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Bosnia and Herzegovina. Source: United Nations.

Key Terms and Places

Banja Luka: in northwest Bosnia, capital of Republika Srpska, second largest city

Belgrade: capital city of Yugoslavia, and of Serbia

Bosnia and Herzegovina: full name of “Bosnia”

Bosniak: preferred term by many Bosnian Muslims

Chetnik: Serb guerillas during World War II; pejorative for Serb nationalists

Croatia: Yugoslav republic, majority Catholic, declared independence June 1991

Contact Group: representatives of Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and the United States, who charged themselves with finding an end to the war

Displaced persons: in-country, as opposed to out-of-country, refugees

Dobrinja: Olympic Village, suburban neighborhood of Sarajevo; frontline of siege

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: 51 percent of Bosnia, delineated by the Dayton Agreement, controlled by Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats

FRY: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, post-breakup

Gorazde: town in eastern Bosnia, like Srebrenica a “safe haven” under siege

HDZ: Croat Democratic Union, nationalist party with strong connections to Zagreb

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: established in 1993; referred to as “The Hague” in this text

JNA: Yugoslav National Army, controlled from Belgrade

Kosovo: in south Yugoslavia, 90 percent ethnic Albanian, disputed Serb heartland

Ljubljana: the capital of Slovenia, population about 350,000

Mostar: city in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, claimed by Croat nationalists

Mount Igman: accessed by tunnel under Sarajevo airport as an escape route

NGO: nongovernmental organization, international term for “nonprofits”

OHR: Office of the High Representative, established by Dayton Agreement

Pale: ski village outside Sarajevo, used by Bosnian Serbs as political headquarters

Partisans: anti-Nazi communist resistance forces, led by Marshal Tito

Prijedor: city of 120,000 in northwest Bosnia, concentration camp run by Serbs

Republika Srpska: 49 percent of Bosnia per Dayton, controlled by Bosnian Serbs

Sarajevo: Bosnian capital, under siege 3 years, population approximately 500,000

SDA: Party for Democratic Action, Bosniak-dominated, headed by Izetbegovic

SDP: Social Democratic Party, espousing multiethnicity and united Bosnia

SDS: Serb Democratic Party, nationalist party, headed by Radovan Karadzic

Serbia and Montenegro: name for successor to FRY, February 2003

SFOR: multinational Stabilization Force, replaced IFOR (Implementation Force)

Slovenia: northernmost Yugoslav republic, declared independence June 1991

SNS: Serb National Alliance, headed by Biljana Plavsic

Srebrenica: safe haven in eastern Bosnia, site of July 1995 massacre

Tuzla: city in northeast Bosnia, to which Srebrenica refugees were transported

Ustasha: Croatian Nazi collaborators, slur for modern Croatian nationalists

Zagreb: capital of Croatia

Shattered dreams in Dobrinja. December 1995.

Key Players

ALENKA SAVIC: engineer, Tuzla, widow, Slovene/Serb parents, two kids

ALMA KECO: engineer, Mostar, Bosniak paramedic, founded veterans’ organization

AMNA POPOVAC: Mostar, Bosniak university student, resettles refugees

ANA PRANIC: Bosnian Croat, sixties, small town, livestock from microcredit loan

BILJANA CHENGICH FEINSTEIN: Muslim convert to Judaism, cosmetician

DANICA PETRIC: grandmother, florist, refugee in Croatia, Catholic

EMSUDA MUJAJIC: Prijedor Bosniak, designer, Trepoljna camp, runs two NGOs

FAHRIJA GANIC: Albanian royalty, dermatologist, political leader husband

GALINA MARJANOVIC: Serb from Banja Luka, worked twenty-five years with deaf

GRETA FERUSIC-WEINFELD: Sarajevo, Auschwitz, professor, government minister

IRMA SAJE: Catholic/Muslim parents, adolescent during siege, tunnel escape

JELKA KEBO: Mostar, Croat, organized youth center, son died in accident

KADA HOTIC: textile factory worker, Muslim (Bosniak), survivor of Srebrenica

KAROLINA ATAGIC: Catholic in Muslim part of Sarajevo, son in army, husband died

KRISTINA KOVAC: Sipovo in Republika Srpska, two daughters, Serb teacher

MAJA JERCOVIC: manager Mostar regional hospital, Croat, Communist Party

MEDIHA FELIPOVIC: orthodontist, Bosniak, only woman in first national parliament

MIRHUNISA ZICIC (KOMARICA): accounting professor, Bosniak, aided refugees

NADA RAKOVIC: pediatrician, refugee, Republika Srpska Parliament

NURDZIHANA DZOZIC: Dobrinja journalist, Bosniak, published Zena 21

RADA SESAR: Bosnian Serb, broadcast testimonies of victims, two children

SABIHA HADZIMORATOVIC: Gorazde, Bosniak journalist abroad, organized aid

SUZANA ANDJELIC: Bosnian Serb, young journalist for Free Bosnia

TANJA LJUJIC-MIJAOVIC: Sarajevo Serb, member of parliament and presidency

VALENTINA PRANIC: daughter of Ana, married Bosnian Serb at end of war, BWI loan

VESNA KISIC: Bosnian Serb, League of Women Voters, “Antonia” organizer

“Arkan”: notorious paramilitary leader, elected to Serbian parliament, assassinated

James Baker III: secretary of state, chief of staff for Bush reelection campaign

George Bush: U.S. president, 1988–92, adopted nonintervention policy

Bill Clinton: U.S. president, 1992–2000, supported Dayton talks, women’s initiative

Richard Holbrooke: under Clinton U.S. assistant secretary of state for Europe

Alija Izetbegovic: Islamic apologist, head of SDA, lawyer, president of Bosnia

Vic Jackovich: first U.S. ambassador to Bosnia, later U.S. ambassador to Slovenia

Radovan Karadzic: psychiatrist, Bosnian Serb president, indicted war criminal

John Menzies: second U.S. ambassador to Bosnia, oversaw Kosovo peace agreement

Slobodan Milosevic: president of Yugoslavia, now at The Hague

Ratko Mladic: head of Bosnian Serb army, indicted war criminal

Biljana Plavsic: Karadzic deputy, president Republika Srpska, confessed war criminal

Colin Powell: noninterventionist Chair of Joint Chiefs of Staff for Bush, Clinton

Haris Silajdzic: wartime prime minister, poet, playwright, non-nationalist party

Franjo Tudjman: general in former Yugoslavia, nationalist president of Croatia

Warren Zimmermann: last U.S. ambassador to Yugoslavia


1918 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes formed as outcome of World War I.
1929 The monarchy’s name is changed to Yugoslavia, “Land of the South Slavs.”
1941 April: Nazi Germany attacks Yugoslavia.
1945 Yugoslavia becomes a socialist state under Marshal Tito, with six republics
(Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Slovenia, Montenegro), and two autonomous provinces (Kosovo and Vojvodina) within Serbia.
1980 Tito dies. Rotating presidency instated.
1983 Izetbegovic sentenced to fourteen years in prison for Islamic writings.
1987 Milosevic stirs the crowd with rabble-rousing speech to Serbs in Kosovo.
1989 June: Milosevic warns of conflict on 600th Battle of Kosovo anniversary.
1991 June–July: Slovenia and Croatia declare independence from Yugoslavia. Slovenia breaks away after ten days of fighting. Fierce fighting in Croatia ensues.
September: Macedonia declares independence from Yugoslavia.
1992 January: UN brokers truce in Croatia, leaving Serbs in control of the Krajina.
March: Bosnia and Herzegovina declares independence.
April: Serbia and Montenegro form Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with Milosevic as de facto leader. Bosnia erupts into war. Serbs begin shelling Sarajevo.
May: Milosevic and Tudjman meet and discuss plans to divide Bosnia.
1995 July: Srebrenica massacre, worst European atrocity since World War II.
August: Croatian army launches Operation Storm against Serbs occupying one-third of that country; massive exodus of Croat Serbs into Bosnia and Serbia. United States leads NATO bombing against Serb targets to lift Sarajevo siege.
November: Izetbegovic, Tudjman, and Milosevic initial the Dayton Peace Agreement.
1997 Conflict escalates between Kosovo Liberation Army and Milosevic’s forces.
1998 Summer: Guerrilla war breaks out in Kosovo.
1999 March: Rambouillet peace talks between Serbia and Kosovo fail. NATO launches air strikes against Serbs.
2000 September: Opposition candidate Vojislav Kostunica wins fry presidential elections. Milosevic refuses to step down.
October: Popular uprising in Belgrade. Milosevic steps down. Kostunica takes office. United States, European Union begin to lift economic sanctions and offer aid.
2001 June: Milosevic transferred to The Hague tribunal.
2002 September: Milosevic trial begins. President Clinton opens memorial in Srebrenica, with an exhibit by Tarik Samarah, the portrait photographer for this book.
October: In Bosnian election, nationalist parties regain power.
2003 February: Biljana Plavsic sentenced to eleven years for persecutions.
March: Serbian prime minister Zoran Djindjic—key in October 2000 popular uprising and in turning over Milosevic—assassinated.
November: Agreement to unite two former warring Bosnian armies into national force.
December: World Bank reports that four-fifths of war refugees and internally displaced persons are back home.

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