, American Culture, 234–35; David Zielonka, “Public and Private Charity,” (HUC term paper, 1961), 8; Rutman, “Private Charities,” 14 ff.; Seixas, Discourse (1798).

  4. W. & W., Philadelphia, 271; Marcus, EAJ, 2:437; Baron, The Jewish Community, 2:319 ff.; V. D. Lipman (ed.), Three Centuries of Anglo-Jewish History (Cambridge, 1961), 62–63; Ephraim Frisch, An Historical Survey of Jewish Philanthropy (N.Y., 1924); Marcus, AJD, 176 ff., 181 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 181; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Minutes, Nov. 26, 1838.

  5. W. & W., Philadelphia, 233; Lipman, “Synagagal Philanthropy,” 50; Grinstein, New York City, 139.

  6. Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 46; PAJHS, 27:137–39; Leeser, Discourses, 2:376 ff.

  7. Marcus, Communal Sick-Care, 6 ff. The immigrant society is on one occasion called Haknasat Orhim which would imply the existence of a building to house immigrants temporarily. AJHQ, 59(no. l):25–27; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Nov. 21, 1835; W. & W., Philadelphia, 274–76; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, Aug. 17, 1795; PAJHS, 27:255–57; Grinstein, New York City, 139–43; 518–19; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, Aug. 1, 1809; Boston Jewish Advocate, Sept. 15, 1939, 16 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:592; Pool, Old Faith, 347–48, 359 for the 1813 poorhouse; Leeser, Discourses, 2:385 ff.

  8. Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, 1811; PAJHS, 27:350; Pool, Old Faith, 346–47; Elzas, Beth Elohim; R. & E., Charleston, 154, 246.

  9. Emmanuel, Netherlands Antilles, 1:124 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 419–20; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, Sept. 2, 1795; W. & W., Philadelphia, 136; PAJHS, 27:107.

10. W. & W., Philadelphia, 55, 272 ff.; Marcus, EAJ, 2:50, 482–85; Pool, Old Faith, 344, 345, 349–52; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, 1835–40; Blum, Baltimore, 9; Jerusalmi, “Shearith Israel,” 14; AJYB, 57:3 ff.; Korn, New Orleans, 239; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 31, 50, 55, 63–64, 74, 81; Liebowitz, “Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia,” 37; Hershman, “Mikveh Israel,” 11–12; Fein, Baltimore, 52–53; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, 1837–40; Zimmerman, “Mikveh Israel,” 4; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 288; Grinstein, New York City, 131–36, 139–40, 550; PAJHS, 1:17, 21:99, 27:81, 103, 104, 107; E. & L., Richmond, 258 ff.; Guttmacher, Baltimore, 24; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Correspondence, Mar. 30, Sept. 1, 1814; B. & B., JOUS, 2:591; Marcus, AJD, 171–72. Financing charities: PAJHS, 27:132–34; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Jan. 19, 1840. Relief and pensions: Devine, “Sephardic Jews,” 43; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, Jan. 3, 1816; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, Dec. 21, 1803. Immigrant aid: Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, Heshvan 29, 1782; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Dec. 26, 1835. Aug. 8, 1839. Redemption of captives: Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, Aug. 21, 1815; Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 127. Transients: Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Apr. 10, 1836. May 7, 1837, Nov. 10, 1839; Marcus, CAJ, 1:98, 185; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, June 7, 1807; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 75; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, Oct. 13, 1793, Nov. 5, 1815.

11. Krout and Fox, Completion of Independence, 215–16; W. & W., Philadelphia, 136.

12. W. & W., Philadelphia, 267; R, no. 357.

13. Detroit Jewish News, Nov. 17, 1978, p. 8; Constitution and By-Laws of the Hevrah Biker Houlam (Phila., 1829).

14. “De Young, Michel Harry,” DAB.

15. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 285–87; Tobias, Hebrew Orphan Society, 1–11; for a contemporary description of the Jews of Charleston see the Philip Cohen letter to Hannah Adams cited in Adams, History of the Jews, 2:217 ff. and in Elzas, Jews of S.C., 145; Moses, Oration, 23–26; R. & E., Charleston, 106; Harris, Columbia, 7 ff., 15; Hennig, Tree of Life, 1 ff.

16. PAJHS, 27:252–55; Pool, Old Faith, 252–54.

17. Emmanuel, Netherlands Antilles, 1:126.

18. TJHSE, 14:229; Pool, Old Faith, 358.

19. Pool, Old Faith, 3 58; Elzas Jews of S.C., 100, 140, 143, 197–99; R. & E., Charleston, 80 ff.

20. Phila. Jewish Exponent, Oct. 25, 1929, has reprinted the contents of Jackson’s pamphlet dated Oct. 21, 1829.

21. Grinstein, New York City, 491; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Oct. 28, 1838; Grinstein, New York City, 149, 151, 491; Pool, Old Faith, 361; Occ., 1:496–98.

22. Berman, Richmond, 58–59, 139.

23. Blum, Baltimore, 7–8; B. & B., JOUS, 3:857 ff.; Fein, Baltimore, 73–74.

24. Michael, “Cincinnati,” 67; Brickner, “Cincinnati,” 180.

25. Grinstein, New York City, 440 ff.; correspondence of Rabbi Solomon Hirschell with American Jews, 1826–39, microfilm of MS in JTS Library; R, no. 352. 1782, Philadelphia, Travelers Aid (Ezrat Orhim): W. & W., Philadelphia, 136–38, 264, 270, 272, 274–79, 419, n. 99; A. S. W. Rosenbach, An Historical Sketch of the Congregation (Phila., 1909), 13. 1784, Charleston Benevolent Society (Hevrah Shel Gemilut Hasadim): Elzas, Jews of S.C., 120, 282–84; R. & E., Charleston, 154–57, 302, nn. 213, 214; Tobias, Hebrew Benevolent Society, 3–4; B. & B., JOLTS, 2:667, n. 239; Temkin, “Jewish Charities,” 9; The State vs. Ancker, 2:247; Moses, Oration, 25. 1785, New York, Hevrah Gemilut Hasadim: W. & W., Philadelphia, 265 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 103 ff., 491; PAJHS, 6:131, 21:150, 155–58, 27:252 ff. 1787, Savannah, Restoration of the Soul (Meshivat Nefesh): Sussman, “Religious Life of Savannah,” 19; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, 1787; Lyons and De Sola, Jewish Calendar, 171. 1789, Richmond Travelers Aid (Ezrat Orhim): Berman, Richmond, 58–59, 145. 1798, New York, The Collection for Charity Given Secretly (Kalfe Sedaka Mattan Basether): Marcus, AJD, 195 ff.; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 9, 12; Pool, Old Faith, 352 ff.; Whiteman, Hendricks, 149–50; Temkin, “Jewish Charities,” 11; PAJHS, 27:138–43; Grinstein, New York City, 131 ff., 144–45; Seixas, Discourse (1798). 1801, Charleston, The Hebrew Orphan Society (Abi Yetomin Ubne Ebyonim) (This society is also sometimes called The Society for the Relief of Orphans and Children of Indigent Parents): Elzas, Jews of S.C., 285 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 81, 106, 155–57; Tobias, Hebrew Orphan Society, 1 ff.; Constitution of Abi Yetomin Ubne Ebyonim; or, Hebrew Orphan Society, founded in Charleston, S.C., 1801–5561 (Charleston, 1867); Petition to House of Representatives of the State of S.C., 1810, in the Historical Commission of S.C.; Charter of Hebrew Orphan Asylum, 1802, in the Historical Commission of S.C.; Temkin, “Jewish Charities,” 10; Rutman, “Private Charities,” 12–13; B. & B., JOUS, 2:593; JQR, n.s., 53:132–33. 1802, New York, The Society of True Love (Hevrah Hased Va-Amet): Grinstein, New York City, 105 ff., 491; Pool, Old Faith, 354–57; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” lxx, n. 557; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:70–73; PAJHS, 27:96, 113; Temkin, “Jewish Charities,” 15, 18; Compendium of the Order of the Burial Service, etc. (N.Y., 1827); R, no. 291; Constitution of the Hevrah Hased Va-Amet, in Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, 1802; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Constitution, 1805: R, no. 134. 1802, Philadelphia Hebrew German Society (Rodeph Shalom) (Pursuer of Peace): Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 14 ff., 20, 33; W. & W., Philadelphia, 266. 1813, Philadelphia, Hebrew Society for the Visitation of the Sick and Mutual Assistance (Hevrah shel Bikkur Holim u-Gemilut Hasadim): Hevrah, Phila., Constitution; Gryn, “Hebra Kaddisha”; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, Dec. 11, 1836, May 6, 1838; Temkin, “Jewish Charities,” 18–20; Liebowitz, “Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia,” 36; W. & W., Philadelphia, 267 ff. 1822, Philadelphia, United Hebrew Beneficent Society (Hevrat Gemilut Hasadim ve Hinukh Ne’arim): W. & W., Philadelphia, 278–79; Morais, Philadelphia, 143; Temkin, “Jewish Charities,” 20–21; Constitution and By-Laws of the “United Hebrew Beneficent Society of Philadelphia,” etc. (Phila., 1829); PAJHS, 48:212; Constitution and By-Laws of the “United Hebrew Beneficent Society of Philadelphia, etc.” (Phila., 1837); Gaston D. Cogdell, “A Comparative Study of Private Jewish and Gentile Charities and Social Welfare Activities in America, 1654–1840,” (HUC term paper, 1961), 4; Zimmerman, “Mikveh Israel,” 4–5. 1822, Columbia, S.C., Hebrew Benevolent Society (Hevrat Gemilut Hassadim): “South Carolina,” JE; Harris, Columbia; Hennig, Tree of Life, 1–3; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 246–47. 1822, New York, Hebrew Benevolent Society (Meshivat Nefesh): Grinstein, New York City, 145 ff.; Pool, Old Faith, 358; Lyons and De Sola, Jewish Calendar 165. 1826, New York, Hebrew Mutual Benefit Society (Hevrah Gemilut Hesed): Grinstein, New York City, 106–7; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 68–69. 1828, Cincinnati, Hebrew Beneficent Society (Hevrat Bikkur Holim): Michael, “Cincinnati,” 65–67; AI, July 28, 1854, p. 19, c.2; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:213; Occ. 2:245; Hebrew Beneficent Society (Cincinnati), Minute Book, 1838–89, AJAr; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 64; Lyons and De Sola, Jewish Calendar, 151. 1828, New York, Society for the Education of Orphan Children and the Relief of Indigent Persons of the Jewish Persuasion (Hevrah Hinukh Nearim ve-Ezrat Evyonim): Grinstein, New York City, 71, 148 ff.; Pool, Old Faith, 358–59; PAJHS, 27:311; Occ., 2:515–16. 1832, New York, Society of Brotherly Love (Ahavat Ahim): Lyons and De Sola, Jewish Calendar, 165. 1832–1834, Baltimore, United Hebrew Benevolent Society (Hevrah Bikkur Holim u-Gemilut Hasadim): Laws of Maryland, 1844, Chapter 41; Constitution and By-Laws of the United Hebrew Benevolent Society. Constitution und Nebengesetze der Vereinigten hebraeischen wohlthaetigen Gesellschaft von Baltimore (Baltimore, 1834); Fein, Baltimore, 73–74; Blum, Baltimore, 7–9, 49 ff.; PAJHS, 9:161. 1832, New York, Society for the Offerings of the Sanctuary (Hevrat Terumat ha-Kodesh): Constitution and By-Laws of the Society for the Offerings of the Sanctuary (N.Y., 1832); Grinstein, New York City, 170, 443 ff.; Rutman, “Private Charities,” 16, 20. 1834, Louisville, Jewish Benevolent Society: “Louisville,” UJE. 1835, St. Louis, Bikkur Holim Society: P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 269. 1838, Natchez, Hevrah Kaddisha: Edith Wyatt Moore, Clinton, Miss., to JRM, Oct. 19, 1947, Marcus Collections. 1838, New York City, Association for the Moral and Religious Instruction of Children of the Jewish Faith: Pool, Old Faith, 363–64. 1839, Baltimore, German Hebrew Charity Society: Fein, Baltimore, 74; B. & B., JOUS, 3:857 ff. 1839, New York, The New York Hebrew Assistance Society (Hevrah Le-Ezrat Ani Ve-Evyon): Grinstein, New York City, 149; Pool, Old Faith, 361; Constitution of the Hevrah Le-Ezrat Ani-Ve-Evyon, New York Hebrew Assistance Society (N.Y., 1840); Temkin, “Jewish Charities,” 21; Rutman, “Private Charities,” 20–21; Kiev Festschrift, nos. 67–69. 1839, Richmond, Association for the Love of Israel (Hevrah Ahavat Yisrael): E. & L., Richmond, 231 ff., 258.

26. Marcus, Communal Sick-Care, 135 ff.; for women in Shearith Israel, N.Y., see Lyons Collection, Box 1, no. 190, AJHSL; PAJHS, 27:113; Grinstein, New York City, 152; Pool, Old Faith, 366–67; W. & W., Philadelphia, 271; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:278; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 261.

27. 1825 report of the society as cited in W. & W., Philadelphia, 276; 1825 constitution: R, no. 270; Rutman, “Private Charities,” 6; R, nos. 401, 423; W. & W., Philadelphia, 271–77; Occ., 1:451 ff., 515; “Constitution of the Female Association of Philadelphia for the Relief of Women and Children in Reduced Circumstances,” Phila., 1803, AJAr; Morais, Philadelphia, 127–29, 146 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:278; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; “Philadelphia,” UJE; B. & B., JOUS, 2:593 ff.; Female Hebrew Benevolent Society, Constitutions, Phila., 1825, 1836, 1838: R, nos. 270, 401, 423; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 261; Schappes, DHJUS, 696, n. 2.

28. Grinstein, New York City, 149 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:599; Michael, “Cincinnati,” 70; Brickner, “Cincinnati,” 191; Lyons and De Sola, Jewish Calendar, 151; Occ., 2:245; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:213.

29. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:153; Occ., 1:447; Morais, Philadelphia, 143, 150; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:303.

30. Pool, Old Faith, 363–66; Marcus, Communal Sick-Care, 135 ff.

31. Richmond, Va.: Mode of Regulations for the Society Ezrat Orhim, ca. 1802, AJAr. PAJHS, 27:252 ff.; Constitution and By-Laws of the “United Hebrew Beneficent Society, Philadelphia,” etc. (Phila., 1837).

32. Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 70; Grinstein, New York City, 145; Richmond, Va.: Mode of Regulations for the Society Ezrat Orhim, ca. 1802, AJAr; Berman, Richmond, 58–59; Hebrew Society for the Visitation of the Sick and Mutual Assistance, Phila., Minutes, 1813, in Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, Nov. 22, 1820, Jan. 22, 1821; Occ., 1:447; Pool, Old Faith, 361, 390, 393; Constitution of the Hevrah le-Ezrat Ani Ve-Evyon, New-York Hebrew Assistance Society (N.Y., 1840); Constitution and By-Laws of the “United Hebrew Beneficent Society of Philadelphia,” etc. (Phila., 1829); PAJHS, 27:140–43, 252–57; Marcus, AJD, 195–99; Hevrah, Phila., Constitution.

33. Marcus, Communal Sick-Care, 54 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 1:6, 78, 130–31, 164, 185, et passim; Grinstein, New York City, 103, 131 ff.; Bloom, Amsterdam, 16–17; “Burial Society,” UJE; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 25, 28 (Jews as members of St. Andrew’s Society); R, no. 193; Krout and Fox, Completion of Independence, 6–7, 379 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 264–66, 270–75; Marcus, AJD, 182–83; Pool, Old Faith, 345, 455; Temkin, “Jewish Charities,” 15; “Charity,” JE; St. Andrew’s Society, Phila., Constitution and Rules, 1791, AJAr; Society of the Sons of St. George, Phila., Constitution, 1772, AJAr; JSS, 38:225 ff.; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 35 ff.

34. B. & B., JOUS, 2:597 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 103–6.

35. Marcus, EAJ, 2:484; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 37; Grinstein, New York City, 144 ff.; Rutman, “Private Charities,” 17 ff.

36. Schlesinger, Age of Jackson, 136–38; AJHQ, 53:345.

37. Robert Ernst, Immigrant Life in New York City, 1825–1863 (N.Y., 1949), 126; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 63–64; Dieter Cunz, The Maryland Germans (Princeton, N.J., 1948), 197–203; Grinstein, New York City, 108–9, 131 ff., 161, 491; Schappes, DHJUS, 195 ff.; Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 39; W. & W., Philadelphia, 466, n. 115; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 51; PAJHS, 39:273, 48:212; Marcus, EAJ, 2:484; YIVO Annual, 6:141–42; Harris, Columbia, 15; Hennig, Tree of Life, 1 ff.

38. Marcus, Memoirs, 2:111.

39. Leeser, Discourses, 2:396–97; R. & E., Charleston, 69, 155; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 285 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 26, 134–35, 142, 155–60, 550, n. 5; Pool, Old Faith, 345, 352; W. & W., Philadelphia, 136, redeemed servants in 1795; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 181.

40. Rutman, “Private Charities,” 5; AJYB, 57:3 ff.; Krout & Fox, Completion of Independence, 378 ff.

41. See Manhattan Board of Aldermen in the City Clerk’s Records Municipal Building, Room 250, Petition of Jacob Abraham to Shearith Israel. It is reprinted in Boston Jewish Advocate, Sept. 15, 1939, pp. 16 ff.; Pool, Old Faith, 261, 281, 347–48; “Jonas, Lyon,” BDEAJ, AJHQ, 67:119–20.

42. Kohler, Simon Wolf Addresses, 104; Grinstein, New York City, 142, 161; B. & B., JOUS, 2:591–600; AJYB, 57:10–11.

43. Schappes, DHJUS, 99 ff.; Whiteman, Kidnapped, 26.

44. Ahlstrom, Religious History, 637 ff.; Greene, Revolutionary Generation, chap. 13; Fish, Common Man, chap. 12; Hudson, Religion in America, 197 ff.; Curti, American Thought, 121–22, 169–70, 299, 368–69, 375 ff.; Carman and Syrett, History, 1:492 ff.; Leeser, Discourses, 3:328 ff. Female Hebrew Benevolent Society, Phila., 1838, Constitution: R, no. 423; the report with this constitution speaks of the arrival of immigrants. PAJHS, 23:178–79; Grinstein, New York City, 119 ff.

45. Grinstein, New York City, 518; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 74.

46. R. & E., Charleston, 284, 297–98.

47. Schappes, DHJUS, 198–200. Palestine: W. & W., Philadelphia, 280–81. Tunis: Gibson Winter, Religious Identity: A Study of Religious Organization (N.Y., 1968), 5; Korn, New Orleans, 255 ff., Judah Touro will, assimilated Jews in Jewish charities; AJA, l(no. 2):3 ff

CHAPTER NINE

JEWISH EDUCATION AND CULTURE 1776–1840

  1. “Moses, Myer,” BDEAJ; Elzas Jews of S.C., 140, 143–44.

  2. Todes, “Jewish Education in Philadelphia,” 20–22; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 236; R. & E., Charleston, 155; Korn, New Orleans, 192–95; Gates of Mercy, New Orleans, Constitution, 8; Schappes, DHJUS, 181–82; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 159; “New York,” JE; PAJHS, 27:518; R, no. 324; Leeser, Discourses, 2:382–84; Proceedings … Hebrew Sunday Schools, 15–22; Kaplan Jubilee Volume, 479–80.

  3. R, nos. 28, 39, 41, 47, 55–58; Marcus, CAJ, 2:1094; “Harby Booklist”; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 404; E. & L., Richmond, 22, 335; PAJHS, 29:58–59; B. & B., JOUS, 2:425 ff.; Joseph Yesurun Pinto, The Form of Prayer Which Was Performed at the Jews Synagogue, in the City of New-York, etc. (N.Y., 1760).

  4. The literature of the period may be reviewed in R, nos. 66–469; see especially nos. 134, 169, 246, 256, 262, 265, 270, 272, 295, 302, 307, 316, 352, 357, 382, 401, 403, 423, 443, 452. See also the supplements to Rosenbach: Marcus, Jewish Americana; EIAJH, 187 ff.; Kiev Festschrift, 177 ff.

  5. R, no. 199; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 38; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Miriam G. Cohen, Savannah, Mar. 29, 1841, copy in AJAr.

  6. R, nos. 80, 118, 181, 185, 187, 324; Schappes, DHJUS, 89 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:566 ff.

  7. Beth Elohim, Charleston, Constitution (1836), 10; Peixotto, Anniversary Discourse, 35–36; Jacob Mordecai, “Discourse Delivered at the Consecration of the Synagogue of the Hebrew Congregation Beth Shalome, etc.,” Richmond, Va., Sept. 15, 1822, MS, AJHSL, 38; The Constitution and By-Laws of the Hevrah Hinuk Nearim, etc. (N.Y., 1825): R, no. 272; B. & B., JOUS, 2:553 ff., 564; Grinstein, New York City, 269; Kiev Festschrift, 180, no. 15; R. & E., Charleston, 111; Berman, Richmond, 36, 102; Leeser, Discourses, Dedication and Preface, List of Subscribers, 295; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 92.

  8. Moïse, Fancy’s Sketch Book, 131; Works of Penina Moïse, 269–73; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 88–90.

  9. R, nos. 135, 197, 278, 284, 291, 303, 382, 411, 418; “Levi, David,” UJE; W. & W., Philadelphia, 369; Occ., 1:143–44; Roth, Bibliotheca, 307–8; PAJHS, 6:154–56; Berman, Richmond, 49–53, 104; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 83–84, 337.

10. “Harby Booklist”; Pinckney and Moïse, Selection, 262 ff.

11. MacDonald, Education of the Heart, 13–16, 23, 27–28, 33, 199, 316–17; Harrison Hall, Selections from the Writings of Sarah Hall (Phila., 1833), 57 ff.; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 74 ff.; Berman, Richmond, 88–89.

12. Schappes, DHJUS, 187–94; American State Papers (1949), 373, 563–64; Stokes, Church and State, 3:149–51; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 167.

13. E. & L., Richmond, 127–28; R, nos. 84, 133; Jacob A. P. M. Andrade, A Record of the Jews in Jamaica: From the English Conquest to the Present Time (Kingston, Jamaica, 1941), 43, 202; Rabba Henriquis, Reason and Faith, etc., (Richmond, Va., 1804), 66 ff., 93, 105, 108; “Cordova, Joshua Hezekiah de,” JE; AJA, 18:141 ff.

14. “Pinto, Isaac de,” JE, UJE, EJ; “Guénée, Abbe Antoine,” “Voltaire,” JE; R, nos. 103, 563; David Levi, Succinct Account of the Rites and Ceremonies of the Jews, etc. (London, 1782[?]); David Levi, Dissertations on the Prophecies of the Old Testament (2 vols., London, 1796–1800); Roth, Bibliotheca, 226, no.132, 260 ff., 205; E. & L., Richmond, 335; Tosefta Sanhedrin, 13:2.

15. PAJHS, 28:252; Joseph Priestley, Letters to the Jews; Inviting Them to an Amicable Discussion of the Evidences of Christianity (Birmingham, 1787); David Levi, Letters to Dr. Priestley in Answer to Those He Addressed to the Jews, etc. (London, 1787); the Gomez edition appeared in N.Y. in 1794 (R, nos. 93, 95); Transactions of the Unitarian Historical Society (London), 12(no. 3):1–19.

16. Philip S. Foner, The Age of Reason (Secaucus, N.J., 1974), “Editor’s note,” 46–48; R, no. 114.

17. Roth, Bibliotheca, 264, no. 51; Jacob Nikelsburger, Kol Yaakov, Koul Jacob in Defence of the Jewish Religion (N.Y., 1816); R, nos. 183, 192; Friedman, EAJ, 96 ff.

18. R, nos. 182, 183, 188, 191, 214; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 24; B. & B., JOUS, 3:971, n. 175; Tobit’s Letters to Levi; or A. Reply to the Narrative of Joseph Samuel C. 41. Frey (N.Y., 1816); “Mendelssohn, Moses,” JE; Eichhorn, Evangelizing, 18 ff.

19. R, no. 210.

20. Oxlee, Three Letters, 92.

21. Abraham Collins, Voice of Israel Being a Review of Two Sermons … (N.Y., 1823), 17–18; Oxlee, Three Letters, preface by Abraham Collins; R, no. 516.

22. S. H. Jackson, Examination and Answer to A Sermon Delivered by the Rev. George Stanley Faber, etc. (N.Y., 1823), 18; R, nos. 145, 150, 160, 237, 284, 418; Roth, Bibliotheca, 377, nos. 32, 33.

23. S. H. Jackson (ed.), The Jew, etc. (N.Y., 1824), note printer’s error in biblical citation on title page: Ps. cix is really cxix. B. & B., JOUS, 3:767–70; “Jackson, Solomon Henry,” UJE; Grinstein, New York City, 79, 116, 214, 218, 255, 385, 590, n. 14; R, nos. 258, 275; Schappes, JIUS, 62; “Periodicals,” JE; Isaac Leeser (ed.), Benjamin Dias Fernandes, A Series of Letters on the Evidences of Christianity (as They First Appeared in the Occident) (Phila., 1853), vi; Eichhorn, Evangelizing, 52–53.

24. B. & B., JOUS, 3:771–73; The Correspondent, 4:375–78.

25. R, no. 410; Stern, FAJF, 47.

26. R, no. 442.

27. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1200, 1214; W. & W., Philadelphia, 306–13; Liberty Hall and Cincinnati Gazette, Apr. 8, 22, 1816; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 37–40, 96–100, 178–80, 197; EIAJH, 200, no. 38; Journal of Jewish Bibliography, 2(no. 1):20 ff.; PAJHS, 35:281; E. B. O’Callaghan, A List of Editions of the Holy Scriptures and Parts Thereof, Printed in America Previous to 1860; With Introductions and Bibliographical Notes (Albany, 1861), 120; J. Horwitz, Phila., to Thomas Cooper, Sept. 11, 1818, Cooper Papers, Univ. of Va.; J. Horwitz, Phila., to Thomas Jefferson(?), Jan. 12, 1818(1819), Jefferson Papers, Univ. of Va.; Channing, History, 5:263; “Central College Subscribers to Literary Fund-Deed,” Aug. 1, 1818, Jefferson Papers, Univ. of Va.; “Cooper, Thomas,” DAB; Curti, American Thought, 320–22; “Prospectus for the first American edition of Van der Hoogts’ Hebrew Bible, without the points,” by J. Horwitz, Phila., 1813, copy in Jefferson Papers, Univ. of Va.; “Rules for the New University,” 1825, copy in Jefferson Papers, Univ. of Va.; E. & L., Richmond, 240, 281, 297; Kagan, Contributions, 28; Will of Joseph Andrews, Feb. 11, 1822, probated Nov. 8, 1824, Phila. Probate Court.

28. Roth, Bibliotheca, 274, no. 31; R, no. 483; Gotthold Salomon, Twelve Sermons Delivered in the New Temple of the Israelites at Hamburgh, trans. by Anna Maria Goldsmid (Charleston, S.C., 1841), Preface to the American Edition and Translator’s Preface.

29. B. & B., JOUS, 1:82 ff., 3:898; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 110–15; Karp, Jew. Exp. in America, 2:136 ff.; PAJHS, 21:246; Schappes, DHJUS,149; Goldberg, Major Noah, 149.

30. Channing, History, 5:253–54; Cubberley, Public Education, 344–45.

31. J. Marx, Richmond, to S. Myers, Norfolk, Mar. 2, 1819, Marcus LB, 1109–15, no. 158a; M. E. Levy to Samuel Myers, Norfolk, Apr. 6, 1819, Myers Papers, AJAr; Korn, Eventful Years, 199–200; JSJHS, 1:5 ff.

32. “Bernheim, Isaac Wolfe,” UJE; CCARYB, 28:144 ff.

33. Thrush, Letters to the Jews; Roth, Bibliotheca, 231, no. 166; Peixotto, Anniversary Discourse, 41. The speech of Levy was reprinted in the Philadelphia Gazette and Daily Advertiser, Feb. 15, 1828; I have not succeeded in securing a copy of it.

34. Thrush, Letters to the Jews, 97, appendix; Lloyd P. Gartner (ed.), Michael: On the History of the Jews in the Diaspora (Tel Aviv, 1975), 3:23 ff.; Papers of M. E. Levy, David Levy Yulee papers, Univ. of Fla., microfilm copy in AJAr.

35. Eichhorn, Evangelizingy 58; Karp, Jew. Exp. in America, 2:177 ff.; PAJHS, 52:310–19; Korn, New Orleans, 193–95; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 105–10, 199–201, 203–4; B. & B., JOUS, 3:865; Stern, FAJF, 274.

36. “Peixotto, Moses Levy Maduro,” UJE; Pool, Portraits, 428–32; Joseph Marx, Richmond, to Samuel Myers, Norfolk, Mar. 2, 1819, Marcus LB, 1109–15, no. 158a; B. & B., JOUS, 3:879–90; M. E. Levy, N.Y., to Moses Myers, et al., Norfolk, June 17, 1821, AJAr; M. E. Levy to S[amuel] Myers, Norfolk, Nov. 1, 1818, AJAr; Jacob I. Cohen, Baltimore, to John Myers, Norfolk, June 24, 1821, AJAr; M. M. Noah, N.Y., to John Myers, Norfolk, Feb. 28, 1819, AJAr; Judah Zuntz, N.Y., to Samuel Myers, Norfolk, Jan. 3, 1820, AJAr; “Circular letter and resolutions of Hebrew Society of New York,” May 9, 1821, copy in Marcus Collections; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, chap. 16; PAJHS, 25:1 ff., 132–34.

37. For Levy as a child: Papers of M. E. Levy, Univ. of Fla. Zion College: May, Isaac M. Wise, 171, 260–61, 267. Maimonides College: Korn, Eventful Years, 151 ff.; PAJHS, 27:185–90; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 79–80; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, May 27, 1838.

38. Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 15–19, 22, 44, 75, 157, 162; Sam. Mordecai, Richmond, to R. Mordecai, Warrenton, N.C., Nov. 21, 1805?, Duke Univ. Library; B. & B., JOUS., 2:540–45; Pool, Old Faith, 229–30; PAJHS, 37:43; Lyons Collection in AJHSL, Scrapbook, nos. 3, 15: Hebrew Literary and Religious Library Ass’n.

39. PAJHS, 3:69; R, no. 72; Marcus, EAJ, 2:190–91; List of books in possession of Alexander Marx of Charleston, AJAr; Will of Manuel Josephson, Orphans’ Court, Phila., Book 10(1796), 401; W. & W., Philadelphia, 305; E. & L., Richmond, 335; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 15–16, 27, 30–31; Berman, Richmond, 7, 18–19, 77; Kull and Kull, Chronology, 79.

40. Marcus, EAJ, 2:153–54; Marcus, CAJ, 2:1075, 3:1196, 1228; W. & W., Philadelphia, 19–20, 29, 130, 386; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 11, 28, 75; Autobiography of the Rev. Samuel H. Turner, D.D. (N.Y., 1863), 130–32, 169 ff., 217–19; “S.H. Turner,” DAB; B. & B., JOUS, 2:588–90, 3:684–85; Schappes, DHJUS, 614, n. 2; “Hurwitz, Hyman,” JE; R. & E., Charleston, 57.

41. PAJHS, 27:55; R, no. 454; Roth, Bibliotheca, 362–63, nos. 10–13; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 134–35, 204, n. 41; Marcus, AJD, 181, 272; Berman, Richmond, 52–53, 126; W. & W., Philadelphia, 141–42; B. & B., JOUS, 2:425–28 (Jasher), 3:871–74; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 16; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Nov. 30, 1835.

42. Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 16; PAJHS, 21:221–23, 27:89; poem on dedication of Shearith Israel, 1818, written by Dov Pique: Pool, Old Faith, 187; Phila. Jewish Exponent, June 29, 1888, p. 3.

43. Moses Stuart, A Grammar of the Hebrew Language, (4th ed., Andover, Mass., 1831); Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 28, 100 ff.; R, nos. 238, 271, 297, 330, 368, 369, 381, 387, 389, 402, 426; W. & W., Philadelphia, 250, 254, 304; Grinstein, New York City, 252.

44. The American Biblical Repository, see General Index (N.Y., 1845), 138 for reviews of and contributions by Nordheimer; “Nordheimer, Isaac,” DAB; R, nos. 426, 429, 430, 497; B. & B., JOUS, 2:419–24, 429–36; H. Henry, Imrai Shaipher; A Hebrew Vocabulary, etc. (N.Y., 1838); PAJHS, 25:122.

45. W. & W., Philadelphia, 308; another physician, Dr. Simeon Abrahams of New York, was a student of the Talmud: Grinstein, New York City, 220; The Isaac Harby Prayerbook (Columbia, S.C., 1974), 93 ff.; Barnett A. Elzas, The Sabbath Service and Miscellaneous Prayers, etc. (N.Y., 1916), 6–7; Friedman, EAJ, 111; “Frey, Joseph Samuel Christian Frederick,” DAB.

46. PAJHS, 27:185–90; Markens, Hebrews, 25; S. H. Jackson to Bishop Hobart, N.Y., Dec. 17, 1826, copy in Marcus Collections; Grinstein, New York City, 226–28; Frey, for publications in England see Roth, Bibliotheca, Index; Frey, in U.S. see R, nos. 238, 271, 330, 387. Manuel Josephson: Marcus, CAJ, 2:836, 928, 970–71, 1076, 1084, 1103, 3:1196, 1204; W. & W., Philadelphia, 122, 126, 127, 130, 131–33, 140–41, 247. Kursheedt: E. & L., Richmond, 241; Pool, Portraits, 359; Berman, Richmond, 47–49; PAJHS, 35:191–94; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 17–18; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 85, 90–92.

47. E. & L., Richmond, 23–25; “Remarks on Harby’s Discourse Delivered in Charleston on the 21st of November 1825 before the Reformed Society of Israelites on Their First Anniversary by a Congregationalist of Richmond, Virginia, January 1826,” handwritten, copy in AJAr; ms. notes on the above by Lance Sussman in Marcus Collections.

48. R, no. 457.

CHAPTER TEN

EDUCATING AMERICAN JEWISH YOUTH 1776–1840

  1. Marcus, CAJ, see Index, sub “Education, Jewish”; PAJHS, 21:149; Marcus, AJD, 104–5, 162; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 47, 48–50, 52–54, 62–69, 122–23, 148–50; W. & W., Philadelphia, 141–42, 250, 253–54, 304, 456, n. 77, 457, n. 78; Berman, Richmond, 104; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 235–39; M. I., Phila., to E. S. Lazarus, N.Y., May 8, 1824, copy in Marcus Collections; E. S. Lazarus, N.Y., to M. I., Phila., May 11, 17, 1824, copy in Marcus Collections; Todes, “Jewish Education in Philadelphia,” 12, 16–19, 21–22, 24–25; Jerusalmi, “Shearith Israel,” 15; Receipt Book of Isaac Moses, 1785–87, Dec. 31, 1786, 97, typescript in AJHSL, transcription in Marcus Collections; Elzas Jews of S.C., 40, 142, 145 nn., 172–73, 176, 182; S.I., N.Y., to M.I., Phila., Jan. 7, 1839, copy in Marcus Collections.

  2. Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 8–10, 46, 50, 108–9, 120; Kaplan Jubilee Volume, 469 ff.; Albert M. Hyamson, The Sephardim of England (London, 1951), 85, 94–95; PAJHS, 27:81–83; Ellis, Am. Catholicism, 58; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 272; Grinstein, New York City, 227–28, 259.

  3. Second Annual Exam (1840): R, no. 458; Sunday School, 1838–1913, 6.

  4. Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 53, 145 ff.; PAJHS, 42:55, 58 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 80–82, 106, 155–57; Fein, Baltimore, 68.

  5. PAJHS, 48:76; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 123–24; Rodeph Shalom, Phila., Minutes, Oct. 9, 1824; JQR, n.s., 45:456; Todes, “Jewish Education in Philadelphia,” 21–22, 118; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 236, 239–40; R, no. 316.

  6. Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Mrs. Ogden Hoffman, N.Y., Mar. 9, 1818, AJHSL; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 235–36; Todes, “Jewish Education in Philadelphia,” 24; W. & W., Philadelphia, 253, 304, 473, n. 4.

  7. Leeser, Discourses, 2:161–82, 385 ff.; I. Leeser, Phila., to M.I., Mar. 31, 1833; I. Leeser, General Circular, Mar. 8, 1835, “To The Jewish Inhabitants of Philadelphia”; R, no. 391; I.L., to M.I., Apr. 10, 1835, I.L., to M.I., Sept. 4, 1836, copies of all above in AJAr; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 120–22, 129 ff.; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Constitution, (1841).

  8. Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 55, 56–57, 182–85; Marcus, CAJ, 2:1068; PAJHS, 21:35–36, 85–86, 149, 27:8–9, 51–55, 57; Pool, Old Faith, 211 ff.; JQR, n.s., 45:453 ff.; Dushkin Jew. Ed. in NYC, 451 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 228–29, 244–46; Fierman, “Jewish Education,” 31–32, 214; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 12.

  9. Pool, Old Faith, 215.

10. Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 17; Grinstein, New York City, 230; Schappes, DHJUS, 113–17; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 50–52; The Record, 10(no.1):13 ff.

11. Pool, Old Faith, 216–19; PAJHS, 27:92–95; Schappes, DHJUS, 126.

12. 1700’s: Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 55 ff.; PAJHS, 21:35–36, 85, 149; Dushkin Jew. Ed. in NYC, 451; Pool, Old Faith, 211–214. 1790’s: PAJHS, 27:52 ff., 215; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 451 ff. 1800–1810: B. & B., JOUS, 2:442 ff., 519; Schappes, DHJUS, 113–17; Fierman, “Jewish Education,” 142 ff.; Pilch, Hist. Jew. Ed., 17 ff.; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 44, 58 ff., 187 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 230, 254; Jewish Review (1944), 41 ff.; PAJHS, 27:81–83, 34:123 ff. 1811–1820: Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 452–59; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 50–52, 65 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 254–55; Pool, Old Faith, 214ff, 273–74. State and city support of Jewish schools: “Education,” “School Lands,” DAH(1976–1978); Martin L. Goldberg, “History of American Jewish Education, 1840–1860” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1953), 40–43, 45, 52–56; Fish, Common Man, 218–19; Curti, American Thought, 230–31; Faulkner, American Economic History, 366; Ellis, Am. Catholicism, 66–67; Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 42–44; AJYB, 49:1–18; Krout and Fox, Completion of Independence, 181 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 126–27; PAJHS, 27:92–95; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 62, 154; Grinstein, New York City, 235.

13. Grinstein, New York City, 42–45, 231–34, 246, 255, 339, 563, n. 12; Jewish Review (1944) 41 ff.; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 75, 156, 159, 207; Appeal for funds of Lomdi[e] Torah in Hebrew and English, Feb. 21, 1830, AJAr; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 69–70.

14. Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 455 ff.; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 68–69; PAJHS, 34:123 ff.

15. Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Miriam Cohen, Savannah, Jan. 31, 1845, copy in AJAr.

16. Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 50.

17. “Gratz, Rebecca,” DAB, NAW; B. & B., JOUS, 1:288–89; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, xix–xx.

18. PAJHS, 29:58.

19. Isaac Leeser, A Religious Manual for Jewish Children, etc. (Cincinnati, n.d.), Preface; Leeser, Discourses, 9:1 ff., 161; W. & W., Philadelphia, 373; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 244–45.

20. W. & W., Philadelphia, 304; Berman, Richmond, 38; Morais, Philadelphia, 146; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 237–38; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 127–28; B. & B., JOUS, 2:639, n. 113.

21. Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 133 ff.; Proceedings … Hebrew Sunday Schools, 17; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Miriam Cohen, Savannah, Mar. 29, 1841, copy in AJAr.

22. R, no. 428; Todes, “Jewish Education in Philadelphia,” 20–22.

23. Mrs. Eleazar Pike, Primary Catechism of the Jewish Religion for the Use of Infant and Other Schools (Montreal, 1852), 3; EIAJH, 221, no. 127.

24. Leeser, Instruction in the Mosaic Religion: R, no. 321; Leeser, Catechism: R, no. 446—I have used a later edition of this catechism, entitled A Religious Manual for Jewish Children, etc. (Cincinnati, n.d.); Proceedings … Hebrew Sunday Schools, 15; Simha C. Peixotto, Elementary Introduction to the Scriptures for the Use of Hebrew Children (Phila., 1840); Louis Salomon, The Mosaic System in Its Fundamental Principles (Phila., 1841): R, no. 484; Joseph Marx, Richmond, Va., to Samuel Myers, Norfolk, Mar. 2, 1819, Myers Papers, AJAr.

25. Proceedings … Hebrew Sunday Schools, 4, 17–18; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Miriam Cohen, Savannah, Aug. 2, 1840, copy in AJAr; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 251–52.

26. Leeser, Claims, 86; Leeser, Discourses, 3:365 ff.; Occ., 1:162 ff.; Kiev Festschrift, 188, no. 62; Pool, Old Faith, 363–66; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 144–45. Rebecca Gratz: Barbara Pomerantz, “A Study of the Life, Thinking, and Activity of a Cultured American Jewess, Rebecca Gratz, as Reflected in the David Philipson, Letters of Rebecca Gratz, Philadelphia, 1929,” (HUC term paper, 1979), 5, 9, et passim; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 250 ff., 256 ff., 274 ff.; Rebecca Gratz to Mary Elizabeth Fenno, N.Y., Feb. 22, 1805, copy in AJAr; Morais, Philadelphia, 146 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, see Index sub “Gratz, Rebecca”; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 318 ff.; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 30 ff., 38, 43–44; Rebecca Gratz to Mrs. Ogden Hoffman, N.Y., Oct. 20, 1817, in Schappes, DHJUS, 137–39, and AJAr; Rebecca Gratz to Miriam Gratz Cohen, Savannah, Mar. 29, 1841, copy in AJAr. Blacks: PAJHS, 29:58; EIAJH, 171–86. Ivanhoe: Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 29 ff.; PAJHS, 22:53–60. Gentiles and their Sunday Schools: Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 224, 226, 230, 234; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 45; Cubberley, Public Education, 121–23; Scharf and Westcott, Philadelphia, 3:1921 ff.; Beard, Rise of Am. Civilization, 492–95; “Sunday School,” DAH(1976–1978); Sweet, Story of Religion in America, 368. Origins of the Jewish Sunday School: Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Maria Gist Gratz, Lexington, Ky., Jan. 15, 1837, copy in AJAr; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 233, 238, 241–43, 273; Todes, “Jewish Education in Philadelphia,” 61; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 128–29, 145; Sunday-School, 1838–1913, 6; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Maria G. Gratz, Lexington, Ky., Feb. 25, 1838, copy in AJAr; JQR, n.s., 45:459; Proceedings … Hebrew Sunday Schools, 17; Berman, Richmond, 38; Morais, Philadelphia, 146 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 304; Leeser, Catechism, v–vi; Leeser, Discourses, 9:14 ff. Curriculum: Marcus, Memoirs, 1:281 ff.; Second Annual Examination of the Sunday School, etc., (Phila., 1840), 5–7; R, no. 458; B. & B., JOUS, 2:638, n. 113; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Miriam Gratz Cohen, Georgetown, S.C., Oct. 7, 1838, copy in AJAr; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 43, 129 ff., 171. Textbooks: Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 23–24, 134–35, 140 ff.; Todes, “Jewish Education in Philadelphia,” 12, 62; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:13, 284–85; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Miriam Gratz Cohen, Georgetown, S.C., July 29, 1838, copy in AJAr; Kaplan Jubilee Volume, 479; Sunday-School, 1838–1913, 15–16; Fierman, “Jewish Education,” 43; S. I. Cohen, Elements of Jewish Faith (Phila., 1823): R, no. 235; Leeser, Hebrew Reader, Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 258–62; EIAJH, 221, no. 127; PAJHS, 42:55–57; Louis Salomon, The Mosaic System In Its Fundamental Principles (Phila., 1841); Herbert Hovenkamp, Science and Religion in America, 1800–1860 (Phila., 1978); H. Henry, Imrai Shaipher; A Hebrew Vocabulary, etc. (N.Y., 1839); R, no. 426; Leeser, Catechism; J. Marx, Richmond, to Sam Myers, Norfolk, Mar. 2, 1819, Myers Papers, AJAr. Summation: B. & B., JOUS, 2:447; Todes, “Jewish Education in Philadelphia,” 112–13. Charleston: Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Miriam Gratz Cohen, Georgetown, S.C., July 29, 1838, copy in AJAr; PAJHS, 42:56; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 263–64; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Minutes, 1838, pp. 10, 13–14, 1839, pp. 28–29; Leeser, Claims, 86; Occ., 1:440. Savannah: “Georgia,” JE; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 148; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Miriam Gratz Cohen, Savannah, Aug. 2, 1840, copy in AJAr. Richmond: “United States” JE. New York: Dushkin, Jew. Ed. in NYC, 458–59; Grinstein, New York City, 152; Pool, Old Faith, 363–64; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 161; Leeser, Discourses, 9:1 ff.; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 144; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 251–52; Todes, “Jewish Education in Philadelphia,” 112 ff.; Occ., 1:162 ff.

27. Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 5; Channing, History, 5:242, 270; Fish, Common Man, 224–25; Ellis, Am. Catholicism, 53 ff.

28. W. & W., Philadelphia, 131, 305; PAJHS, 35:198; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 119.

29. Haym Salomon: Marcus, EAJ, 2:153–54.

30. Scharf and Westcott, Philadelphia, 3:1927 ff.; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 5–12, 44–46, 150, 165–72; W. & W., Philadelphia, 304–5; Schappes, DHJUS, 171 ff., no mention of Jewish education; Grinstein, New York City, 225–30; Moses, Oration, no mention of Jewish education; Fish, Common Man, 226; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Auszug, no mention of Jewish education.

31. B. & B., JOUS, 2:597 ff.; Pool, Old Faith, 474; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 159 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:247; Peixotto, Anniversary Discourse.

32. Marcus, AJD, 288–89; Schappes, DHJUS, 92 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 206, 209–14, 216, 287.

33. Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 3–4, 9, 24–26, 76, 104–5, 120, 151–52, 168, 169–72; B. & B., JOUS, 2:447 ff.; Fierman, “Jewish Education,” 41. Private Schools: Todes, “Jewish Education in Philadelphia,” 110–11; Sunday-School, 1838–1913, 6; Kiev Festschrift, 190, no. 73; Occ., 1:104–5; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 282 ff.; Berman, Richmond, 50–52, 101; PAJHS, 39:298 ff.; Memoir of Louisa B. Hart, in Jewish Record, 1878. Jewish Publications: R, nos. 77–353; Marcus, Jewish Americana, 4–75; EIAJH, 190–222; Kiev Festschrift, 177–90.

34. Berman, Richmond, 55; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:16, 203 ff.; Marcus, AJD, 73; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 217; W. & W., Philadelphia, 251–52.

CHAPTER ELEVEN

THE GENERAL CULTURE OF THE AMERICAN JEW 1776–1840

  1. Hershkowitz and Meyer, Letters, 13, 48–49; E. & L., Richmond, 13–20.

  2. See Clifford L. Lord and Elizabeth H. Lord, Historical Atlas of the United States (N.Y., 1944), 85; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 142, 292; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:146 ff.; Proceedings … Hebrew Sunday Schools, 20; Sunday-School, 1838–1913, 6, 14; Morais, Philadelphia, 149, 151, 274; Berman, Richmond, 87–88; Korn, New Orleans, 189; Md. Hist. Mag., 39:147; B. & B., JOUS, 1:234–35; Receipt Book of Isaac Moses, 1785–1787, sub Aug. 12, 1785, copy in Marcus Collections; PAJHS, 32:39, 42:53–54; Tobias, Hebrew Orphan Society, 8.

  3. Lizzie Wilson Montgomery, Sketches of Old Warrenton, North Carolina, etc. (Raleigh, 1924), 133 ff.; Va. Mag. of Hist. and Bio., 49:364 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:216–21; Lance J. Sussman, “Our Little World at Warrenton,” (HUC term paper, 1979).

  4. Hennig Cohen (ed.), A Barhamville Miscellany, etc. (Columbia, S.C., 1956), 36, 38, et passim; J. Marion Sims, The Story of My Life, etc. (N.Y., 1889), 102–4; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 195; Elias Marks, Preliminary Discourse to a Course of Lectures on Belles Lettres, etc. (Columbia, S.C., 1849), copy in Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marina, Ca.; Prospectus of South Carolina Female Collegiate Institute, original in Southern Historical Collection, B.C. Yancey Papers, Univ. of N.C. Library; “Marks, Elias,” DAB; R. & E., Charleston, 282, n. 75; Julian A. Selby, Memorabilia and Anecdotal Reminiscences of Columbia, S.C. and Incidents Connected Therewith (Columbia, S.C., 1905), 126–27; Harris, Columbia, 11, 12; JOAH, 65:679 ff.; Wallace, Hist. of S.C., 3:44; Md. Hist. Mag., 39:143.

  5. PAJHS, 19:116, 123; P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 456; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 128; “Hart, Joel,” UJE; R. & E., Charleston, 80; JSJHS, 1:7; “Cohen,” UJE, 3:234; “Levin, Lewis Charles,” DAB; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 197.

  6. “Abrahams, Dr. Isaac (3),” BDEAJ; Stiles, Diary, 1:283; Will of Saul Simons, signed May 22, 1806, Probate Court records, Savannah, Georgia; Franklin B. Dexter, Biographical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College (6 vols., New Haven, 1885–1912), 6:279; B. & B., JOUS, 2:457–58.

  7. “Gratz, Richea,” BDEAJ; Morais, Philadelphia, 409 ff.

  8. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1205; W. & W., Philadelphia, 305, 314 ff.; Josiah Quincy, The History of the Boston Athenaeum with Biographical Notices of Its Deceased Founders (Cambridge, Mass., 1851), 43–44; E. & L., Richmond, 55, 134–35, 230.

  9. E. & L., Richmond, 335; Will of Marcus Elcan, Aug. 13, 1805, Chancery Court, Richmond, Va.; Marcus, EAJ, 2:473 ff.; Korn, New Orleans, 174–75.

10. “Family History of Benjamin Mordecai and Constance Davis Mordecai: Their Descendants and Ancestors” (1929), calligraphic MS, 59 ff., copy in Marcus Collections; Harris, Columbia, 8, 13–14; copy of Inventory of the Alexander Marks Library in the Marcus Collections; these books are in possession of Gordon Scherck of St. Louis.

11. “Noah, Mordecai Manual,” DAB; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 1; B. & B., JOUS, 2:308, 315–16; Whiteman, Hendricks, 168; R. & E., Charleston, 82–85.

12. Moïse, Isaac Harby, 6; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 173 ff.; Pinckney & Moïse, Selection, 12–13; “Harby, Isaac,” DAB; B. & B., JOUS, 2:315–16; Markens, Hebrews, 58–59; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 209 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 134 ff., 599–600; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 1.

13. Curti, American Thought, 218; Friedman, Pioneers, 187 ff.; AJHQ, 56:113, n. 8; Pool, Portraits, 432 ff.

14. R, nos. 84, 133, 190; E. & L., Richmond, 127–28; Gershom Seixas, N.Y., to Sarah Kursheedt, Richmond, Jan. 23, 1814, AJHSL; PAJHS, 26:212–13; 35:202–5; Judah Hays, Boston, to John Myers, Norfolk, Apr. 19, 1814, Myers Papers, AJAr; R. & E., Charleston, 80, 280, n. 53; EIAJH, 207–8, nos. 69–71, 215, n. 101.

15. R, nos. 186, 193, 205, 227, 244, 259, 283, 323, 334, 335, 398, 4 09, 448, 465; W. & W., Philadelphia, 314 ff.; Kiev Festschrift, 183, no. 33, 188, nos. 61, 63; EIAJH, 212, nos. 86–69, 214, no. 98, 215, nos. 100, 102, 216, no. 105, 218, no. 111A, 219, no. 116; GHQ, 4:41–43; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 128; Collection no. 815, U.S. Courts, Eastern Judicial Circuit of Georgia, 1794–1817, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah; Morais, Philadelphia, 409 ff.

16. Friedman, Pilgrims, 79 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 38–39, 409–11.

17. “Benjamin, Judah Philip,” “Judah, Samuel,” “Yulee, David Levy,” DAB; “Simson,” UJE; Marcus Festschrift, 540; Bertram Wallace Korn, “The Jews of Mobile, Alabama, 1763–1841,” HUCA, 40–41:490–92.

18. “Phillips, Philip,” UJE; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 71; Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1540, sub “Phillips, Philip”; R. & E., Charleston, 106, 108, 285, n. 110, 293, n. 162; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 163, 202–3, 205–6; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:133 ff.

19. Kiev Festschrift, 183, n. 33; Saint Charles, 1(1935):86–87; Moses, Full Annals, Part 2:14–16, 18, 144, 145; R, nos. 323, 334; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 140, 143–44, 197; “Moses, Myer,” UJE; R. & E., Charleston, 48, 104, 111.

20. Marcus, CAJ, 1:187; Isaac S. Emmanuel, Precious Stones of the Jews of Curaçao, etc. (N.Y., 1957), 120 ff.; AJA, 15:21 ff.; Rosenbaum, Myer Myers;, PAJHS, 19:66, 123; London, Portraits, 63 ff.; Hannah R. London, Shades of My Forefathers (Springfield, Mass., 1941); London, Miniatures;, W. & W., Philadelphia, 321 ff.

21. Rachel Wischnitzer, Synagogue Architecture in the United States: History and Interpretation (Phila., 1955), 19–40; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 194; B. & B., JOUS, 2:497 ff.; Jewish People, 3:299 ff.

22. Makovsky, The Philipsons; “Levy, Aaron,” UJE’, Schappes, DHJUS, 215–16.

23. Daniel M. Friedenberg, Jewish Minters & Medalists (Phila., 1976), 67–70; AJA, 15:24 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 140.

24. Moïse, Moïse Family, 26–30; AJA, 15:24 ff.; “Carvalho, Solomon Nunes,” JE; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 187–88; Markens, Hebrews, 203–4; Solomon Nunes Carvalho, Incidents of Travel and Adventure in the Far West, ed. by Bertram W. Korn (Phila., 1954), 13 ff.; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Minutes, Dec. 29, 1838.

25. Cohen, Records of the Myers, Hays, and Mordecai Families, 38; “Mason, John Young,” DAB; Korn, New Orleans, 179 ff.; AJA, 15:26–27; Jewish Frontier, 42(no. 5):10 ff.

26. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1207–8,1210, 1246–48.

27. Kiev Festschrift, 187, no. 56; “Russell, Henry,” JE, EJ, ACOAB; Lester S. Levy, Pikesville, Md., to JRM, Jan. 2, 1974, Marcus Collections; Kenneth Aaron Kanter, “The Jews on Tin Pan Alley: The History of the Jewish Contribution to American Popular Music,” 1839–1940” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1980).

28. Makovsky, The Philipsons.

29. R, no. 450; B. & B., JOUS, 2:484 ff., 645, nn. 173–74; “Moscheles, Ignaz,” JE.

30. Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 67, 69; W. & W., Philadelphia, 320–21.

31. EIAJH, 209, nos. 72–73, 214, no. 98.

32. JSJHS 1(no. 1):11, n. 15; Joseph Louis Russo, Lorenzo Da Ponte: Poet and Adventurer (N.Y., 1922); Elisabeth Abbott (tr.), Memoirs of Lorenzo Da Ponte (Phila., 1929); “Da Ponte, Lorenzo,” JE, UJE, DAB, EJ; W. & W., Philadelphia, 320–21; Bertram W. Korn, “Lorenzo Da Ponte,” (HUC term paper, 1942), copy in Marcus Collections; New Era Illustrated Magazine, 6:465 ff.; Scharf and Westcott, Philadelphia, 1:601, 3:2291.

33. R. & E., Charleston, 84–86, 295, n. 173; Melvin M. Leiman, Jacob N. Cardozo, etc. (N.Y., 1966), 10; Historia Judaica, 15:136 ff.; Stern, FAJF, 28; B. & B., JOUS 1:42–43; Elzas, Jews of S. C., 141–42.

34. Jacob N. Cardozo, An Oration on the Literary Character, Delivered on the Anniversary of the Methulogic Society, 1st October, 1811 (Charleston, 1811).

35. R. & E., Charleston, 160–61, 281, n. 61, 304–5, n. 231; David Duncan Wallace, South Carolina: A Short History 1520–1948 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1951), 576–78.

36. Historia Judaica, 15:148, 150, 161 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 176 ff.

37. “Cardozo, Jacob Newton,” DAB, BDEAJ; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 41 nn., 43, 71, 74, 75, 128; Stern, FAJF, 29; Historia Judaica, 15:135 ff.; Archives Isráelites 35(1874):49–50; Elzas Jews of S.C., 176–79; R. & E., Charleston, 280–81, nn. 60–61; B. & B., JOUS, 1:42–43, 2:402–4, 626, n. 1; Joseph Dorfman, The Economic Mind in American Civilization, etc. (N.Y., 1946–1959), vols. 2–4, see index for Cardozo.

38. “Mordecai, Alfred,” UJE, AJA, 10:125–32; “Isaacs, Jacob,” BDEAJ, UJE, PAJHS, 2:111–17; Marcus, AJD, 302–5; B. & B., JOUS, 2:476 ff., 642, n. 153; Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 19:608 ff.

39. AH, May 5, 1905, p. 731; “Simson, Solomon,” BDEAJ; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1322; AJA, 1(no. 2):17, 18, 20, n. 7, 35, n. 21; R, no. 135.

40. B. & B., JOUS, 1:13.

41. Obituary notice from Scientific American (undated), copy in Marcus Collections; “Feuchtwanger, Lewis,” ACOAB; EIAJH, 219, no. 116; AJA, 14:29–30.

42. “Abrahams, Isaac(3),” BDEAJ; “Ware, John,” DAB; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1205–6; PAJHS, 19:118, 22:147; Pool, Portraits, 369–70.

43. Pool, Portraits, 162, 269–70; PAJHS, 4:217–18; “Hart, Joel,” UJE; Kagan, Contributions, 10.

44. PAJHS, 26:219 ff.; Peixotto, Address before the Medical Society; R, no. 335; B. & B., JOUS, 2:469.

45. Kagan, Contributions, 12; The Improvement Era, Feb. 1936, 67 ff.

46. PAJHS, 26:219 ff., 27:158–59; Kagan, Contributions, 10 ff.; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:52–53; B. & B., JOUS, 2:469 ff., 597 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 22–23; R, nos. 324, 335; Peixotto, Address before the Medical Society; AH, May 5, 1905, pp. 730–31; EIAJH, 213, no. 93; Peixotto, Introductory Lecture Delivered at the Willoughby Medical College of the Willoughby University of Lake Erie, 1836–1837 (Cleveland, 1837).

47. Kiev Festschrift, 178, no. 5; Roth, Bibliotheca, 417, no. 74, 419, no. 96; W. & W., Philadelphia, 329, 482, n. 35; Marcus, EAJ, 2:77–78.

48. Marcus, AJD, 465 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 1:162–63, 285, n. 2; W. & W., Philadelphia, 137; Simon Cohen (tr.), Historical Essay on the Colony of Surinam, 1788 (Cincinnati, 1974).

49. AJA, 23:198 ff.; Elzas Jews of S.C., 59–60; Marcus, CAJ, 2:666, 3:1211; W. & W., Philadelphia, 194, 437–38, n. 47; EIAJH, 189, no. 3; Marcus, AJD, 303.

50. Bloom, Amsterdam, 162–63; PAJHS, 22:25 ff., 23:185–86; Marcus, AJD, 303, 465–73; W. & W., Philadelphia, 137, 193–94, 196, 200–201, 224, 303, 375; B. & B., JOUS, 2:459–68, 640, n. 127; EIAJH, 191, nos. 7–8; Powell, Bring Out Your Dead, 200, 255.

51. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 203–4, 271–73; “Dentistry,” DAH (1976–1978), 2:330; B. & B., JOUS, 2:465 ff.; Marcus, AJD, 69 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 325, 480, n. 3; Morais, Philadelphia, 416 ff.

52. AJA, 14:26 ff.; EIAJH, 212, no. 89, 217, no. 109; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 291 ff.; Allen Schoener (ed.), Portal to America: The Lower East Side 1870–1925 (N.Y., 1967), 120.

53. An Account of the Origin and Progress of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, etc. (Phila., 1821).

54. Occ., 22:95–96.

55. P. & K., Tourist’s Guide, 553; “Seixas, David G.,” UJE; Morais, Philadelphia, 297–98; W. & W., Philadelphia, 331–37; EIAJH, 204, nos. 53–54, 205, nos. 59–60; R, nos. 222, 223; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 28, 51–52; Wolf, American Jew, 71; PAJHS, 27:370, 35:197; An Account of the Origin and Progress of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, etc. (Phila., 1821); David G. Seixas, To The Editors of the American Sentinel, My Communication of the 7th, Which Appeared in Several Gazettes of this City, Remains until this Day Unanswered, Dec. 14th (Phila., 1821); Documents in Relation to the Dismissal of David G. Seixas, from the Pennsylvania Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, etc. (Phila., 1822); Letters to C. C. Biddle, Wm. M’Ilvaine, Mary Cowgill, and John Bacon: Connected with the Dismissal of David G. Seixas, etc. (Phila., 1822); A Sketch of the Origin and Progress of the Institutions for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb in Pennsylvania (Phila., 1824?); Alfred Mordecai, West Point, N.Y., to Rachel Lazarus, Wilmington, N.C., Dec. 9, 1822, Mordecai Papers, LC; William Thornton, On the mode of teaching the surd, or deaf and consequently dumb to speak—there is a Philadelphia, 1904 edition.

56. Elisabeth D. Freund, Crusader for Light: Julius R. Friedlander, Founder of the Overbrook School for the Blind, 1882 (Phila., 1959), for the poem, see p. 137; Aldine Catalogue, nos. 656–58; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, for William H. Furness, 131–32, et passim; “Furness, William Henry,” DAB; for the Peixotto reference to the blind see the Willoughby lecture, R, no. 57; Gustav Koerner, Das deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika, 1818–1848 (Cincinnati, 1880), 68–69.

57. Md. Hist. Mag., 19:58–59; “Cohen,”JE, 4:145, UJE, 3:234, 236; Fein, Baltimore, 23–24, 107; Thorpe, Constitutions, 3:1715, art. 34.

58. Curti, American Thought, 246; Morais, Eminent Israelites, 123 ff.

59. Will of Abraham Touro, Suffolk County, Mass., 1822.

60. Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, Feb. 22, 1824; “Hays, Isaac,” BDEAJ, DAB; Kagan, Contributions, 19–21; Morais, Eminent Israelites, 123 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 416–17, 424–25, 432; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 219–20; W. & W., Philadelphia, 326 ff., 481–82; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, Index sub “Hays, Isaac,” especially 7, et passim; Isaac Hays, Phila., to J.C. Warren, Boston, Feb. 20, 1832; EIAJH, 210, nos. 77, 79, 212, nos. 86–88, 213, no. 91; Proceedings of the National Medical Conventions Held in New York, May 1846 and in Philadelphia, May, 1847 (Phila., 1847), 91 ff.

61. Marcus, AJD, 292; “Nones, Benjamin,” BDEAJ; “Pinto, Isaac,” UJE; Marcus, CAJ, 2:569, 3:1207; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 19; Morais, Philadelphia, 411; EIAJH, 207, no. 66a; Marcus, Jewish Americana, 30, no. 58; R, nos. 221, 269, 274, 351, 366.

62. Noah, Discourse (1818), 43, n. 13; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 140 ff.; R, no. 227.

63. Helen Kohn Hennig, “Edwin De Leon” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of S.C., 1928), copy in AJAr, 1 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 190, 206–7, 221, 226, 271–72; “De Leon, Thomas Cooper,” DAB; “Leon, David Camden De,” “Leon, Edwin De,” JE; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:133 ff.; William Harden, A History of Savannah and South Georgia (Chicago, 1913), 2:554; E. & L., Richmond, 48; Markens, Hebrews, 203.

64. Ledger of Joseph Marx, Richmond, sub 1828, U. of Va. Library; PAJHS, 2:50, 27:487.

65. E. & L., Richmond, 41–43; “Jacobs, Bernard Itzhak,” “Jacobs, Solomon,” BDEAJ; Berman, Richmond, 72–74, 110, 126, 129, 163, 166; PAJHS, 27:488; B. & B., JOUS, 1:192 ff.

66. R. & E., Charleston, 285, n. 110; R, no. 389.

67. Proceedings at the Annual Meeting of the New-Orleans Commercial Library Society. With an Address by M. M. Cohen (New-Orleans, 1837), 10; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 189, 206; R. & E., Charleston, 90, 105, 281, n. 72, 285; Daily Picayune, Feb. 24, 1887, p. 4, c. 3–4; R, nos. 398, 399, 409; Korn, New Orleans, 148, 189–91, 237, 323, n. 55; Stern, FAJF, 39; Southern Patriot, Nov. 15, 1824: “Communication,” re his Academy; M.M. Cohen (An Officer of the Left Wing), Notices of Florida and the Campaigns (Charleston, S.C., 1836). The anonymous Sketch of the Seminole War and Sketches During a Campaign, by a Lieutenant of the Left Wing (Charleston, S.C., 1836), is also ascribed to M. M. Cohen by R, no. 399 (1836). However, the Daily Picayune obituary speaks of but one book of his on the Seminole War.

68. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 127, 143, 189–90, 241–43; Stern, FAJF, 35, 209; “Cohen, Solomon(1),” BDEAJ; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 230–31.

69. PAJHS, 52:200 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 150–57, 603, n. 2; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 179–81, 206; R. & E., Charleston, 86–88, 141, 144; Kagan, Contributions, 2–3, 443, 554–55; “Motta, Emanuel De La,” UJE; “Motta, Jacob De La,” UJE, BDEAJ; B. & B., JOUS, 1:13–14, 2:572–77, 686 ff.; R, nos. 185, 212, 463; PAJHS, 3:133–34, 4:219–20, 19:82–83; EIAJH, 197, no. 29.

70. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:239 ff.; Stern, FAJF, 183.

71. Lucien Wolf, The History and Genealogy of the Jewish Families of Yates and Samuel, etc. (London, 1901), 24–26; R. & E., Charleston, 69, 95–96, 114, 136, 275, n. 10a, 282, n. 76, 291, n. 143, 293–94, n. 167, 298, n. 185; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 194, 292; Stern, FAJF, 169; MS notes in the Marcus Collections on the Jacob C. Levy family: “The Lazarus and Levy Families”; J. C. Levy, Charleston, S.C., to Mr. I.K. Tefft, Savannah, Apr. 14, 1839, Emmett Collection, No. 8943, Div. of Mss., NYPL; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:133–96.

72. Elzas Jews of S.C., 129, 132, 140–46, 172 ff., 189, 193; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:11–12; B. & B., JOUS, 1:85; “Charleston,” UJE’, Occ., 1:495–96.

73. Sulamith, 7(no.2):360.

74. Adams, History of the Jews, 2:217–20; B. & B., JOUS, 1:87–93; Elzas Jews of S.C., 130, 143, 145, n. 72, 206; Stern, FAJF, 38–39.

75. Schappes, DHJUS, 134, 599–600; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 9.

76. Pinckney & Moïse, Selection, 190.

77. Pinckney & Moïse, Selection, 254; “Harby Booklist”; B. & B., JOUS, 2:318 ff., 398, 405 ff., 3:672–76; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:135; R. & E., Charleston, 80–82; Kenneth A. Kanter, “Isaac Harby -Dramatist and Playwright,” (HUC term paper, 1979); R, nos. 139, 201, 306; Moïse, Isaac Harby; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 172 ff.; “Harby, Isaac,” BDEAJ, UJEJE, EJ; PAJHS, 32:35 ff.; AJA, 8:3 ff.; Harap, Image of the Jew, 267–69.

CHAPTER TWELVE

ASPECTS OF THE GENERAL CULTURE OF THE AMERICAN JEW 1776–1840

  1. “Lyceum,” DAH (1942); Marcus, Memoirs, 1:345; W. & W., Philadelphia, 227–28, 315; PAJHS, 40:119 ff.

  2. Korn, New Orleans, 88, 292, n. 33; W. & W., Philadelphia, 314; “Hays, Judah(2),” “Hays, Moses Michael,” BDEAJ;, Smith and Tatsch, Moses Michael Hays, 40–41; Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, 49(Oct. 1915–June, 1916):418 ff.; “Massachusetts,” UJE, 7:404; “Libraries,” DAH (1976–1978); PAJHS, 27:215–16, 449–51.

  3. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:153–54, 285, 287; Trachtenberg, Easton, 75; Mary M. Cohen, “A Memoir of Louisa B. Hart with Extracts from Her Diary and Letters,” in Jewish Record, Oct. 11, 1878–Jan. 3, 1879; Morais, Philadelphia, 30, et passim.

  4. W. & W., Philadelphia, 314–15, 323–24, 331; “Gratz, Hyman,” “Gratz, Simon,” BDEAJ;, Morais, Philadelphia, 271 ff.; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 262–65, 327.

  5. “Gomez,” UJE, 5:50; R, no. 209; Pool, Old Faith, 131, 216, 242–45, 477, 483; PAJHS, 27:306, 308.

  6. Whiteman, Hendricks, 152; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 409 ff.; Pool, Old Faith, 170 ff.; Pool, Portraits, 344 ff.; PAJHS, 35:203; G. Seixas, N.Y., to Sarah Kursheedt, Nov. 4, 1813, Jan. 23, May 5, 1814, AJHSL.

  7. Pool, Portraits, 438 ff.; PAJHS, 37:203 ff.; Grace Nathan, N.Y., to Sarah Kursheedt, Richmond, Mar. 28, 1815, same to same, Aug. 26, 1816, AJHSL; Marcus, AJW, 19–20; Marcus, AJWD, 72 ff.

  8. The Hymns appeared in Charleston in 1842; there were at least four editions of this book; some, it seems, were published with a slight change in title. R. & E., Charleston, 82 ff.; Moïse, Fancy’s Sketch Book, 67, 97; Works of Penina Moise, v; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 181 ff.; Elzas, Leaves, Second Series, no. 5; “Moïse, Penina,” DAB; AJYB, 7:17 ff.; American Jews’ Annual for 5646 A.M. (1885–1886), article on Penina Moïse by Mrs. S.A. Dinkins; Markens, Hebrews, 59–60; Moïse, Moïse Family, 61–69; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 214–17; B. & B., JOUS, 2:417–18; Marcus, AJW, 35–36; Marcus, AJWD, 124 ff.

  9. Octavia Harby Moses, A Mother’s Poems: A Collection of Verses (n.p., 1915), 24; Marcus, AJW, 36; Marcus, AJWD, 200–203.

10. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 190–91; “Harby, George Washington,” BDEAJ.

11. “Tutoona, or the Indian Girl,” incomplete copy in AJAr; Korn, New Orleans, see Index sub “Theatre,” and especially 182 ff., 190–91, 240 ff., 323, nn. 48–49.

12. “The Petition for Hearing on Opening a Theatre, to the Selectmen of Boston,” Oct. 8, 1791, MHS; “Silva, Antonio José Da,” JE; Cohen, Records of the Myers, Hays, and Mordecai Families, 14; Curti, American Thought, 143; W. & W., Philadelphia, 316 ff.; McMaster, History, 1:83 ff., 93 ff.; “Cumberland, Richard,” UJE; Harap, Image of the Jew, 203–4.

13. EIAJH, 207–9; R, nos. 287–288; Gustavus A. Myers, Nature and Philosophy, or The Youth Who Never Saw a Woman (Boston, 1856), 22; E. & L., Richmond, 62.

14. Harvard Library Bulletin, 1(Winter, 1947):117–18. Dr. Jonathan Sarna drew this reference to my attention; I am grateful. Phlogobombos, The Buccaneers, 1:263; “Judah, Samuel Benjamin Helbert,” DAB; “Judah,” UJE, 6:232; Stern, FAJF, 139; Harap, Image of the Jew, 261–63, et passim; Daly, Settlement, 139 ff.; Arthur Hobson Quinn, A History of the American Drama, etc. (N.Y., 1923), 155, 197; George C. D. Odell, Annals of the New York Stage (15 vols., N.Y., 1927–49), 2:557; B. & B., JOUS, 2:410 ff., 627, n. 15; R, nos. 211, 225–226, 242–43, 361; EIAJH, 217, no. 108B; Morais, Philadelphia, 378; PAJHS, 26:242–43, 27:314; Samuel B.H. Judah, N.Y., to T. Jefferson, Monticello, June 12, 1822, T. Jefferson to S. B. H. Judah, June 27, 1822, copies in Marcus Collections; Judah, Gotham and the Gothamites, 58, 68, for Noah, see ix, xii–xiii, xxxvi–xxxix, 54, 74, 83, 92.

15. Morais, Philadelphia, 340–41; PAJHS, 25:128 ff.

16. Brigham, American Newspapers, 1:672; “Phillips, Naphtali,” BDEAJ; Rezneck, Phillips Family, 193; PAJHS, 21:172 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 316.

17. “Phillips, Aaron J.,” BDEAJ; W. & W., Philadelphia, 319–20; “Theatre,” UJE; AH, May 5, 1905, p. 731.

18. Stern, FAJF, 243–44; Rezneck, Phillips Family, 26, 28, 32, 185 ff. Naphtali Phillips: W. & W., Philadelphia, 316 ff., 351; PAJHS, 21:212; Morais, Philadelphia, 372 ff.; Korn, New Orleans, 160–61; Daly, Settlement, 103–4. Jonas B. Phillips: W. & W., Philadelphia, 316; EIAJH, 209, no. 74; R, nos. 336, 365, 393, 629; Rezneck, Phillips Family, 189–95; B. & B., JOUS, 2:415–16, 627, n. 17, 630–31, nn. 30–37; Pool, Old Faith, 477; Aldine Catalogue, nos. 1740–45; Moses, Full Annals, 131–32.

19. The best biography is Jonathan D. Sarna’s Jacksonian Jew: The Two Worlds of Mordecai Noah. See also Goldberg, Major Noah; Daly, Settlement, 96 et passim; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 167, et passim; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:117 ff.; Kohler, Simon Wolf Addresses, 108 ff.; Jacob N. Blanck, Bibliography of American Literature (New Haven, 1973), 6:447–54; Stern, FAJF, 232, 243; “Noah, Mordecai Manuel,” DAB, JE, UJE, EJ; Morais, Philadelphia, 396 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 286, et passim; Rezneck, Phillips Family, 3, et passim; PAJHS, 27:55, 57; Canadian Jewish Historical Journal, 3:117 ff.; MS biography of Noah in Marcus Collections, source not given.

20. Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 15 ff.; Menorah Journal, 24:276, 287–90.

21. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:133–34; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 2; Goldberg, Major Noah, 74 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:317 ff.; Noah, Travels, 312.

22. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:117 ff., 135–38, AJH, 68:206 ff.; Noah, Travels, 412 ff.; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 16–33; R, nos. 186, 205; Noah, Correspondence, 125–28; Rezneck, Phillips Family, 139–40; B. & B., JOUS, 1:9.

23. AJHQ, 64:208; “Hays, John Jacob,” BDEAJ; B. & B., JOUS, 2:317 ff.; AJA, 7:68; “Harby, Isaac,” DAB; Moses M. Russell, Baltimore, to Dr. Moses Sheftall, Savannah, Feb. 19(?), 1817, Levy collection in Savannah; Noah, Travels, 415; James Madison, Montpelier, to Mordecai Noah, N.Y., May 15, 1818, in Travels, Appendix, xxv–xxvi.

24. M. M. Noah, Oration delivered by appointment before Tammany Society of Columbian Order, etc. (N.Y., 1817); R, no. 193; Noah, Travels, title page shows membership in the New-York Historical Society; Schappes, DHJUS, 637, n. 6; Jewish Daily Bulletin, Apr. 29, 1931, pp.3–4; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 7.

25. PAJHS, 21:200 ff.; William Wirt, Washington, to John Myers, Norfolk, June 12, 1818, Myers Papers, AJAr; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 178, n. 65.

26. B. & B., JOUS, 3:994, n. 16; Korn, Eventful Years, 199–200; Occ., 1:301–7; AJA, 12:143 ff.

27. “Noah, Manuel,” BDEAJ; Grinstein, New York City, 184 ff.; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 7; Schappes, DHJUS, 642, n. 3.

28. Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 7; Schappes, DHJUS, 318–19, 651, n. 10.

29. Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 7, especially 204–5, nn. 41–42; Schappes, DHJUS, 279 ff.

30. Goldberg, Major Noah, 189 ff., 220, 290 ff.; Young Israel, 25(no. 6):5 ff.; Menorah Journal, 24:276 ff., 293.

31. Rezneck, Phillips Family, 136–37; PAJHS, 6:5 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 1:361 ff.; cf. letter of Mordecai Noah, N.Y., to Sir (John Myers of Norfolk), Feb. 28, 1819, copy in Myers Papers, AJAr.

32. B. & B., JOUS, 875 ff., 884 ff., 891 ff., 849 ff.

33. Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 4; Goldberg, Major Noah, chap. 8; PAJHS, 11:132, 21:229 ff., 41:1 ff., 43:170 ff.; Rezneck, Phillips Family, 136–37; B. & B., JOUS, 3:875–911; AJHQ, 55:162 ff., 64:195; Schappes, DHJUS, 603, n. 4; Mordecai Noah, N.Y., to Duff Green, London, May 24, 1843, Duff Green Papers, LC; JSJHS, 1:12, n. 31.

34. Mordecai Noah, N.Y., to Sir (John Myers of (Norfolk), Feb. 28, 1819, copy in Myers Papers, AJAr; PAJHS, 27:34–37, 140–43, 240, 253.

35. PAJHS, 21:230–32; Roth, Bibliotheca, 372 ff.; R, nos. 97–99; “Alexander, Michael Solomon,” “Way, Lewis,” JE; Gelber, Zionismus, 126 ff.

36. Meyer, Early History of Zionism, 1 ff.; “Cresson, Warder,” JE, UJE.

37. Noah, Discourse (1818); AJHQ, 64:195 ff.; Goldberg, Major Noah, 139 ff.; Meyer, Early History of Zionism, 55–56, 62; PAJHS, 50:11–12.

38. Noah, Travels, Appendix, xxv ff.; PAJHS, 3:94 ff., 4:220–21; AJHQ, 64:195 ff., 209; B. & B., JOUS, 1:12, 81–85, 241, n. 25; Mordecai Noah, N.Y., to Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, May 7, 1818, copy in AJAr.

39. Pool, Old Faith, 396 ff., 400; B. & B., JOUS, 3:917 ff.; JSS, 5:115 ff., 225 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 440 ff.

40. PAJHS, 21:200–201; Noah, Discourse on the American Indians; R, nos. 415, 574; PAJHS, 8:75 ff.; Rezneck, Phillips Family, 146 ff., 161; B. & B., JOUS, 3:920 ff.; Noah, Discourse (1845); Schappes, DHJUS, 247 ff.; Occ., 3:29 ff.

41. Grinstein, New York City, 444 ff., 459–60; Pool, Old Faith, 401–2.

42. RIJHN, 6:604 ff.; Gelber, Zionismus, chaps. 1, 5, 8, 11; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chaps. 4, 7–8; Goldberg, Major Noah, chaps. 6, 8–9; PAJHS, 8:75 ff., 98 ff., 111; AJHQ, 55:162 ff., 554–55, 64:195 ff., 209; Rezneck, Phillips Family, see Index for all references to Noah; Schappes, DHJUS, 247 ff., 628, n. 1; Grinstein, New York City, 440 ff., 453–60; Noah, Discourse (1818); B. & B., JOUS, 1:81 ff., 241, n. 25, 3:912 ff.; Noah, Discourse on the American Indians; Noah, Address; Noah, Travels, Appendix, xxv–xxvi; Occ., 2:600 ff.; JSS, 5:115, 225; Meyer, Early History of Zionism, 21 ff., 32.

43. “Levy, Aaron(3),” BDEAJ; Schappes, DHJUS, 215–16; Barrett, Old Merchants, 1:370–71; Rezneck, Phillips Family, 167.

44. Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chaps. 5–6; B. & B., JOUS, 1:60; Goldberg, Major Noah, chaps. 6, 9; Daly, Settlement, 104–38.

45. Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chaps. 4, 5, 6, 8; Myers, Bigotry, 140 ff., 148 ff.

46. Noah, Travels, 40; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chaps. 3, 6.

47. Rezneck, Phillips Family, 157–58, n. 15; Asmonean, Mar. 28, 1851; EIAJH, 196, no. 27; Goldberg, Major Noah, 147–48; W. & W., Philadelphia, 315; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chaps. 1, 3; R, no. 575; Aldine Catalogue, nos. 1592, 1594, 1619; PAJHS, 2:5–6; Rezneck, Phillips Family, 131 ff., 203–4.

48. R, nos. 148, 204, 215; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:120 ff.; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 1, 6 ff., 47 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 317, 319–20; Rezneck, Phillips Family, 198; Korn, New Orleans, 161, 313, n. 5.

49. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:123–24; R, nos. 228, 229; Friedman, Pilgrims, 221 ff.; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 47 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:629, n. 27; Morais, Philadelphia, 400.

50. W. & W., Philadelphia, 319 ff.; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 6, et passim; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:120 ff.; PAJHS, 6:115–21; Goldberg, Major Noah, 164 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:412–15; Huhner Jews of New York, 11.

51. Asmonean, Mar. 28, 1851; Schappes, DHJUS, 279–81.

52. Kiev Festschrift, 187, n. 56.

53. Krout and Fox, Completion of Independence, chap. 13, especially 350; Curti, American Thought, 14; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:227.

54. Gottesman, Arts and Crafts, 1777–1799, 277.

55. Will of Leah Pimenta (1766), copy in AJAr; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 291; R. & E., Charleston, 306, n. 240; Curti, American Thought, 261; PAJHS, 35:198.

56. Marcus, EAJ, 2:353.

57. R. & E., Charleston, 69, 95–96, 114, 136, 275, n. 10a, 291, n. 143, 294, n. 170; Huhner, Jews of New York, 8; W. & W., Philadelphia, 305, 314–15, et passim; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 129–30; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1208–10, 1246–48; JSJHS, l:5ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:357 ff.; Aldine Catalogue, nos. 1144, 1619.

58. Marcus, EAJ, 2:300 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 193–94, 303, 437–38, n. 47; B. & B., JOUS, 1:83; Noah, Discourse (1818).

59. B. & B., JOUS, 2:397 ff.; Hertzberg, Strangers, 13–14; B. Mordecai, Charleston, to I.L., Nov. 28, 1858, Leeser Papers, copy in Marcus Collectios.

60. Elzas Jew of S.C. 221–22, 261.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

REJECTION OF THE JEW: THE STATE 1776–1840

  1. Leeser, Discourses, 1:153–54, 7:250.

  2. Leeser, Discourses, 3:153–71; W. & W., Philadelphia, 116–17; Marcus, EAJ, 2:126.

  3. Greene, Revolutionary Generation, 270; Korn, New Orleans, 223; Glanz, Studies, 215; Glanz, Folklore, 35–36, 42, 44–47, 113; Marcus, AJD, 40 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 111–113; Schappes, DHJUS, 72–73.

  4. Schappes, DHJUS, 68–69; PAJHS, 2:108–10; Luzzatti, God in Freedom, 693–94; Commager, Documents, 128 ff., 138 ff.; AJA, 10:20 ff., 59–60.

  5. Israel Vindicated, 99.

  6. AJA, 10:31–33, 49; Thorpe, Constitutions, 5:2637, 2648; Pomerantz, New York: An American City, 1783–1803 (N.Y., 1938), 67.

  7. Thorpe, Constitutions, 7:3813–14, 3906; Luzzatti, God in Freedom, 675 ff.; AJA, 10:25, 42–43, 69, n. 70; Commager, Documents, 125–26; PAJHS, 11:62–63; Stokes, Church and State, 1:302 ff., 312; American State Papers (1949), 120 ff.; Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 97 ff.; Blau, Cornerstones, 69; Channing, History, 2:423 ff.

  8. Allen D. Candler (ed.), Colonial Records of the State of Georgia (26 vols., Atlanta, 1909–1916), 19(Part 2):395 ff., Feb. 21, 1785; AJA, 10:31, 45, 27:149 ff.; Thorpe, Constitutions, 2:779, 785 ff.; A Citizen, Cursory Remarks on Men and Measures in Georgia (Savannah?, 1784); A Real Citizen in Georgia Gazette, Jan. 13, 1785; PAJHS, 13:17–18, 23–30, 16:187.

9. Marcus, CAJ, 1:343 ff., 458 ff., 3:1306–9; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 123–24; AJA, 10:17–19, 24–25, 33–35, 45; Thorpe, Constitutions, 5:3241 ff., 3248 ff., 3258 ff.; Stokes, Church and State, 1:432 ff.; Wallace, Hist. of S.C., 2:174.

10. PMHB, 9:374–77; W. & W., Philadelphia, 81–82; Marcus, EAJ, 2:155–56; PAJHS, 11:68–69; Thorpe, Constitutions, 5:3082–85; AJA, 10:27–28; Pennsylvania Evening Post, Sept. 24, Sept. 26, 1776.

11. W. & W., Philadelphia, 147–48, 149–52; Marcus, CAJ, 1:442–46, 3:1279; The Constitutions of the Several Independent States of America, etc. (Phila. 1781). Seixas was not the one who studied this collection. The notes in the extant copy used by the committee are not in his handwriting. Marcus, EAJ, 2:157–60, 533–35; Schappes, DHJUS, 63 ff., 68–69, 582–83; Stokes, Church and State, 1:290, 528–29; PAJHS, 2:108–10; McMaster, History, 1:454 ff.

12. Delaware: Thorpe, Constitutions, 1:562 ff., 568. Vermont: Thorpe, Constitutions, 6:3737 ff., 3749 ff., 3762 ff.; Stokes, Church and State, 1:425, 536 ff., 545, 3:864; AJA, 10:16–17, 39–42, 49–51, 66–67; Beard, Rise of Am. Civilization, 542–43; Marcus, CAJ, 1:225; The Revised Statutes of the State of Connecticut, etc. (Hartford, 1849), 172; Sketch of Proceedings, 41.

13. AJHQ, 60:258 ff.; Thorpe, Constitutions, 3:1700; Hartogensis, Maryland, 37, 40; Schappes, DHJUS, 601, n. 1, 607, n. 4; PAJHS, 2:42, 25:101, 103–4.

14. W. & W., Philadelphia, 192; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1262–63; Schappes, DHJUS, 601, n. 2, 605, n. 3; B. & B., JOUS, 1:248, n. 101; Occ., 7:226–28.

15. Md. Hist. Mag., 19:55–56; R, no. 312; Sketch of Proceedings, Appendix, 45 ff., 77 ff.; Brackenridge, Speeches on the Jew Bill, 88–89; H.M. Brackenridge, Recollections of Persons and Places in the West, (2d ed., Phila., 1868), 288 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 1:39–40, 78; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 245.

16. Schappes, DHJUS, 139–40; J. Thomas Scharf, History of Western Maryland, etc. (Phila., 1882), 2:1225–26; Altfeld, Maryland, 14 ff.; National Intelligencer, Oct. 14, 1820; Altfeld, Maryland, 133; Israel Vindicated, 98.

17. Schappes, DHJUS, 160 ff., 601, n. 3; B. & B., JOUS, 1:33–45; Altfeld, Maryland, 27, 205; AJHQ, 60:267.

18. B. & B., JOUS, 1:45; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 105 ff.

19. B. & B., JOUS, 1:48–49; Thorpe, Constitutions, 3:1686 ff. Worthington: Brackenridge, Speeches on the Jew Bill, 101 ff.

20. Abraham J. Karp, Beginnings: Early American Judaica (Phila., 1975) includes Worthington’s speech on the Maryland Test Act. The signatures on the 1824 memorial are found in the New Orleans Courier, Feb. 18, 1824. Review of Religion, 8:227–39.

21. Schappes, DHJUS, 139–41, 168–71, 606, n. 2; B. & B., JOUS, 1:15–16, 32–55; “Maryland,” JE, 8:361; PAJHS, 2:33 ff., 25:93 ff.; AJA, 7:67; Md. Hist. Mag., 18:354 ff.; Stokes, Church and State, 3:865; Thorpe, Constitutions, 3:1686–1826, especially, 1715, 1782, 5:3100; Blum, Baltimore, 56, 57; Markens, Hebrews, 97–100; N.Y. Jewish Comment, Aug. 8, 1913; Schappes, JIUS, 58; R, nos. 203, 261, 311; Fein, Baltimore, 29 ff.; Blau, Cornerstones, 88–91, 96–105; Hartogensis, Maryland, 33, 40.

22. Thorpe, Constitutions, 3:1888 ff., especially 1914, 5:2597–98, 6:3222–23; AJA, 10:15, 17–18, 23, 26–27, 35–40, 47–48, 62, 66; Fish, Common Man, 181; Channing, History, 3:565; Marcus, CAJ, 1:438; Schappes, DHJUS, 79–81.

23. Thorpe, Constitutions, 5:2793; PAJHS, 16:37 ff., 45; American State Papers (1949), 157; for intra-Protestant dissensions after 1776, S. B. Weeks, Church and State in North Carolina (Baltimore, 1893), 8, 9, 45, 51 ff.; E. F. Humphrey, Nationalism and Religion in America, 1774–89 (Boston, 1924), 476 ff.; Jonathan Elliot (ed.), The Debates in the Several State Conventions on … the Federal Constitution (Phila. & Washington, 1859), 4:1–252, especially 198–200; PAJHS, 16:45–46.

24. PAJHS, 16:46 ff.; “Hart, Ephraim,” BDEAJ.

25. PAJHS, 16:51.

26. PAJHS, 16:58 ff., 62; B. & B., JOUS, 1:244, n. 57; NCHR, 46:335 ff., 351–52.

27. Wolf, American Jew, 301 ff.; EAH, 247–48; AJHQ, 55:53; Lefler and Newsome, North Carolina, 461–62; Journal of Negro History, 34:391 ff.; Blau, Cornerstones, 90, 92 ff.; NCHR, 6:398 ff.; Stern, FAJF, 115; B. & B., JOUS, 1:28 ff., 244, n. 57, 245, n. 58; Will of Joel Henry, Dec. 8, 1803, Schappes, DHJUS, 122 ff., 597, n. 2, copy in AJAr; W. & W., Philadelphia, 220–21; PAJHS, 16:46 ff., 65 ff., 29:81–82; letter of Jacob Henry to the Honorable the Speaker and Members of the House of Commons, Dec. 6, 1809, in North Carolina Department of Archives and History, Legislative Papers, 1809; Elzas, Beth Elohim, 12; Thorpe, Constitutions, 5:2787–2822; Wiernik, History, 117 ff.; AJA, 10:30–31; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 336.

28. Asmonean, July 16, 1852, p. 101; Statistics of the Jews of the United States (Board of Delegates of American Israelites and the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Cincinnati, 1880), 55; Thorpe, Constitutions, 4:2451 ff., 2471 ff., 2494 ff., especially 2494–95; James Fairbanks Colby, Manual of the Constitution of the State of New Hampshire (Concord, N.H., 1912), 174–209, 217 ff., 225–26, 238–39; Charles B. Kinney, Jr., Church and State: The Struggle for Separation in New Hampshire 1630–1900 (N.Y., 1955), 140, 155, 192; AJA, 10:16–17, 24, 38–39, 45–46, 49, 50, 67, 72, n. 159; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 335–37.

29. For Vermont, see Thorpe, Constitutions, 6:3740, 3762; for Maine, see Thorpe, Constitutions, 3:1647; for Connecticut, see Thorpe, Constitutions, 1:537.

30. B. & B., JOUS, 3:758 ff.; Eastern Union, 7, 21–24; AI, Jan. 2, 1880, p. 5.

31. Richard Hildreth, The History of the United States of America (6 vols., N.Y., 1863), 3:382 ff.; McMaster, History, 3:146 ff.; Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 9:380 ff.; American State Papers (1949), 91 ff., 135 ff.; Stokes, Church and State, 1:444; Learsi, Jews in America, 48 ff.; Lee J. Levinger, A History of the Jews in the United States (Cincinnati, 1949), 128 ff.; Thorpe, Constitutions, 7:4414–15; Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 106, 126–27; Commentary, 3(no.34):225 ff.; Johnson and Yost, Separation of Church and State, 24 ff.; Library of Congress, Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union (Washington, 1927), 1064, 1066.

32. Stokes, Church and State, 1:448, 481–82, 3:448, 859; JCC, 28:307, 480, n. 2, 485, 29:519, 619, n. 1, 836; William MacDonald, Select Documents Illustrative of the History of the United States, 1776–1861 (N.Y., 1924), 16; Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 107–8; AJA, 10:55–56; Thorpe, Constitutions, 5:2312; Commager, Documents, 123–24, 128 ff.; “National Government,” Paul Monroe (ed.), A Cyclopedia of Education (5 vols., N.Y., 1911–1913), 4:372–73; Eugene H. Roseboom and Frances P. Weisenburger, A History of Ohio (Columbus, Ohio, 1953), 75; “Ohio Company of Associates,” DAH; Archer Butley Hulbert (ed.), The Records of the Original Proceedings of the Ohio Company (2 vols., Marietta, Ohio, 1917), 1:14, 32–33, 35–36, 2:50–51, 898, 91, 157.

33. American State Papers (1911), 162–65; American State Papers (1949), 311–12; Greene, Revolutionary Generation, 364–65.

34. Berman, Richmond, 54–55; “McCoy, Isaac,” DAB; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, 359–60; B. & B., JOUS, 3:704; PAJHS, 4:221, 19:104; Blau, Cornerstones, 136 ff., 154; AJA, 10:66; Stokes, Church and State, 3:865, sub 1822; Sherlock (pseud, of Solomon Southwick), A Layman’s Apology for the Appointment of Clerical Chaplains, etc. (Albany, 1834), 75, 77, 79, 274 ff., 282 ff.

35. American State Papers (1949), 552 ff., 564, 572, 651 ff.; Stokes, Church and State, 1:576 ff.

36. American State Papers (1911), 487 ff., 508; American State Papers (1949), 645 ff.; Stokes, Church and State, 3:570; PAJHS, 31:105 ff.; Proposed Amendments to the Constitution, 70 Cong., 2s Sess., 1929, H.R. 551, 183 ff.; Thorpe, Constitutions, 5:2820.

37. AJA, 11:176 ff., 15:131–32; PAJHS, 11:53–73; E. Frisch, Is the United States a Christian Nation? A Legal Study (n.p., 1906); Occ., 7:563–67; Blau, Cornerstones, 12–13; Stokes, Church and State, 1:514–17, 3:565 ff., especially 568, 624, 3:859.

38. American State Papers (1949), 183–84; Stokes, Church and State 1:439; PAJHS, 25:100, 44:208; Hartogensis, Maryland, 28, 36–37, 78–81; Schappes, DHJUS, 607, n. 4; Marcus, CAJ, 1:499–500; Leonard W. Levy, Treason Against God: A History of the Offense of Blasphemy (N.Y., 1980), 333 ff.; The Laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Passed from the Year 1780, to the end of the Year 1800, etc. (Boston, 1801), 1, 69; American State Papers (1911), 206; Fein, Baltimore, 260, n. 11.

39. AJYB, 49:14 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:231; Hartogensis, Maryland, 40; Tarshish, “American Judaism” 337; New Era Illustrated Magazine 7(1905): 170 ff.; Commentary, 3(no.34):225 ff.

40. AJA, 20:156; Stokes, Church and State, 1:346–47, 486, 489 ff., 3:180, 193; PAJHS, 13:20; Blau, Cornerstones, 69 ff.

41. E. & L., Richmond, 17–18; Stokes, Church and State, 3:183, 194; PAJHS, 9:160–63; “Morril, David Lawrence,” ACOAB; Argosy Book Store Catalog (N.Y., n.d.); Jewish Forum, Jan.–Apr., 1947, 19 ff., 43, 66, 88, 104; Occ., 2:496–510; R. & E., Charleston, 111–12; Schappes, DHJUS, 235 ff.; PAJHS, 13:19 ff.

42. Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 109; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 332 ff.; May, Isaac M. Wise, 206–9; PAJHS, 13:30 ff.; Occ., 6:403 ff., 8:476–78.

43. Stokes, Church and State, 1:561, 3:190 ff.; PAJHS, 20:133 ff.; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” 332 ff.; Allen duPont Breck, The Centennial History of the Jews of Colorado, 1859–1959 (Denver, 1960), 24; Ida Libert Uchill, Pioneers, Peddlers, and Tsadikim (Denver, 1957), 72–73.

44. Marcus, CAJ, 1:74,154, 22; PAJHS, 18:6–7.

45. Marcus, AJD, 294 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 1:305, 407, 497–99; PAJHS, 35:282–83; American State Papers (1911), 7–8, 33 ff.; American State Papers (1949), 17 ff.; JSSQ, 11:223 ff.; Daly, Settlement, 12; Lewis, Sunday Legislation, 160–208.

46. Hezekiah Niles, Principles and Acts of the Revolution in America, etc. (Baltimore, 1822), 91–92; E. & L., Richmond, 82; Louis Ginsberg, Chapters on the Jews of Virginia, 1658–1900 (Petersburg, Va., 1969), 9; Marcus, AJD, 295–302; Thorpe, Constitutions, 6:3762; PAJHS, 5:35, 202, 18:18–24; JSSQ, 11:270; B. & B., JOUS, 1:21–27; PAJHS, 5:35; Channing, History, 5:230–32.

47. Beard, Rise of Am. Civilization, 573.

48. Myers, Bigotry, 19, n. 20; American State Papers (1911), 176 ff., 226 ff., 233–70, see especially 254; American State Papers (1949), 207 ff.; Kohler, Simon Wolf Addresses, 157 ff.; Stokes, Church and State, 1:683, 702, 2:12 ff.; Curti et al., American History, 1:398; Schlesinger, Age of Jackson, 137 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 628, n. 12; Blau, Cornerstones, 108 ff.

49. B. & B., JOUS, 1:26–27; PAJHS, 5:35–37, 11:102, 104, 12:88; Leeser, Claims, 90; McMaster, History, 6:490–91; Scharf and Westcott, Philadelphia, 1:651–52.

50. Channing, History, 5:232; Altfeld, Maryland, 64; PAJHS, 25:104; Hartogensis, Maryland, 28; Myers, Bigotry, 15–20; Baltimore Jewish Comment, May 6, 1904, p. 6; Fein, Baltimore, 204–5; American State Papers (1911), 733 ff.; AJYB, 10(1908–1909):152 ff.; Stokes, Church and State, 3:155–76; American State Papers (1949), 499 ff.; New Era Illustrated Magazine, 7(1905):170–74; Lewis, Sunday Legislation, 209 ff.; Johnson and Yost, Separation of Church and State, 219 ff.

51. D. von Buelow, Der Freistaat von Nordamerika in seinem neusten Zustand (Berlin, 1797), 1:210; Glanz, Studies, 215; W. & W., Philadelphia, 188.

52. Stokes, Church and State, 2:568; JSSQ, 11:270–71; American State Papers (1911), 29, n. 2.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN

REJECTION OF THE JEW: THE PEOPLE 1776–1840

  1. Peixotto, Anniversary Discourse, 28; Leeser, Discourses, 1:153–54, 2:94; Glanz, Studies, 338; Glanz, Folklore, 199, n. 34; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 119–121.

  2. W. & W., Philadelphia, 106; PAJHS, 3:95, 12:108–9, 32:116; Israel Vindicated, Preface; Clapp, Autobiographical Sketches, 99–104; sketch of Savannah Bay, 1786, original in Georgia Historical Society Library; for Samuel Joseph May, see Smith and Tatsch, Moses Michael Hays, 37; Niles Weekly Register, 19:114(Oct. 21, 1820); NCHR, 14:338; California Historical Society Quarterly, June, 1937, 156–57; Leeser, Claims, 83; Brown, History of the Destruction, 202–4; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 190; B. & B., JOUS, 1:56–59; Mitford M. Mathews, A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles (Chicago, 1951), under “jew,” 905; Compact OED, under “Jew,” verb.

  3. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1116, 1122, 1128–28, 1147, 1293, 1307, 2:978; Endelman Jews of Georgian England, 100–101; Schappes, DHJUS, 84 ff.; Schappes, JIUS, 46; Jewish Life, Apr., 1954, 21 ff.; “Simson, Solomon,” BDEAJ; Schlesinger, New Viewpoints, 83; PAJHS, 38:109 ff.

  4. PAJHS, 38:135 ff.; PMHB, 91:46 ff.; Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 37:83, 86 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 206; Feldman, Pittsburgh, 8 ff.

  5. W. & W., Philadelphia, 31–32, 206–209; Schappes, JIUS, 48; PAJHS, 33:187, n. 35, 38:129–30; Friedman, Pilgrims, 89–92.

  6. PAJHS, 1:111 ff., 38:132–37; Schappes, JIUS, 48; Schappes, DHJUS, 92–96; Jewish Life, Apr. 1954, 23–24; W. & W., Philadelphia, 209–13; Morais, Philadelphia, 26–27, 45, 411, 447, 457.

  7. Schappes, JIUS, 63; A Letter to Charles King from an American Jew (N.Y., 1823); R, no. 244, original in AJHSL; New York American, Oct. 25, 1823, editorial page, c.2–3; W. & W., Philadelphia, 299; R. & E., Charleston, 287–88, n. 125; Schappes, DHJUS, 185 ff.

  8. Harap, Image of the Jew, 137–61, 239 ff.; “Wandering Jew, The,” Oxford Companion to English Literature; “Wandering Jew,” JE, UJE, EJ; PAJHS, 33:185; R, no. 40.

  9. Harap, Image of the Jew, 39 ff., 66 ff., 72 ff., 192, 193; PAJHS, 33:178, 39:115 ff.; AJA, 24:187 ff.

10. Journal of Ethnic Studies, 6:75 ff.; AJHQ, 60:242 ff.; Harap, Image of the Jew, xi, 10–11.

11. PAJHS, 33:189, 196; Coleman, Jew in English Drama, x; AJHQ, 60:245–26.

12. Oxford Companion to English Literature, 413; Marcus, Jewish Americana, 4, no. 5; Schappes, JIUS, 32; Coleman, Jew in English Drama, 40–41, 89.

13. Harap, Image of the Jew, 65–66, et passim; James Burgh, The Art of Speaking, (4th ed., London, 1775), 189 ff., 199 ff.; AJA, 24:187 ff.; Schappes, JIUS, 44–46; Journal of Ethnic Studies, 6:75 ff.; PAJHS, 33:171–98, 39:115 ff., 40:345 ff.; Coleman, Jew in English Drama, vii–xx, 1–53; H. Didimus (Edward Henry Durrell), New Orleans As I Found It (N.Y., 1845), 45 ff.; Harry Levi, Jewish Characters in Fiction and English Literature (Phila., 1903), 13 ff.; Mersand, Traditions in American Literature, 149 ff., 164 ff.; Sol Liptzin, The Jew in American Literature (N.Y., 1966), 22 ff.; Glanz, Studies, 332 ff.

14. Coleman, Jew in English Drama, 13 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 318; R, nos. 100–102; Coleman, Jew in English Drama, xii.

15. Coleman, Jew in English Drama, 13–16, 17, 25–26; PAJHS, 33:186, 187.

16. “Blood Accusation,” JE; “Tyler, Royall,” DAB; PAJHS, 33:196–98; AJA, 28:79 ff.

17. Mersand, Traditions in American Literature, 165; Jewish Book Annual, 35:108 ff.

18. Glanz, Studies, 350 ff.; Coleman, Jew in English Drama, 34, 42; PAJHS, 33:180–82.

19. PAJHS, 33:198; Harap, Image of the Jew, 6–16, 189 ff.

20. Harap, Image of the Jew, 24–25; Wish, Society and Thought, 1:275–76; Harby, Essays, in Pinckney & Moise, Selections, 262 ff.; “Franks, David Salisbury,” “Franks, Isaac,” BDEAJ.

21. Schappes, JIUS, 46–48; W. & W., Philadelphia, 101; Marcus, Love, Marriage, Children, 32–34; Harap, Image of the Jew, 27.

22. New York History, 50:330–32; Harap, Image of the Jew, 23, 44–45; PAJHS, 3:94–96, 4:220–22, 16:27–30; 22:177–78; Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D. C., to Benjamin Rush, Phila., Apr. 21, 1803, copy in AJAr; Friedman, Pioneers, 31 ff., 378; B. & B., JOUS, 1:241, n. 22.

23. “Jews,” Encyclopaedia Americana (Phila., 1831), 7:220–21. The copyright is dated 1829–33. William H. Prescott, History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic (Phila., 1837), 1:352 ff.

24. “Myers, Moses,” BDEAJ; Learsi, Jews in America, 83; Stokes, Church and State, 3:182; PAJHS, 11:9–10, 17:81 ff., 86; 22:96–97, 27:63, 34:66–69, 36:300; Md. Hist. Mag., 15:1 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 1:58–59; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Maria Gratz, Lexington, July 22, 1832, Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 151–52; see also other mentions of Clay in Rebecca Gratz’s letters, Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 97, 125 ff., 160, 164, 304; H. Clay, Washington, to Augustus E. Cohen, Charleston, Mar. 4, 1833, Clay Mss., Alderman Library, Univ. of Va.

25. Stern, FAJF, 194; “Minis, Philip,” BDEAJ; B. & B., JOUS, 1:176 ff.; Savannah Georgian, Aug. 16, 1832, Jan. 24, 1833; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 157–58; AJA, 7:73 ff.; Thomas Gamble, Annals of Savannah: Savannah Duels and Duellists, 1733–1877 (Savannah, 1923), 192 ff.

26. Noah, Discourse (1818), 24; B., & B., JOUS, 185; W. & W., Philadelphia, 81; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1133; Scharf and Westcott, Philadelphia, 2:1297; Blau, Cornerstones, 121 ff.; “Ely, Ezra Stiles,” ACOAB.

27. JSS, 35:3 ff.; Fish, Common Man, 275; Roth, Bibliotheca, 262, no. 34, 376, no. 26; “Tribes, Lost Ten,” JE; B. & B., JOUS, 3:669 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 1:39, 42, 300–301, 2:1096 ff., 3:Index sub “Conversion to Christianity.

28. Eichhorn, Evangelizing, 7. References for conversions in America in the 17th & 18th centuries: R, nos. 2, 7–10, 13, 17–23, 44, 51, 81, 91, 95–96, 116, 121, 138, 142, 150, 160, 164, 168, 173, 200, 216, 237, 240, 248, 254, 268, 293, 338, 432; Roth, Bibliotheca, 262, no. 34, 376, no. 26; B. & B., JOUS, 3:711 ff.; The Millennial Harbinger (Bethany, 1834), 616–19. References for Heydeck: Stiles, Diary, 3:256, 262; W. & W., Philadelphia, 241; Journal of Jewish Studies, 2:187 ff.

29. Roth, Bibliotheca, 260–61, nos. 23–27, 262, nos. 34–36; Joseph Priestley, A Comparison of the Institutions of Moses, etc. (Northumberland, Pa., 1799), 393 ff., 406–7, 426–28.

30. B. & B., JOUS, 3:669 ff.; NEQ, 1:295 ff.; Curti, American Thought, 199 ff.; EAH, 583; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, 352 ff.; Ahlstrom, Religious History, 423 ff., 858–60.

31. Adelaide L. Fries et al (eds.), Records of the Moravians in North Carolina (11 vols., Raleigh, N.C., 1922–1969), 7:3198; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, 366; “Wolff, Joseph,” JE; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 246; R, nos. 266, 420, 580; “Jacoby, Ludwig Sigmund,” DAB.

32. B. & B., JOUS, 1:87 ff.; Adams, History of the Jews, 2:331–32; NEQ, 1:309; Historia Judaica, 8:113 ff.; “Missions to the Jews,” UJE.

33. C.F. Frey, N.Y., to Dear Sir (W. C. Brownlee, N.Y.?), June 9, 1827, copy in Marcus Collections; Garfein, “Joseph S. C. F. Frey,” 13–16; PBSA, 31:Part One, 6; R, no. 138; Friedman, EAJ, 96 ff.

34. B. & B., JOUS, 3:671, 726 ff., 733 ff.; Marsh, Epitome, 414; Eichhorn, Evangelizing, 37 ff.; C.F. Frey, N.Y., to Dear Sir (W. C. Brownlee, N.Y.?), June 9, 1827, copy in Marcus Collections; Eichhorn, “Christianizing America’s Jews,” 1:186; R, nos. 207, 248; Friedman, EAJ, 179, n. 17.

35. Huhner, Judah Touro, 70–71; Marcus, Jewish Americana, 10, no.17, 72, no. 164; American Quarterly, 13:43 ff.; Eichhorn, “Christianizing America’s Jews,” 1:66; T. M. Harris, Pray for the Jews! (Boston, 1816); Roth, Bibliotheca, 283, no. 45 (This hinuk dat ha-mashiah was reprinted in Philadelphia in 1821, edited by the Rev. T. Alden); R, nos. 240, 412; The Methodist Magazine 4(1821):378–80; Stuart, Sermon: R, no. 338; PAJHS, 29:57.

36. Friedman, EAJ, 109; Noah, Discourse (1818), 23; Niles Weekly Register, 11(1816):260; Thorpe, Constitutions, 5:3100. References on Missionary Work: S.H. Jackson (ed.), The Jew; Being A Defence of Judaism Against All Adversaries, and Particularly Against the Insidious Attacks of Israel’s Advocate (N.Y., 1824), 3–6; Stokes, Church and State, 3:867; B. & B., JOUS, 3:669 ff., 714–73; R. no. 183; Occ., 8:396; Lebeson, JPA, 198; Leeser, Claims, 65 ff.; Eichhorn, Evangelizing, 1–105. Hard work in colonies: B. & B., JOUS, 3:751 ff.; “American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews,” UJE; Israel Vindicated, Preface, 1 ff.; Roth, Bibliotheca, 275 ff., re Conversionism; Schappes, DHJUS, 606, n. 4; “Frey, Joseph Samuel Christian Frederick,” DAB. Frey’s publications in the U.S.: R, nos. 138, 177, 178, 182, 191, 293, 459, 472; NEQ, 1:295–322; Grinstein, New York City, 382 ff.; Narrative of the Rev. Joseph Samuel C. F. Frey, etc. (N.Y., 1832), Preface, 13 ff., 136 ff.; Marcus, Jewish Americana, nos. 62–63; Elias Boudinot, Burlington, N.J., to the Rev’d Mr. C. F. Frey, July 6, 1820, original in AJAr; Israel’s Advocate, 2:4 ff., 18 ff., 40 ff., 177 ff., 4:17–19; Garfein, “Joseph S. C. F. Frey”; Eichhorn, “Christianizing America’s Jews”; PAJHS, 22:184–86; for Frey’s writings in England see Roth, Bibliotheca, Index; American Quarterly, 13:43 ff.; Joseph Samuel C. F. Frey, Judah and Israel (N.Y., 1840), 72 ff.; The First Report of the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews (N.Y., 1823); The Second Report of the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews (Princeton, N.J., 1824). (This report was printed by the convert D. A. Borrenstein.); Third Report of the Board of Directors of the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews (N.Y., 1825); Constitution of the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews (N.Y., 1822); R, No. 207; [J. S. C. F. Frey], The Object of the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews, Explained, and Objections Answered (N.Y., 1827); JOAH, 68:35 ff.

37. Garfein, “Joseph S. C. F. Frey,” 19; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, 368–72; Stuart, Sermon, 11; Roth, Bibliotheca, 265, no. 52; Glanz, Folklore, 148, 210, n. 2.

38. R, nos. 138, 188; Eichhorn, Evangelizing, 34 ff.; Religious Education, 71(1976):217 ff.; Garfein, “Joseph S. C. F. Frey,” 1; Philadelphia Gazette and Daily Advertiser, Mar. 18, 1824, p. 1, c. 5–6; “Anti-Missionary Movement in the United States,” Vergilius Ferm (ed.), An Encyclopedia of Religion (N.Y., 1945); B. & B ., JOUS, 3:747 ff.; NEQ, 1:313.

39. JOAH, 68:40.

40. Stuart, Sermon, 21; Leeser, Claims, 51–52, 80; Tobit’s Letters to Levi; Or, A Reply to the Narrative of Joseph Samuel C. F. Frey (N.Y., 1816), 77; Grinstein, New York City, 383.

41. Marcus, CAJ, 2:964; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 153.

42. PAJHS, 11:158–60; Fein, Baltimore, 63–64; New York Times, Feb. 14, Mar. 11, 1978.

43. Occ., 8:396.

44. Niles Weekly Register, 11:260, 26:326; Israel’s Advocate (1824), 190.

45. Leeser, Discourses, 1:153–55; Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 5:376.

46. NYHSQ, 46:41 ff.; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 105 ff.

47. National Union Catalogue, 391:56, 485:47–48; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Benjamin Gratz, Lexington, Ky., July 11, 1844, copy in AJAr; Israel Vindicated, 10–11, Hildreth, History of U.S., 382 ff.; “Strasburg,” JE; Roth, History of the Jews in England, 75; Billington, Protestant Crusade, chaps. 1–5, 9, see also pp. 205 ff.; Catholic Historical Review, 38(Oct., 1952):285 ff.; Beard, Rise of Am. Civilization, 543; MVHR 47(Sept. 1960):205 ff.; PAJHS, 19:37–38; Myers, Bigotry, 111, 118 ff., 129, 140, 148 ff., 166 ff., 169–74, 179–84; Stokes, Church and State, 3:867–68; Ellis, Am. Catholicism, 42, 62 ff., 184–85; M. & M., History, 636; Leonard L. Richards, “Gentlemen of Property and Standing”; Anti-Abolition Mobs in Jacksonian America (N.Y., 1970).

48. Noah, Discourse (1818), 12; Leeser, Discourses, 1:153–54, 158–59; PAJHS, 3:90; Mimeograph of epitome of an essay by Alfred F. Young, “Rural Attitudes to Jews as Seen in New York Newspapers of the 1790’s” (n.p., n.d.), copy in Marcus Collections. (This paper was presented at an annual meeting of the AJHS.)

49. PAJHS, 3:94–95.

50. PAJHS, 25:99; Blum, Baltimore, 35; Fein, Baltimore, 43–44.

51. B. & B., JOUS, 3:683, 960, n. 21; AI, Dec. 26, 1856, p. 197.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN

ACCEPTANCE OF THE JEW 1776–1840

  1. Schappes, DHJUS, 582–9 3; Gartner, Cleveland, 6; for Jacob Henry see PAJHS, 16:46 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 122 ff.; Occ., 1:250; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:63; PAJHS, 38:113 ff.

  2. Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 150; B. Rush, Phila., to wife, June 27, 1787, copy in AJA, 27:239–42; Marsh, Epitome, 414; Rom. 11:17–24; Phila. Jewish Exponent, Feb. 23, 1934, p. 9; CCARYB, 38:190, 195–98; Stiles, Diary, 1:374–77; Pennsylvania Archives, 10:730–31; “Philadelphia,” JE, 9:670; “Charleston,” JE, UJE; Elzas Jews of S.C., 122; Occ., 1:387; Schappes, DHJUS, 150 ff.; Friedman, Pilgrims, 151; Lebeson, JPA, 256 ff.; PAJHS, 27:33 ff., 335 ff. (a copy of the calendar is in the Marcus Collections); B. & B., JOUS, 3:686 ff., 691–93; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, (Dec. 4, 1805), 129 ff., (Apr. 23, 1820) 144 ff., 147–48; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Ben Gratz, Lexington, Ky., Feb. 27, 1825, copy in AJAr; W. & W., Philadelphia, 70 ff., 366–69; Niles Weekly Register, 46:292, sub June 21, 1834; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:17–18, 211–12; Western Messenger, 2(Oct., 1836):204 ff.; Letters of Benjamin Rush, 2:946–47, 1066–67; Peixotto, Anniversary Discourse, 38; R, no. 58, 324.

  3. M. Sheftall and his sharp knife: Marcus, CAJ, 2:938; B. & B., JOUS, 1:110–11, 2:455–56, 572, 3:670–71; PAJHS, 10:163, 27:391; “New York,” JE; Elzas, Leaves, Second Series, 1907, no. 6, p. 4; Marcus, EAJ, 2:529; E. & L., Richmond, 55.

  4. Cecil Roth, The Great Synagogue London 1690–1940 (London, 1950), 249–51; PAJHS, 21:143, 217, 27:29–30, 44, 231–32, 31:38; B. & B., JOUS, 2:588–89, 3:701–2; W. & W., Philadelphia, 234–38; EIAJH, 89 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 52, 294 ff., 375; E. & L., Richmond, 219–21.

  5. See PAJHS, 3:87–96, 4:219–22, 11:58 ff., 20:11 ff., 22:71 ff., 177–78; American State Papers (1911), 193, 195, 198; B. & B., JOUS, 1:6–14, 241, 2:312–13, 318, 335, 384, 441–42, 622, 3:704, 886, 948; Morais, Philadelphia, 30; Stern, FAJF, 103; For Chapman Levy, see the Poinsett Papers, HSP; for J. Q. Adams, see Abrahams and Levy, Lord Macaulay, 69.

  6. Friedman, Pioneers, 35 ff.; Beard, Rise of Am. Civilization, 1:379; W. & W., Philadelphia, 217; “Adams, John,” EJ; PAJHS, 3:96, 150, 4:220–21, 37:185–201, 45:58–60; John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States, ed. by Charles Francis Adams, (10 vols., Boston, 1850–1856), 9:608–10; Washington, Diaries, 4:53; George Washington, The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745–1799, ed. by John C. Fitzpatrick, (39 vols.. Washington, 1931–1944), 31:42, n. 78, 33:108, n. 61, 127–28, 135; for Michael Prager with whom Washington had social and business relations, see C.A. Palmer, Phila. (Insurance Company of N.A.), to JRM, May 5, 1954, Marcus Collections; Washington Papers, 2d series, 2:242–43, Mss. Div., LC; Washington, Diaries, 3:350; Rachel Levy to George Washington, July 26, 1789, LC; for Prager, see also Armes and Livingston, Nancy Shippen, 2:sub Sept. 16, 1784, Apr. 3, 1786; Schappes, DHJUS, 77–84; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 125.

  7. Marcus, CAJ, 3:1133; the reference to “Synagogue of Satan” is in Rev. 2:9; Luzzatti, God in Freedom, 685; American Heritage, 7(no.1):105; W. & W., Philadelphia, 143 ff., facsimile between 240–41, plate no. 3; newspaper release of AJAr, Jan., 1956, on Benjamin Franklin; Marcus, AJD, 142–43.

  8. New Hampshire Gazette and General Advertiser, Feb. 16, 1782, p. 1; Stokes, Church and State, 3:860.

  9. PMHB, 83:293 ff.; Myers, Bigotry, 113; W. & W., Philadelphia, 150; AJA, 7:65 ff.; PAJHS, 28:252; Elhanan Winchester, An Oration on the Discovery of America (London, 1792), 27–28; J.P. Stablin, Richmond, to I. L., Phila., Sept. 11, 1829, copy in Marcus Collections; Leeser, Jews and the Mosaic Law, 244 ff., 262 ff., 270.

10. R, nos. 77, 180; B. & B., JOUS, 1:87 ff., 92; R. & E., Charleston, 119; Gorton Carruth et al (eds.), The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates (N.Y., 1956), 152.

11. James Wilson, A Dissertation on the Future Restoration of the Jews, etc. (Providence, 1828), 21; B. & B., JOUS, 3:672; R, nos. 15, 99–102, 136–37, 149, 206, 213–14, 224, 231, 236, 241, 260, 280, 290, 295, 299, 337, 348, 362–64, 392, 394, 410, 417, 424, 435–36, 438, 440.

12. “Mendelssohn, Moses,” JE; Richard Cumberland, The Jew of Mogadore (N.Y., 1808), 53; Hannah Adams, An Alphabetical Compendium of the Various Sects, etc. (Boston, 1784), Appendix, xvii ff.; Marcus, Jewish Americana, 5, no. 6; Adams, History of the Jews, Preface, 2:chap. 34; R, nos. 162, 189, 493, 660.

13. Brown, History of the Destruction, 196–208; Charles Buck, Theological Dictionary (Phila. and Pittsburgh, 1830), sub “Jews.”

14. R, nos. 322, 359; PAJHS, 11:193; Korn, New Orleans, 240; R. & E., Charleston, 298–99, n. 185; for a general survey of literature of the period which deals with Jews, see also Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity.”

15. “Logan, James,” DAB; W. & W., Philadelphia, 16–18, 20, 29, 385–86; The Improvement Era (Feb., 1936):67 ff.; Stiles, Diary, 3:306; Letters of Benjamin Rush, 2(1793–1813):946, 1066–67; Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 1:494–97; PAJHS, 3:90–91; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 124.

16. Jewish Digest, Nov., 1977, p. 3; Schappes, JIUS, 42, 44; W. & W., Philadelphia, 188–89.

17. B. & B., JOUS, 1:93; MacDonald, Education of the Heart, 46; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:216 ff.; Tobias, Hebrew Orphan Society, 8–9; W. & W., Philadelphia, 138.

18. American State Papers (1911), 307–8; AJA, 6:19–21; W. & W., Philadelphia, 465, n. 103; Marcus, Memoirs, 2:207; B. & B., JOUS, 3:747 ff.

19. PAJHS, 35:281–85; E. & L., Richmond, 55–56.

20. PAJHS, 32:116; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 140–41, 194; Goldberg, Major Noah, 62 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 130; “Belmont, August,” DAB; Rudolf Glanz, The German Jew in America (Cincinnati & N.Y., 1969), no. 460; R. & E., Charleston, 98; B. & B., JOUS, 1:176 ff.; Whiteman, Hendricks, 168; London, Miniatures, 58; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 109–11.

21. B. & B., JOUS, 1:160, 2:660–61, n. 167, 3:874; R. & E., Charleston, 94; Berman, Richmond, 80 ff., 84; PAJHS, 19:64, 20:102, 42: 44–45; “New York,” JE; W. & W., Philadelphia, 271–73; Grinstein, New York City, 103; AH, May 5, 1905, pp.730–31; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 265–66; E. & L., Richmond, 26–29, 231 ff.; SCHGM, 35:130; Samuel Mordecai, Richmond in Bye-Gone Days (Richmond, 1860), 146 ff.; Marcus, EAJ, 2:219 ff.

22. R, no. 334; PAJHS, 38:116–17; Ethnic societies: W. & W., Philadelphia, 265; Barrett, Old Merchants, 3(pt. 2): 109; Joseph Johnson et al., Charleston, S. C., to Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Aug. 29, 1811, Jefferson Papers, Univ. of Va.; A. H. Cohen, Richmond, to Mr. Vaughan, Richmond, Apr. 1, 1836, Va. Hist. Soc., Richmond; SCHGM, 47:43–44; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 243; Morais, Philadelphia, 148; EIAJH, 184.

23. E. & L., Richmond, 26–28; PAJHS, 19:65; Smith and Tatsch, Moses Michael Hays, 32–67; Boston Jewish Advocate, Sept. 15, 1939; Marcus, AJD, 46–48; Marcus, EAJ, 1:187–89; B. & B., JOUS, 1:293, n. 83.

24. Morais, Philadelphia, 32, 401; Markens, Hebrews, 74; “Nones, Joseph B.,” UJE

25. Moïse, Isaac Harby, 109; Proceedings in Masonry, St. John’s Grand Lodge, 1733–1792, etc. (Boston, 1895), 480–81; PAJHS, 2:142–43, 19:1–100, 22:182, 26:242, 42:43 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 144–45; R. & E., Richmond, 19, 21, 135; B. & B., JOUS, 3:697 ff.; Markens, Hebrews, 128; Marcus, EAJ, 2:81; W. & W., Philadelphia, 155; Chicago Scottish Rite Magazine, Sept., 1952, p. 6; Robert B. Folger, The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, etc., 2d ed. (N.Y., 1881). Folger is of the opinion that some of the early Jewish Masons entered Masonry in order to further themselves financially by peddling degrees and honors. By citing attacks on Jewish Masons by other Masons, Folger, so it would seem, manifests an anti-Jewish prejudice. This he denies (18–19),

26. PAJHS, 12:54; Occ., 1:388; W. & W., Philadelphia, 277; The Constitution of the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society of Philadelphia (Phila., 1825), 11; R, no. 270; Constitution and Bylaws of the United Hebrew Beneficent Society (Phila., 1837), 16; Nitgy Israel, Baltimore Constitution, 14; E. & L., Richmond, 65–66; B. & B., JOUS, 3:684–86; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, Aug. 17, 1795; Tarshish, “American Judaism,” n. 867; Korn, Civil War, 165; R. & E., Charleston, 113.

27. G. Seixas, N.Y., to Sarah Kursheedt, Richmond, Apr. 15, 1814, AJHSL; Marcus, EAJ, 2:352–53.

28. CRI, 1:384, 394 ff., 431; PAJHS, 27:210–11; Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, Nov. 20, 1820.

29. Stiles, Diary, 3:24–25; Lebeson, JPA, 100; Marcus, EAJ; 1:195–96; Marcus, CAJ, 3:1149; “Kunze, John Christopher,” DAB; Grinstein, New York City, 414; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 426 ff.; W. Wirt, Washington, to John Myers, Norfolk, June 12, 1818, copy in AJAr; PAJHS, 28:253.

30. Marcus, AJD, 330 ff.; “Ingham, Samuel Delucena,” DAB; Van Rensselaer: PAJHS, 11:190, 16:32; “Brown, Benjamin Gratz,” DAB; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 263, 303, 311–12; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 122, 163, see Index sub “Blair, Francis Preston”; B. & B., JOUS, 301, n. 158; Francis P. Blair, Sr., Washington, to an Etting, Phila., June 5, 1834, copy in Marcus Collections; Fish, Aaron Levy, 33 ff.; Rebecca and her friends: B. & B., JOUS, 1:171 ff., 182 ff., 200–201, 220 ff.; Korn, New Orleans, 226; May: PAJHS, 12:108–9, 13:95; “May, Samuel J.,” DAB.

31. AJA, 10:67; Ferd. Philippi, Geschichte der vereinigten Freistaaten von Nordamerika (3 vols., Dresden, 1826), 3:145–47.

32. Marcus, AJD, 284–85; PAJHS, 27:33–34; Trachtenberg, Easton, 77; Whiteman, Hendricks, 150; W. & W., Philadelphia, 349; “Philadelphia,” JE.

33. E. & L., Richmond, 136; Charles Carroll, Baltimore, to Jacob I. Cohen, Baltimore, Feb. 20, 1832 (Kate Mason Rowland, The Life of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, etc. (2 vols., N.Y., 1898), 365–66; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 143–44, 187 ff., 191–92, 194, 203–5, 243; PAJHS, 42:46; “Tobias, Abraham,” BDEAJ.

34. W. & W., Philadelphia, 289, 301, 349, 374; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 28; R. & E., Charleston, 102; E. & L., Richmond, 39, 41–43, 66.

35. PAJHS, 3:91; B. & B., JOUS, 2:307; Moses, Oration, 7.

36. W. & W., Philadelphia, 19–20, 204 ff., 219, 282; “Levin, Lewis C.,” DAB; Elzas Jews of S.C., 123–24, 192.

37. PAJHS, 13:24 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 287, n. 124; Schappes, DHJUS, 84 ff., 96 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:50 ff.; Trachtenberg, Easton, 78; Elzas, Jews of S.C.,, 126–27, 143–44, 189; W. & W., Philadelphia, 204, 282 ff., 292, 297; New York History, Jan. 1953, pp. 72 ff.; Eugene P. Link, Democratic-Republican Societies, 1790–1800 (N.Y., 1942), 57, 58, 87, 121.

38. Harby, Charleston, to John C. Calhoun, Charleston, July 26, 1815, copy in Marcus Collections; W. & W., Philadelphia, 297–98, 302; “To the Electors of the Second Congressional District of the State of Pennsylvania, etc.,” (Phila., 1828), original in the Library Company of Phila.; Moses, Full Annals, 8–10, 131; PAJHS, 22:100; B. & B., JOUS, 2:360 ff., 381 ff., 390 ff.; Aldine Catalogue, no. 721; Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio Bulletin, 11 (part 1):109; Charles Theodore Greve, Centennial History of Cincinnati and its Representative Citizens (2 vols., Chicago, 1904), 1:501.

39. Schappes, DHJUS, 185 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 101 ff.; EAH, 172.

40. Stern, FAJF, 38–39; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 143–44, 163, 192, 206, 221–22, 237; Marcus, Memoirs, 3:133 ff.; Andrew Jackson, Washington, to J. R. Poinsett, Charleston, Jan. 16, 1833, Poinsett Papers, HSP; Andrew Jackson, Correspondence of Andrew Jackson, ed. by John Spencer Bassett and J. F. Jameson (7 vols., Washington, D. C., 1926–1935), 5:5 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 1:299, n. 135, 2:384 ff., 624, n. 176.

41. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:19–20, 245–46, 3:133 ff., R. & E., Charleston, 101,103; Samuel Maas to his parents, Mannheim, May 1, 1832, copy in Marcus Collections.

42. Marcus, AJD, 39–40.

43. Lebeson, JPA, 251–55; Elzas Jews of S.C., 143–44; W. & W., Philadelphia, 288 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 23, 62 ff., 105; War Diary of John Myers of Norfolk, copy in AJAr; Morais, Philadelphia, 454 ff., 469 ff.; Wolf, American Jew, 67 ff. (Some of the men listed here are not Jews.) Hebrew Standard, May 7, 1920; PAJHS, 26:173 ff., 45–51 ff.; Schappes, JIUS, 55; Schappes, DHJUS, 63 ff.; Md. Hist. Mag., 18:371; Reminiscences of the Bombardment of Ft. McHenry, the Star Fort, in September, 1814, by Colonel M.I. Cohen, Md. Hist. Soc., Cohen Papers; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:63 ff.; Will of Abraham A. Massias, Charleston Will Book, 44:353–56(1848); “Massias, Abraham A.,” UJE; Marcus, AJWD, 72.

44. B. & B., JOUS, 1:215 ff., 299; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 206–7; Korn, New Orleans, 189; Marcus, Jewish Americana, 56, no. 117; Whiteman, Hendricks, 113; PAJHS, 27:339–40.

45. W. & W., Philadelphia, 200–201; PAJHS, 13:133 ff.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 123–24; Marcus, AJD, 51 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:572–77; Schappes, DHJUS, 150 ff.; Seixas, Discourse(1798), 23; PAJHS, 3:87–96; Marcus, EAJ, 1:100–101.

46. “Schurz, Carl,” DAB; B. & B., JOUS, 1:81–83, 87, 92, 257, n. 191; W. & W., Philadelphia, 83, 89; Moses, Oration, 18, 32; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 118; Elzas Jews of S.C., 89.

47. Korn, Jews and Negro Slavery, 39 ff.; PAJHS, 19:85, 53:147–51; Korn, Jews and Negro Slavery, 13–26, 44; Will of Sarah Levy, 1839, Kershaw District, S.C., Probate Court; SCHGM, 28:238; E. & L., Richmond, 85, 297–98; Elzas, Old Cemeteries, 75.

48. Whiteman, Kidnapped, 29; Fein, Baltimore, 17–18; W. & W., Philadelphia, 190–92, 436–37; Will of Samuel Nunes, Oct. 14, 1785, Court of Ordinary, Savannah, Ga.; Will of David Isaacs, Mar. 24, 1826, Charlottesville, Va., Albermale County Will Book 12, p. 366; Korn Jews and Negro Slavery, 51 ff.

49. Will of Benjamin Davis, Sept. 27, 1841, Charleston Will Book, 39:903; Marcus, AJD, 170–71; E. & L., Richmond, 41–43, 327 ff.; Collections of the New-York Historical Society, 1899: Abstracts of Wills, 8:Liber 28, 307: Will of Benjamin Gomez; B. & B., JOUS, 1:104–7, n. 41, 206–9; Schappes, DHJUS, 99–102, 118 ff., 134; Korn, Jews and Negro Slavery, 28 ff., 31 ff., 48 ff.; Will of Jacob De La Motta, Charleston Will Book, 43 (1839–1845):834–35; Berman, Richmond, 10.

50. B. & B., JOUS, 1:263, n. 53; Korn, New Orleans, 88–90; PAJHS, 10:112, 66:51; The Book of the Israelites of Louisiana (New Orleans, n.d.), 93; Paul L. Godchaux, Jr. (comp.), The Godchaux Family of New Orleans (New Orleans, 1971); Korn Jews and Negro Slavery, 34; PAJHS, 27:384 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 2:703 ff.

51. Korn Jews and Negro Slavery, 49, n. 87.

52. S. Maas, Charleston, to his parents, Mannheim, May 1, 1832, copy in Marcus Collections.

53. Whiteman, Kidnapped, Introduction; Korn, Jews and Negro Slavery, 63; Marcus, AJD, 63, 446 ff.; Korn, New Orleans, 300, n. 45; Korn, Jews and Negro Slavery, 34–35, 39–47, 52, 59–66; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 153; AJHQ, 53:148–48.

54. Stiles, Diary, 2:273; Rachel Mordecai, Warrenton, to Samuel Mordecai, Richmond, Oct. 11, 1803, Marcus Letterbook, p. 781, no. 117; Scharf and Westcott, Philadelphia, 2:903; Armes and Livingston, Nancy Shippen, 2:213, 294–50; Marcus, EAJ, 1:182 ff., 2:104 ff.; J. R. Rivera, Newport, to William Henshaw, Leicester, Mass., June 16, 1783, copy in Marcus Collections; correspondence of Richard Leaks, Phila., with Dr. M. Sheftall, Savannah, 1815, Levy collections in Savannah.

55. PAJHS, 2:92–93, 34:271–73; New Era Magazine, 6:489–91; John Trumbull, The Autobiography of Colonel John Trumbull, etc., ed. by Theodore Sizer (New Haven, 1953), 174–75; JSJHS, 1:5 ff. Cohen ball: Md. Hist. Mag., 14:348 ff.; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, xiii, xvi, B. & B., JOUS, 1:288–90; Noah, Discourse (1818), 43, n. 13.

56. Friedman, Pilgrims, 196 ff.; Pool, Portraits, 443; Laney: Marcus, CAJ, 1:343, 3:1192. Christian Levy: JCC, 4, sub May 22, 1776; PAJHS, 27:77, 344, 38:91, n. 15; Gershom Seixas, N.Y., to Sarah Kursheedt, Richmond, July 11, 1814, Seixas letters, AJHSL; Marcus Festschrift, 547, n. 2, 548, n. 15; Grinstein, New York City, 29, 136; Schappes, DHJUS, 181 ff., 611, n. 4; see Stern, FAJF, 105 for children of Jacob Hays, the police officer; Goodman, “Spruce Street Cemetery”; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 132–40; “Hyams, Moses Kosciusko,” BDEAJ.

57. Peixotto, Anniversary Discourse, 15; Korn, New Orleans, 115; W. & W., Philadelphia, 271; Guttmacher, Baltimore, 24; E. & L., Richmond, 27, 66, 331–32; Berman, Richmond, 10; Marcus, EAJ, 2:223; Gutstein, Newport, 321–22; Will of Joseph Darmstadt, Hustings Court Will Book, no. 3, p. 1, Chancery Court, Richmond, Va.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:600; PAJHS, 16:188; Berman, Richmond, 7, 19–20; Marcus, EAJ, 1:191, 2:188; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser”; Harvard: PAJHS, 19:110.

58. Elzas, Leaves, Second Series, 1908, no. 8, pp. 1 ff.; Marcus, “Gersham Seixas,” 419–20; PAJHS, 35:201–1; Pool, Portraits, 366–67; Selig Adler and Thomas E. Connolly, From Ararat to Suburbia: The History of the Jewish Community of Buffalo (Phila., 1960), 3; W. & W., Philadelphia, 331 ff.; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 68; Lipman, “Synagogal Philanthropy,” 76.

59. W. & W., Philadelphia, 272–74; Will of Israel Joseph, Jan. 18, 1798, proved June 25, 1804, Charleston Will Book, 29:673–78; B. & B., JOUS, 3:792 ff.; JSS, 38:227; R. & E., Charleston, 97–98, 284, n. 93; Tobias, Hebrew Benevolent Society, 5–6; Will of Samuel Simons, 1823, proved Feb. 13, 1824, Charleston Probate Court, 36:972–74; Occ., 1:385, 434 ff.; Mordecai Cohen, unidentified newspaper clipping, Dec. 17, 1880: “A Charleston Worthy,” copy in Marcus Collections; Markens, Hebrews, 61; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 188; “Myers, Joseph M.,” BDEAJ; Marcus, AJD, 182–84; Will of Marcus Elcan, 5:205, Hustings Court, Richmond, Va.; Smith and Tatsch, Moses Michael Hays, 36.

60. Adams, History of the Jews, 1:206; PAJHS, 3:85–86; Marcus, AJD, 221–24.

61. Marcus, AJD, 1:261; PAJHS, 13:51; CRI, 2:109–10; R. & E., Charleston, 156; Fish, Aaron Levy, 25.

62. Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 426; Naphtali Phillips, An Eulogium to the Memory of the Rev. Gershom Seixas (N.Y., 1816); R, no. 190; Noah, Discourse (1818), 43, n. 12; Noah, Discourse (1845), 23–25; R. & E., Charleston, 98; Lower Norfolk County Virginia Antiquary, 5(1906):64–65; Niles Weekly Register, 25:262 (Dec. 27, 1823); Elzas, Leaves, Second Series, 1907, no. 7, p. 2; Galveston: Statement of the German citizens of Galveston, Jan. 4, 1839, Samuel Maas Papers, Rosenberg Library, Galveston, Texas, copy in the Marcus Collections; Will of Dorothea Abrahams, May 21, 1849, Jan. 7 & 29, 1853, Court of Ordinary, Chatham County, Ga.; Marcus, “Gershom Seixas,” 426 ff.; Quarterly Theological Review (Phila., 1818), 208 ff.: review of the Cohen book by E. S. Ely; Berman, Richmond, 36–37; Hobart: B. & B., JOUS, 3:691–94; Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 39.

63. Glanz, Studies, 220.

64. NCHR, 12(1935):126; Marcus, EAJ, 1:197; Gutstein, Newport, 299 ff.; Z. Rehine, Baltimore, to I. L., Phila., Jan. 15, 1833, copy in Marcus Collections; E. & L., Richmond, 38 ff.; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, 1835–44.

65. Minutes of Cong. Shearith Israel, N.Y., Apr. 16, 1834, as cited in Line Parker, “Culture, Practices and Ideals of a New York Sephardic Congregation as Reflected in the Minutes of Shearith Israel, 1831–1845,” (HUC term paper, n.d.), 3; Wise, Reminiscences, 79.

66. Mikveh Israel, Phila., Minutes, 1820: Resolutions, passim; Marcus, EAJ, 1:97; Marcus, AJD, 114 ff.; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, Feb. 23, 1809; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Constitution, 1805: By-Laws, 1805, Art. 8, Secs. 1–4; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 70.

67. B. & B., JOUS, 2:494 ff., 3:687, 962, n. 45; W. & W., Philadelphia, 121, 367 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:211–12.

68. Korn, New Orleans, 226 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 411–12; E. & L., Richmond, 66.

69. “Myers, Moses,” BDEAJ; Marcus, EAJ, 2:192–115, 495, 511; JSJHS, 1:5 ff.; Lower Norfolk County Virginia Antiquary 5(1906):64–65; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 262–64.

70. Marcus, AJD, 123–24; W. & W., Philadelphia, 125–27, 257; AJHQ, 64:308; Leeser, Discourses, 3:117; B. & B., JOUS, 2:546 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 344–45.

71. Journal of Presbyterian History, 47:242; W. & W., Philadelphia, 224; Marcus, AJD, 129, 473; R. Gratz, Phila., to Miriam Cohen, Georgetown, Apr. 29, 1838, copy in AJAr; Berman, Richmond, 99; J. Marx, Richmond, to S. Myers, Norfolk, Mar. 2, 1819, copy in AJAr; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:247, 251; Marcus, CAJ, 2:674–76; Marx Account Book, no. 5, 1838–1859, Alderman Library, Univ. of Va., AJAr; Glanz, Studies, 220; Marcus, AJD, 473; Grinstein, New York City, 338–41.

72. W. & W., Philadelphia, 200, 388, n. 21; Stern, FAJF, 67; Constitution and By-Laws of the Hebrew Society for the Visitation of the Sick … (Phila., 1836(1837]), Article 2; I.L. to Lewis Allen, Phila., Sept. 21, 1835, in Mikveh Israel, Phila., Records. This incident was related on November 28, 1947, to JRM by Dr. David Philipson (b. 1862).

73. Grinstein, New York City, 348 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 461, n. 10; Marcus, EAJ, 2:154; T.J. Seixas, N.Y., to I.L., Oct. 27, 1823, copy in Marcus Collections.

74. Abby Bloch, Cincinnati, to I. L., Mar. 2, 1833, Leeser Papers in Marcus Collections; PAJHS, 8:43–44, 53:343–46; W. & W., Philadelphia, 135, 140; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, Oct. 26, 1825, re tallit; Henry Myers, from the Orient, to his Norfolk family, Jan., 1820, Myers’s Family Records, AJAr; Michael A. Barenbaum, “A Study of the Myers Family of Norfolk, Virginia, 1817–1821,” (HUC term paper, 1968); Rhodes, Newport Mercury, 17–18, nos. 215, 217; EIAJH, 95; Grinstein, New York City, 207 ff., 211–13; R, no. 391: Leeser to the Jewish Inhabitants of Philadelphia (1855), copy in Marcus Collections; Marcus, AJD, 51–54.

75. R. & E., Charleston, 111–12; Schappes, DHJUS, 187 ff., 598, n.8; Historia Judaica, 8:121; Thomas Robbins [William Ward, pseud.], All Religious and Religious Ceremonies, etc. Hartford, Conn., 1823), 1:201–2. This citation of Robbins refers primarily to English Jewry but here too in the United States, religious infidelity was certainly not unknown in the Jewish community. Marcus, Memoirs, 1:45 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 359.

76. Grinstein, New York City, 377 ff.; PAJHS, 21:217; W. & W., Philadelphia, 234–41, 452, n. 106; Marcus, AJD, 129; Huhner, Judah Touro, 169–70, n. 8; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, Sept. 17, 1793; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 186–87; R. & E., Charleston, 152; Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 51–53; Marcus, EAJ, 2:504–6; Korn, New Orleans, 196.

77. W. & W., Philadelphia, 136–37; AJHQ, 64:317–18; B. & B., JOUS, 1:295, n. 93; Fish, Aaron Levy, 42 ff. for the Aaron Levy Will; see the Etting cemetery record for Fanny Etting Taylor; FAJF, 68; Pool, Portraits, 330–31; Nassy: PAJHS, 22–34–35; W. & W., Philadelphia, 136–37, 224, 241, 451, n. 105; Jewish Digest, Sept., 1968, 77 ff. for the Du Pont family tree.

78. Marcus, CAJ, 2:794; Marcus, AJD, 187–89; Secku Meylert, Montrose, Pa., to August Mailert, Richmond, Oct. 17, 1840, Mailert Papers, AJAr.

79. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 153; Welch, “Assimilation,” 79 ff.; PAJHS, 1:99–101, 5:202–3; Feldman, “Pittsburgh,” 3 ff.; AJA, 3:38–40; The Meylert letters disclose S. Meylert’s Marrano-like existence; Constitution and By-Laws, United Hebrew Beneficent Society, June 16, 1822 (Phila., 1829), 5; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Constitution, 1824; B. & B., JOUS, 3:819 ff.; “Kentucky,” UJE, “Missouri,” EJ. Clava: W. & W., Philadelphia, 63–64, 129–30, 452, n. 106.

80. Will of Isaac Cohen, Feb. 11, 1784, Charleston Probate Court, 22:116–17; Joseph Jonas, Cincinnati, to Charleston Jewry, 1925, original in AJAr; Schappes, JIUS, 60; Schappes, DHJUS, 137–38; B. & B., JOUS, 3:681–83; R. Gratz, Phila., to Ben Gratz, Lexington, Feb. 27, 1825, copy in AJAr.

81. W. & W., Philadelphia, 136–37; Md. Hist. Mag., 18:357 ff., 19:54 ff.; PAJHS, 3:132, 303.

82. Marcus, Jew in the Medieval World, 179; W. & W., Philadelphia, 127; Will of Jacob Pinto, probated 1806, Connecticut State Library, no. 8285; Marcus, CAJ, 1:425, 3:1573; R. & E., Charleston, 325, n. 142. De Lanceys: Hershkowitz and Meyer, Letters, 114, 116 ff., n. 3; Grinstein, New York City, 294–95, 372 ff.; Roth, Anglo-Jewish Letters, 125.

83. Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 59 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 130–31, 234 ff., 341 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 431–33; “Scott, Winfield,” DAB.

84. Ellen Jay Lewis, “A Study in Assimilation as Reflected in the Correspondence of the Mordecai Family from Earliest Days to 1840,” (HUC term paper, 1977); Ellen Mordecai, Gleanings from Long Ago (n.p., n.d., ca. 1912); Ellen Mordecai, The History of a Heart (Phila., 1845), AJAr; Release on the Lazaruses of Wilmington by AJAr, Jan. 1967; A. Lazarus, Wilmington, to Bishop R.C. Moore, Richmond, July 1, 1823, Mordecai MSS, Duke University; One Hundredth Anniversary Commemorating the Building of St. James Church, Wilmington, N.C., April 3 and May 1, 1939 (Wilmington, N.C.); Berman, Richmond, 110–20; Alfred Mordecai, West Point, N.Y., to Rachel Mordecai, Richmond(?), Sept. 14, 1823, copy in Marcus LB, no. 184, pp. 1327–28; NCHR, 23:5, 536 ff.; Berman, Richmond, 102, 112–19.

85. Berman, Richmond, 99, 109, 125; Stern, FAJF, 67, 87, 133, 154, 188, 200, 257; Will of Nathan Levy, Jan. 12, 1846, Baltimore Wills, liber 21, folio 76–80, Md. Hall of Records; Will of Rachel Levy, Nov. 9, 1794, Baltimore Wills, liber 5, folio 216–17, Md. Hall of Records; AJHQ, 64:303–4, 307–8, 57:35 ff. Mayos: London, Miniatures, 42–43; Will of Joseph Marx, 1836 or 1837, Hustings Court Will Book, 8:251, Richmond, Va.; E. & L., Richmond, 23 ff., 47 ff. Pettigrew: W. & W., Philadelphia, 128–31. Levy, N.O.: Korn, New Orleans, 145–46, 310, n. 100; R. & E., Charleston, 152; EIAJH, 94–98; B. & B., JOUS, 1:xxvi-xxvii, 2:588–891; Marcus, AJD, 187 ff.; Will of H. Jacobs, 1838, Charleston Will Book, 41:819–20; W. & W., Philadelphia, 234–41; Louisiana Historical Quarterly, 21:389–90; Korn, New Orleans, 196–97; A. Cohen, An Anglo-Jewish Scrapbook, 1600–1840 (London, 1943), chap. 14; W. & W., Philadelphia, 130–31, 175, 235, 376; Pennsylvania Marriages Prior to 1810, Pennsylvania Archives, Series 2, 8(1880):155, 333, 373, 431; Marcus, EAJ, 2:504; Malcolm Stern, N.Y., to JRM, Cincinnati, Feb. 1, 1966, Marcus Collections, re intermarriages; AJA, 19:142–43; EIAJH, 82–86; Stem, AJD, Preface.

86. M. Franks, London, to David Franks, Phila., May 8, 1775, Tench Coxe Papers at HSP.

87. “Monsanto, Benjamin,” BDEAJ; Stiles, Diary, 1:283, 3:376; Pool, Portraits, 372; S.S. Schuyler, Lansingburgh, N.Y., to Richea Gratz, Phila., Feb. 12, 1794, Mordecai Papers, LC; Marcus, AJD, 60–62, 456–57; AH, Apr. 14, 1916, pp.674 ff.; Will of Dorothea Abrahams, May 21, 1849, Chatham County, Ga., Court Records; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 197–99; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Minutes, 191 ff.; Elzas, Leaves, Second Series, 1908, no. 6, pp. 1 ff.; Marcus, AJWD, 148 ff. Sarah Jane Picken: 98:674 ff.; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:160; Berman, Richmond, 53–55. Bush: Marcus, EAJ, 2:73–83, 502 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 157–58, 164, 168; Stern, AJD, 55; Will of Solomon Bush, 1795, Book 10, no. 188, Register of Wills for the County of Philadelphia; B. & B., JOUS, 1:286, n. 9. Myers family of Norfolk: JSJHS, 1:13, nn. 37–38; Jacob S. Feldman, “Western Pennsylvania,” chap. 2, copy of MS in Marcus Collections; Grinstein, New York City, 382; Will of Nathan Levy, Jan. 12, 1846, Baltimore Wills, liber 21, folio 76–78, Md. Hall of Records; Will of Hetty Levy, Jan. 11, 1816, liber 10, folio 155, Md. Hall of Records; Letters of David Levy Yulee, 1848–50, copies in Korn Papers, AJAr; David L. Yulee, Washington, to his wife, May 14, 1848, copy in Korn papers, AJAr; Will of Moses Levy, Nov. 8, 1825, codicils, Dec. 9, 1825, May 9, 1826, Orphans’ Court, Phila.; Marx family, Richmond, N.Y.; Barrett, Old Merchants, 2(pt. 2):87 ff., 3(pt. l):32–35; Markens, Hebrews, 25–26. Mordecais: Harry L. Golden and Martin Rywell, Jews in American History (Charlotte, 1950), 78 ff.; Stern, FAJF, 200; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:232 ff.; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 227 ff.; NCHR, 22(1945):58–108; PAJHS, 6:39–48; Va. Mag. of Hist, and Biog., 53(1945):271 ff.; Release on the Lazaruses of Wilmington by AJAr, Jan., 1967; A. Lazarus, Wilmington, to Bishop R.C. Moore, Richmond, July 1, 1823, Mordecai Mss., Duke University; Leeser, Claims, 84; One Hundredth Anniversary Commemorating the Building of St. James Church, Wilmington, N.C., April 30 and May 1, 1939 (Wilmington, N.C.). Why conversion: Marcus, EAJ, 2:503 ff.; Leeser, Discourses, 1:154–55; Ellen Mordecai, The History of a Heart (Phila., 1845).

88. Berman, Richmond, Index sub “Myers, Gustavus A.”; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 192 ff.; E. & L., Richmond, 60 ff., Index sub “Myers, Gustavus Adolphus”; Civil War-Lincoln Interview, letter of April, 1865: Memorandum of Gustavus A. Myers, copy in AJAr.

89. Charles L. Todd and Robert Sonkin, Alexnder Bryan Johnson: Philosophical Banker (Syracuse, 1977), chap. 1; Statement to Rabbi JRM, Lexington, Ky., ca. 1920.

90. Trachtenberg, Easton, 69, 71 ff., 311, n. 5.

91. Beerman, “Rebecca Gratz,” 43; Rosenbloom, “Rebecca Gratz,” 66 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:546–48, 3:954–55; W. & W., Philadelphia, 257; Grinstein, New York City, 338–39, 344–45; Marcus, AJD, 128 ff.; T. Seixas, N.Y., to I. Leeser, Oct. 27, 1833, Leeser Collections.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN

REFORM JUDAISM 1776–1840

  1. B. & B., JOUS, 2:555, 558, 3: 706 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 171 ff.; NAR, 23(1826): 67 ff.;

  2. Endelman, Jews of Georgian England, 140–65; Leeser, Discourses, 1:1–2; Marcus, Israel Jacobson, chaps. 2–5, 86; Philipson, Reform Movement, 1–28, 90 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 607–8, n. 4; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 41, 58; JSS, 32:3 ff.; AJHQ, 54:22, 413–14; Sachar, Modern Jewish History, 60 ff., 147–49; Bertram Wallace Korn, German-Jewish Intellectual Influences on American Jewish Life, 1824–1972, The B.G. Rudolph Lectures in Judaic Studies (Syracuse University, 1972), 2–4; NAR, 23(1826):67–73.

  3. Ahlstrom, Religious History, 357 ff., 380, 397–402; Judson, Religion in America, 160–62.

  4. Isaac Pinto, Prayers for Shabbath, Rosh-Hashanah and Kippur, etc. (N.Y., 1766), Preface; Marcus, EAJ, 1:96–98; PAJHS, 27:185–90.

  5. PAJHS, 21:163, 167, 27:107–8; B. & B., JOUS, 2:494–95, 533–34; Pool, Old Faith, 152–53; Berman, Richmond, 106–7, see Index under “Lazarus, Rachel Mordecai”; Schlesinger, New Viewpoints, 210–18; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 95; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, chap. 15; Krout and Fox, Completion of Independence, 170; Wish, Society and Thought, 1:6, 278 ff. 1791, Charleston: Marcus, AJD, 181 ff.; for Gershom Seixas’s wearing of ministerial garb, see his portrait, Columbus Univ., N.Y.; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Constitution, 1805: By-Laws, Art. 8, Sects. 1–4, 14–15. Decorum and dedication procedures: Marcus, EAJ, 1:97; Schappes, JIUS, 35; W. & W., Philadelphia, 121, 366. Savannah: B. & B., JOUS, 3:689; Schappes, DHJUS, 155. Cincinnati: Marcus, Memoirs, 1:211–12.

  6. NAR, 23(1826): 67 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 3:703, 710; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 90–95.

  7. Joseph Marx, Richmond, to S. Myers, Norfolk, Mar. 2, 1819, copy in Myers Papers, AJAr.

  8. R, no. 198; John Levi, Montreal, to Moses Hart, Three Rivers, June 1, 1820, Hart Papers, Three Rivers; “Allen, Ethan,” DAB; The New Era Illustrated Magazine (1905), 7:10 ff.; Marcus, Studies, 121 ff.; American State Papers (1949), 563–64; Stokes, Church and State, 3:149–50; Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom, 665–66.

  9. R. & E., Charleston, 128–29; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 163, 191; Stern, AJD, 119.

10. Reviews in American History, 7:350 ff.; “Gilman, Samuel,” DAB; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 46; Silberman, Am. Impact; PAJHS, 22:129, 54:413–16; Elzas, Leaves, Second Series, 1907, no. 7, p. 1.

11. NAR, 23(1826):73; Philipson, Reform Movement, 25, 329 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:657, n. 137; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 71–72; R. & E., Charleston, 186; Journal of Presbyterian History, 47:242; Joseph Henry Allen and Richard Eddy, A History of the Unitarians and the Universalists in the United States (N.Y., 1894), 195 ff.; Friedman, Pilgrims, 154 ff.; PAJHS, 32:49 ff.; Goldsmith, Directory (1831).

12. Mordecai, “Remarks on Harby’s Discourse”; Occ., 1:438.

13. Moïse, Isaac Harby, 52 ff.; Lebeson, Pilgrim People, 211.

14. B. & B., JOUS, 2:658, n. 138; NAR, 23:73; R. & E., Charleston, 128; Thomas Cooper, Columbia, S.C., to Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Apr. 24, 1820, Jefferson Papers, Univ. of Va.; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 153 ff.

15. Cooper and McCord, Statutes, 8:344; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 52–74; Silberman, Am. Impact; PAJHS, 42:49.

16. R, no. 134, facsimile facing p. 127; Neville Laski, The Laws and Charities of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews Congregation of London (London, 1952), 32 ff.; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Constitution (1836) Rule 8.

17. Moïse, Isaac Harby, 39, 62; Harry L. Golden, Jewish Roots in the Carolinas (Greensboro, N.C., 1955), 32; Moïse, Fancy’s Sketch Book, 75–76.

18. Moïse, Isaac Harby, 99 ff.

19. “Carvalho,” UJE; Sussman, “Isaac Harby,” 2; B. & B., JOUS, 2:553–65, 3:1003, n. 98; Lebeson, JPA, 303–5; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 1–8; AJHQ, 63:118 ff.; Moïse, Moïse Family, 75–80; Pinckney and Moise, Selection, Prefix; R, no. 306.

20. Sinai, 1:172 ff.; R, no. 327. The AJAr has copies of three such manuscripts, one each by Harby and Carvalho, and one from the Huntington Library; Goldsmith, Directory (1831); R. & E., Charleston, 128; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 61–71; NAR, 23:69 ff.; Sulamith, 7(no. 2):360, speaks of two synagogs in Charleston in the early 1830’s; Sussman, “Reformed Society of Israelites,” 28 ff.; Occ., 1:438, 9:210–11; n. 62; Moïse, Sabbath Service, Editor’s Preface, 5 ff.; Marcus Festschrift, 543–44; Barnett A. Elzas, The Reformed Society of Israelites of Charleston, S.C., (N.Y., 1916); Silberman, Am. Impact.

21. NAR, 23:72; B. & B., JOUS, 3:706–10; Niles Weekly Register, 26:19.

22. Moïse, Isaac Harby, 81–83, 121; Goldsmith, Directory (1831); Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 72; Harby, Discourse, 121.

23. Silberman, Am. Impact; Pinckney and Moïse, Selection, 29; Harby, Discourse, 118; Sussman, “Reformed Society of Israelites,” 12.

24. Goldsmith, Directory (1831); Moïse, Sabbath Service, 55–68; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 102; A. Z. Idelsohn, Jewish Music in its Historical Development (N.Y., 1929), 320; Berman, Richmond, 104.

25. PAJHS, 27:3–4. Dr. Malcolm Stern, the historian and genealogist, believes that the Chatham Square Cemetery, 1682, was originally restricted to the burial of Spanish-Portuguese Jews only. I concur. Pinckney and Moise, Selection, 28 If., 31–32; Moïse, Sabbath Service, 5 ff.; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 34 ff., 52–59, 62, 73, 77–78, 81 ff., 99 ff., 113–14, 118–19, 121–26; Schappes, DHJUS, 175–76; Elzas Jews of S.C., 158; Beryl Harold Levy, Reform Judaism in America (N.Y., 1933), 44; Eric Lewis Friedland, “The Historical and Theological Development of the Non-Orthodox Prayerbooks in the United States” (Ph.d. diss., Brandeis Univ., 1967), 1–4, 8–18; American Jews’ Annual for 5648, AM. (1887–88):75; B. & B., JOUS, 2:549 ff., 553 ff., 3:706 ff.; Sussman, “Reformed Society of Israelites,” 7, 9–12, 16–19; R. & E., Charleston, 128, 246 ff.; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 146; Berman, Richmond, 104 ff.; Silberman, Am. Impact; Occ., 1:436 ff.; Goldsmith, Directory (1831), 146–46; Sinai, 1:101 ff.; Philipson, Reform Movement, 329 ff.; Elzas, Cent. of Jud. in S.C., 12; Niles Weekly Register, 31:230.

26. Moïse, Isaac Harby, 75.

27. PAJHS, 32:44–48, 54:419; Sulamith, 7(no. 2):360; Mordecai, “Remarks on Harby’s Discourse”; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 164–65; Elzas, Cent. of Jud. in S.C., 15; NAR, 23(1826):74–75; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 40, 113, 137; Sinai, 1:173; R. & E., Charleston, 81, 131–36; B. & B., JOUS, 2:561, 3:710; Berman, Richmond, 107; Philipson, Reform Movement, 333; Sussman, “Isaac Harby”; Leon A. Jick, The Americanization of the Synagogue, 1820–1870 (Hanover, N.H., 1976), 13; Sussman, “Reformed Society of Israelites.”

28. Moïse, Isaac Harby, 42–43, 97, 138; Pinckney and Moise, Selection, 33–34; The Isaac Harby Prayerbook (Columbia, S.C., 1974), 82–88, 93–96.

29. Noah, Discourse (1818), 32; Grinstein, New York City, 353; B. & B., JOUS, 3:894 ff.; PAJHS, 21:200, 250; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 4; Pool, Crosby Street Synagogue, 22 ff., 27 ff.

30. B. & B., JOUS, 2:447(1834), 3:898; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 132, et passim, 161, 192, 213, 232 ff., 240, 251, 257; PAJHS, 21:198 ff., 250; Grinstein, New York City, 353 ff.; M. & M., History, 649; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, chap. 7; “Conferences, Rabbinical,” JE; Noah, Discourse (1845), iv; Occ., 3:34; Grinstein, New York City, 353–54; Noah, Address, 15–16.

31. The State vs. Ancker, 248, 254–55; AJHQ, 63:118, n. 4; Friends of Light: Grinstein, New York City, 171, 202, 215, 424; AJA, 14:21 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 330, 483, n. 43;

32. The State vs. Ancker, 253–54; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Minutes, Dec. 27, 1840, p. 149.

33. R. & E., Charleston, 140. Poznanski: PAJHS, 27:344, 54:420 ff., 431; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Minutes, July 10, 1839; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 208 ff. Harby: R. & E., Charleston, 99; Judaism, 3:333 ff.; Noah, Discourse (1818), 19; Moïse, Isaac Harby, 118–19, 121; Pool, Old Faith, 178, 247, 400, 430.

34. Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 84 ff.; Barnett A. Elzas, The Organ in the Synagogue: An Interesting Chapter in the History of Reform Judaism in America (Charleston, S.C., 190?), 1 ff.; Lance Jonathan Sussman, “Confidence in God: The Life and Preaching of Isaac Leeser (1806–1868),” (rabbinical thesis, HUC, 1980), 123–24; The State vs. Ancker, 245 ff.; PAJHS, 54:411 ff.; Friedman, Pilgrims, 161–62; Elzas, Cent. of Jud. in S.C., 14 ff.; Occ., 1:204–9, 253 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 3:954–55; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Solomon Cohen, Savannah, Oct. 4, 1840, copy in AJAr; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Mrs. Solomon (Miriam) Cohen, Savannah, Mar. 29, 1841, Univ. of N.C. Library, Southern Collections; see Marcus, AJWD, 101, for another reference; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 147 ff., 208 ff.; “Poznanski, Gustavus,” DAB.

35. Beth Elohim, Charleston, Minutes, July 14, 1840, July 28, 1841, Feb. 13, 1842; Occ., 1:201–9, 253–61, 491; Leeser, Discourses, 2:144–61, 3:319, 321; CCARYB, 38:521.

36. R, no. 483; Sinai, 1:171 ff.; PAJHS, 54:432–33, 439 ff.; Elzas, Cent. of Jud. in S.C., 16–18; Moïse, Isaac Harby 42, 83 ff.; The State vs. Ancker, 259–60.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

AMERICAN JEWRY 1776–1840: A SUMMARY AND SOME COMMENTS

  1. W. & W., Philadelphia, 140; Joshua I. Cohen, Baltimore, to Jared Sparks, Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 29, 1865, Harvard Library.

  2. Will of Philip Hart, 1796, Will Book C, 25(1793–1800):397–98, Charleston Probate Records; “Hart, Philip,” BDEAJ; R. & E, Charleston, 13, 23, 44, 57, 77, 97, 245, 273, n. 111; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 41, 106, n. 58, 116, n. 27, 121–22; AJYB, 81:149 ff.

  3. Jost, Neuere Geschichte, 2:223; Will of Alexander M. Hart, 1797, Will Book 26(1793–1800): 607–8, Charleston Probate Court; Korn, New Orleans, 216, 239; cf. Noah’s familiarity with the names of Jewish leaders abroad; B. & B., JOUS, 3:877, 885 ff., 892–93, 935, 937, 994–95, n. 16; Huhner, Judah Touro, 172, n. 40; George Alexander Kohut (ed.), Semitic Studies in Memory of Rev. Dr. Alexander Kohut (Berlin, 1897), 420 ff.; Benjamin, Three Years, 1:57 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 414 ff., 436, 590, nn. 7–10; PAJHS, 38:115, 127, 49:39 ff.; Harry Austryn Wolfson Jubilee Volume, etc. (Jerusalem, 1965), 1:255 ff.

  4. Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, Sept. 16, Oct. 28, 1832; PAJHS, 27:xvi, 103, 233 ff., 250, 34:288 ff.; Avraham Yaari, Sheluhe Erets Yisrael (Hebrew) (Jerusalem, 1950), 184, 446, 581 ff., 592, 647, 692, 764, 769, 787–88, 855–56; Marcus, CAJ, 2:1042 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 138, 280–91; Marcus, AJD, 100 ff.; Brandeis Avukah Annual, 536 ff.; Pool, Old Faith, 398 ff., 536 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 440 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 3:917–19; Leeser, Discourses, 1:410; Constitution and Bye-Laws of Hevrat Terumat-hakodesh, the Society for the Offerings of the Sanctuary (N.Y., 1832–33); Jewish People, 4:243; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Mar. 23, 1836; Duschinsky, Rabbinate of the Great Synagogue, 132–33.

  5. Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 75 ff., 323 ff., 328–30; Grinstein, New York City, 293, 414 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 2:588 ff., 3:860, 875; I.L., Phila., to Lewis Allen, Phila., Sept, 21, 1835, Leeser Papers in Marcus Collections; Minutes of Bevis Marks, London, Mar. 19, May 8, July 3, 1806, Dec. 5, 1829, July 11, 1838, copies in Marcus Collections; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 290–91; Marcus, EAJ, 2:481; Pool, Old Faith, 410 ff. 1729: PAJHS, 21:14, 27:2–18. 1733, Ga.: Marcus, CAJ, 1:349, 363. 1759: Gutstein, Newport, 86 ff.; PAJHS, 27:408; Stiles, Diary, 1:11; W. & W., Philadelphia, 280, 361–62, 496, nn. 8, 10, 11; Schappes, DHJUS, 177–79; R. & E., Charleston, 54, 137, 273, n. 109, 294, n. 170; Beth Elohim, Charleston, Minutes, Apr. 3, 1839.

  6. Jost, Neuere Geschichte, 2:223; Harmon Hendricks Letters, 1802–1804, copies in the Marcus Collections; David Levy (Yulee) was sent by his father, M. E. Levy, to the Myers Family in Norfolk, Virginia; Marcus, CAJ, 2:1041; PAJHS, 21:138–39, 27:30–31, 107; President of the Congregation, St. Thomas, to M.I., Jan. 9, 1832, Mikveh Israel, Phila., Correspondence; W. & W., Philadelphia, 137, 281; Grinstein, New York City, 416–20; Pool, Old Faith, 410 ff.; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Minutes, Aug. 21, 1815; Mickve Israel, Savannah, Minutes, Nov. 5, 1816.

  7. Wish, Society and Thought, 1:284; “France,” EJ, 7:22; JSS, 18(1956):118 ff.; Reform Advocate, 54(1917):414 ff., 441 ff., 466 ff., 73(1927):528; PAJHS, 11:57–58; Edward Frank Humphrey, Nationalism and Religion in America, 1774–1789 (Boston, 1924), 404; SCHGM, 33:71; B. & B., JOUS, 1:241, n. 25, 3:886–87; Moses, Full Annals, 137, 145; Stokes, Church and State, 3:688–91.

  8. B. & B., JOUS, 1:78 ff.; PAJHS, 6:6 ff., 22:124 ff., 26:266–68; W. & W., Philadelphia, 200–201; Schappes, JIUS, 42; Trachtenberg, Easton, 314, n. 14; Conservative Judaism, 32:50 ff.; “Levin, Mendel,” UJE; Henry M. Brackenridge, Rede ueber gleiche Rechte der Juden mit den Christen, u.s.w. (Berlin, 1820); Historia Judaica, 8:114; Ottensosser, Die Geschichte der Yehudim, 1:125 ff.; Pinckney & Moise, Selection, 33: NAR, 23:67 ff., was published in translation in part in Germany in 1838; Abraham ben Jaddai (A. Buys de Graf), Es Ist Nur Ein Gott, u.s.w., translated from the 13th English edition by Benjamin Wollsteiner (Rothenberg, 1840), Vorwort.

  9. AJA, 6:20; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 44; Endelman, Jews of Georgian England, 78 ff.; “Toland, John,” EJ; AJA, 6:19–21; Roth, Bibliotheca, 232 ff.; Abrahams and Levy, Lord Macaulay, 53, 60, 69; PAJHS, 4:222–23, 12:163–64, 18:209–10, 22:177–78, 26:266–68; Fein, Baltimore, 36; Finkelstein, The Jews (1960), 1:461; Schappes, DHJUS, 620, n. 12; Henriques, Jews and the English Law, 310 ff.

10. Henry Hart Milman, The History of the Jews (2 vols., N.Y., 1913), 2:484; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 52 ff.

11. Pool, Old Faith, 433; Grinstein, New York City, 396 ff., 407, 409, 421, 522–23, 588, nn. 23, 26; W. & W., Philadelphia, 119, 137, 280–81, 361–62, 366, 496, n. 12; B. & B., JOUS, 2:583–84, 3:859–60, 865; R, no. 439. Hevrah Kaddisha of M.I.: $50 in 1838 was sent to Charleston; Barry H. Greene, “Business Letters of the Myers Family, 1812, Merchant-shippers, Norfolk,” (HUC term paper, 1957); Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 74; Marcus, CAJ, 1:303; R. & E., Charleston, 294, n. 170; PAJHS, 1:16, 6:138–39, 21:81, 138–39, 22:xxx, 27:232–33, 342, 43:142–43, 48:241–42; Mikveh Israel, Phila., Trustees Minutes, 1782, Sept, 3, 1792; President of St. Thomas Congregation, to M.I., Jan. 9, 1832, Mikveh Israel, Phila., Correspondence; Devine, “Sephardic Jews,” 125 ff.; Pool, Crosby Street Synagogue, 8; Korn, New Orleans, 192 ff.; Baltimore congregation to M.I., July 24, 1837, asking for money, as cited in Liebowitz, “Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia,” 51, n. 171; Pool, Old Faith, 420 ff., 429–34; Whiteman, Hendricks, 150–51; AJHQ, 53:350.

12. PAJHS, 3:87 ff., 27:218 ff.; Marcus, CAJ, 1:1301–2, 3:1292; Sweet, Story of Religion in America, 9; Ahlstrom, Religious History, 364 ff.; Ellis, Am. Catholicism, 285–86; Stokes, Church and State, 3:860–61; Morais, Philadelphia, 20–21; PAJHS, 3:87–94, 11:156–57, 27:217 ff.; Gutstein, Newport, 204–13; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 122 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 77–84; Marcus, AJD, 167–70; E. & L., Richmond, 236 ff.; W. & W., Philadelphia, 152–54; RIJHN, 7:305–6; Writings of Washington, 31:93, 185–86.

13. Judah Zuntz, N.Y., to Samuel Myers, Norfolk, Jan. 3, 1820, Myers Papers, AJAr.

14. Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 120, 199, n. 3; Works of Penina Moïse, 272–73.

15. “Churchill, Charles Henry,” EOZAI, Dubnow, Weltgeschichte, 10:315; Western Messenger, 8(1841):259–69.

16. Soloff, “Press Reactions”; Sachar, Modern Jewish History, 134–35; TJHSE, 16:47 ff.; “Rhodes,” JE, UJE; “Damascus,” “Damascus Affair,” JE; B. & B., JOUS, 3:877–78, 924–55, 999, n. 62; Dubnow, Weltgeschichte, 9:306 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 200–15, 616–24, esp. 622, n.3; Stokes, Church and State, 2:437–38; PAJHS, 8:141 ff., 9:153–55, 10:119 ff., 15:4–6, 26:135–36, 254–55, 36:3–5, 48:217; Schappes, JIUS, 73; “United States,” JE, 12:356; M. & M., History, 651–53; Leeser, Discourses, 3:153, 170–71, 347 ff.; Rosenthall, “Damascus Affair”; Grinstein, New York City, 420–21.

17. New York Journal of Commerce and Gazette, July 23, 1840, cited in Soloff, “Press Reactions,” 39–40; Leeser, Discourses, 3:164–65.

18. Persecution of the Jews in the East; Soloff, “Press Reactions,” 39–40; Leeser, Discourses, 3:153 ff.

19. Charleston Proceedings, 14; Curti, American Thought, 119–20; Wish, Society and Thought, 1:284; B. & B., JOUS, 3:877–78, 924–55; Charleston Proceedings; Southern Patriot, editorial page, Aug. 31, 1840; Cohen, “Isaac Leeser,” chap. 4; E. & L., Richmond, 137–38; Rosenthall, “Damascus Affair,” 50 ff., 56 ff.; Soloff, “Press Reactions,” 13 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 200–216, 618, n.10; Jost, Neuere Geschichte, 2:360 ff.; Morais, Philadelphia, 51–52; Leeser, Discourses, 3:153 ff., 347 ff., 363 ff.; Persecution of the Jews in the East, Savannah Georgian, editorial page, Sept. 4, 1840; PAJHS, 8:141 ff., 10:119–28, 15:4 ff., 36:3–5; Works of Penina Moïse, 272; Boston Mercantile Journal, Sept. 25, 1840; Friedman, Pioneers, 118; Berk, History of the Jews, 266 ff.; Western Messenger, 8(1840):259 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 420 ff.

20. Persecution of the Jews in the East, B. & B., JOUS, 3:878, 933 ff., 951, 953 ff.; PAJHS, 10:119 ff.

21. I.B. Kursheedt et al., N.Y., to Martin Van Buren, Aug. 24, 1840, Records of the Dept, of State, Misc. Letters, July, Aug., Sept., 1840, NA; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 123–25; Persecutions of the Jews in the East, 17–21; Western Messenger, 8(1840): 259 ff.; PAJHS, 29:58–60; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Miriam G. Cohen, Savannah, Sept. 13, 1840, Southern Collection, U. of N.C.; Philipson, Rebecca Gratz Letters, 282 ff.; B. & B., JOUS, 3:924–55; Leeser, Discourses, 3:347 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 420–22; Occ., 3:29 ff.; Schappes, DHJUS, 200–15, 619, n. 1; Berman, Richmond, 130–32; Rosenthall, “Damascus Affair”; Max J. Kohler, The United States and German Jewish Persecutions: Precedents for Popular and Governmental Action (N.Y., 1933), 13, 35–36. This is a reprint from Bulletin of the Jewish Academy of Arts and Sciences. The paper was submitted to the Jewish Academy of Arts and Sciences, June 1, 1933.

22. Korn, New Orleans, 110, et passim; Marcus, AJD, 51 ff.

23. W. & W., Philadelphia, 416, n. 56.

24. Pool, Old Faith, 447–48; Shearith Israel, N.Y., Constitution, (1805), article 6; PAJHS, 21:78; R, no. 316; EIAJH, 215, no. 99.

25. Elzas, Old Cemeteries, 103 ff.; R. & E., Charleston, 153, 301, n. 208.

26. Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 106–7; Marcus, CAJ, 2:837; Carmen and Syrett, History, 1:522 ff.; Davis, Rodeph Shalom, 16.

27. B. & B., JOUS, 3:955; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, June 26, 1837; Carmen and Syrett, History, 1:522 ff.; Berman, Richmond, 125; PAJHS, 35:189 ff., 198; G. Seixas, N.Y., to daughter Sarah, Richmond, May 24, 1815, AJHSL; Grinstein, New York City, 11, 165–66, 391 ff., 396; Pool, Old Faith, 436 ff.

28. R. & E., Charleston, 301, n. 208; Silver Festschrift, 227–34; Berman, Richmond, 1, et passim.

29. Berman, Richmond, 28; Korn, New Orleans, 209.

30. Korn, New Orleans, 209; PAJHS, 48:210, n. 16, 67:101 ff., 121; Grinstein, New York City, 588, n. 26; W. & W., Philadelphia, 361; Berman, Richmond, 28.

31. PAJHS, 21:144 ff., 27:342–43; Grinstein, New York City, 169, 304 ff., 391 ff., 443 ff., 518–19; W. & W., Philadelphia, 361–62, 365; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 73–74; Pool, Old Faith, 436 ff.; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Apr. 23, 1837; Constitution and Bye-Laws of Hevrat Terumat ha-Kodesh, the Society for the Offerings of the Sanctuary, etc. (N.Y., 1832–1833); B. & B., JOUS, l:xxxi–xxxii.

32. M. M. Russell, Baltimore, to Dr. Moses Sheftall, Savannah, Feb. 19, 1817, Levy collection in Savannah; Trachtenberg, Easton, 75; Marcus, AJD, 159; Marcus, Memoirs, 1:155; Grinstein, New York City, 168.

33. Marcus, AJD, 68; Z. Rehine, Warrenton, Va., to I. L., June 24, 1839, copy in Marcus Collections; Rebecca Gratz, Phila., to Maria F. Hoffman, N.Y., June 18, 1809, copy in AJAr; Robert J. Eisen, “Rebecca Gratz, a Cultured American Jewess: A study of Gratz’s Letters to Maria Fenno Hoffman, 1806–1818,” (HUC term paper, 1978); Marcus, AJWD, 59 ff.; R, no. 228; Goldberg, Major Noah, 164 ff.; Anshe Chesed, N.Y., Minutes, Oct. 6,1838; Marcus, EAJ, 2:219 ff.; Pool, Crosby Street Synagogue, 18–19.

34. Will of David Nathans, July 27, 1817, Phila., copy in Marcus Collections; Sarna, Mordecai Noah, 1–2; W. & W., Philadelphia, 177; B. & B., JOUS, 1:162–70, 192 ff.; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 271; Grinstein, New York City, 173 ff.; PAJHS, 35:189 ff. Of the Seixas letters in the AJHSL, the following to his daughter Sarah (Sally) in Richmond are particularly interesting: Mar. 22, Nov. 4, 1813, May 15, 1814. Letters sent to the Hendrickses in the early 1800’s from Kingston, Jamaica, London, Bristol, and Philadelphia throw light on social relations among Jews. The copies in the Marcus Collections were supplied by Cecil Roth.

35. Marcus, EAJ, 2:211.

36. Elzas, Jews of S.C., 153.

37. Occ., 11:371; Hershkowitz and Meyer, Letters; Whiteman, Hendricks, 146; Trachtenberg, Easton, 75; B. & B., JOUS, 1:166–67; Marcus, AJD, 66.

38. Grinstein, New York City, 420; B. & B., JOUS, 2:597–601.

39. Marcus, EAJ, 2:550; W. & W., Philadelphia, 373–74.

40. For population data see: PAJHS, 6:141 ff., 50:33–34, 53:152; Adams, History of the Jews, 2:215 ff.; Grinstein, New York City, 472, 520; Noah, Discourse (1818), 30; “New York,” JE, 9:270; Marcus, CAJ, Index, sub “Population statistics, Jewish.” For founding of synagogs see relevant articles in EJ under the name of the respective cities; Pool, Old Faith, 502; Elzas, Jews of S.C., 20, 245 ff., et passim; Korn, New Orleans, 194; Berman, Richmond, 38; Leeser, Claims, 83–84; W. & W., Philadelphia, 32, et passim; “South Carolina,” JE; Trachtenberg, Easton, 129; Herman Landau, Adath Louisville: The Story of a Jewish Community (Louisville, Ky., 1981), 6; Sussman, “Jewish Intellectual Activity,” 2, 73–74, 85, 151.

41. Silver Festschrift, 227 ff.; Gotthard Deutsch, Scrolls: Essays on Jewish History and Literature, etc. (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1917), 1:130; Noah, Discourse (1818), 30; Goldstein, Cent. of Jud. in NYC, 52–53; Grinstein, New York City, 420, 520; EIAJH, 215, no. 99; R, no. 452; Rosenthall, “Damascus Affair,” 43 ff., 53; Pool, Old Faith, 379–80.

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ISBN
9780814344682
Related ISBN
9780814344699
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OCLC
1055143335
Pages
705-774
Launched on MUSE
2018-10-02
Language
English
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