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vii

Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright
  3. Dedication
  4. Preface
  5. 1  Sounds and Spelling of Palauan
  6. 1.1. Sound System of Palauan
  7. 1.2. Significant Sounds (Phonemes) of Palauan
  8. 1.3. The Consonants of Palauan
  9. 1.3.1. Stops
  10. 1.3.2. Fricative
  11. 1.3.3. Nasals
  12. 1.3.4. Liquids
  13. 1.3.4.1. The Sequences ll and rr
  14. 1.3.5. Syllabic Consonants
  15. 1.4. The Vowels of Palauan
  16. 1.4.1. High Vowels i and u
  17. 1.4.2. Mid Vowels e, ȩ, and o
  18. 1.4.3. Low Vowel a
  19. 1.4.4. The Vowel ȩ and the Process of Vowel Reduction
  20. 1.4.5. Other Occurrences of Schwa
  21. 1.4.6. Long Vowels
  22. 1.4.7. Vowel Clusters
  23. 1.5. Further Rules of Palauan Spelling
  24. 1.6. Suggestions for Further Study
  25. 2  Palauan Nouns
  26. 2.1. Grammatical System of Palauan
  27. 2.2. Identification of Palauan Nouns
  28. 2.3. Distribution of Palauan Nouns
  29. 2.4. Pronouns viii
  30. 2.5. Plurals
  31. 2.6. The Palauan Word a
  32. 2.7. Specific vs. Non-specific Object Nouns
  33. 3 Noun Possession
  34. 3.1. Possessor Suffixes and Possessed Nouns
  35. 3.2. Person and Number
  36. 3.3. Four Sets of Possessor Suffixes
  37. 3.4. Vowel Reduction
  38. 3.4.1. Vowel Deletion
  39. 3.4.2. Shortening of Long Vowels
  40. 3.4.3. Shortening of Vowel Clusters
  41. 3.4.3.1. Technical Discussion of Vowel Cluster Shortening
  42. 3.4.4. Possessed Nouns With -ng-
  43. 3.4.5. Alternation Between -ng and -l-
  44. 3.5. Obligatorily Possessed Nouns
  45. 3.6. Palauan Noun Phrases
  46. 3.7. Noun Phrases of Possession vs. Noun Phrases of Characterization
  47. 3.8. Unpossessible Nouns
  48. 3.9. Noun Phrases of Characterization: Further Examples
  49. 3.10. Appositional Structures
  50. 3.11. Some Special Possessed Nouns
  51. 3.12. Summary of Palauan Noun Phrases
  52. 4  Palauan Pronouns
  53. 4.1. Independent Pronouns and Affix Pronouns
  54. 4.2. Non-emphatic vs. Emphatic Subjects
  55. 4.3. Use of Emphatic Pronouns Following ȩr
  56. 4.4. Emphatic Pronouns in Coordinate Noun Phrases
  57. 4.5. Emphatic Pronouns Preceded by di
  58. 4.6. Other Uses of Emphatic Pronouns
  59. 4.7. Non-emphatic Pronouns as Pronominal Traces
  60. 4.8. Pronominalization
  61. 4.9. Object Pronouns and Perfective Verbs
  62. 4.9.1. The Zero (Ø) Object Pronoun
  63. 4.9.2. Further Examples of Perfective Verb Forms
  64. 4.9.3. Verbs with Limited Perfective Forms
  65. 4.9.4. Variant Forms of the Object Pronouns
  66. 4.10. Hypothetical Pronouns
  67. 4.10.1. Hypothetical Pronouns with Imperfective Verbs ix
  68. 4.10.2. Hypothetical Pronouns as Agents
  69. 4.10.3. Hypothetical Pronouns with the Past Tense
  70. 4.10.4. Reduced Variants of the Hypothetical Pronouns
  71. 4.10.5. Distribution of the Reduced Variants
  72. 4.10.6. Hypothetical Forms of Complex Verb Phrases
  73. 4.10.7. Imperative Verb Forms
  74. 4.10.8. Propositive Verb Forms
  75. 4.10.9. Summary of Hypothetical Pronouns
  76. 5  Palauan Verbs
  77. 5.1. Identification of Palauan Verbs
  78. 5.1.1. Action Verbs: Transitive and Intransitive
  79. 5.1.2. State Verbs
  80. 5.1.3. Further Differences Between Action Verbs and State Verbs
  81. 5.2. Distribution of Palauan Verbs
  82. 5.3. Tense
  83. 5.3.1. Present Tense
  84. 5.3.2. Past Tense
  85. 5.3.2.1. The Auxiliary mla
  86. 5.3.3. Future Tense
  87. 5.4. The Verb Marker and Ergative Verb Forms
  88. 5.5. Imperfective vs. Perfective Verb Forms
  89. 5.6. Active and Passive Sentences
  90. 5.7. Further Types of Verbs
  91. 5.8. Summary of Palauan Verbs
  92. 6  The Verb Marker and Perfective Verb Forms
  93. 6.1. The Verb Marker Prefixes
  94. 6.1.1. The Prefix ou-
  95. 6.2. The Infixed Verb Marker and Metathesis
  96. 6.2.1. Absence of the Verb Marker in Hypothetical Verb Forms
  97. 6.3. Selected List of Perfective Verb Forms
  98. 6.3.1. Metathesis in Perfective Verb Forms
  99. 6.3.2. The Metathesized Verb Marker and Vowel Blending
  100. 6.3.3. Deletion of the Metathesized Verb Marker
  101. 6.4. Vowel Reduction and Vowel Deletion in Perfective Verb Forms
  102. 6.5. Additional Remarks on Perfective Verb Forms x
  103. 6.6. Perfective Forms of Transitive Verbs in o-
  104. 6.7. Hypothetical Forms of Perfective Verbs
  105. 7  State Verbs
  106. 7.1. Internal Structure of State Verbs
  107. 7.2. State Verbs with Plural Subjects
  108. 7.3. Verbs with mle and -il- in the Past
  109. 7.4. Transitive State Verbs
  110. 7.5. State Verbs with bȩ-
  111. 7.6. The Prefixes bȩkȩ- and sȩkȩ-
  112. 7.6.1. State Verbs with bȩkȩ- Denoting Smells
  113. 7.7. Resulting State Verbs
  114. 7.8. Anticipating State Verbs
  115. 7.8.1. The Anticipating State Suffix -all
  116. 7.8.2. Resulting and Anticipating State Verbs as Nouns
  117. 7.9. Transitive Verbs Derived from State Verbs
  118. 8  Noun Derivation
  119. 8.1. Internal Structure of Palauan Nouns
  120. 8.2. State Verbs Functioning as Nouns
  121. 8.3. Nouns Derived with -(ȩ)l- from Intransitive Verbs
  122. 8.4. Nouns Derived from Reciprocal Verbs
  123. 8.5. Abstract Nouns Derived with kl(ȩ)-
  124. 8.6. Instrument and Action Nouns with o-
  125. 8.7. Nouns Derived with ul(ȩ)-
  126. 9  Causative Verbs
  127. 9.1. Meaning and Use of Causative Verbs
  128. 9.2. Forms of the Causative Prefix
  129. 9.2.1. The Prefix omȩ(k)-
  130. 9.2.1.1. Technical Discussion of the Prefix omȩ(k)-
  131. 9.2.1.2. Additional Types of Causative Verbs with omȩ(k)-
  132. 9.2.1.3. Sample Sentences with omȩ(k)-Causatives
  133. 9.2.2. The Prefix ol(ȩ)-
  134. 9.2.2.1. Technical Discussion of the Prefix ol(ȩ)-
  135. 9.2.2.2. Additional Types of Causative Verbs with ol(ȩ)-
  136. 9.2.2.3. Sample Sentences with ol(ȩ)- Causatives xi
  137. 9.3. Verb Stems Allowing Two Causatives
  138. 9.4. Perfective Forms of Causative Verbs
  139. 9.5. Ergative Forms of Causative Verbs
  140. 9.6. Hypothetical Forms of Causative Verbs
  141. 10  Reciprocal Verbs
  142. 10.1. Meaning and Use of Reciprocal Verbs
  143. 10.2. Forms of the Reciprocal Prefix
  144. 10.2.1. Reciprocal Verbs Related to Causative Verbs
  145. 10.2.2. Reciprocal Verbs Related to Verbs in ou-
  146. 10.2.3. Reciprocal Verbs Derived from Transitive Verb Stems
  147. 10.2.4. The Reciprocal Prefix cha-
  148. 10.3. Sample Sentences with Reciprocal Verbs
  149. 10.4. Extended Functions of the Reciprocal Prefix
  150. 11  Reduplication and Further Verb Affixation
  151. 11.1. Types of Verb Derivation
  152. 11.1.1. Previous Examples of Reduplication
  153. 11.2. Reduplication of Simple State Verbs
  154. 11.2.1. Reduplication of Possessed Nouns
  155. 11.3. Reduplication of State Verbs in mȩ-
  156. 11.4. Reduplication of Derived State Verbs
  157. 11.5. Complex Patterns of Reduplication
  158. 11.6. Reduplication of Intransitive Action Verbs
  159. 11.7. Reduplication of Transitive Action Verbs
  160. 11.8. Reduplication of Verbs in ou- and o-
  161. 11.9. Reduplication of Causative Verbs
  162. 11.10. Reduplication of Reciprocal Verbs
  163. 11.11. “Fossilized” Reduplication
  164. 11.12. The Predictive and Inchoative Suffixes
  165. 11.12.1. Predictive and Inchoative Forms of Intransitive Action Verbs
  166. 11.12.2. Predictive and Inchoative Forms of Ergative Verbs
  167. 11.12.3. Predictive and Inchoative Forms of Imperfective Verbs
  168. 11.12.4. Inchoative Forms of State Verbs
  169. 11.12.5. Predictive and Inchoative Forms of mo
  170. 11.12.6. The Predictive Word ku
  171. 12  Imperfective vs. Perfective Verbs xii
  172. 12.1. Meaning of Imperfective vs. Perfective Verb Forms
  173. 12.2. Imperfective vs. Perfective Verb Forms in Various Tenses
  174. 12.3. Further Examples of Contrast Between Imperfective and Perfective Verb Forms
  175. 12.4. Imperfective vs. Perfective Verb Forms and Specific Objects
  176. 12.5. Contextual Restrictions on the Use of Imperfective vs. Perfective Verb Forms
  177. 12.6. The Transitive Verb omes
  178. 12.7. The Transitive Verb orrengȩs
  179. 13  Directional Verbs
  180. 13.1. The Three Directional Verbs of Palauan
  181. 13.2. Meaning and Use of the Directional Verbs
  182. 13.3. Directional Verbs Followed by Action Verbs
  183. 13.4. The Directional Verbs and Future Time
  184. 13.5. The Directional Verb mo and Change of State
  185. 13.5.1. Change of State Expressions with Noun Phrases
  186. 13.6. Special Verbal Expressions with mo
  187. 14  Relational Phrases
  188. 14.1. Distribution and Function of Relational Phrases
  189. 14.2. Locational Phrases
  190. 14.2.1. Locational Phrases with Nouns Describing Spatial Relationships
  191. 14.2.2. Additional Examples of Nouns Describing Spatial Relationships
  192. 14.3. Directional Phrases
  193. 14.3.1. Further Types of Directional Phrases
  194. 14.4. Source Phrases
  195. 14.4.1. Further Types of Source Phrases
  196. 14.5. Cause Phrases
  197. 14.6. Temporal Phrases
  198. 14.7. Sentences with More than One Relational Phrase
  199. 14.8. Relational Phrases Used to Express Comparison
  200. 14.9. Further Types of Palauan Relational Phrases
  201. 15  Dependent Clauses
  202. 15.1. Characteristics of Dependent Clauses xiii
  203. 15.2. Purpose Clauses
  204. 15.2.1. Purpose Clauses Containing Directional Verbs
  205. 15.2.2. Purpose Clauses Following Nouns
  206. 15.3. Instrument Clauses
  207. 15.4. Purpose and Instrument Clauses with Past Tense Verb Forms
  208. 15.5. Means of Transportation Clauses
  209. 15.6. Accompaniment Clauses
  210. 15.7. Specifying Clauses
  211. 15.7.1. Specifying Clauses Containing Directional Verbs
  212. 15.7.2. Specifying Clauses Following lmuut
  213. 15.7.3. Specifying Clauses Following dmak
  214. 15.7.4. Specifying Clauses Containing the Perfective Forms of mȩrkui
  215. 15.7.4.1. Regional Variation in the Use of ȩl rokir and ȩl rokui
  216. 15.7.5. Specifying Clauses Designating Periods of Time
  217. 15.7.6. Specifying Clauses in Sentences Designating Manner
  218. 15.7.7. Specifying Clauses Following Special Verbs
  219. 16  Object Clauses
  220. 16.1. Structure and Function of Object Clauses
  221. 16.2. Object Clauses Following omuchȩl and mo mȩrek
  222. 16.3. Object Clauses Following Transitive State Verbs
  223. 16.4. Further Examples of Object Clauses
  224. 16.5. Sentences with Two Objects
  225. 17  Processes of Sentence Formation: Subject Shifting and Preposing of Possessor
  226. 17.1. Four Special Possessed Nouns
  227. 17.2. Subject Shifting
  228. 17.3. Preposing of Possessor
  229. 17.4. Subject Shifting and Preposing of Possessor with Expressions Containing reng
  230. 17.5. Preposing in Reciprocal Sentences
  231. 17.6. Summary of Processes Affecting Palauan Word Order
  232. 17.7. Dependent Clauses Resulting from Subject Shifting xiv
  233. 17.8. Subject Shifting and Derived Action Nouns
  234. 17.8.1. Possessed Forms of Derived Action Nouns
  235. 17.9. Soal and chȩtil Followed by Hypothetical Verb Forms
  236. 17.10. Further Discussion of the Four Special Possessed Nouns
  237. 18  Negation
  238. 18.1. Affirmative vs. Negative Sentences
  239. 18.2. Affirmative vs. Negative Expressions of Existence
  240. 18.2.1. Subject Shifting in Affirmative and Negative Expressions of Existence
  241. 18.3. The Negative Verb diak
  242. 18.4. Hypothetical Verb Forms Following diak
  243. 18.5. Further Examples of Negative Sentences
  244. 18.6. Equational Sentences: Affirmative and Negative
  245. 18.7. The Negative Expression di kea
  246. 18.8. Negative Verbs as Answers to Questions
  247. 19  Uses of Hypothetical Verb Forms
  248. 19.1. Conditional Sentences
  249. 19.1.1. Conditions in the Present or Future
  250. 19.1.2. Conditions in the Past
  251. 19.1.3. Conditional Clauses Containing diak
  252. 19.2. Permutation of Conditional and Consequential Clauses
  253. 19.3. Further Types of Conditional Clauses
  254. 19.4. Additional Examples of Conditional Clauses
  255. 19.5. Imperative Verb Forms
  256. 19.6. Propositive Verb Forms
  257. 19.7. Passive Sentences
  258. 19.7.1. Further Examples of Passive Sentences
  259. 19.7.2. Passive Sentences Containing Complex Verb Phrases
  260. 19.7.3. Passive Sentences and Relational Phrases
  261. 19.7.4. Negative and Conditional Passive Sentences
  262. 20  Questions
  263. 20.1. Yes-No Questions
  264. 20.2. The Question Word tȩcha
  265. 20.2.1. Further Types of Questions with tȩcha xv
  266. 20.3. The Question Word ngara
  267. 20.3.1. Further Types of Questions with ngara
  268. 20.4. The Question Word tela
  269. 20.5. The Question Word ker
  270. 20.6. The Question Word oingara
  271. 20.7. The Special Question Word mȩkȩra
  272. 20.8. Sentences with Two Question Words
  273. 21  Direct and Indirect Quotation
  274. 21.1. Direct vs. Indirect Quotation
  275. 21.2. Indirect Quotation and Verbs of Communication and Mental Activity
  276. 21.3. Direct and Indirect Quotation of Commands
  277. 21.4. Direct and Indirect Quotation of Questions
  278. 21.5. The Expressions ȩl kmo and ȩl ua se
  279. 21.6. Indirect Quotation Following Nouns of Communication
  280. 22  Reason Clauses, Result Clauses, and Time Clauses
  281. 22.1. Reason and Result Clauses
  282. 22.1.1. Special Types of Result Clauses
  283. 22.2. Time Clauses
  284. 22.2.1. Before and After
  285. 22.2.2. Movement of Time Clauses and Time Words
  286. 23  Relative Clauses
  287. 23.1. Function of Relative Clauses
  288. 23.2. Derivation of Relative Clauses
  289. 23.3. Passive Sentences as Relative Clauses
  290. 23.4. Equational Sentences as Relative Clauses
  291. 23.5. Relative Clauses Containing State Verbs
  292. 23.6. Relative Clauses Following chad and klalo
  293. 24  Modifiers
  294. 24.1. State Verbs as Modifiers
  295. 24.2. Other Verbs and Nouns as Modifiers
  296. 24.3. Demonstratives
  297. 24.4. Numbers
  298. 24.4.1. Numbers Above 20
  299. 24.4.2. Minor Number Sets
  300. 24.4.3. Use of Number Words in Sentences
  301. 24.4.4. Ordinal Numbers xvi
  302. 24.4.4.1. Ordinal Numbers Followed by Specifying Clauses
  303. 24.5. Expressions with Two or More Modifiers
  304. 24.6. Qualifying Words
  305. 25  The Connecting Words and E
  306. 25.1. Review of Complex Sentences with and e
  307. 25.2. Further Uses of the Connecting Word
  308. 25.2.1. The Expression a lȩchub
  309. 25.3. Further Uses of the Connecting Word e
  310. 25.3.1. The Expression e ng di
  311. 25.4. Coordinate Noun Phrases
  312. 25.4.1. Coordinate Noun Phrases with lȩchub
  313. Appendix: Guide to Phonetic Symbols Used in This Textbook
  314. Glossary of Terms
  315. Bibliography
  316. Index

Previous Chapter

Dedication

Next Chapter

Preface

Additional Information

ISBN
9780824879075
MARC Record
OCLC
1053883872
Pages
vii-xvi
Launched on MUSE
2018-09-19
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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