Resettled communities are ancient in human history. The Babylonian Captivity, the Romans’ establishment of colonies in conquered territories, and the more recent establishment of reservations for Native Americans are three well-known examples of this time-honored practice. Despite the antiquity and ubiquitousness of resettlement, Exiles and Migrants in Oceania is, to my knowledge, the first attempt by anthropologists to confront the practice in a comparative effort. The comparative study of resettled communities was initiated largely through the thinking, planning, and coordination of Homer G. Barnett, to whom this volume is dedicated. The volume is, if anything, a first fruit of Barnett’s vision and labor.
Like the other volumes of the ASAO Monograph Series, this is a symposium volume. With but two exceptions, the authors of the papers included here met at the University of Washington in 1970 to determine, through presentations and discussion, the significant issues raised by the study of resettled communities. On the basis of these discussions, papers circulated before the symposium convened were rewritten so that each essay addressed the same issues. It was this sort of comparison that Barnett envisioned when he established the Pacific Displaced Communities Project. This volume is, hopefully, a first step toward that end. xii
Chapters 1 and 12 discuss the theoretical and comparative issues inherent in the study of resettled communities. They are concerned mainly with the generalizations that can be made from comparing resettled communities and with how these generalizations fit with the larger body of anthropological knowledge. Chapters 2 to 11 present data on specific resettled communities in Oceania. Although each of these chapters concentrates primarily on a particular resettled community (often in comparison with the home island), its comparative focus can be seen in the presentation of the data.
I gratefully acknowledge the contribution of Martin G. Silverman to the organization and success of the symposium that resulted in this volume. I also wish to emphasize the contributions of Murray Chapman and David Schneider. The direction which the symposium and the volume took was profoundly shaped by Chapman’s masterful exposition of the relation between local social units and the larger social systems that are their contexts. David Schneider’s penetrating discussions of the shape that culture must inevitably give to the way a community regards its situation was equally determinative of the theoretical and substantive direction of the volume. My special thanks go to Sally Furecz and Emily Friedman for their editorial assistance in preparing the manuscript. Vern Carroll, the past editor, and Mac Marshall, the present editor of the ASAO Monograph Series, provided continual encouragement and advice during the long period of editing and reediting that followed the symposium.
In addition to his other considerable contributions to the symposium and this volume, Murray Chapman also directed the preparations of the maps for this volume. To Robert Campbell, the cartographer of these maps, goes my very special gratitude. His careful reading of the manuscript and preparation of maps on the basis of the often dense anthropological prose he had to read was, in my estimation, a marvel. He contributed his time and talent with patience, understanding, and consummate professionalism.
Finally, I wish to acknowledge the generosity of the National Institute of Mental Health for supporting the symposium and much of the costs of preparing the volume (PHS 1 R13 MH18376–01). I also wish to thank the University of Washington for support of the symposium and for a stipend that allowed me to organize this volume during the summer of 1971.