publisher colophon
194

SUBJECT INDEX

  1. Abortion, 5, 141
  2. Accidents: as causes of death, 27, 28 (table), 29 (table)
  3. Acupuncture, 5, 34, 66, 79, 104, 110, 130;
  4. licensure for, 72, 74
  5. Acute care, 5, 45
  6. Addictions, 112113
  7. Adolescent therapy, 112
  8. Aged and aging. See Elderly
  9. Alcoholism, 30 (table), 112113
  10. Alzheimer’s Disease, 99
  11. Amae, 10, 11, 118;
    1. and amayakasu, 11.
    2. See also Dependency
  12. Amakudari (descent from heaven), 57
  13. American Psychiatric Association, 12
  14. Anatomische tabellen (Kaitai shinsho), 69
  15. Appendectomy: increase in rate of, 6
  16. Art therapies, 112, 114
  17. Asian approach to medical care, 2, 104, 132, 174
  18. Asthma, 147;
    1. among children, 144;
    2. Yokkaichi, 25
  19. Authority: a common feature of psychother­apy, 124126;
    1. Japanese concept of (power), 133134;
    2. resistance to, 125, 134136, 138, 139
  20. Autogenic training, 112
  21. Autonomic nervous system, 15, 131, 140, 141, 142, 145, 152
  1. Bathing/Baths, 66, 110;
    1. Ciba symposium on, 3
  2. Behavior, 3, 138;
    1. tatemae and soto the basis of formal, 137;
    2. therapy, 112, 113, 117, 123
  3. Biofeedback, 112
  4. Biomedicine, 86n.9;
    1. a cultural product, 12;
    2. dominance of, 6667, 72;
    3. fused with tradi­tional medicine, x, 18;
    4. illness as interpreted by, 139, 141142;
    5. introduced and adopted by Japan, x, 6774;
    6. kampō subor­dinated to, 74;
    7. and medicalization of life, 131132;
    8. and the new technology, 76, 83, 151;
    9. selective “borrowing” by Japan of, 8485.
    10. See also Western medicine
  5. Biotechnology: effect on pharmaceutical industry of, 54
  6. Birth rate, 185186n.2
  7. Blushing, fear of (taijinkyofushō), 12, 114, 115
  8. Bogenbyō (illnesses caused by mother), 144146
  9. Buddhism, 9, 68, 110;
    1. communication affected by heritage of, 139;
    2. psychothera­pies based on, 119120, 125127
  10. Bullying in school, 16
  1. Cancer, 4, 10, 27, 28
    1. (table), 29, 96
  2. Capitalism: and biomedicine, 1
  3. Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke, 27, 28 (table), 29, 39 (graph), 92, 103
  4. Chemotherapy/Chemical approaches, 113, 117
  5. Child psychiatry, 112
  6. Child-rearing: affected by industrialization, 144145;
    1. neurosis, 131
  7. Chinese medicine/Kampō, x, 85n.1;
    1. histori­cal background, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 85n.2, 86n.9;
    2. production and sale of, 51, 52
  8. Chiryōsha (medical healer) vs. shidōsha (guide), 117
  9. “Chronic infectious pelvic disease,” 140141 195
  10. Ciba-Geigy (Japan) Ltd., 51
  11. Ciba symposium on bathing, 3
  12. Circulatory system diseases, 30, 31, 32, 34, 39 (graph)
  13. Cirrhosis of the liver, 27, 28 (table), 29, 39 (graph)
  14. Clinics. See Medical care institutions
  15. “Closed-staff system,” 6, 45
  16. Communication: Confucian-Buddhist influ­ence on, 138, 139;
    1. negative (silent), 135;
    2. nonverbal, 9, 139, 151
  17. Conflict/Confrontation, 158;
    1. between honne
    2. and tatemae, 137;
    3. nonconfrontational tac­tics used in, 134136, 138, 139, 151, 152
  18. Confucian(ism): medical theory, 68, 69;
    1. mores and expressions of conflict, 137, 138, 139
  19. Constitution of Japan: health and welfare based in, 3435, 38
  20. Contraception, 4, 5
  21. Couples counseling, 113
  22. Crisis intervention, 113
  23. Cross-cultural therapy, 112
  24. Culture: and attitude toward aging, 101106;
    1. biomedicine a product of, 12;
    2. -bound syndromes in modern Japan, 12, 130131;
    3. diagnosis of depression varies with, 12, 13;
    4. influence on health care and medicine of, x, 12, 5, 815, 101, 103106, 130131, 132;
    5. relation between changes in technol­ogy and, 8385;
    6. somatization related to, 136
  1. Day-care programs: attitude toward, 111;
    1. for elderly, 93, 94, 95, 100, 102
  2. Death, causes of, 2630
  3. Dejima, 70, 85n.7
  4. Dementia, 99, 100, 103
  5. Dentists and dental technicians: education and licensure, 40, 41;
    1. number and distri­bution, 42, 43
  6. Dependency, 9, 118, 133;
    1. and care of the elderly, 103106, 107
  7. Depression/Depressive disorder, 15, 105, 112;
    1. diagnosis of, 12, 13;
    2. increase in neu­rotic, 12, 114, 115116;
    3. “moving-day,” 143144;
    4. and nonspecific complaints, 138, 140, 143
  8. Developmental disorders, 112
  9. “Developmental state,” 25, 60n.2;
    1. role in high level of health, 56
  10. Digestive system, diseases of, 30, 31, 32, 34
  11. Disability/Disabled, 111;
    1. Japanese vs. West­ern views of, 104
  12. Disease(s): as causes of death, 27, 28 (table), 29;
    1. hospitals and beds by type, 44, 45 (table);
    2. medical care utilization rate for, 39 (graph);
    3. medicalization and the creation of, 7;
    4. morbidity rates by, 3034;
    5. variables in the incidence of, 12, 14.
    6. See also Illness
  13. Divorce, 147, 149, 171, 175, 179, 184;
    1. reasons for increase in, 146, 181;
    2. statistics on, 187n.10
  14. Doctor. See Physician
  15. Doi, (T.), 112
  16. “Doing something”: a common feature of psychotherapy, 10, 124
  17. Drugs, 34;
    1. prescription and dispensing of, 67, 46;
    2. production and sale of, 5153, 56;
    3. psychopharmacology, 111, 112;
    4. in Toku­gawa period, 70.
    5. See also Medication
  18. DSM-III, 12
  19. Dutch learning/medicine, 70, 71, 72, 73, 84, 85n.6, 86n.8
  1. Economic development, 60n.2;
    1. and health hazards, 25
  2. Economic Planning Agency, Govt. of Japan, 37;
    1. national surveys, 26, 28, 29, 30
  3. Education and licensure, 4;
    1. for non-physi­cians, 4041, 68, 72, 74, 79, 80, 85n.1;
    2. for physicians, 3940, 42, 43, 6869, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 78, 80, 8182, 85n.1, 85n.3, 86n.9;
    3. for psychotherapists, 114;
    4. require­ments by type of provider, 4041
  4. Elderly, 59, 90, 113, 124;
    1. abandonment of (Obaasute-yama), 105;
    2. care for demented, 99, 100, 103;
    3. caretakers of dependent, 11, 17, 99100, 104, 105, 106, 107;
    4. health screening for, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97;
    5. institu­tionalization (in homes, hospitals), 11, 34, 90, 92, 93, 94, 98, 101102, 103, 107;
    6. insurance for, 6, 91, 93, 95, 96;
    7. laws con­cerning, 49, 59, 9193;
    8. local geriatric care systems for, 9497;
    9. medical costs for, 49, 58, 59, 77, 90, 9194, 95, 96, 97;
    10. rehabili­tation for, 11, 95, 100, 101, 102103, 105, 106107;
    11. stress in families caring for, 97100
  5. Electroconvulsive therapy, 111
  6. Emotion: expression discouraged, 137138;
    1. research on, 1213
  7. Encounter groups, 113, 119
  8. “English Disease,” 17, 35 196
  9. Epidemiology in Japan, research in, 3
  10. Epilepsy, 112
  11. Eye contact: phobias connected with, 12, 114, 115
  1. Family: blamed for modern malaise, 16;
    1. and care for elderly, 11, 97100, 101, 102, 106, 107, 175;
    2. middle-income, defined, 186n.6;
    3. nuclear, problems associated with, 16, 17, 145, 148149, 152, 175, 187n.11;
    4. role in health and healing, x, 9, 10, 100, 132, 138, 139140;
    5. separation of husband from, 146148
  2. “Family medicine”/“Home doctor” books, 130131, 142, 152153
  3. Family therapy, 112, 113, 119
  4. Fee-for-service medical care, 6, 46, 58
  5. Focus, self-: psychotherapeutic redirection of, 10, 123, 124, 126
  6. Foucault, Michel, 17, 130 (quoted)
  7. Freudian psychoanalysis/therapy, 112, 118, 120
  8. Fugenbyō (Father-created illness) (book), 145
  9. Fuji Bank, 94
  10. Fukazawa Masao: health-care system estab­lished by, 9697, 108n.1
  11. Fukuzawa Yukichi, 86n.10
  12. Futeishūso. See Nonspecific complaints
  1. Gasshōen Temple, 120, 122
  2. Gastric ulcer, 27
  3. Gastroenteritis, 27, 28 (table)
  4. German medicine, 15, 69;
    1. adopted by Japan, 72, 81, 82, 84, 86n.8, 110;
    2. introduced by Siebold, 70, 85n.7
  5. Gestalt therapy, 113
  6. GNP: correlation with life expectancy, 61n.4;
    1. medical costs as percentage of, 4849, 77
  7. “Good wife and wise mother” (ryōsai kenbo), 143, 152
  8. Goseiha, 6869, 71
  9. Government role in medical care system, 7, 3438, 45, 50, 80, 84;
    1. adoption of Western
    2. medicine, 67, 6974, 8283, 8586n.7;
    3. care for elderly, 9194;
    4. cost containment and distribution, 7, 4849, 56, 5859, 132;
    5. medical care policy controversy, 5659;
    6. national health insurance system, 56, 37, 4648, 57, 58, 76, 82, 83, 91, 93;
    7. ownership of hospitals, 45;
    8. provision for personnel, 3941, 8081;
    9. support for physicians, 7476, 79
  10. Group membership: productivity, meno­pause, and, 158159
  11. Group therapies, 112, 113
  12. Guilt, 9, 135, 140, 142, 144, 147, 151, 173
  1. Habermas, (J.), 17
  2. Hallowell, (I.), 9
  3. Hara (abdomen), 12
  4. Harmony, lack of (jiritsushinkeishūcho), 142
  5. Hashimoto Masami, 79 (quoted)
  6. Healing: model in psychotherapy, 9, 104, 116117;
    1. religious beliefs and, 4, 9
  7. Health: boom (kenkō-būmu), 132;
    1. defined, 6061n.3, 61n.5;
    2. in Economic Planning Agency surveys, 26, 28 (table), 29, 30 (table);
    3. government role in national, 3438;
    4. holistic, 131132, 139;
    5. interdisci­plinary studies on, 1, 34;
    6. Japanese put high priority on, 2526;
    7. “miracle” in Japan, 24, 25, 5960n.1;
    8. National Health Survey, 3034
  8. Health administration (national): four main categories, 36;
    1. organization and activities, 37
  9. Health and Medical Care Services for the Elderly Law (Rōjin Hoken-Hō), 49
  10. Health Care for the Aged Law (1982), 59
  11. Health care industry, 5056;
    1. medical care complex as part of, 50
  12. Health care system/complex, 3756;
    1. overview of, 47;
    2. research on, 34
  13. Health insurance. See Insurance, health/medical
  14. Health Insurance Bureau, 50
  15. Health Insurance Law of 1922, 46
  16. “Health miracle,” 4;
    1. and “economic mira­cle” related, 24, 25, 5960n.1
  17. Health Policy Bureau, 50
  18. Health professionals/providers. See Medical care providers
  19. Health Service Bureau, 50
  20. Heart disease, 4, 27, 28 (table), 29, 38, 39 (graph);
    1. and Japanese Americans, 12
  21. Herbal medicine, x, 67, 66, 74, 85n.1, 104, 110, 130, 141
  22. High blood pressure, 96
  23. Hitachi, 55
  24. Hoechst Japan Ltd., 51
  25. Hoken-iin (lay health workers), 97
  26. Holistic health movement, 139;
    1. and medical­ization, 131132 197
  27. Honne (“real self”), 9;
    1. and tatemae, 119, 137, 140, 143
  28. Hospitals. See Medical care institutions
  29. Hot springs, 66
  30. Household, 185n.2;
    1. call for return to tradi­tional, 17;
    2. decline in importance of, 175, 181;
    3. defined, 161162;
    4. productive place of women in, 158160, 161;
    5. role of provincial city women in, 168169, 173, 174, 182, 183184;
    6. role of Tokyo women in, 175177, 181, 182, 183, 184;
    7. role of village women in, 163167, 181, 184
  31. Housewife Syndrome (book), 178179
  32. Housewives: daily routine of, 149 (table);
    1. and “housewife syndrome,” 178179;
    2. prob­lems of modern, 146150
  33. Hypertensive disease, 27, 28 (table), 30, 31, 32, 38
  34. Hypnosis/Hypnotherapies, 112, 117
  1. Ie (household). See Household
  2. Ikigai (meaning in life), 176, 186n.8
  3. Ikyoku system, 8182
  4. Illness: Asian approach toward, 2, 104, 132, 174;
    1. biomedical interpretation of, 139, 141142;
    2. caused by mother, 144146;
    3. changing pattern of, 38, 39 (graph);
    4. indi­vidual responsibility for, x, 9, 131132, 138, 139140, 142, 150;
    5. interdisciplinary studies on, 1, 34
  5. Individual: enjoyment and accomplishment, emphasis on, 176177, 182, 183, 184185, 187n.13;
    1. new definition of, 183;
    2. reality found outside the, 133134;
    3. (self) respon­sibility for health and illness, x, 9, 131132, 138, 139140, 142, 150, 151.
    4. See also Self
  6. Injury and poisoning, 31, 32, 34
  7. Institutionalization: “pull” vs. “push” model of, 98
  8. Insulin shock therapy, 111
  9. Insurance, health/medical, 74, 75, 85n.1, 113, 138;
    1. catastrophic, 77;
    2. for the elderly, 6, 91, 93, 95, 96;
    3. and medical care policy controversy, 57, 58;
    4. outline of system, 4648;
    5. pharmaceutical industry affected by, 54;
    6. private vs. government, 56, 37, 4647, 58;
    7. universal, 5, 57, 76, 82, 83
  10. Interview, intake (in psychotherapy), 122123
  11. “Itai-Itai” disease, 25
  12. Iwate prefecture, 95, 96, 162
  1. Japanese Americans: heart disease and, 12
  2. Japanese Clinical Psychological Association (Nihon Shinri Rinshō Gakkai), 114
  3. Japanese National Institute of Mental Health, 112
  4. Japanese (traditional) medicine, 4, 139;
    1. his­torical background, x, 6773
  5. “Japanese Welfare State,” 17
  6. Japan Medical Association (JMA), 102;
    1. founding of, 74;
    2. and insurance system, 75, 76;
    3. and medical care policy controversy, 57, 58;
    4. number of member physicians in, 86n.11;
    5. reform frustrated by, 7, 46
  7. Jiritsushinkeishūcho (lack of harmony), 142
  8. Judo: as corrective exercise, 34
  9. Jungian psychoanalysis, 112, 114
  1. Kampō (Chinese medicine). See Chinese medicine
  2. Kasahara, (Y.), 112
  3. Katei no igaku (family medicine), 130
  4. Katei o mamoru (“protecting the house’’), 168
  5. Kato, (M.), 112
  6. Katsura Taisaku, 143
  7. Kawai, (H.), 112
  8. Kenkō-būmu (health boom), 132
  9. Ki: and control of menopause, 170, 183
  10. Kimochi (temporary feelings), 124
  11. Kinokuniya, 187n.12
  12. Kitchen syndrome, 131, 143144
  13. Kohōha, 6869, 70
  14. Kōnenki shōgai (“problems of the meno­pausal years”), 167168, 178
  15. Kora, (T.), 112
  16. Kora Kōseiin, 122
  17. Kyūtoku Shigemori, 144145, 153
  1. Labor unions, medical, 7879
  2. Lacan, (J.), 17
  3. Language: and behavior, 137;
    1. and expression of emotion, 12
  4. Law for the Welfare of the Aged (1963), 9192, 98
  5. Law of Confinement and Protection of the Mentally Ill (1900), 111
  6. Liberal Democratic party, 57, 92, 102
  7. Life expectancy, 4;
    1. 1945 and 1984 compared, 24;
    2. Japan compared with other nations, 25
    3. (table), 26;
    4. as measure of level of health, 61n.4
  8. Life of the Housewife Press, 142 198
  9. Life Planning Center, 6
  10. Logotherapy, 113
  1. “Machi-isha‚” 74
  2. “Maladjustment-to-the-job syndrome,” 16
  3. Manase Dōsan, 68, 69
  4. Marriage: age delayed, 168, 185n.2
  5. Marxism: biomedicine as viewed by, 1
  6. Masaoka Shiki, 1 (quoted)
  7. Massage, 5, 34, 72, 74, 79, 104, 110, 130
  8. Matsumoto Ryōjun, 71
  9. ME, 5456;
    1. meanings of term, 54
  10. Medical anthropology and sociology: research in, 811
  11. Medical Bureau (Tokugawa shogunate), 71
  12. Medical care: associations, 5657, 74;
    1. com­plex/system in Japan, 37, 3756;
    2. con­sumers (numbers), 38;
    3. cost containment and distribution, 7, 4849, 56, 5859, 77, 132;
    4. cultural influences on, x, 12, 5, 815, 101, 103106, 130131, 132, 136;
    5. defined, 37;
    6. East Asian approach toward, 2, 104, 132, 174;
    7. financing of, 4649;
    8. organization and delivery of, 4546;
    9. policy controversy, 5659;
    10. publications offering information on, 61n.7;
    11. quality of, 4546;
    12. a top priority of citizens, 26.
    13. See also Government role; Insurance
  13. Medical care institutions: acute-care facilities, 5, 45;
    1. and care for elderly, 11, 34, 90, 92, 93, 94, 98, 101102, 103;
    2. clinics distin­guished from hospitals, 43;
    3. “closed-staff” system in, 6, 45;
    4. for mental disorders, 44, 45 (table), 111;
    5. number, type, and owner­ship of, 4345, 111;
    6. primary care, 74;
    7. “vertical” vs. “horizontal” organization in, 80
  14. Medical care, professionalization of. See Professionalization
  15. Medical care providers, 3943, 97;
    1. education and licensure of, 3942, 43, 6869, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 78, 79, 80, 8182, 85n.1, 85n.3, 86n.9;
    2. numbers and distribution of, 39, 4243, 7778;
    3. professional organi­zation of, 7476, 77, 84;
    4. social and lay workers, 97;
    5. variety of, 66, 7778.
    6. See also Physician; Technicians
  16. Medical costs: containment and distribution, 7, 4849, 56, 5859, 77, 132;
    1. for elderly, 49, 58, 59, 77, 90, 9194, 95, 96, 97;
    2. as percentage of GNP, 4849, 77
  17. “Medical electronics” (ME), 54, 5556
  18. “Medical engineering” (ME), 54
  19. Medical equipment (ME), 54, 55 (table)
  20. Medical ethics, 11
  21. Medical Fee Payment Fund, 75
  22. Medical insurance. See Insurance
  23. “Medicalization,” 138, 140, 145, 151, 153;
    1. of life, 131132;
    2. of menopause, 1416, 141142;
    3. process of, 78, 132133
  24. Medical Practitioner’s Law, 39
  25. Medical Service Law of 1948, 43
  26. Medical technology, 84;
    1. defined, 67;
    2. and dependency, 93, 106;
    3. effect on medical care of changes in, 7682;
    4. of Europe adopted, 6974;
    5. “ugly decline” created by, 106
  27. Medication: herbal, x, 67, 66, 74, 85n.1, 104, 110, 130, 141;
    1. objective of taking, 138139, 151152;
    2. physicians both pre­scribe and dispense, 67, 46;
    3. and psychotherapy, 13, 110111, 112
  28. Menopause, 1315, 142;
    1. average age for, 168;
    2. case studies/interviews, 146148, 165166, 168, 178179, 180181, 184;
    3. and decline of household, 181;
    4. defined, 163;
    5. feelings of provincial city women toward, 167175, 182, 186n.5, 186n.9;
    6. feelings of Tokyo women toward, 177181, 182, 186n.9;
    7. feelings of village women toward, 164167, 181;
    8. male, 181, 184;
    9. manipulative uses of, 158, 159161, 167, 170171, 173, 174, 181182;
    10. medicalization of, 1416, 141142;
    11. relation of status to, 160, 167, 184185, 187n.13;
    12. relation to productivity, 158160, 161, 166, 168169, 170, 173, 174, 175, 176177, 182;
    13. symptoms of, 1415, 160, 166167, 169, 170174, 178181, 186n.5, 186n.9
  29. Menstruation, 140, 141, 142, 159, 163, 164, 167, 177;
    1. celebration of first, 185n.1;
    2. ces­sation of, 168, 186n.3
  30. Mental disorders/illness, 30 (table), 31, 32, 38, 39 (graph);
    1. associations for elderly with, 99;
    2. changing symptoms of, 12, 13, 114116;
    3. hospitals and beds for, 44, 45 (table), 111;
    4. laws on, 111;
    5. topics of books on, 112113;
    6. treatments for, 13, 110111, 112
  31. Messhi hōkō (“dissolve the personal and honor the public”), 133
  32. “Metamedical framework,” 2
  33. Midwives, 77, 78, 85n.1 199
  34. Minamata disease, 25
  35. Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, 75, 113;
    1. and school health programs, 36
  36. Ministry of Finance, 37
  37. Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW/Kōseishō), 54, 56, 75, 113, 187n.10;
    1. and care for elderly, 93;
    2. and medical care policy controversy, 57, 58, 59;
    3. National Health Survey of, 3034, 38;
    4. organization and activities, 36, 37, 50
  38. Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), 55
  39. Ministry of Justice, 113
  40. Ministry of Welfare (prewar), 35
  41. Minkan katsuryoku (“the vitality of the pri­vate sector”), 59
  42. Minsei-iin (lay social workers), 97
  43. Mishima Yukio, 135
  44. Modernization: convergence model of, x, 17, 8485;
    1. illness associated with, 16
  45. Morbidity indicators (National Health Sur­vey), 3034
  46. Morioka city, 95, 96
  47. Morita therapy, 115, 118, 120, 121122, 123, 125, 126, 127
  48. Mortality, 2630;
    1. infant, 4, 27, 28 (table), 95, 96;
    2. leading causes of, 27, 28 (table), 29;
    3. suicide, 4, 9, 27, 28, 29 (table), 30 (table), 135, 136
  49. Mother, illnesses caused by (bogenbyō), 144146
  50. Mother-in-law, 167, 171;
    1. position in tradi­tional family, 148, 164
  51. “Moving-day depression,” 131, 143144
  52. Moxibustion, 34, 66, 104, 110, 130
  53. “Muntera” (unskilled chatting), 118
  54. Musashino: geriatric care system in, 9495
  55. Musculoskeletal system diseases, 31, 32, 34
  1. Nagasaki: Dutch studies at, 70, 71, 73
  2. Naikan therapy, 112, 118, 119120, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127
  3. Nakai, 112
  4. National Health Insurance Law of 1958, 46, 58
  5. National Health Survey (Kokumin Kenkō Chōsa), 3034, 38
  6. National Police Agency: data on suicide, 28, 30
  7. Natural food, 132
  8. Neo-Confucian medicine, 6869
  9. Nephritis, 27
  10. Nervous system diseases, 31, 32, 34
  11. Netakiri (“bedridden”), 103
  12. Neurosis/Neurotic depression, 12, 16, 114, 115116, 122, 123, 125, 126, 131;
    1. meno­pause as, 178, 179, 180, 181
  13. Nihonjinron, 16
  14. Ningen jōhatsu (“human evaporation”), 134
  15. Nishizono, (M.), 112
  16. Nonconformism, 134, 183
  17. Nonspecific complaints, 13, 138, 140142, 143, 145
  18. Nursery schools, 145
  19. Nurses, 187n.12;
    1. education and licensure of, 40, 41;
    2. number and distribution, 42, 78;
    3. percentage of women as, 7980
  20. Nursing homes, 11, 92, 93, 101, 107;
    1. asso­ciated with poverty, 102;
    2. number of beds and homes, 90, 94
  21. Nurturance, 5, 9, 104, 105, 151
  1. “Obaasute-yama” (“Granny-flinging Moun­tain”), 105
  2. Occupation: health and welfare during, 3536, 37
  3. Office of the Prime Minister, 37
  4. Ōgata Kōan, 86n.10
  5. Okamoto Kozo, 135
  6. Okonogi, (K.), 112
  7. Old Age Health Act, 93
  8. Ossipov, A. N., ix
  1. Paramedical workers/Technicians, 4041, 7781, 83, 102
  2. Parent abuse by children, 16, 125
  3. Passivity. See Dependency
  4. “Path of blood” (chi no michi): origin of term, 164
  5. Pfizer Taito Company, 51
  6. Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau, 50
  7. Pharmaceutical industry, 151;
    1. production and sales, 5154;
    2. profits by 16
    3. companies, 53
  8. Pharmacists: education and licensure of, 40, 80;
    1. number, 42, 78 (table);
    2. women as, 7980
  9. Physician(s): dominance of medical care system by, 39, 43, 78, 7982, 83;
    1. education and licensure of, 3940, 42, 43, 6869, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 78, 80, 8182, 85n.1, 85n.3, 86n.9;
    2. government support for, 7475, 79;
    3. and ikyoku system, 8182;
    4. mem­ bership in JMA, 86n.11; 200
    5. number and dis­tribution of, 39, 4243, 78 (table), 86n.9;
    6. - patient relationship, 8, 10, 43, 46, 76, 116122, 125127, 132, 139, 142, 151;
    7. in private practice, 5, 58, 73, 74, 7576, 84, 86n.11, 113;
    8. professional organization of, 7476, 84
  10. Pluralism, medical, xxi, 2, 10;
    1. policy of limited, 5657
  11. Pneumonia, 27, 28 (table)
  12. “Pokkuri jinja,” 105
  13. Pollution, industrial, 4
  14. Pompe van Meedervort, J. L. C., 71
  15. Possession (animal spirit), 14
  16. Power: Foucault on (quote), 130;
    1. Japanese concept of, 133134
  17. Preventive medicine/Prevention, 6, 46, 76;
    1. popular books on, 130131
  18. Primary care, 6, 46, 74
  19. Private practice/Private sector, 59, 81;
    1. bulk of services delivered through, 37;
    2. insurance, 56, 37, 4647, 58;
    3. and JMA, 58, 76, 86n.11;
    4. “machi-isha,” 74;
    5. ownership of hospitals and clinics, 45 (table), 80, 102, 111;
    6. physicians/practitioners in, 5, 58, 73, 74, 7576, 84, 86n.11;
    7. psychotherapists in, 111, 113
  20. Productivity: forms in which women express, 158160, 161, 166, 168169, 170, 173, 174, 175, 176177, 182;
    1. and group mem­bership, 158159
  21. Professionalization, 2, 67, 84;
    1. of medical care providers, 3943, 7778;
    2. and the process of medicalization, 78;
    3. since the 1920s, 7476;
    4. in traditional Japan, 6874
  22. “Protecting the house” (katei o mamoru), 168
  23. Psychiatry, 110;
    1. diagnosis in, 13;
    2. research in, 3;
    3. therapies and books on, 112
  24. Psychoanalysis, 110, 113, 114, 119, 123;
    1. therapies and books on, 112
  25. Psychological anthropology, research in, 3
  26. Psychology/Psychologists, 113, 114
  27. Psychopharmacology, 111, 112
  28. Psychosomatic problems, 138, 144, 145.
    1. See also Somatization
  29. Psychotherapy, 9, 13, 104;
    1. common features
    2. of Japanese, 10, 122127;
    3. defined, 116;
    4. Japanese models of, 116120;
    5. methods in current use, 113;
    6. most influential persons and treatments in, 111114;
    7. must adapt to changing symptoms, 114116;
    8. therapist-patient relationship in, 10, 116122, 125127;
    9. topics of books on, 112113;
    10. tradi­tional practices, 110;
    11. training and licensing for, 114
  30. Public health and welfare: government role in, 3437, 70, 77;
    1. nurses in, 78 (table);
    2. SCAP assessment of, 3536, 60n.1
  31. Public Health and Welfare Section, General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, 37;
    1. assessment of health and welfare, 3536, 60n.1
  32. Purity and impurity, 10
  1. Rampō (Dutch medicine), 70;
    1. meaning of term, 85n.6
  2. Rehabilitation: for elderly, 11, 95, 100, 101, 102103, 105, 106107;
    1. Japanese vs. West­ern view of, 104105;
    2. services deficient, 6, 46
  3. Relationship (healing): between caretaker and patient, 3, 103104, 105106;
    1. between physician and patient, 8, 43, 46, 76, 132, 139, 142, 151;
    2. between therapist and patient, 10, 116122, 125127
  4. Relationships, social/interpersonal, 9, 136138, 152;
    1. formal behavior related to, 137;
    2. relation to medicine of, x, 131;
    3. therapeutic importance of, 118
  5. Religion/Religious beliefs: and healing, 4, 9, 66, 139;
    1. model in psychotherapy (salva­tion), 119120;
    2. research on, 3, 4
  6. Reproduction, human, 4, 159, 177
  7. Resistance to authority, 125;
    1. forms and non-confrontational tactics, 134136, 138, 139
  8. Respiratory diseases, 30, 31, 32, 34, 39 (graph)
  9. “Retreatism,” 134
  10. Ritualistic resistance, 134135
  11. Robot automation, 186n.7
  12. Rogerian therapy, 112, 118, 119, 123
  13. Rōjin iryō muryōka (free medical care for the elderly), 91, 96
  1. Sakoku (closed-country), 71
  2. Saku hospital, Nagano prefecture: primary care at, 6
  3. Salary man, 153;
    1. syndrome, 16
  4. Sandoz group, 51
  5. Sawauchi Mura: health-care system in, 9597, 108n.1
  6. SCAP, 37;
    1. assessment of health and welfare, 3536, 60n.1
  7. Schizophrenia, 112 201
  8. School health programs, 36
  9. “School-refusal syndrome,” 16, 131
  10. Seaman, L. L., The Real Triumph of Japan, 67
  11. Seikatsu no Hakkenkai, 120
  12. Seiza therapy, 118, 123
  13. Self, 183;
    1. -aggression, 135136;
    2. -care publications, 130;
    3. concept of, x, 9;
    4. -focus in psy­chotherapy, 10, 123, 124, 126;
    5. (individual) -responsibility for health and illness, x, 9, 126, 131132, 138, 139140, 142, 150, 151;
    6. “real” (honne), 9, 119, 137, 140, 143;
    7. -sacrifice, 135.
    8. See also Individual
  14. Sengyō shufu (professional housewife), 150
  15. Sensitivity training, 113
  16. Shadan therapy, 123
  17. Shaman(ism), ix, xi, 2, 66, 110, 116
  18. Shang han lun (A treatise on fevers), 85n.2
  19. Short-term therapy, 113
  20. Shyness, 114
  21. Siebold, Philipp Von, 70, 85n.7
  22. Sleep disorders, 112, 116
  23. Smallpox vaccination, 70
  24. SMON (subacute myelo-opthalmo-neuro­pathy), 51, 53n
  25. Social Insurance Council, 75
  26. Social organization: research on, 3
  27. Social science: research on health, illness, and healing in Japan, 24, 17
  28. Social Security System Council, 37, 75
  29. Somatization, 136137, 138, 145;
    1. defined, 136;
    2. as expression of distress, 15, 132, 136137, 138, 140, 151;
    3. research on, 1213, 15, 136
  30. Specialized care, 6, 46
  31. Specification: a common feature of therapy, 10, 122123
  32. Status, 124;
    1. and menopause, 160, 167, 184185, 187n.13
  33. Stress, 16, 136, 138;
    1. in families caring for elderly, 97100;
    2. and modern housewife, 150151
  34. Stroke/Cerebrovascular disease, 27, 28 (table), 29, 39 (graph), 92, 103
  35. Sugita Genpaku, 69
  36. Suicide, 4, 9;
    1. as form of resistance, 135, 136;
    2. as a leading cause of death, 27, 28, 29 (table); motives for, 28, 30 (table)
  37. Symptoms/Symptomatology, x, 151;
    1. chang­ing patterns in, 1213;
    2. of menopause, 1415, 160, 166167, 169, 170174, 178181, 186n.5, 186n.9;
    3. of mental disorder, 10, 12, 13, 114116;
    4. of nonspecific com­plaints, 13, 138, 140142, 143, 145
  1. Takeda (pharmaceuticals company), 51, 53
  2. Takemi Taro, 57, 58, 61n.8
  3. Taki (family of physicians), 7071, 72
  4. Tanabe Seiyaku, 51
  5. Tanishima Iwao, 115
  6. Tate shakai (vertical society), 124
  7. Technicians/Paramedical workers, 4041, 7781, 83, 102
  8. T group therapy, 119
  9. Thematic Apperception Test, 9
  10. Toshiba, 55
  11. Transactional analysis, 112, 113, 118
  12. Trepanation, 110
  13. Tuberculosis, 27, 28 (table), 39 (graph), 77;
    1. hospitals and beds for, 44, 45 (table)
  1. Uchi (inside, private) vs. soto (outside, pub­lic), 137, 138, 140
  2. “Ugly decline” (hen na kakō), 8990, 107;
    1. as violation of cultural norm, 101, 106
  3. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 61n.4
  4. Ura (inside) and omote (outside), 10
  5. Urbanization, 16, 17
  1. Vaccination, 70;
    1. Institute established in Edo, 71
  2. Village of Nature and Health, The, 96
  1. Watakushi (I) vs. oyake (the public), 133
  2. Welfare of the Elderly Law (1963), 9192, 98
  3. Welfare state in Japan, 17, 3537, 61n.6
  4. Western medicine, 85n.5;
    1. introduction from Europe, 6669;
    2. officially adopted, x, 6974, 8283;
    3. selective “borrowing” of, 84
  5. Women, 11, 15, 17, 132, 186n.4;
    1. daily rou­tine (of housewives), 149 (table);
    2. defined by roles, 159, 166;
    3. and divorce, 146, 147, 149, 171, 175, 179, 181, 184, 187n.10;
    4. job discrimination against, 182, 187n.12;
    5. in medical professions, 7980;
    6. negative stere­otypes of, 150, 152;
    7. new individuality of, 182183;
    8. and nonspecific complaints, 140142, 143;
    9. as part-time workers, 176, 186n.7, 186n.8;
    10. problems of modern mid­dle-class, 146153;
    11. role in provincial city household, 168169, 173, 174, 183184;
    12. role in Tokyo household, 175177, 181, 183, 184; 202
    13. role in village household, 163166, 184.
    14. See also Housewives; Menopause; Productivity; Somatization
  6. World Health Organization (WHO), 24, 61n.4;
    1. definition of health, 6061n.3;
    2. study of depressive disorder, 13
  1. Yamairi (entering the mountains), 134
  2. Yokkaichi asthma, 25
  3. Yōrō in, 102
  4. Yoshimoto, (I.), 112
  1. Zen, 118, 123

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780824880774
MARC Record
OCLC
1055462902
Launched on MUSE
2018-09-19
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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