© 2009 The Johns Hopkins University Press
All rights reserved. Published 2009
Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
The Johns Hopkins University Press
2715 North Charles Street
Baltimore, Maryland 21218–4363
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Heide, Lars, 1950–
Punched-card systems and the early information explosion, 1880–1945 / Lars Heide.
ISBN-13: 978-0-8018-9143-4 (hardcover : alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-8018-9143-4 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Punched card systems—United States. 2. Information technology—United States.
3. Punched card systems—Europe. 4. Information technology—Europe. I. Title.
A catalog record for this book is available from the British Library.
Special discounts are available for bulk purchases of this book. For more information, please contact Special Sales at 410-516-6936 or.
The Johns Hopkins University Press uses environmentally friendly book materials, including recycled text paper that is composed of at least 30 percent post-consumer waste, whenever possible. All of our book papers are acid-free, and our jackets and covers are printed on paper with recycled content.