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The outline presented here is a slightly modified version of the Outline of Cultural Variables used as a guide to collecting field data on resettled communities by members of the Project for the Study of Cultural Change and Stability in Displaced Communities in Oceania. The modifications have been mainly editorial ones to make the outline more readable. The original version can be found in Larson (1966:179–182).

The outline lists the major categories of variables influencing change and stability in resettled communities under “external” (macrosystem) variables and “internal” (microsystem) variables. Under each major category are listed specific variables. None of these should be taken to be exhaustive of the category but rather as examples of what one might encounter in the field. Under the cate­gory “topography” (I.B.2 in the outline), for example, one might find that mountains make a difference in the adaptation of a reset­tled atoll community living on a high island, although that vari­able is not listed in the outline. Under the category “addition and loss of members” (II.F), one might find, when collecting data on mobility in the community, that ship passenger lists are available so that detailed information on movement of people to and from the relocated community can be used as a basis for questioning in­formants 390 and establishing demographic patterns. Although this variable is not listed under the category, the specific variables that are listed do suggest collection of such information if it is avail­able. That specific variables listed are suggestions and examples is indicated by the frequent inclusion of “et cetera.”

In a situation in which part of an island community had been resettled and the field researcher had access to both the resettled and the home communities, researchers in Homer Barnett’s proj­ect found it useful to employ the outline to collect comparable sets of data from both communities. As a field procedure, this helped highlight areas of change as well as those of stability in both com­munities.


I. External influences: variables outside the community

A. Circumstances contributing to the decision to resettle

1. Initiating conditions

a. Environmental variables

(1) Land shortage

(2) Drought

(3) Volcanic eruption

(4) Isolation, etc.

b. Social variables

(1) Factionalism within the community

(2) Economic depression (as in the 1930s and after World War II), etc.

2. Source of the suggestion to resettle

a. Government or other colonial agency

b. Native leaders

c. Examples of other communities that have been removed, etc.

3. The decision to resettle

a. Participation in the decision

(1) Total community (e.g., in a formal meeting)

(2) Native council

(3) Individual families, etc.

b. The procedure of resettlement

(1) Presentation of the argument for resettlement

(2) Advance inspection of the new location

(3) Emergency evacuation, etc. 391

c. Community attitudes toward the necessity of resettle­ment

(1) Differences of opinion (if any) between individuals or categories of persons

(a) Men as contrasted with women

(b) Young as contrasted with old

(c) Leaders as contrasted with nonleaders

(d) Government officials as contrasted with community leaders

(e) Educated as contrasted with parochial

(f) More prosperous as contrasted with less prosperous

(2) Differences of opinion (if any) between earlier and later emigrants

(a) At the time of removal

(b) After the community has been established

(c) After the initiating crisis (if any) has passed

B. Physical variables affecting change and stability

1. Climate—effect of temperature, storms, seasonal fluctua­tions, etc., on

a. Clothing, housing, etc.

b. Subsistence activities

c. Contacts with outsiders, etc.

2. Topography—effect of the new area’s size, its relief, beach area, streams, water table, reefs, etc., on

a. Village ground plan, paths, roads, etc.

b. Location of farmland, groves, etc.

c. Subsistence activities

d. Internal communication, communication with outsiders, etc.

3. Strategic resouces—effect of their kind and location on

a. Availability and exploitation of local products for food, construction, or commerce

4. Location with respect to other islands, affecting

a. Visiting patterns

b. Wage labor

c. Commercial development

d. Acculturation, etc.

C. Social variables affecting change and stability

1. Opportunity for contact (before and after resettlement) with outsiders

a. Identity of the outsiders—Americans, British, etc. 392

b. Status and role of the outsiders

(1) Colonial agents—administrators, armed forces, trad­ers, employers, missionaries, tourists, etc.

(2) Natives of other islands—ships’ crews, mission person­nel, people on the way to other islands, etc.

c. Differences within the community with respect to oppor­tunities for contact with outsiders

(1) Men as contrasted with women—do women in the community, for example, have a chance to meet Brit­ish women and men?

(2) Young as contrasted with old

(3) Chiefs as contrasted with commoners

(4) Spokesmen, etc.—do only leaders of the community, for example, have appreciable contact with outsiders?

2. Kind and amount of contact by persons in the community (young, old, men, women, etc.) with outsiders

a. Daily, periodic, planned, casual, incidental, impersonal, commercial, etc.

b. Marriage with outsiders

(1) Frequency of occurrence

(2) Rights and obligations with respect to affinal kinsmen—economic cooperation, coresidence, etc.

c. Friendship with outsiders

(1) “Trade partnerships”

(2) Adoption of individuals or whole families by outsid­ers, etc.

3. Locale of contact with outsiders—inside or outside the vil­lage

4. Initiators of contact—community members or outsiders

5. Different reactions to categories of outsiders

a. Americans as contrasted with British

b. Europeans as contrasted with indigenous neighbors

c. Traders as contrasted with missionaries, etc.

6. Attitudes toward neighbors

a. Hostile

b. Suspicious

c. Aloof

d. Superior

e. Inferior, etc.

7. Attitudes of neighbors toward the emigrants

a. Hospitable 393

b. Resentful

c. Contemptous, etc.

8. Group self-image

a. Mistreated

b. Unlucky

c. Indomitable

d. Pioneers

e. Failures

f. Representatives of their people, etc.

9. Acculturation within the community

a. Learning new skills from outsiders

b. Accepting outsiders’ customs—food, house types, etc.

c. Involvement with outsiders socially through

(1) Church activity

(2) Employment or commercial enterprise

(3) Entertainment—bars, theaters, etc.

(4) Accepting favors

10. Impact of resettlement on community organization with respect to

a. Leadership

b. Interpersonal relations, including those among kinsmen

c. Work groups, including labor for village benefit

d. Social and recreational groups and the occasions when they actively function

e. Religious activities

f. Cooperatives and other commercial enterprises

g. Individualism and independence of primary kin groups

h. Temporary procedures and patterns of behavior (said to replace traditional behavior until the community is well established)

D. Contact with congeners

1. Category of contact

a. Contact before resettlement (e.g., Gilbertese and Ellice Islanders living and working together on Ocean Island, Tarawa, and Canton, etc.)

b. Contact between the resettled community and the home­land (e.g., Tikopia in the Russell Islands)

c. Contact between two relocated communities (e.g., South­ern Gilbertese on Sydney and Gardner Islands)

2. Kind and frequency of contact

a. Correspondence and visiting 394

b. Return to the homeland

c. New emigrants joining the resettled community

d. Schooling for children, etc.

3. Encouragement of contact (or the lack of it)

a. By government policy

b. By community leaders in the relocated and the home communities

4. Contact with congeners as it influences morale in the reset­tled community

a. Homesickness

b. Maintenance of identification with the homeland and its customs

c. Severance with tradition

d. Pride as pioneers

e. Dissatisfaction or self-justification resulting from com­parison with others

f. Fear of losing land or other rights and privileges at home

E. Disease

1. The community as a carrier of disease

2. The community as a victim of unfamiliar disease

3. The community’s perception of the new location as healthy or unhealthy

F. Government welfare efforts*

1. Resettlement plans and their implementation

a. Reasons for choosing the site for resettlement

b. Procedure of resettlement

(1) Government supervision (e.g., a resettlement officer)—assistance in removal from home island, in construct­ing the new village, etc.

(2) Reconnaissance party to survey the site for resettle­ment

(3) Advance work party to clear land, construct tempo­rary houses, etc.

(4) Waves of emigrants or total community arriving at one time 395

(5) Initial living arrangements for the settlers

c. Relation of settlers to the homeland

(1) Maintenance of rights to land and position with expec­tations of eventual return to the homeland

(2) Renunciation of land rights and foreclosure of possi­bility for return

(3) Payment for expropriated homeland by the govern­ment

(4) Income from produce of the homeland (e.g., royalty money for phosphate on Ocean Island)

d. Traditional value placed on land ownership

(1) Basis of social control and prestige

(2) Secondary to use rights, fishing rights, and other forms of property

e. Land tenure in the new location

(1) Government policy regulating land tenure as opposed to land tenure being left up to the community to decide

(2) Type of ownership

(a) Communal

(b) Individual

(c) Kin group, etc.

(3) System of allocating land plots

(a) Individual choice

(b) Drawing lots

(c) Priorities of selection, etc.

(4) Unit of allocation

(a) To individuals

(b) To families

(c) To descent groups, etc.

(5) Temporary or permanent assignment of land

(6) Land survey, formal registration of allocated plots, etc.

f. Duration of relocation

(1) Effect of duration on the adjustment of emigrants—do younger members of the community, for example, want to go back to the homeland of their parents?

g. Number of relocations

h. Actual or alleged governmental encouragement of hopes to

(1) Return to the homeland

(2) Resettle a second or third time 396

2. Health measures

a. Provision of dispensaries, hospital services, medical aides, drugs, etc.

b. Public health programs—mosquito control, innocula­tions, latrines, sanitation regulations, etc.

3. Economic assistance

a. Issues of food in the initial (or other) stages of the reset­tled community’s development

b. Issues of cuttings and seeds, tools, etc.

c. Advice and assistance by experts on

(1) Agricultural development

(2) Fishing techniques

(3) Commercial development, including rewards (or lack of them) for clearing land, planting certain crops (such as cacao), etc.

4. Education

a. Extent to which it is available

(1) Inside or outside the village

(2) Day school, boarding school, etc.

(3) Curriculum—language, subjects, vocational, etc.

b. Extent to which it is required

(1) Compulsory or voluntary

(2) Age requirements

(3) Standardization of curriculum

c. Sponsorship, such as by government or by church

d. Teachers

(1) Ethnic affiliation, family status (if relevant) of teach­ers

(2) Source of training, pay

(3) Language of instruction

e. Provision of school buildings, supplies, educational mate­rials

f. Attitudes toward education

g. Literature available in the language read

5. Attitudes toward the government

G. Mission welfare efforts

1. Consider all items listed under government welfare efforts that are relevant

2. Provision of resources for members of the community

a. Recreation 397

b. Community projects—health programs, house improve­ment, etc.

3. Provision and training of pastors

a. Ethnic identity of pastors

b. Religious affiliation of pastors

c. Relationship of the pastor to the community

(1) Teacher-preacher combination

(2) Pastor’s identification with the community

(3) Pastor’s role and position—is he, for example, a strong political voice in the community?

(4) Community support of the pastor (material or other)

(5) Change in religious affiliation with resettlement (e.g., Southern Gilbertese Protestants in Titiana)

H. Selection of emigrants

1. Nonselection: all members of the community resettled

2. Selection by government based on

a. Quotas for age, sex, state of health, skills, etc.

b. Family status, political position in the community, etc.

c. Economic status on the home island

3. Self-selection by community members

a. Criteria for deciding who can emigrate

b. Reasons for emigrating

(1) Joining friends or relatives

(2) Seeking jobs, adventure, etc.

(3) Factionalism or deteriorating relationships on the home island

II. Internal influences: variables within the resettled community

A. Size and distribution of the resettled community

1. Concentrated in a single village

2. Segmented into two or more villages

3. Dispersed in individual homesteads or hamlets

4. Attitudes toward integration with neighbors

B. Socioeconomic variables

1. Distribution within the community of

a. Age, sex, marital status, dependents

b. Division of labor

c. Occupational skills (and money income)

d. Available mates

e. Available manpower for community needs

f. Education398

C. Homogeneity of background of community members

1. All from one island or from more than one island

2. All from one village or region of the same island or from different villages or regions

3. Differences within the community

a. Dialects, traditional histories, etc.

b. Affiliation with groups outside the community, such as different churches

D. Degree of acculturation at the time of resettlement

1. Abandonment of precontact indigenous customs because of government or church regulation, etc.

2. Adoption of foreign customs

a. Dress, house types, tools, etc.

b. Skills, wage work, use of money

c. Formal education, bilingualism, etc.

d. Reasons for adopting new customs

E. Familiarity with the new homeland before resettlement

1. Limited to reconnaissance by community representatives

2. Known from visits before resettlement (e.g., through travel, work, etc.)

3. Known by tradition or hearsay

F. Addition and loss of members

1. Births and deaths

2. Continuing emigration (including repatriation) because of

a. Reuniting families, joining friends

b. Securing heirs, wage work, or education

c. Land shortages, labor opportunities

d. Government regulation or policy (e.g., conscription of labor by Japanese in Micronesia)

3. Community segmentation

4. Intermarriage, adoption, friendship

5. Residence in urban centers, on plantations, etc.

G. Key persons who have had a significant influence on the course of events in the resettled community

1. Native and nonnative residents of the community (such as Gallagher on Sydney Island or you, the anthropologist)

2. Social isolates, marginal individuals, “troublemakers,” etc.

H. Factionalism, whether actual or incipient, with regard to

1. Religious or political activity

2. Ethnic affiliation 399

3. Generational factionalism, etc.

I. Adherence to tradition

1. Actual as opposed to alleged observance of tradition

a. Informants’ descriptions as contrasted with anthropolo­gist’s observations

b. Informants’ reasons for deviating from tradition

2. Constraints influencing maintenance or nonmaintenance of traditional practices

a. Training of young people

b. Position of and respect for elders in the community

c. Obligations of individuals (and their possibilities of ful­fillment) to kinsmen and community

d. Ease of escape from community obligations

e. Sensitivity to the opinions of friends and relatives on the home island

f. Formal mechanisms of reward and punishment

(1) Councils, committees, courts, police, etc.

(2) Positions of prestige (e.g., within the village polity or local church)

J. Esprit de corps as defined by Linton (1936:92–94)400

* In all instances attempt to determine the extent of government efforts to adapt measures to traditions of the community, to plan measures in consultation with community leaders, and whether a procedure or an innovation was proposed by a gov­ernment agent or by a person in the community.

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