This forms one of a series of three volumes written to assist English-speaking persons to learn the Pangasinan language. While each volume has been designed to be useful in itself, the three form an integrated whole, each one supplementing and completing the others. The companion volumes for this dictionary are Pangasinan Reference Grammar, and Spoken Pangasinan, the latter being a basic course in speaking and reading the language. All three works are by the same author and appear in the series PALI LANGUAGE TEXTS edited by Howard P. McKaughan.
Organization of the Dictionary
This dictionary consists of two parts—a Pangasinan-English dictionary, and an English-Pangasinan index. The latter is intended simply as a finder-list. The Pangasinan entries corresponding to an English key word in this list should be checked against the corresponding entry in the Pangasinan-English section, so that the range of meaning of the word concerned can be more accurately ascertained.
The entries in the Pangasinan-English section are arranged according to word roots, i.e. the unaffixed core from which other words may be formed. Some of the roots are actually compound forms or contain fossilized affixes. Where there is doubt about the derivation of the form concerned, it has been given a separate entry. However, the vast majority of the entries consist of simple roots. Additional information about derived forms is given under the heading of the root concerned, where the meaning of the former may not be fully predictable from the combination of root and affix or other modification of the root concerned. In the case of verb-stems, the major non-past active affix or affixes (on-, man-, maN-) associated with the stem or root concerned are usually given with changes in meaning, if any, indicated where several such combinations are listed. Where the verb is almost always encountered with passive affixes, this is similarly indicated by noting the major non-past passive affix concerned (i-, -en) in parentheses. Similarly, verbs normally xtaking a reciprocal affix are marked with the active non-past form mi-.
No examples of the use of the words concerned, in the form of Pangasinan sentences, are included. However, more than half the roots listed appear in various forms in the lesson text (Makasalita Kay Pangasinan), and examples of their use may easily be found by consulting the ‘Index to Lexical Items’ in that work, and referring to the sections of the book where the word concerned appears. Similarly, affixes are not listed in the dictionary, but detailed information about them and examples of their use may be found in the Reference Grammar mentioned above, and, to a lesser extent, also in the lesson text. However, a brief paradigm illustrating some major verbal affixes appears at the end of this introduction.
Scope of the Dictionary
This dictionary lists some 3,000 word roots, from which a much greater number of words can be formed. However, this will quickly be found to be inadequate by the advanced learner of the language. Even a dictionary twice as large would probably omit hundreds or even thousands of roots which could be encountered in everyday speech, the newspaper, popular novels, and formal oratory. Pangasinan speakers have very large vocabularies, not only drawn from indigenous sources but also by a continuing process of adopting new words from Spanish and English to meet current needs.
Within the confines of the comparatively small number of roots listed here, however, a fairly representative selection has been made, ranging from the basic ‘ear, eye, nose and throat’ terms, which predominate, to a sampling of less common words more likely to be encountered in writing or oratory than in everyday speech. The words themselves have been obtained from several sources: direct eliciting from informants, analysis of conversations and folk tales, as well as the Pangasinan language newspapers and contemporary (post-war) novels.xi
Phonology and Orthography
Pangasinan has four vowel phonemes /a, i, e, o/ (/e/ is a high back unrounded vowel, /o/ a high back rounded in most positions) and fifteen consonant phonemes /b, d, g, h, k, l, m, n, ñg, p, r, s, t, w, y/ recognized by (i.e. present in the speech of) all speakers. Many speakers also distinguish a mid front vowel /E/, present in many words of Spanish origin, while others also differentiate between affricated /ch/ ([č] or [tš]) and the cluster /ts/, also in words adopted from Spanish. For those speakers who do not give phonemic status to /E/ and /ch/, these units are integrated with /i/ and /ts/ respectively (initial /ts/ being often further reduced to /s/). Stress is also phonemic, many pairs of words being identical except for the placement of stress.
Orthography closely follows the phonemic representations indicated above; /E/ is written e (occasionally i by speakers who do not differentiate it from /i/), and stress is often unmarked. In words of Spanish origin, the Spanish spelling is often retained so that the following adjustments need be made between normal orthography and phonemic representation where these words are concerned.
|c before a, o, u||k|
|c before i, e||s|
|gu before e, i||g|
|g before e, i||h (see note below)|
|hu before vowel||w|
|j||h (see note below)|
Although h has been used as the phonemic symbol in the above table, the sound is more often than not represented by j in writing. There is no phonemic distinction between o and u, which are used almost interchangeably to represent /o/, although o is statistically more favored.
In listing the entries in the dictionary, the forms have been arranged as if they were spelled phonemically. Where Spanish spellings seem definitely to be preferred by Pangasinan writers, these have been retained, but this has not affected their alphabetization (thus, v is regarded as b, f as p, c as s or k, etc.) /o/ is represented by o whenever this seems acceptable; where u has been retained, it has been treated as o for purposes of alphabetization. /E/ is, however, listed with e rather than i. Mixed spelling, which is often encountered in practice, has been avoided; i.e. Spanish borrowings are either spelled as in Spanish or treated as if they were indigenous words (except, however, for the replacement of Spanish e by E as a guide to pronunciation). Non-syllabic /i/ and /o/ are generally written i and u respectively, and this practice has been followed here also for purposes of both spelling and alphabetization (u is equated with o in regard to the latter), although in actual pronunciation non-syllabic /i/ becomes /y/, and non-syllabic /o/ becomes /w/.
The following special abbreviations are used.
|f.||feminine (i.e. applying only to female human beings)|
|m.||masculine (i.e. applying only to male human beings)|
Where there may be doubt as to the pronunciation of a particular entry, a phonemic transcription bounded by slashes follows the entry concerned, e.g.
ajÉntE, agÉntE /ahÉntE/ ‘agent’xiii
Paradigms of Verbal Affixes
Some of the most frequently encountered verbal affixes are illustrated below in combination with various roots. Because most roots are often encountered with some affixes but rarely if ever with others, no attempt has been made to force one root into combinations which are either unlikely or incongruous, even though this would give a neater ‘conjugation’. The abbreviations np and p are used for ‘non-past’ and ‘past’ respectively.
on- (np) (e.g. + pawil ‘return’, Onpawil ak. ‘I will return.’)
-inm- (p) (Pinmawil ak. ‘I returned.’)
Purposive, implicit transitivity
man- (np) (e.g. + taném ‘plant’, Mantáem ak. ‘I will plant (it).’)
nan- (p) (Nantaném ak. ‘I planted (it).’)
Indicative, implicit transitivity
maN- (np) (e.g. + kan ‘eat’, Nañgán ak. ‘I will eat.’)
aN- (p) (Añgán ak. ‘I ate.’)
Indicative, explicit transitivity
mañgi- (np) (e.g. + pawíl ‘return’, Mañgipawíl ak na líbro. ‘I’ll return the book.’)
añgi- (p) (Añgipawíl ak na líbro. ‘I returned the book.’)xiv
mi- (np) (e.g. + tindáan ‘market’, Mitindáan irá. ‘They will (go to) market.’)
aki- (p) (Akitindáan irá. ‘They went marketing.’)
paka- (np) (e.g. + neñgnéñg ‘see’, nominalized, Makápoy so pakaneñgnéñg nen láki. ‘Grandfather’s sight (lit. happening to see) is weak.’)
aka- (p) (e.g. + pasiár ‘come by’, Maóñg ta akapasiár kayó. ‘It’s good you happened to come by.’)
-en (np) (e.g. + alagár ‘wait for’, Alagarén ko si Pedro. ‘I’ll wait for Pedro (lit. will-be-waited-for by-me mkr Pedro).’)
-in- (p) (e.g. + táwag ‘call’, Tinawág ko si Pedro. ‘I called Pedro.’)
i- (p) (e.g. + taném ‘plant’, Itaném koy pónti. ‘I’ll plant the banana (lit. was-planted by-me-the banana).’)
in- (np) (Intaném koy pónti. ‘I planted the banana.’)
na- (np) (e.g. + neñgnéñg ‘see’, Naneñgnéñg ko may marikít. ‘I’ll be able to see the maiden (lit. will-be-able-to-be-seen by-me the maiden).’)
a- (p) (Aneñgnéñg ko may marikít. ‘I saw (was able to see) the maiden.’)xv
i-…-án (np) (e.g. + taném, Itanemán koy Pedro na pónti. ‘I’ll plant the banana for Pedro (lit. will-be-planted-for by-me-mkr Pedro the banana).’)
in-…-an (p) (Intanemán koy Pedro na pónti. ‘I planted the banana for Pedro.’)
pan-, ipan- (np) (e.g. + taném, Pantaném nen Pedro imáy limá to ed sáray pónti. ‘Pedro will plant the banana with his hands (lit. will-be-planted-with by Pedro the hands his to the banana).’)
inpan- (p) (Inpantaném nen Pedro imáy limá to ed sáray pónti. ‘Pedro planted the banana with his hands.’)
-an (np) (e.g. + taném, Si Pedro tanemán toy pónti imáy jardín nen Juan. ‘Pedro will plant the banana in John’s garden (lit. mkr Pedro will-be-planted-at by-him-the banana the garden of Juan).’)
-in-…-an (p) (Si Pedro tinanemán toy pónti imáy jardín nen Juan. ‘Pedro planted the banana in John’s garden.’)
[Other referential affixes include potential (na-…-an, a-…-an), non-deliberate (paka-…-an, aka-…-an) etc.]
pan- …-en (np) (e.g. + potér ‘cut’, Panpóteren to kamí na kiéw da. ‘He’ll make us cut their wood (lit. will-be-made-to-cut by-him we the wood their).’)xvi
pinan- (p) (Pinanpotér to kamí na kiéw da. ‘He made us cut their wood.’)
Further examples of the use of these and numerous other verbal affixes (as well as affixes affecting or forming other kinds of stems) may be obtained by consulting the grammar or lesson text mentioned at the beginning of the introduction.