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22 Reason Clauses, Result Clauses, and Time Clauses


In 15.1 we mentioned that Palauan has many different grammati­cal patterns for combining simple sentences into more complex ones. More specifically, we saw how two simple sentences like the following

(1)   a.   A Droteo a ulȩba a oluchȩs.
        ‘Droteo had/was using a pencil.’
    b.   A Droteo a milluchȩs a babier.
        ‘Droteo was writing a letter.’

can be combined into a single longer sentence in which either la or 1b is used as a dependent clause. Thus, by combining 1a and 1b in different orders, we derive the following two sentences:

(2)   a.   A Droteo a ulȩba a oluchȩs ȩl mȩluchȩs a babier.
        ‘Droteo was using a pencil to write a letter.’
    b.   A Droteo a milluchȩs a babier ȩl oba a oluchȩs.
        ‘Droteo was writing a letter with a pencil.’

In the complex sentences of 2, the italicized portions are types of dependent clauses: in 2a, we have a purpose clause (cf. 15.2), and in 2b we find an instrument clause (cf. 15.3). The dependent clauses of 2, you will recall, have the following characteristics: (i) they are introduced by ȩl; (ii) they do not have any overtly-expressed subject; and (iii) they normally have a verb in the present tense, even when the sentence as a whole designates a past action or event.

Now, combining two simple sentences into a single complex sentence containing a dependent clause is not the only way of deriving complex sentences in Palauan. Another way of forming complex sentences is to join two simple sentences by words like 439e le ‘because’ and ‘(and) so’, which express a particular kind of relationship between two actions, events, states, etc. Thus, the two simple sentences below

(3)   a.   Ng dimlak kbo ȩr a skuul.
        ‘I didn’t go to school.’
    b.   Ak mle smechȩr.
        ‘I was sick.’

can be combined in two different orders, giving the following complex sentences:

(4)   a.   Ng dimlak kbo ȩr a skuul e le ak mle smechȩr.
        ‘I didn’t go to school because I was sick.’
    b.   Ak mle smechȩr ng dimlak kbo ȩr a skuul.
        ‘I was sick, so I didn’t go to school.’

In the examples of 4, the two simple sentences of 3 have been combined in such a way that they are related in terms of cause and effect. Thus, in 4a, e le ‘because’ introduces a clause which explains the cause or reason for the event or situation described in the preceding clause, while in 4b ‘(and) so’ introduces a clause which explains what happened as a result (or consequence) of the state described in the preceding clause. The reason clause introduced by e le in 4a and the result clause introduced by in 4b are rather different from the dependent clauses (e.g. purpose clauses, instrument clauses, etc.) which we reviewed above. As 4ab show—and as we will see below—reason and result clauses always have overtly-expressed subjects, and there are no restric­tions on the tense of the verb which they contain.

Since Palauan reason clauses are not difficult to understand, we will simply give a few additional examples here:

(5)   a.   Ng diak lsȩbȩchek ȩl mo ȩr a party e le ak kmal mȩchȩsang.
        ‘I can’t go to the party because I’m very busy.’
    b.   A ngȩlȩkek a diak lsȩbȩchel ȩl mo milil er a elȩcha e le ng kirel ȩl omȩngur.
        ‘My child can’t go play now because he has to have dinner.’
    c.   A rȩchad ȩr a omȩnged a dimlak lȩbo ȩr a che e le ng kmal mle mȩses a eolt.
        ‘The fishermen didn’t go fishing because the wind was very strong.’

Though e le ‘because’ probably consists of the connecting word e (see 25.1) and some other element le, it will be easiest to consider e le as a single unit. Note that when the vowel-initial pronoun ak  440follows e le, as in 5a, the a of ak is lost; thus, e le ak ‘because I…’ is pronounced [εlεkh] (cf. 1.5.d.5, ex. 54).

Before examining several special types of result clauses, we shall first familiarize ourselves with a few relatively straight­forward examples:

(6)   a.   Ak di mililil mȩ ak mle otsir ȩr a test.
        ‘I just fooled around, so I failed the test.’
    b.   A Droteo a smechȩr mȩ a dȩmal a mo omȩkȩdo ȩr a toktang.
        ‘Droteo’s sick, so his father’s going to call the doctor.’
    c.   Ng mȩkngit a eangȩd mȩ a rȩsȩchȩlik a diak lȩbo ȩr a chelȩ­bachȩb.
        ‘The weather’s poor, so my friends aren’t going to go to the Rock Islands.’
    d.   A rȩngalȩk a diak a subȩlir er a elȩcha mȩ tȩ mo milil ȩr a kȩdȩrang.
        ‘The children don’t have any homework now, so they’re going to the beach to play.’
    e.   Ak kmal songȩrengȩr mȩ ng soak ȩl omȩngur.
        ‘I’m very hungry, so I’d like to eat.’
    f.   Ak mlo ungil ȩl smechȩr ȩr a tȩretȩr mȩ ng mle sȩbȩchek ȩl mo ȩr a party.
        ‘I got better from my cold, so I was able to go to the party.’
    g.   Ng ngar ȩr ngii a bȩtok ȩl subȩlam mȩ ng di kea a techȩllam ȩl mo milil ȩl obȩngkem.
        ‘We have so much work that we no longer have any chance to go out with you.’

If is followed by the vowel a, as in 6ac, then the ȩ of is deleted. Thus, mȩ ak ‘(and) so I…’ is pronounced [makh], and a (i.e., followed by a, which precedes noun phrases) is pro­nounced [ma] (cf. 1.5.d.5, ex.54). Otherwise, the ȩ of is retained, as in ng ‘(and) so he/she/it…’ [mǝŋ] and ‘(and) so they…’ [mǝtǝ].

22.1.1. Special Types of Result Clauses

The use of ‘(and) so…’ to introduce result clauses is quite widespread in Palauan. In this section we will single out several instances of result clauses which might be difficult to recognize as such because their English equivalents are not of the form ‘X, so Y’. For example, we have already seen in 20.3.1 that the question word ngara ‘what?’ (or the sequence ngara uchul ‘what is the reason that…?’) is followed by a clause introduced by 441‘(and) so’ to ask a question about the cause or reason (i.e. ‘why?’). Note the examples below:

(7)   a.   Ngara mȩ a Droteo a mle otsir ȩr a test?
        ‘Why did Droteo fail the test?’
    b.   Ngara uchul mȩ kȩ mlo ȩr a Guam?
        ‘For what reason did you go to Guam?’

In 7ab the clause introduced by is really a result clause because it is viewed as designating an event that took place as the result of something else. Indeed, the speaker’s purpose in asking the question is precisely to find out what that “something else” is—i.e., to find out the cause or reason for the event of the result clause. In 7a, for example, the speaker assumes that the event of Droteo’s failing the test resulted from something else which Droteo did or did not do, and it is this “something else”—the cause—which he wishes to know.

The question word mȩkȩra ‘do what?’ (cf. 20.7) can also be followed by result clauses, as the sentences below illustrate:

(8)   a.   Kȩ mlȩkȩra mȩ kȩ mle otsir ȩr a test?
        ‘How/why did you fail the test?’
    b.   Ng mlȩkȩra a buik mȩ ng {rirebȩt/riros}?’
        ‘How did the boy {fall/drown}?’

The examples of 8, like those of 7, are really questions about the cause or reason for the event designated in the result clause introduced by mȩ. The connotation of result can be readily seen if we give 8ab literal translations such as ‘What did you do so that/with the result that you failed the test?’ and ‘What did the boy do so that/with the result that he fell/drowned?’

The word klsakl, which appears to be a resulting state verb (cf. 7.7) related to mȩkȩsakl ‘go wrong’, is used in simple questions like the following:

(9)   a.   Kȩ klsakl?
        ‘What’s wrong with you?’
    b.   Ng klsakl a chimam?
        ‘What’s wrong with your hand?’

Speakers use klsakl followed by a result clause to ask about the cause or reason for an unfavorable or undesirable event. This connotation is clear in the sentences below:

(10)   a.   Kȩ klsakl mȩ ng diak momȩngur?
        ‘Why aren’t you eating?’ 442
    b.   Kȩ mle klsakl mȩ ng dimlak chobo ȩr a party?
        ‘Why didn’t you go to the party?’

Translated literally, the examples of 10 mean something like ‘What’s wrong with you so that/with the result that you’re not eating?’ and ‘What was wrong with you so that/with the result that you didn’t go to the party?’

In 21.3 we observed that the indirect quotation of a command involves a clause introduced by ‘(and) so’, as in the examples below:

(11)   a.   A sensei a dilu ȩr ngak mȩ ak mo ȩr a Guam.
        ‘The teacher told me to go to Guam.’
    b.   Ak dilu ȩr tir mȩ ng diak lomȩkikiongȩl ȩr a delmȩrab.
        ‘I told them not to get the room dirty.’

Because the clause introduced by in 11ab describes an event or situation which took place (or was expected to take place) as a direct result of the command’s being uttered, it is to be analyzed as a result clause.

Similar in structure to the examples of 11 are sentences con­taining the verb of permission konge ‘permit, allow’. Observe the sentences below:

(12)   a.   A Droteo a kilȩnge ȩr a Toki mȩ ng mo mȩngȩdub.
        ‘Droteo allowed Toki to go swimming.’
    b.   A dȩmal a Satsko a kilȩnge mȩ a Satsko a mo ȩr a Hawaii ȩl mo ȩr a skuul.
        ‘Satsko’s father gave her permission to go to Hawaii in order to study.’

The verb of permission konge is followed by a result clause in 12ab because the sequence introduced by describes an event which occurred (or whose occurrence was facilitated) as a result of the permission being granted.

When the verb of permission konge ‘permit, allow’ is negated, we get sentences involving the denial of permission. In the sen­tences below, the verb konge appears in a hypothetical form following the negative verb diak ‘isn’t, doesn’t exist’, and the verb of the result clause is also hypothetical:

(13)   a.   A dȩlal a Toki a dimlak lȩkȩnge ȩr a Toki mȩ lousbech ȩr a mlai.
        ‘Toki’s mother didn’t permit her to use the car.’
    b.   A sensei a dimlak lȩkȩnge ȩr a rȩngalȩk mȩ loilil ȩr a obis.
        ‘The teacher forbade the children to play in the office.’ 443
    c.   Ng diak kkȩnge ȩr a ngȩlȩkek mȩ lolim a mȩringȩl.
        ‘I don’t let my child drink hard liquor.’

We can understand why the verb of the result clause must be hypothetical in the examples of 13 if we recall (cf. 18.4) that hypothetical verb forms are characteristically used to designate unreal (or non-occurring) events. In other words, the events of the result clauses in 13 are clearly unreal in the sense that their occurrence was (or is) prevented or precluded by the act of for­bidding represented by the negative form of konge in the first clause. The negative form of dmu ‘say, tell’ is sometimes used in a similar way, as the following example illustrates:

(14)   A Droteo a dimlak lȩdu ȩr a ngalȩk mȩ lȩbo loilil ȩr a sers.
    ‘Droteo didn’t give the child permission to play in the garden.’

Similar in structure to the examples of 11 and 12 are the following sentences, which contain further verbs which are com­monly followed by result clauses:

(15)   a.   A Droteo a ulȩrrimȩl ȩr a Maria mȩ ng ko ȩl mocha ȩr a party.
        ‘Droteo forcefully persuaded Maria to finally go to the party.’
    b.   Ak urrȩmȩlii a Toki mȩ ng mȩngȩtmokl ȩr a blai.
        ‘I forced Toki to straighten up the house.’
    c.   Kȩ mo tsiui ȩr kau mȩ ng diak di molius.
        ‘Watch yourself so you don’t swear.’
    d.   Kȩ mo kȩrȩkikl mȩ ng diak chomrebȩt.
        ‘Be careful not to fall.’

Sentences like 15cd, which contain expressions of precaution ( mo tsiui ‘watch out’ or mo kȩrȩkikl ‘be careful’) followed by a result clause with a negative verb, are used as rather mild, indirect commands.

The imperative perfective forms (cf. 19.5) of the verb omȩche ‘leave, let (someone) (do something)’ (cf. chap. 14, note 19) are commonly followed by a result clause containing a hypothetical verb form. Observe the sentences below, which are requests that someone be permitted to do something:

(16)   a.   Bȩchire a ngalȩk mȩ lȩbo loilil.
        ‘Let the child go play.’
    b.   Bȩchikak mȩ kbo kmȩchiuaiu.
        ‘Let me go to sleep.’
    c.   Bȩchititȩrir mȩ lȩbo lousbech ȩr a sidosia.
        ‘Let them use the car.’ 444

The use of hypothetical verb forms in the result clauses of 16 is not difficult to understand when we realize that the events de­scribed in the result clauses are as yet unreal at the time when the speaker utters the request. In 16a, for instance, the child has not yet begun to play at the moment when the speaker asks someone else to allow the child to do so; indeed, the speaker’s very purpose in uttering such a sentence is to make the event of the result clause become an actual fact.

The imperative (or propositive) perfective forms (cf. 19.56) of the verb mȩngiil ‘wait (for)’ occur with the rather unusual combination of ‘(and) so’ + conditional clause (cf. 19.1). Observe the examples below:

(17)   a.   Bo ȩr a blil a Toki e mchiiȩlii a Droteo mȩ a lȩkong, e bo ȩr a stoang.
        ‘Go to Toki’s house and wait for Droteo to come; then go to the store (with him).’
    b.   Mchiiȩlii a Droteo mȩ a lȩbo lȩmȩrek ȩr a urerel, e mdak ȩl mȩrael.
        ‘Wait for Droteo to finish his work, and then leave together.’
    c.   Dȩchiiȩlii a Satsko mȩ a lomȩkȩdo, e dȩbong.
        ‘Let’s wait for Satsko to call, and then let’s go.’
    d.   Bo ȩr a bita e mchiiȩlak mȩ a kekong.
        ‘Go next door and wait for me to come there.’

If the subject of the conditional clause after is a specific third person noun phrase, as in 17ac, it must be removed from the conditional clause and placed in object position following the perfective form of mȩngiil. It is not clear why mȩngiil ‘wait (for)’ should require the unusual construction observed here.

As we have seen in this and the preceding section, the Pa­lauan word ‘(and) so’ serves to introduce result clauses. The word also has other functions, such as joining two or more noun phrases (e.g. Toki a Droteo ‘Toki and Droteo’) and con­necting two sentences which are parallel in structure. These functions will be explained in detail when we examine the con­necting word in chap. 25.


Palauan has a variety of time clauses which are used to express a temporal relationship between two events, actions, states, etc. Since we have already seen many examples of time clauses in­445troduced by er se ȩr a ‘when’, we will consider this type first. In their most common usage, time clauses with er se ȩr a ‘when’ designate a single past event (or, sometimes, state) which took place while some other action or state was in progress. Often, the event of the time clause is interpreted as having interrupted (or intruded upon) this action or state, which is described in the pre­ceding independent (or main) clause (cf. 15.1). This is true in the examples below:

(18)   a.   Ak milsuub er a elii er se ȩr a lȩme a Droteo.
        ‘I was studying yesterday when Droteo arrived.’
    b.   Ak mle dibus er se ȩr a lȩmad a dengki.
        ‘I was away from home when the electricity went out.’
    c.   A Toki a milȩngȩtmokl ȩr a blai er se ȩr a kbong.
        ‘Toki was cleaning the house when I arrived.’

Though it is easiest to think of er se ȩr a ‘when’ as a single unit which introduces a type of time clause, clearly its structure is much more complex. We speculate that er se ȩr a consists of a relational phrase er se ‘there, at that time’ followed by another rather unusual relational phrase in which the relational word ȩr is followed by a sequence having the structure of a conditional clause (cf. 19.1). Though similar in structure to conditional clauses—note that the specific third person subjects Droteo and dengki ‘electricity’ of 18ab appear obligatorily in clause-final position—the sequences following er se ȩr a in 18 are indeed difficult to classify. From a practical (rather than technical) viewpoint, we can say that er se ȩr a ‘when’ requires a following clause which contains a hypothetical verb form. The reason for this phenomenon is obscure: since hypothetical verb forms nor­mally designate unreal events, as we have seen in so many previous cases, it is totally mysterious why they should be required in time clauses introduced by er se ȩr a ‘when’, which refer to actual (or real) events in the past. As we will see below, all types of Palauan time clauses must—for some unknown reason—contain hypo­thetical verb forms.

Time clauses introduced by er se ȩr a ‘when’ involve other types of temporal relationships than that illustrated in 18. In the examples below, er se ȩr a introduces a past event or situation which designates the broad framework within which some other event occurred. Observe the sentences below:

(19)   a.   Ak milȩchȩrar a hong er se ȩr a kbo ȩr a stoang.
        ‘I bought a book when I went to the store.’ 446
    b.   A Toki a mlo suebȩk a rȩngul er se ȩr a lak lȩme a Droteo.
        ‘Toki got worried when Droteo didn’t come.’
    c.   A Satsko a chiliis er se ȩr a lesa a dȩleb.
        ‘Satsko ran away when she saw the ghost.’

In 19a, the event of going to the store described in the time clause with er se ȩr a represents the framework or “context” for the action of buying the book mentioned in the preceding clause. And in both 19bc, the time clause denotes a “background” event which prompted or caused the event or state described in the clause which precedes.

In yet another usage, time clauses with er se ȩr a designate an event or state which is simultaneous with—i.e., occurs more or less during the same period of time as—another event or state. This meaning is illustrated in the sentences below:

(20)   a.   Ak mle mȩdȩngȩlii a John er se ȩr a kngar ȩr a New York.
        ‘I knew John when I was in New York.’
    b.   Ak millamȩch a dȩkool er se ȩr a kuruul a kall.
        ‘I was smoking cigarettes while/when I was preparing the food.’
    c.   Ak milȩnguiu ȩr a simbung er se ȩr a longȩtmokl ȩr a blai a Toki.
        ‘I was reading the newspaper while/when Toki was cleaning the house.’

Recall that the expression er se ȩr a can be followed by certain noun phrases to form temporal phrases (cf. 14.6, ex. 34b) designating time points in the past. A few temporal phrases of this kind include er se ȩr a sabado ‘last Saturday’, er se ȩr a (taem ȩr a) mȩkȩmad ‘during the war’, and er se ȩr a taem ȩr a Siabal ‘during the Japanese times’.

Palauan time clauses introduced by se ȩl designate an event or state in the future which will coincide with some other event or state, as the examples below illustrate:

(21)   a.   Ak mo olȩngull se ȩl kbo kmȩchas.
        ‘I’m going to take time off (from work) when I’m an old woman.’
    b.   A Droteo a diak lȩbo loureor se ȩl lȩbo lȩchuodȩl.
        ‘Droteo’s not going to work when he gets old.’

Time clauses introduced by se ȩl can also denote an event which habitually or regularly coincides with another event, as in the following sentences: 447

(22)   a.   A eangȩd a blȩchoel ȩl mo mȩkngit se ȩl lȩbo ȩl ngȩbarȩd a eolt.
        ‘The weather always gets bad when(ever) the wind becomes westerly.’
    b.   A Droteo a mȩlamȩch a dȩkool se ȩl losuub.
        ‘Droteo smokes cigarettes when(ever) he studies.’

It is easiest to consider se ȩl of 2122 as a single unit meaning ‘when’ or ‘whenever’, even though it probably has a more com­plicated structure consisting of se ‘there, at that time’ followed by ȩl, whose function is not clear. In the clause following se ȩl, hypothetical verb forms are required, and any specific third person subject (eolt ‘wind’ of 22a) must be moved to clause-final position.

22.2.1. Before and After

In order to indicate that a particular action or event occurred before or after some other action or event, we use time clauses introduced by ȩr a uche ȩr a ‘before’ and ȩr a uriul ȩr a ‘after’, respectively. For practical purposes, we can think of these as single units which must be followed by clauses whose structure resembles that of conditional clauses (cf. our discussion of er se ȩr a ‘when’ in 22.2 above). It is clear that they are more complex, however: they consist of the relational phrases ȩr a uche and ȩr a uriul, in which the nouns of spatial relationship uche ‘in front of’ and uriul ‘in back of’ (cf. 14.2.1) are used in a temporal sense, followed by a rather unusual type of relational phrase in which the relational word ȩr introduces a clause rather than a noun phrase.

In 23 below, we illustrate the use of time clauses with ȩr a uche ȩr a ‘before’, while in 24 we give examples of time clauses with ȩr a uriul ȩr a ‘after’:

(23)   a.   Ak ulȩmuchȩl ȩl mȩsuub ȩr a uche ȩr a kumȩngur.
        ‘I began to study before (I had) dinner.’
    b.   A sȩchȩlik a mirrael ȩr a uche ȩr a kbo kmȩrek ȩr a urerek.
        ‘My friend left before I finished my work.’
    c.   A skoki a rirebȩt ȩr a uche ȩr a lȩbo lȩmȩtengȩl ȩr a skojio.
        ‘The plane crashed before landing at the airport.’
    d.   Ng ngar ȩr ngii a bȩtok ȩl tȩkoi ȩl kirek ȩl mȩruul ȩr a uche ȩr a kbo ȩr a katsudo.
        ‘There are lots of things I’ve got to do before I go to the movies.’ 448
    e.   Kȩ mȩtik a kȩrrȩkar ȩr a uche ȩr a chobo ȩr a blik.
        ‘You’ll find a tree on the way to/before arriving at my house.’
(24)   a.   Ak mlo mȩchiuaiu ȩr a uriul ȩr a lorael a Toki.
        ‘I went to sleep after Toki left.’
    b.   Ak ulȩmuchȩl ȩl mȩsuub ȩr a uriul ȩr a kbo kmerȩk ȩl omȩ­ngur.
        ‘I began to study after I finished having dinner.’
    c.   A skoki a rirebȩt e mȩsesȩb ȩr a uriul ȩr a ltobȩd ȩr a skojio.
        ‘The plane crashed and burned after leaving the airport.’
    d.   A daob a mlo mȩringȩl ȩr a uriul ȩr a lȩbo ȩl ngȩbarȩd a eolt.
        ‘The ocean got rough after the wind became westerly.’

Similar in usage to the “before” and “after” time clauses of 234 are temporal phrases (cf. 14.6) in which ȩr a uche and ȩr a uriul are followed by a noun phrase designating an event. A typical example is given below:

(25)   Aki milsaod a tȩkoi er a Belau ȩr a{uche/uriul} ȩr a chȩldȩchȩduch1 ȩr kȩmam.
    ‘We discussed the Palauan language{before/after} our meeting.’

22.2.2. Movement of Time Clauses and Time Words

All of the time clauses discussed above can exchange positions with the preceding independent (or main) clause. As a result of this process, the time clause comes to appear in sentence-initial position, as in the examples below:

(26)   a.   Se ȩr a kbo ȩr a Guam e ak kilie ȩr a blil a Tony.
        ‘When I went to Guam, I lived at Tony’s place.’
    b.   Se ȩr a kisa a John, e ak dilu ȩr ngii.
        ‘When I saw John, I told him.’
    c.   Se ȩl lȩbȩkiis, e tȩ mo ȩr a chei.
        ‘When they get up, they go fishing.’
    d.   Se ȩl losuub a Droteo, e ng mȩlamȩch a dȩkool.
        ‘Whenever Droteo studies, he smokes cigarettes.’
    e.   A uche ȩr a kbo kmȩrek ȩr a subȩlek, e a Droteo a mirrael ȩl mo ȩr a blil.
        ‘Before I finished my homework, Droteo went home.’
    f.   A uriul ȩr a loureor ȩr a sers a Toki, e ng tilȩllib a chimal.
        ‘After Toki worked in the garden, she washed her hands.’

As the above sentences show, two structural changes take place 449when the time clause and the independent clause exchange posi­tions. First, if the relational word ȩr is the first word of the time clause introducer (as in er se ȩr a ‘when’, ȩr a uche ȩr a ‘before’, and ȩr a uriul ȩr a ‘after’), then it is deleted when the time clause is moved to sentence-initial position. Second, the shifted inde­pendent clause must be introduced by the connecting word e ‘and (then)’ (see 25.1). The exchange of time clause and inde­pendent clause discussed here is, of course, optional, and has no effect on the meaning.

Time words (or expressions) such as klukuk ‘tomorrow’, irȩchar ‘earlier times’, tȩruich ȩl klok ‘ten o’clock’, etc., which normally occur in temporal phrases introduced by ȩr, can also be moved to sentence-initial position. Just as in the case of time clauses, the relational word ȩr is deleted when a time word (or expression) is moved to the beginning of the sentence, and the following clause must be introduced by e. Some typical examples are now given:

(27)   a.   A klukuk e ak mo ȩr a chei.
        ‘Tomorrow I’m going fishing.’
    b.   A irȩchar e a rȩmeteet a ulȩngȩseu ȩr a rȩmechȩbuul.
        ‘In earlier times, the rich helped the poor.’
    c.   Tia ȩl mlo mȩrek ȩl rak, e ak mlo ȩr a Guam.
        ‘Last year I went to Guam.’
    d.   A tȩruich ȩl klok e tȩ mirrael.
        ‘At ten o’clock they departed.’
    e.   A ongeru ȩl ureor, e tȩ mle ȩr a blik.
        ‘On Tuesday they came to my house.’

The examples above seem to put special emphasis on the time of a particular action or event.


1. The temporal phrases ȩr a uche ȩr a chȩldȩchȩduch ‘before the meet­ing’ and ȩr a uriul ȩr a chȩldȩchȩduch ‘after the meeting’ contrast in meaning with the temporal phrases ȩr a uchȩlel a chȩldȩchȩduch ‘at the beginning of the meeting’ and ȩr a rsel a chȩldȩchȩduch ‘at the end of the meeting’ (cf. 3.5).

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